Defying the odds on gun regulation: The passage of bipartisan mental health laws across the States.
This study begins with a brief overview and evaluation of the barriers to enacting firearms regulations (of all sorts) in America. The author next reviews lawmaking at the nexus of mental health and firearms over the past decade. The author provides an overview of the types of laws that have been enacted and the political circumstances that have facilitated their passage. The author concludes with some thoughts about whether these cases provide any generalizable lessons for consensus-based policymaking on guns. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 25985105 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Challenging the political assumption that "Guns don't kill people, crazy people kill people!".
Challenging the political assumption that "Guns don't kill people, crazy people kill people!". Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2015 May;85(3):211-6 Authors: Hodges HJ, Scalora MJ Abstract Presumptions that mental illness is causally tied to firearm violence and that guns are too easily acquired by such persons have given rise to laws that categorically restrict people with mental health concerns from exercising a Constitutional right. Underlying these reforms appears to be a revised idiom, "Guns don't kill people-crazy people kill people." The purpose of this commentary is to address these as...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Our schools are safe: Challenging the misperception that schools are dangerous places.
Authors: Cornell D Abstract Massive public attention to school shootings has created the misperception that schools are dangerous places, even though crime statistics show that schools are one of the safest places in the United States. The fear of school shootings has caused many school systems to divert their budgets to excessive building security measures and adopt dubious crisis response plans. School disciplinary practices have shifted toward the criminalization of student misbehavior and a zero tolerance philosophy that fails to improve school safety and results in high rates of student suspensions and dropout...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Preventing the invisible plague of firearm suicide.
Authors: Runyan CW, Brown TL, Brooks-Russell A Abstract There is an underappreciation among the general public and among health professionals that firearms are implicated in just over half of all suicide deaths. Suicide attempts with firearms are much more lethal than attempts using other methods, with more than 85% of individuals using a firearm dying compared to 2% for individuals using poisoning, 31% by jumping, and 69% by hanging. There is a well-researched and clear connection between access to firearms in the home and an increased risk of firearm suicide of a family member. Additionally, it has long been demo...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A broader perspective of gun control.
Authors: Hargrove DS, Perdue RP Abstract The point of this commentary is not to advocate for either position. Rather, the aim is to put the matter of gun control into a broader context, inclusive of a theological and spiritual perspective. Shining a different light on the roots of gun control provides a different understanding of it. A different understanding has the potential to change the tone of the national debate. It is the authors' belief that the tone and complexity of the national debate does not stem from the content of the issue but from the emotionality. The perspective of this comment is taken from a sy...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma, Part II: Reparative Adaptational Impacts.
Authors: Danieli Y, Norris FH, Lindert J, Paisner V, Kronenberg S, Engdahl B, Richter J Abstract The impacts of the Holocaust on children of survivors have been widely investigated. However, consensus is limited, and no validated measures have been tailored with or to them. We aimed to develop and validate a scale that measures these specific impacts (Part II of the Danieli Inventory of Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma). We studied 484 adult children of survivors who participated in a cross-sectional web-based survey in English or Hebrew; of these, 191 participated in a clinical interview. Exploratory factor an...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A structural equation modeling study of the Spanish Mental Illness Stigma Attribution Questionnaire (AQ-27-E).
Authors: Muñoz M, Guillén AI, Pérez-Santos E, Corrigan PW Abstract The main purpose of this study was the translation and analysis of psychometric properties of the Attribution Questionnaire for use in Spanish-speaking populations (AQ-27-E) and to test the dangerousness and responsibility models of mental illness stigma in a Spanish sample. The sample consisted of 439 adults from the general population of the community of Madrid (Spain). The questionnaire was translated using the translation/back-translation method. Cronbach's alpha was used to carry out the reliability analysis, and structural...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Impact of Inuit customary adoption on behavioral problems in school-age Inuit children.
This study examined the actual extent of the increase in the number of behavior problems seen in Inuit children adopted in accordance with traditional customs. In a prospective longitudinal study conducted in the Canadian Arctic (n = 46 adopted and 231 nonadopted children), prenatal and familial variables were documented at birth and at school age (M = 11.3 years). Behavior problems were assessed on the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Adopted children lived in more economically disadvantaged families, but their caregivers were less prone to depression, domestic violence, or alcohol abuse compared with ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Risk for behavior problems in children of parents with substance use disorders.
This study also tested whether parenting mediated the relations between these variables. Results suggest that children of parents with current diagnoses were at elevated risk for externalizing and internalizing problems, but children of parents with recovered diagnoses were only at risk for externalizing problems. Perceived parental consistency of support mediated the relations between parent current SUD and child externalizing and internalizing problems. Disruption of the home environment may in part explain why children of parents with SUDs are at risk for externalizing and internalizing problems. However, even after par...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Asylum-seeking children's experiences of detention in Canada: A qualitative study.
Authors: Kronick R, Rousseau C, Cleveland J Abstract Children and parents seeking asylum are regularly detained in Canada, however little is known about the experiences of detained families. International literature suggests that the detention of children is associated with significant morbidity. Our study aims to understand the experiences of detained children and families who have sought asylum in Canada by using a qualitative methodology that includes semistructured interviews and ethnographic participant observation. Detention appears to be a frightening experience of deprivation that leaves children feeling cr...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 21, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Psychological Distress Among Victimized Women on Probation and Parole: A Latent Class Analysis.
Authors: Golder S, Engstrom M, Hall MT, Higgins GE, Logan TK Abstract Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of victimized women (N = 406) on probation and parole differentiated by levels of general psychological distress. The 9 primary symptom dimensions from the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) were used individually as latent class indicators (Derogatis, 1993). Results identified 3 classes of women characterized by increasing levels of psychological distress; classes were further differentiated by posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, cumulative victimization, substance use and other domains of psyc...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - May 2, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The Relevance and Implications of Organizational Involvement for Serious Mental Illness Populations.
This study surveyed adults with SMI regarding their current level of organizational involvement along with their preferences and beliefs about organizational involvement. Additionally, a path model was conducted to understand the relationships between domains of consumer involvement. Although participants reported wanting to be involved in identified organizational involvement activities and believing it was important to be involved in these kinds of activities, organizational involvement was low overall. The path model indicated that psychological involvement among other factors influence organizational involvement, which...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 24, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

