Health for all: the promise of the affordable health care act for racially and ethnically diverse populations.
Authors: Kimbrough-Melton RJ PMID: 23889026 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 31, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Disentangling immigrant status in mental health: psychological protective and risk factors among latino and asian american immigrants.
This study aimed to disentangle the psychological mechanisms underlying immigrant status by testing a model of psychological protective and risk factors to predict the mental health prevalence rates among Latino and Asian American immigrants based on secondary analysis of the National Latino and Asian American Study. The first research question examined differences on the set of protective and risk factors between immigrants and their U.S.-born counterparts and found that immigrants reported higher levels of ethnic identity, family cohesion, native language proficiency, and limited English proficiency than their U.S.-born ...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 31, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A meta-analytic study: the relationship between acculturation and depression among asian americans.
Authors: Gupta A, Leong F, Valentine JC, Canada DD Abstract Acculturation is an important and popular cultural research variable among specific ethnic populations that is used to explain the process of assimilating into the host culture. Acculturation has often been used to account for psychosocial changes and health outcomes and has been used to explain health disparities among ethnic groups. Using Asian Americans as an illustrative ethnic group, the authors see that researchers have highlighted the influence of acculturation on health outcomes. Some researchers suggest that this relationship is positive, whereas ...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 31, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Depression in african american men: a review of what we know and where we need to go from here.
We examined and summarized published research focusing on depression among African American men with the goal of identifying prevalence of depression, risk factors, treatment-seeking behaviors, and treatment-seeking barriers. In the use of a systematic review, inclusion criteria were studies focused on depression among African American or Black men, separated analysis by race and gender, and conducted in the United States. Each study was critically reviewed to identify depression prevalence, risk factors, treatment-seeking behaviors, and barriers. Only 19 empirical studies focusing on depression among African American men ...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 31, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Trajectories of psychological distress among low-income, female survivors of hurricane katrina.
Authors: Lowe SR, Rhodes JE Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate trajectories of psychological distress among low-income, primarily unmarried and African American women who survived Hurricane Katrina (N = 386). Data were collected in the year prior to the hurricane as well as approximately 1 and 3 years thereafter. Using Latent Class Growth Analysis (LCGA), we detected 6 distinct trajectory groups. Over half of the participants fit into a trajectory consistent with resilience; that is, they maintained low levels of psychological distress over the course of the study, but experienced ...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 31, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Children's Adjustment Following Hurricane Katrina: The Role of Primary Caregivers.
Authors: Gil-Rivas V, Kilmer RP Abstract Hurricane Katrina severely disrupted the lives of many children and families in the central Gulf Coast of the United States. Face-to-face interviews with child-caregiver dyads were conducted at approximately 1 year posthurricane (T1) and 6-10 months later (T2). The contribution of several factors-caregiver's self-reported symptomatology and coping advice and child perceptions of caregiver distress, unavailability, warmth, and caregiver-child conflict-to child-reported posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and depressive symptoms was examined. Findings provide partia...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 31, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The normative environment for substance use among american Indian students and white students attending schools on or near reservations.
Authors: Swaim RC, Stanley LR, Beauvais F Abstract American Indian and White students who attended the same schools located on or near reservations were surveyed to determine the comparative normative environment for substance use. Descriptive norms increased and student injunctive norms decreased across grade in school. Female students reported higher levels of descriptive norms compared to male students. For marijuana use, a substantial decrease in student injunctive norms occurred between grades 8 and 10. Adult injunctive norms were perceived by female students to be higher than those perceived by male students,...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 31, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The school readiness of children born to low-income, adolescent latinas in miami.
Authors: Briceno AC, De Feyter JJ, Winsler A Abstract Although studies show teenage parenting and low socioeconomic status predict poor child academic performance, limited research has examined relations between teen parenting and children's school readiness within low-income Latina mothers. In the context of the Miami School Readiness Project, low-income preschoolers (N = 3,023) attending subsidized child-care programs were assessed on cognitive, language, and fine motor skills, and parents and teachers reported on children's social skills and behavior concerns. Maternal teenage status at time of birth, ...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 31, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

An epidemiological examination of parenting and family correlates of emotional problems in young children.
