Individual and Neighborhood Stressors, Sleep Problems, and Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression Among Latino Youth.
This study examined whether sleep played a role in the relation between exposure to neighborhood- (i.e., neighborhood disadvantage) and individual-level (i.e., negative life events) stressors and symptoms of anxiety and depression among a sample of 144 low-income, Latino adolescents (54% males, mean age = 16.25, SD = 1.46) attending a charter high school in a large, Midwestern city. The bias corrected bootstrap method was used to evaluate indirect effects. Significant findings indicated an indirect effect via sleep problems in the link between negative life events and anxiety. Alternative models were also explored. Results...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Examining the Effects of Emotional and Cognitive Desensitization to Community Violence Exposure in Male Adolescents of Color.
Authors: Gaylord-Harden NK, So S, Bai GJ, Tolan PH Abstract The current study examined pathways in a model of desensitization, the Pathologic Adaptation Model, in adolescent males of color. Specifically, the current study examined depressive symptoms and deviant beliefs as mediators of the association between community violence exposure and subsequent violent behavior. The current study included 250 African-American (67%) and Latino (33%) male adolescents (T1 mean age = 15.32) from the Chicago Youth Development Study. Consistent with the Pathologic Adaptation Model, results demonstrated that depressive symptoms med...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Adaptation and Implementation of a Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Girls in Child Welfare.
This study describes the process of adapting and implementing Girls Aspiring toward Independence (GAIN), a trauma-focused, group-based therapy adapted from Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) for girls in child welfare. Descriptive data were examined on 3 outcomes: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and social problem-solving skills among adolescent girls in the child welfare system. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to inform the adaptation of the CBITS intervention, evaluate feasibility, treatment fidelity, and acceptability, and to test the effects of the inter...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

General Practitioners' Beliefs About People With Schizophrenia and Whether They Should Be Subject to Discriminatory Treatment When in Medical Hospital: The Mediating Role of Dangerousness Perception.
This study explored the relationships between General Practitioners' (GPs) beliefs about People With Schizophrenia (PWS) and GPs' recommendations regarding restrictions for such people when in medical (nonpsychiatric) hospital, and whether these relationships were mediated by dangerousness perception. There were 322 randomly selected Italian GPs who completed a questionnaire measuring beliefs about PWS. Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used to explore the effects of these beliefs on the GPs' views about the need for restrictive rules in hospital. Thirty-1 percent of GPs firmly believed that, in medical wards, PWS should...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Present, Protective, and Promotive: Mentors' Roles in the Lives of Young Adults in Residential Care.
Authors: Sulimani-Aidan Y Abstract Mentoring relationships are considered among the most significant relationships with nonparental figures and a protective factor against a wide range of negative outcomes. This exploratory study explored mentoring relationships in the lives of 140 care leavers, and the way those relationships influenced their life course. Findings showed that most of the mentors were known to the young adults from their former care placement for 3 years and above. Thematic analysis revealed 2 main "types" of mentor: (1) a present, accessible and supportive mentor, who is mainly character...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Strengths and Weaknesses of the Young Black Men, Masculinities, and Mental Health (YBMen) Facebook Project.
Authors: Watkins DC, Allen JO, Goodwill JR, Noel B Abstract The Young Black Men, Masculinities, and Mental Health (YBMen) project is a Facebook-based intervention that provides mental health education and social support to young Black men. The YBMen project was created to better understand and address the pressures and needs of young Black men, particularly with regard to issues related to their conceptualization of masculinity and mental health. Black men from a 2-year liberal arts college in the Midwest (United States) enrolled in the YBMen pilot project. The purpose of this study is to report what participants i...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Substance Use and Psychological Distress is Related With Accommodation Status Among Homeless Immigrants.
Discussion groups with care resources practitioners and service users, were followed by in depth interviews combined with psychometric questionnaires. Results show clear interrelations between stressful life events, alcohol and drug use, psychological distress, and the duration of (current) homelessness. This information, and especially the contextualization which took place within the analytical framework of this project, may provide practitioners and policymakers with information that can help overcome barriers preventing homeless immigrants' full citizenship and social participation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 30, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

State psychology licensure questions about mental illness and compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Authors: Boyd JE, Graunke B, Frese FJ, Jones JT, Adkins JW, Bassman R Abstract State licensing boards have obligations to protect the public from impaired professionals and to protect the rights of professionals applying for licensure. Competently functioning professionals who have or have had a mental health diagnosis or are being treated for a mental health condition should not be screened out, according to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). A review of case law shows applicable precedents from discrimination among physicians and lawyers but not, to date, among psychologists. An examination of psychology ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Introduction to the special section: Mental health professionals with mental illness.