Authors: Dittman C, Keown LJ, Sanders M, Rose D, Farruggia SP, Sofronoff K Abstract The present article used data from a community sample of primary caregivers of children between 4 and 7 years old to investigate the prevalence and correlates of emotional symptoms in young children transitioning to elementary school. Mothers (n = 3,483) and fathers (n = 1,019) living in metropolitan areas of eastern Australia participated in a telephone survey of parenting practices and child behavioral and emotional problems. Fifteen percent of mothers and 12% of fathers reported that their child showed clinically elevated levels ...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Construction of court petitions in cases of alternative placement of children at risk: meaning-making strategies that social workers use to shape court decisions.
This study examines court petitions constructed by 19 Israeli social workers in cases involving the placement of 37 maltreated children in alternative care. The petition is seen not as a systemic description of the child made by the social worker, but rather as a construction based on the social workers' understandings and interpretations with the aim of shaping court decisions. As such, the article describes a number of meaning-making strategies that social workers employ to construct petitions: (a) constructing the mother as "the problem," (b) constructing the story as one of "no change in sight," (c)...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Psychosocial consequences of caregiver transitions for maltreated youth entering foster care: the moderating impact of community violence exposure.
Authors: Garrido EF, Culhane SE, Petrenko CL, Taussig HN Abstract Youth who experience a greater number of caregiver transitions during childhood are at risk for developing a host of psychosocial problems. Although researchers have examined individual-level factors that may moderate this association, no known studies have examined the impact of community-level factors. The current study investigated whether community violence exposure (CVE) moderated the association between number of prior caregiver transitions and increases in levels of externalizing and internalizing problems for a sample of youth entering foster...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Conceptualizing housing careers for vulnerable youth: implications for research and policy.
Authors: Collins ME, Curtis M Abstract Research on the experiences of youth leaving foster care as they enter adulthood has identified their risk for homelessness and housing instability. Although this finding has been consistent, it has not received sufficient empirical or conceptual attention. In this article, we (a) review the recent findings on housing outcomes for former foster youth; (b) identify relevant theoretical frameworks to examine housing outcomes for these youth, with specific attention to the concept of housing career; (c) describe existing policy; and (d) propose further strategies for understandin...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Correlates of street-survival behaviors in homeless young adults in four U.S. cities.
This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of behaviors used by homeless young people to survive on the streets. Survival behaviors include prostitution, selling blood or plasma, dealing drugs, stealing, and panhandling. One hundred ninety-six homeless young adults from 4 metropolitan areas-Los Angeles, CA (n = 50); Austin, TX (n = 50); Denver, CO (n = 50); and St. Louis, MO (n = 46)-participated in individual, semistructured, face-to-face interviews. Researchers predicted that youth transience would be related to high rates of survival behaviors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to test a model predicting ...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Effects of out-of-home mental health treatment on probability of criminal charge during the transition to adulthood.
This study longitudinally modeled the changing probability of being charged with a crime from age 16 to 25, including being served in out-of-home treatment and aging into adulthood, while controlling for person-level covariates such as gender, race, past criminal charges, and mental health diagnoses. Results indicated that out-of-home treatment was related to a decreased probability of being charged with a crime during treatment. However, the preventive effect was small; estimates indicated only one criminal charge avoided for every 4 years of out-of-home treatment. Out-of-home treatment had no relationship to posttreatmen...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Patterns of mental health, substance abuse, and justice system involvement among youth aging out of child welfare.