Authors: Spaulding W Abstract This is an introduction to the special section "Mental Health Professionals With Mental Illness." The articles in this special section address issues of stigmatization, recovery, and vocational functioning in mental health professionals with potentially disabling mental illness. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 27854450 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Provider lived experience and stigma.
This article reports on a continuing education needs assessment of 101 mental health providers, including evaluation of (a) knowledge about recovery-oriented care, (b) work engagement, (c) provider lived experience with mental health challenges, and (d) stigma, measured as disidentification. In this group of providers, recovery knowledge, lived experience, and work engagement were associated with less stigma toward clients. Recovery knowledge and work engagement were associated with less stigma toward other providers with lived experience, but having lived experience was not associated with stigma toward other providers wi...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Accomplishments of 77 VA mental health professionals with a lived experience of mental illness.
We present descriptive productivity metrics such as publications, presentations, funding, initiating and leading programs, training and supervising other clinicians, and performing community work outside VHA. Very few have asked for accommodations at work. Two thirds have not disclosed their lived experience to any of their patients. On average, respondents have disclosed to only 16% of their colleagues, and about one third have not disclosed to any of their colleagues. Qualitative data show that participants see their lived experience as an asset, whether or not they disclose it. They advocate being conscientious about se...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The Interaction of Serious Mental Disorder and Race on Time to Reincarceration.
This study used proportional hazards Cox regression modeling to investigate the effect of SMD on criminal recidivism over an 8-year period among 22,376 former prisoners in North Carolina. The interaction between race and SMD is explored to test for cross-racial variation in time-to-reincarceration. A significant interaction effect of non-Black minority by SMD was found. Non-Black minority former prisoners with SMD returned to prison significantly quicker than non-Black minorities without SMD. No interaction effect was found for either Black or White former prisoners. Hazard to return to prison was also significantly increa...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Adolescents' Experience of Parental Psychological Caregiving and Neglect: Construct Development.
We present an operationalization of psychological caregiving/neglect using adolescent self-reported survey items. A confirmatory latent variable modeling approach was used to measure and validate psychological caregiving/neglect in 2 adolescent (age 11 to 17) population cohorts involved with Child Protective Services (CPS) in the United States. The latent variable fits the samples well in both cohort populations indicating a valid construct, is mostly invariant across gender and age, is stable over time, and has good reliability. The measure also shows concurrent validity, associating strongly with all problem behavior dom...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Positive Growth From Adversity and Beyond: Insights Gained From Cross-Examination of Clinical and Nonclinical Samples.
Authors: Russo-Netzer P, Moran G Abstract Growth following adversity is a well-known phenomenon. Yet studies often focus on specific populations and/or specific types of adversities, thus limiting opportunities to identify underlying common processes of growth. The present study sought to identify shared positive change processes in different samples of individuals each of whom faced life adversities (clinical/nonclinical) and experienced growth as a result. We conducted a secondary analysis comparing in-depth interviews from 2 independent study samples including 27 Israeli adults that experienced spiritual growth ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Childhood Psychopathic Personality and Callous-Unemotional Traits in the Prediction of Conduct Problems.
This study analyzed data from a prospective longitudinal study of Swedish preschoolers to examine whether psychopathic traits and concurrent conduct problems predict future conduct problems (CP) across 1- and 2-year follow-ups into early childhood. We tested the predictive ability of psychopathic traits while controlling for concurrent CP, and also by combining psychopathic traits with concurrent CP. A community sample of 1,867 preschoolers (47% girls) ages 3 to 5 years at baseline was recruited from a Swedish medium-sized municipality. Results from multivariate regression analyses showed that psychopathic traits alone (wi...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Buried Hatchets, Marked Locations: Forgiveness, Everyday Racial Discrimination, and African American Men's Depressive Symptomatology.
Authors: Powell W, Banks KH, Mattis JS Abstract Everyday racial discrimination (ERD) is linked to pronounced depressive symptomatology among African American men. Yet, many African American men do not experience depressive symptoms following ERD exposure often because they use positive coping strategies that offset its effects. Granting forgiveness is 1 coping strategy associated with less depression. However, extant findings about the mental health benefits of forgiveness are somewhat mixed and pay scarce attention to offenses which are fleeting, historically rooted, and committed outside of close personal relatio...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 28, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Symptoms, Circumstances, and Service Systems: Pathways to Psychiatric Crisis Service Use Among Uninsured Young Adults.
This study explored pathways to crisis service use for uninsured young adults who accessed emergency psychiatric treatment. Participants were 55 young adults (ages 18-25) who were on an inpatient short-term stabilization unit and had qualifying diagnoses for outpatient services (bipolar, major depression, or schizophrenia). Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted to understand decision-making and the events that led to service use. A team of coders used an open coding approach to develop a codebook and participated in iterative discussions of coded text to generate results presented. Themes across 3 dimensions...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Adult Women Survivors of Intrafamilial Child Sexual Abuse and Their Current Relationship With the Abuser.
This article examines the adult perceptions of women survivors of intrafamilial child sexual abuse and their current relationship with the family member who abused them in their childhood. Twenty Jewish Israeli women were interviewed in depth between 2008 and 2009. Interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data analysis produced 2 interrelated continua with regard to the presence of the perpetrator in the women's life: a continuum of his actual daily presence in the woman's living space, ranging from complete absence to a continuous presence, and a continuum of his experiential presence, ranging from a high l...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

From Awareness to Action: Examining Predictors of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender (LGBT) Activism for Heterosexual People.
Authors: Jones KN, Brewster ME Abstract In recent history, heterosexual allies have played an integral role in promoting change for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations in the United States; however, questions have been raised as to what drives heterosexual allies to promote change via activism. To delineate factors important in engagement in activism, 207 self-identified heterosexual allies completed an online survey measuring components associated with LGBT activism using Bandura's (1986) model of triadic reciprocal determinism: personal factors (ally identity, social justice self-efficacy a...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 25, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Parental Ethnic-Racial Socialization and Social Attitudes Among Ethnic-Racial Minority and White American Emerging Adults.
This article utilizes moderated mediation analyses to explore whether the relations between parental ethnic-racial socialization (PERS) dimensions and social attitudes differ across ethnic-racial minority (n = 128) and White (n = 131) college-going emerging adults. We examined social dominance orientation (SDO) as an index of antiegalitarian intergroup attitudes and attitudes toward interpersonal harmony as an index of interpersonal attitudes. We tested whether there were ethnic-racial variations in mediation models in which each type of PERS dimension was expected to be linked to greater antiegalitarian attitudes (greater...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Racial Microaggressions, Cultural Mistrust, and Mental Health Outcomes Among Asian American College Students.
Authors: Kim PY, Kendall DL, Cheon HS Abstract The present study is an empirical investigation of cultural mistrust as a mediator in the association between racial microaggressions and mental health (anxiety, depression, and well-being) in a sample of Asian American college students. In addition, we explored the role of cultural mistrust as a mediator in the association between racial microaggressions and attitudes toward seeking professional help. Asian American participants (N = 156) were recruited from 2 institutions located in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Participants filled out an online ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Perceived Primal Threat of Mental Illness and Recovery: The Mediating Role of Self-Stigma and Self-Empowerment.
This study adds to the understanding of the mechanism underlying the influence of perceived primal threat on recovery and suggests that perceived primal threat should be considered in the recovery process among people with mental illness. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 27732012 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The Role of Religious Attendance on Mental Health Among Mexican Populations: A Contribution Toward the Discussion of the Immigrant Health Paradox.
In this study, we conducted a path analysis on data from the National Latino and Asian American Study to investigate the role of religious attendance on mental health among Mexican populations. Using data from 868 Latinos of Mexican origin, we further investigated the extent to which religious attendance mediated the direct path between generation status and lifetime prevalence rates of any substance use disorder, depressive disorder, and anxiety disorder. Results indicate that Mexican immigrants endorsed lower lifetime prevalence rates of depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder and endorsed highe...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Beyond Adoption Status: Post-Adoptive Parental Involvement and Children's Reading and Math Performance From Kindergarten to First Grade.
In this study, we went beyond adoption status to examine the associations between postadoption parental involvement and children's reading and math performance from kindergarten to first grade. Secondary data on a sample of adopted children and nonadopted children were drawn from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998 to 1999 (ECLS-K). Weighted data on the children's reading performance were available for 13,900 children (181 were adopted); weighted data on the children's math performance were available for 14,128 children (184 were adopted). Descriptive data showed no group difference in reading...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Guilt as a Mediator Between Depressive Symptoms and Subjective Age: A 17-Year Longitudinal Study of Israeli Ex-Prisoners of War.