Authors: Shook J, Goodkind S, Pohlig RT, Schelbe L, Herring D, Kim KH Abstract Although research on youth aging out of the child welfare system has increased, there has been limited focus on how their experiences vary. In particular, there is a need to examine patterns in the involvement of these youth in other systems, which indicate constellations of challenges facing these young people as they transition out of care and into adulthood. Using administrative data from a large birth cohort of individuals born between 1985 and 1994 whose families have been involved in the child welfare system, this article presents ...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

WWII and the home front: the intersection of history and biography.
Authors: Levine AG, Levine M PMID: 21977926 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

What does living in a democracy mean for kids?
Authors: Garbarino J PMID: 21977927 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Toward a science of citizenship.
Authors: Earls F PMID: 21977928 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A health promotion curriculum for adolescent young citizens: deliberation and public action for HIV/AIDS-competent communities.
Authors: Carlson M, Earls F PMID: 21977929 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The well-being of young people and their parents amid tough times: views from Spain.
Authors: Casas F PMID: 21977930 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Generational differences in mental health: are children and adolescents suffering more, or less?
Authors: Twenge JM Abstract Almost all of the available evidence suggests a sharp rise in anxiety, depression, and mental health issues among Western youth between the early 20th century and the early 1990s. Between the early 1990s and the present, more serious problems such as suicide and depression have receded in some data sets, whereas feeling overwhelmed and reporting psychosomatic complaints have continued to increase. Other indicators, such as anxiety, have remained at historically high levels but not continued to increase. This mixed pattern of results may be rooted in the increasing use of antidepressants ...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Fostering young people's support for participatory human rights through their developmental niches.
This article focuses on some connections between these 2 areas and examines the ways in which everyday settings such as neighborhoods and the schools that exist within them can foster support for human rights (especially the practice of participatory rights) among adolescents. Secondary analysis of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement Civic Education (CIVED) Study (data collected in 1999 from nationally representative samples of 14-year-olds in 28 countries) is presented. A cluster analysis of 12 attitudinal scales in 5 countries sharing the Western European tradition (Australia, Engl...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Hospitality and the mental health of children and families.
Authors: Pohl CD Abstract In many ancient cultures, hospitality was a significant moral and religious practice in responding to the needs of strangers. Although largely trivialized in contemporary society, the practice of hospitality continues to create contexts that contribute to individual and communal flourishing and that resist several dehumanizing social trends. A recovery of the practice can help faith communities connect their moral and theological commitments to the needs of children, families, and neighborhoods. PMID: 21977933 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Racial and cultural factors affecting the mental health of Asian Americans.
In this study, we employed structural equation modeling to test the degree to which racism-related stress, acculturative stress, and bicultural self-efficacy were predictive of mental health in a predominantly community-based sample of 367 Asian American adults. We also tested whether bicultural self-efficacy moderated the relationship between acculturative stress and mental health. Finally, we examined whether generational status moderated the impact of racial and cultural predictors of mental health by testing our model across immigrant and U.S.-born samples. Results indicated that our hypothesized structural model repre...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Discrimination, attribution, and racial group identification: implications for psychological distress among Black Americans in the National Survey of American Life (2001-2003).
Authors: Chae DH, Lincoln KD, Jackson JS Abstract There is increasing evidence that experiencing discrimination may contribute to poor mental health among Black Americans. However, few studies have distinguished between discrimination attributed to race versus other forms of discrimination or have compared differences in their psychological implications. Using nationally representative data on 5,191 Black Americans in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL; 2001-2003), this study examined serious psychological distress (SPD) in relation to discrimination attributed to racial versus nonracial causes and also inv...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Goal-striving stress and the mental health of college-educated Black American men: the protective effects of system-blame.
Authors: Sellers SL, Neighbors HW, Bonham VL Abstract The present study examined the relationship between goal-striving stress and well-being in a survey of 399 college-educated Black American men who were members of a Black fraternal organization. Regression analyses revealed that goal-striving stress was associated with decreased psychological well-being, controlling for demographics and various psychosocial factors. When asked to explain their failure to reach life goals, half of the men attributed setbacks to racial discrimination. The association of goal-striving stress with diminished well-being was stronger ...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

"Just be straight with me:" an exploration of Black patient experiences in initial mental health encounters.