Authors: Avidor S, Levin Y, Solomon Z Abstract This longitudinal study assesses the trajectories of depressive symptoms and subjective age and the mediating role of guilt in the association between them. Two groups of aging Israeli combat veterans ( age = 57), 128 ex-prisoners of war (ex-POWs), and 106 comparable combat veterans (controls), were assessed at 3 times: 18 (Time 1 [T1]), 30 (Time 2 [T2]), and 35 (Time 3 [T3]) years after the war. They filled out self-report questionnaires on depression, guilt, and subjective age. Results revealed that significantly more ex-POWs had chronic or delayed clinical levels of...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Achieving social justice for children: How can children's rights thinking make a difference?
This article draws on themes from the author's book, , that emerge from surveying children's rights issues in different childhood contexts; the family, education, child protection, and health services. The author has selected five examples of application of children's rights to a policy area and identified the implications for policy and practice. There are four core rights that cut across all children's rights issues that are mentioned before discussing specific areas. First, children, regardless of race, sex, language, religion, disability, or class, are entitled to rights. In other words, all children should enjoy their...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 14, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Associations of Outside- and Within-School Adult Support on Suicidality: Moderating Effects of Sexual Orientation.
This study examined sexual-orientation differences in reports of outside- and within-school adult support, and whether sexual orientation moderates the associations between adult support and suicidality (i.e., thoughts, plans, and attempts). At 26 high schools across MetroWest Boston, 22,834 students completed surveys assessing: sexual orientation (heterosexual, gay/lesbian, bisexual, or questioning); presence of outside- and within-school adult support; and past-year suicidality. Multivariable regression analyses with General Estimating Equations (adjusting for gender, grade, and race/ethnicity) examined sexual-orientatio...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 8, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Prevalence and Correlates of Substance Use in Black, White, and Biracial Black-White Adolescents: Evidence for a Biracial Intermediate Phenomena.
This study compared the prevalence and correlates of substance use among Black, White, and biracial Black-White youth. Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent and Adult Health, which is a longitudinal investigation using stratified random sampling to study health behaviors. After controlling for sociodemographic factors and using weighted Poisson and logistic regression, the authors found the substance-use prevalence rates of Black-White youth to be intermediate to the higher rates of Whites and lower rates of Blacks. In addition, Black-White youth's scores on most covariates were intermediate ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Associations Between School Violence, Military Connection, and Gang Membership in California Secondary Schools.
This study supports schools in understanding the characteristics of the military-connected students and families they serve so they can implement appropriate interventions to curb gang and school violence behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 27414056 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Profiles of Youth in Therapeutic Group Care: Associations With Involuntary Psychiatric Examinations and Readmissions.
Authors: Yampolskaya S, Mowery D Abstract The study aims were to identify distinct subgroups among youth placed in therapeutic group care (TGC) and to examine the effect of specific constellations of risk factors on readmission to residential mental health care and involuntary psychiatric examination among youth in TGC. Several administrative databases were merged to examine outcomes for youth placed in TGC during fiscal year FY04-05 through FY07-08 (N = 1,009). Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted. Two classes were identified: youth with multiple needs (Class 1) and lower risk youth (Class 2). Class 1 represe...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Culturally competent evidence-based behavioral health services for the transgender community: Progress and challenges.
Authors: Hope DA, Mocarski R, Bautista CL, Holt NR Abstract The presence of individuals who identify as transgender has emerged into public awareness in the United States in recent years. Celebrities who publicly transition have expanded the national conversation about gender variation beyond gender and women's studies classrooms and certain specialty health and mental health services. This increased public visibility has been accompanied by increased visibility in the mental health literature, including the publishing of competencies or guidelines for working with clients who identify as transgender by various pro...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Psychosocial, HIV, and health care management issues impacting transgender individuals.
This article reviews the varied process of transitioning and the psychosocial and quality-of-life benefits and outcomes of gender-affirmation therapeutic interventions, examines the barriers that transgender (TG) persons face in accessing health care, and describes the authors' experiences in improving access to medical services by launching a TG health care clinic and a service provider collaborative. It concludes with a summary of the burgeoning prevalence of HIV among TG people and the associated psychosocial effects. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 27380150 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The power of 41%: A glimpse into the life of a statistic.
This article explores some of the key takeaways from the survey and the ways in which the 41% statistic has affected conversations about the injustices transgender people face and the importance of family and societal acceptance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 27380151 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Transgender health and well-being: Gains and opportunities in policy and law.
This article discusses gains and opportunities in policy and law in the United States related to transgender health and well-being. Topics include (1) how the bathroom myth has been used every time a trans nondiscrimination bill is considered, (2) transgender nondiscrimination laws and policies, (3) the expansion of gender discrimination, (4) strategies for promoting mental health and well-being among trans people, (5) policy developments supporting the mental health and well-being of trans people, and (6) opportunities for action. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 27380152 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Th...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Family first: Community-based supports for refugees.
This article presents a community-based approach that targets family interventions and services through a preventive, family systems ecological framework. A public health approach is used to emphasize the need for a tiered model of family support that builds on the strengths of refugee families while recognizing their specific needs and challenges. The rationale for a family systems ecological perspective is presented to highlight the critical features of effective family support programs for refugee families, followed by a discussion regarding the transitions and adaptation faced by refugee families when entering the Unit...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - July 7, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Mental Health Treatment Seeking Patterns and Preferences of Appalachian Women With Depression.
This study's findings reiterate the need for improved quality and increased availability of depression treatment in rural areas. In addition, culturally appropriate depression interventions must acknowledge rural cultural values of self-reliance and barriers to obtaining social support that lead many women to endure depression in isolation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 27322157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Vicarious Resilience: Complexities and Variations.
This article presents results from a qualitative study further exploring the concept of vicarious resilience. Thirteen therapists working with survivors of torture in 3 different locations were interviewed to better understand the complexities and variations of vicarious resilience. The analysis focuses on the therapists' perception of clients' resilience and the therapists' awareness of how this affects the therapists themselves. Four major themes emerge: change in the therapists' self-perception and their general outlook on the world, altered spirituality, modified thoughts about self-care, and new views on trauma work a...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Effectiveness of School-Based Mental Health Playgroups for Diagnosable and At-Risk Preschool Children.
This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of an on-site integrated school-based mental health services and consultation program for preschool children and their families. The sample consisted of 47 children and parents in 3 childcare centers who came from low-socioeconomic, urban backgrounds. Parents provided questionnaire data on children's social-emotional functioning at 2 assessment times. Children's ages ranged between 2 and 4 years at Time 1. Approximately half of the sample consisted of children who were selected for and received twice-weekly peer play psychotherapy (PPP) and, at-times, other mental health se...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 22, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Population Targeting Amid Complex Mental Health Programming: Are California's Full Service Partnerships Reaching Underserved Children?
Authors: Cordell KD, Snowden LR Abstract California's Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) created Full Service Partnership programs (FSPs) targeting socially and economically vulnerable children with mental illness who are underserved by counties' public mental health treatment system. To determine whether FSPs reach a distinctive group of children, this study compares indicators of FSP-targeted underservice for FSP entrants (n = 15,598) versus everyone treated in the counties' public mental health systems (n = 282,178) and for FSP entrants versus entrants in the most intensive Medicaid delivered program in Californi...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The Moderating Role of Cultural Affiliation in the Link Between Emotional Closeness to Grandparents and Adolescent Adjustment Difficulties and Prosocial Behavior.
Authors: Attar-Schwartz S, Khoury-Kassabri M Abstract A growing body of research has shown the positive contribution of grandparents to adolescents' well-being. However, studies often overlook the cultural context in which this relationship is embedded. The current study examined whether emotional closeness to the grandparent identified by the adolescents as their closest grandparent varied among Arab and Jewish adolescents and whether cultural affiliation serves as a moderator in the association between emotional closeness to grandparents and adolescent adjustment difficulties and prosocial behaviors. The study wa...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 4, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The Process of Desistance Among Core Ex-Gang Members.
Authors: Berger R, Abu-Raiya H, Heineberg Y, Zimbardo P Abstract Research has established robust links between gang membership, delinquency, violence and victimization. Yet studies examining the process of gang desistance in general and that of core gang members in particular, are quite rare. The current study aims to identify factors associated with desistance of core gang members as well as describe the nature of the process that these "formers" have undergone. Thirty-nine core ex-gang members (80% males and 20% females) from the San Francisco Bay area and Los Angeles, with an average length of 11.6-yea...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in African American Children and Adolescents: Risks, Resiliency, and Barriers to Treatment.