The objective is to explore the initial interpersonal interactions between Black patients and their non-Black mental health providers and to better understand how patients come to describe the encounter as good (favorable) or poor (unfavorable). A framework inclusive of 5 specific elements is introduced that maps the patient's conceptualization process about how judgments are made about the encounter. Owing to the naturalistic and exploratory nature of the study, a research hypothesis was not established. Instead, we observed how patients scanned the interaction with the provider, made assessments about their provider, and...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Discrimination and Latino psychological distress: the moderating role of ethnic identity exploration and commitment.
This study sought to examine the moderating effect of ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity commitment on the various types of discrimination and psychological distress within a sample of Latino adults (N = 397). The results revealed that ethnic identity exploration was associated with increased psychological distress within the context of discrimination in work, academic, and public settings. Ethnic identity commitment, on the other hand, served as a buffer between covert discrimination and mental health. These findings highlight the circumstances in which ethnic identity functioned as a protective and...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A culturally competent relaxation intervention for Latino/as: assessing a culturally specific match model.
In this study, we explored 2 questions: (a) Consistent with the cultural match theory (CMT), did treatment adherence and outcome improve as discrepancies between the cultural features of an anxiety treatment and patient characteristics decreased, and (b) In agreement with the specific therapy ingredient model (STIM), did the psychotherapeutic outcomes of a Culturally Competent Relaxation Intervention (CCRI) designed to reduce anxiety more effectively reduce anxiety rather than depression symptoms? The CCRI includes allocentric (the tendency to define oneself in relationship to others) relaxation interventions, while tradit...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Meeting the mental health needs of low-income immigrants in primary care: a community adaptation of an evidence-based model.
Authors: Kaltman S, Pauk J, Alter CL Abstract Low-income, uninsured immigrants are burdened by poverty and a high prevalence of trauma exposure and thus are vulnerable to mental health problems. Disparities in access to mental health services highlight the importance of adapting evidence-based interventions in primary care settings that serve this population. In 2005, the Montgomery Cares Behavioral Health Program began adapting and implementing a collaborative care model for the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders in a network of primary care clinics that serve low-income, uninsured residents of Montgome...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Relationship proximity to victims of witnessed community violence: associations with adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors.
Authors: Lambert SF, Boyd RC, Cammack NL, Ialongo NS Abstract Witnessing community violence has been linked with several adverse outcomes for adolescents, including emotional and behavioral problems. Among youth who have witnessed community violence, proximity to the victim of community violence is one factor that may determine, in part, the nature of adolescents' responses to community violence exposure. The present study examines whether relationship proximity to the victim of community violence is associated with internalizing and externalizing behaviors among a sample of urban and predominantly African American...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Predictors of parental monitoring among families with a runaway adolescent.
Authors: Slesnick N, Reed S, Letcher A, Katafiasz H, Jones T, Buettner C Abstract Extensive research shows that parental monitoring is a critical factor in child adjustment. Using parent and adolescent reports, this study sought to examine predictors of parental monitoring among an understudied, high-risk sample of runaway adolescents. Parent-reported depressive symptoms, couple (romantic) relationship satisfaction, and adolescent-reported bonding with parents were used as predictors of both child- and parent-reported monitoring. Findings indicated that, among parents, the couple relationship was the primary predic...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Risk for arrest: the role of social bonds in protecting foster youth making the transition to adulthood.
This study examines a sample of foster youth at the onset of the transition to adulthood and explores how social bonds are related to the risk of arrest during adulthood. Drawing from official arrest records, event history models are used to examine the time to arrest. Because individuals may be at risk for different types of crime, competing risk regression models are used to distinguish among arrests for drug-related, nonviolent, or violent crimes. Between the ages of 17-18 and 24, 46% of former foster youth experience an arrest. Arrests were evenly distributed across drug, nonviolent, and violent crimes columns. Althoug...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Mental illness, violence risk, and race in juvenile detention: implications for disproportionate minority contact.
This article explored whether mental illness may be an explanatory factor in DMC. Data such as measures of violence risk and symptoms of mental illness were taken from intake interviews with 482 detained youth in Connecticut. Results indicated that racial minorities in detention have significantly lower violence risk than Caucasians but are disproportionately represented among detention populations relative to their proportions in the general population. In addition, DMC in these data was not explained by mental illness, seriousness of charges, violence risk, age, or gender. We suggest that mandated efforts to reduce DMC w...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Predictors and responses to the growth in physical violence during adolescence: a comparison of students in Washington State and Victoria, Australia.
This study investigates patterns in violence over 3 time points in early- to mid-adolescence in 2 statewide representative samples of youth, one in Washington State, USA, and the other in Victoria, Australia. Comparable data collection methods in both states were used to cross-nationally compare patterns of violence, risk factors, and responses to violence (school suspensions and arrests) in 2 policy contexts. Risk factors include early use of alcohol, binge drinking, involvement with antisocial peers, family conflict, poor family management, sensation seeking, and bully victimization. These are modeled as correlates of in...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Measuring school-related subjective well-being in adolescents.
Authors: Long RF, Huebner ES, Wedell DH, Hills KJ Abstract The tripartite model of subjective well-being (SWB) incorporates 3 components: frequent positive emotions, infrequent negative emotions, and an overall positive evaluation of life circumstances (Diener, Suh, Lucas, & Smith, 1999). In light of the large amount of time that youth spend in school, this study investigated a tripartite model of school-related SWB among adolescents, based on 3 measures of SWB appropriate for adolescents. The measures included a measure of school satisfaction (SS) and measures of positive and negative emotions experienced spec...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Subjective well-being in school environments: promoting positive youth development through evidence-based assessment and intervention.
Authors: Bird JM, Markle RS Abstract Research on subjective well-being indicates that it is associated with academic success and positive school functioning. Despite a wealth of empirical research demonstrating the benefits of interventions aimed at increasing middle and high school students' well-being, few educational institutions have adopted evidence-based curricula that address this construct as a means of promoting future academic and social achievement. In addition, numerous studies have begun to identify several factors that contribute to well-being and thus have helped children and adolescents to be succes...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Perceptions of teachers' support, safety, and absence from school because of fear among victims, bullies, and bully-victims.
This study examines the distribution of the types of involvement in school violence (bullies, victims, bully-victims, and students not involved in violence) among the general population of Israeli school students. The prevalence of these different types of involvement was also examined according to gender, age or school level (junior high vs. high school), and ethnicity (Jewish vs. Arab). Further, the study examines the relationships between type of involvement in school violence and students' perceptions of teachers' support, safety, and absence from school because of fear. Data were obtained from a nationally representat...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Restraint and seclusion use in U.S. school settings: recommendations from allied treatment disciplines.
Authors: LeBel J, Nunno MA, Mohr WK, O'Halloran R Abstract Restraint and seclusion (R&S) are high risk, emergency procedures that are used in response to perceived violent, dangerous situations. They have been employed for years in a variety of settings that serve children, such as psychiatric hospitals and residential treatment facilities, but are now being recognized as used in the public schools. The field of education has begun to examine these practices in response to national scrutiny and a Congressional investigation. The fields of mental health and child welfare were similarly scrutinized 10 years ago f...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Seclusion and restraint practices in residential treatment facilities for children and youth.
This study used data from 2 national surveys to examine the extent to which residential treatment facilities consistently implement certain practices following incidents of seclusion or restraint. The study found that 76% of facilities reported having secluded or restrained youth in the previous year; 34% of these facilities reported that, following such incidents, they always debrief the youth, family, and staff; notify the attending physician; and record the incident in the treatment plan. Accredited facilities and those that conduct a trauma assessment upon admission were more than twice as likely as others to consisten...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Can policy reform reduce seclusion and restraint of schoolchildren?