This article reviews risk factors, protective factors, and barriers to treatment in African American children and adolescents with OCD. This review conceptualizes cultural differences in symptomology, low income, reduced access to care, racism, and mental health stigma, as risk factors. Also discussed are the roles of family factors in the development and maintenance of the disorder, including family accommodations, conflictual family communication, and parenting styles. Potential protective factors are also examined, including a positive ethnic identity, social support, present-centered time orientation, and religious com...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - June 2, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Psychometric Properties of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children in Chilean Population Affected by the Earthquake of 2010.
Authors: Andrades M, García FE, Reyes-Reyes A, Martínez-Arias R, Calonge I Abstract The present study examines the psychometric properties of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children in its brief version (PTGI-C-R; Kilmer et al., 2009), an inventory that measured positive personal changes that occur after experiencing a traumatic event. The PTGI-C-R was applied to 393 children from 10 to 15 years of age affected by the earthquake and tsunami in Chile February 27, 2010. The scale showed good internal consistency and discriminant validity in relation to an inventory of posttraumatic stress sympto...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 24, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Potentially Traumatic Events and Mental Health Problems Among Children of Iraqi Refugees: The Roles of Relationships With Parents and Feelings About School.
This study examined mental health problems among children of Iraqi refugees, most of whom were Christian. Exposure to potentially traumatic events was hypothesized to predict more symptoms of depression and traumatic stress. Moreover, youth reports of supportive relationships with parents and positive feelings about school were examined in relation to mental health problems. These promotive factors were expected to mitigate the hypothesized association between traumatic event exposure and mental health problems. Participants were 211 youth recruited from agencies and programs serving Iraqi refugees in a large metropolitan ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Domestic violence survivors' empowerment and mental health: Exploring the role of the alliance with advocates.
This study explored in a sample of help-seeking survivors (N = 370) whether the strength of the alliance between survivors and their advocates is related to lower symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and whether this association is mediated by survivors' sense of empowerment in the domain of safety. The structural equation model we tested also controlled for variables that might influence these relationships, including race/ethnicity, financial strain, and length of stay in the program. As expected, stronger alliance was associated with reduced symptoms of both depression and PTSD, through the me...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Optimizing foster family placement for infants and toddlers: A randomized controlled trial on the effect of the foster family intervention.
This study shows that the FFI has a significant positive effect on parenting skills as measured with EAS and on Responsiveness of the foster child. Findings are discussed in terms of impact and significance relating to methodology and design of the study and to clinical relevance. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 27196390 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Sex and the nursing home.
This article addresses the ability to assessed competence to consent to sex in similar situations. The current rules and attitudes about senior sex in nursing homes needs to be reevaluated. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 27196391 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

"Calculating the Toll of Trauma" in the Headlines: Portrayals of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the New York Times (1980-2015).
"Calculating the Toll of Trauma" in the Headlines: Portrayals of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in the New York Times (1980-2015). Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2016 May 16; Authors: Purtle J, Lynn K, Malik M Abstract Public awareness about traumatic stress is needed to address trauma as a public health issue. News media influence public awareness, but little is known about how traumatic-related disorders are portrayed in the news. A content analysis was conducted of all articles that mentioned posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in The New York Times between 1980-2015. There were 871 articles analyz...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 20, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Psychological Health and Academic Success in Rural Appalachian Adolescents Exposed to Physical and Sexual Interpersonal Violence.
We present baseline rates of each form of IPV for these rural male and female adolescents and assessed the strength and statistical significance of these associations between physical and sexual IPV and other risk factors using χ2 tests and relative risk ratios. Results suggested that each form of IPV was associated with greater risk for depression and suicidal behaviors, substance use, risky sexual behaviors for both sexes, and lower academic grades for females. Relative risk ratios tended to be more robust and statistically significant for females compared with males on most risk behaviors. Furthermore, victimization...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A Grounded Theory of Bisexual Individuals' Experiences of Help Seeking.
Authors: MacKay J, Robinson M, Pinder S, Ross LE Abstract Bisexual people constitute the largest sexual minority group in North America and experience significant mental health disparities in relation to heterosexuals, gays, and lesbians. In this article, we will examine the process and experience of help seeking among bisexuals. This was a community-based study that collected qualitative interview data from 41 diverse bisexual people from across Ontario, Canada. We analyzed the interview data using grounded theory and constructed an understanding of bisexuals' experiences of help seeking. We have conceptualized an...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research