Authors: Gust LV, Sianko N PMID: 22239398 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

'I hold on to my teddy bear really tight': children's experiences when they are home alone.
Authors: Ruiz-Casares M, Rousseau C, Currie JL, Heymann J PMID: 22239399 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Education deformed: no child left behind and the race to the top. 'This almost reads like our business plans'.
Authors: Levine M, Levine A PMID: 22239400 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Advocacy: critical component in a comprehensive mental health system.
Authors: Stylianos S, Kehyayan V Abstract Although rights protection and best interest perspectives are frequently viewed as diametric opposites, mental health advocacy is an important strategy in pursuit of both civil rights and therapeutic goals for people with mental illness. Independent, client-centered advocacy supports the attainment of consumer-identified goals for recovery, equality, and social inclusion and mitigates the negative consequences of stigma and discrimination. Advocacy strives to return decision-making authority to consumers and thus to empower them to play a more central role in their own care...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Using latent growth curve modeling to examine changes in mental health outcomes for children enrolled in a system of care.
This study employed latent growth curve (LGC) modeling to examine (a) the degree to which youth improved on indicators of adjustment over the course of the first year of enrollment in MeckCARES, and (b) the services or demographic variables associated with individual differences in the rate of change over time. Participant caregivers (N = 121) reported on 3 major indicators of youth adjustment at baseline, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up. Primary analyses indicated that there was a modest yet significant improvement in all 3 outcome measures over the first year of enrollment in MeckCARES. Additional ana...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Educational outcomes in a system of care for children with emotional disturbance.
This study sought to assess empirically the impact that enrollment in MeckCARES has on graduation precursors; namely, grades, suspensions, and absences. This study found that, on average, enrollment in MeckCARES is not associated with positive changes in educational variables. Implications of these findings are discussed, as are future directions. For example, additional research is needed with more sensitive measurement and data collection procedures (i.e., access to graduation rates and Medicaid information) to adequately assess the impact of enrollment in MeckCARES on educational outcomes. PMID: 22239403 [PubMed - i...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The effects of caregiver social connections on caregiver, child, and family well-being.
This study examines the degree to which caregiver social connectedness influences the effects of strain associated with caring for a child with severe emotional disturbance (SED) on caregiver well-being. We propose a model describing the relationships among the variables of interest and investigate elements of this model. Caregiver strain and social connections were significantly associated with caregiver well-being. Although, no significant interaction effects of caregiver strain and social connections were detected, study findings suggest that caregiver well-being can affect child progress and adjustment. Implications fo...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The moderating effect of adherence-promoting interventions with clients on evidence-based practices for children and adolescents with mental health problems.
This study examined the moderating effect of adherence-promoting strategies in a survey and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials of cognitive behavioral treatments, interpersonal therapy, and psycho-education for children and adolescents with mental health problems (k = 33). Results indicated the type and intensity of adherence promoters' moderated study effect sizes according to client characteristics (age, gender, diagnosis). Preliminary findings suggest that males had higher effect sizes when more intensive adherence-promoting efforts were employed. Adherence-promoting efforts were associated with lower...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Developmental relationships as the active ingredient: a unifying working hypothesis of "what works" across intervention settings.
Developmental relationships as the active ingredient: a unifying working hypothesis of "what works" across intervention settings. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2012 Apr;82(2):157-66 Authors: Li J, Julian MM Abstract Developmental relationships are characterized by reciprocal human interactions that embody an enduring emotional attachment, progressively more complex patterns of joint activity, and a balance of power that gradually shifts from the developed person in favor of the developing person. The working hypothesis of this article is that developmental relationships constitute the active ingredient of...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Coming full circle: a social context for Henry Kempe's work.
Authors: Levine M, Levine AG PMID: 22506518 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research