China's Only Children and Psychopathology: A Quantitative Synthesis.
Conclusions based on this synthesis are limited by the fact that this body of studies is based on convenience samples of relatively successful youth. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 25894306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 24, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Evaluating the Measurement of Mental Health Service Accessibility, Acceptability, and Availability in the Canadian Community Health Survey.
Authors: Elliott KP, Hunsley J Abstract Given the underutilization of mental health services by those with mental health problems, growing attention has focused on barriers to utilizing services. Several researchers have used the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) cycle 1.2 dataset, including measures of barriers because of accessibility, acceptability, and availability, to explore the gap between mental health service need and use. Because the psychometric properties of these barrier measures have not been evaluated, the reliability and validity of the 3 measures were examined in the present study. Confirmato...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 24, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Overcoming the educational disadvantages of poor children: How much do teacher preparation, workload, and expectations matter.
This article reviews data on aspects of the learning environment most closely associated with successful development of early academic competence, compares children from low socioeconomic backgrounds to children with higher socioeconomic status (SES) on access to academically auspicious environments, and uses the findings to identify promising targets for social innovations aimed at improving the educational prospects of poor children. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 25822602 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Examining the role of methamphetamine in permanency: A competing risks analysis of reunification, guardianship, and adoption.
This study sought to compare the impact of parental methamphetamine use to alcohol use, other drug use, and polysubstance use on the timing of 3 types of permanency: reunification, guardianship, and adoption. Using an entry cohort of 16,620 children who had entered foster care during a 5-year period, competing risks event history models were conducted for each permanency type. Findings showed that, after controlling for several case characteristics, parent illicit drug use significantly impacted the timing of the 3 types of permanency, but alcohol use did not. Methamphetamine, other drug, and polysubstance with methampheta...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

How people evaluate others with social anxiety disorder: A comparison to depression and general mental illness stigma.
Authors: Anderson KN, Jeon AB, Blenner JA, Wiener RL, Hope DA Abstract Despite the availability of effective interventions, most individuals with social anxiety disorder do not seek treatment. Given their fear of negative evaluation, socially anxious individuals might be especially susceptible to stigma concerns, a recognized barrier for mental health treatment. However, very little is known about the stigma specific to social anxiety disorder. In a design similar to Feldman and Crandall (2007), university undergraduate students read vignettes about target individuals with a generic mental illness label, major depr...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

University students' identification of stigmatizing schizophrenia in Italian newspapers.
Authors: Pingani L, Evans-Lacko S, Del Vecchio V, Luciano M, Catellani S, Hamati A, Rigatelli M, Fiorillo A Abstract Stigma associated with mental disorders represents one main obstacle to receive appropriate care for people with mental disorders. Compared to adults, university students have higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes toward patients with schizophrenia. The primary aim of this case-control study was to assess university students' ability to identify stigma toward schizophrenia in Italian newspapers. Secondary aims were: a) to explore differences in stigmatizing attitudes among two different groups of u...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Childhood victimization, attachment, psychological distress, and substance use among women on probation and parole.
Authors: Winham KM, Engstrom M, Golder S, Renn T, Higgins GE, Logan TK Abstract The present analysis was guided by a gendered pathways-based theoretical model and examined relationships between childhood victimization and current attachment, psychological distress, and substance use among 406 women with histories of victimization who were on probation and parole in an urban Kentucky county. Structural equation modeling examined relationships among childhood victimization, attachment, psychological distress, and substance use. Additionally, we examined the mediational role that attachment plays in relationships betw...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Normative identity construction among women diagnosed with a gambling disorder.
Authors: Gavriel-Fried B, Peled E, Ajzenstadt M Abstract Women with a gambling problem bear a negative social stigma. Based on the theory of symbolic interactionism, this study examined the construction of social identities by 17 Israeli women diagnosed with a gambling disorder. Interpretive interactionist analysis revealed how they construct their identity through correspondence with patterns of behavior that are perceived as normative, and identified 3 major themes: "I'm not actually a gambler" (the presentation of a multidimensional identity comprising other identities besides that of a gambler); "...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Respecting our elders: Evaluation of an educational program for adolescent students to promote respect toward older adults.
Authors: Mellor D, McCabe M, Rizzuto L, Gruner A Abstract The current project explored issues related to respect for older people, and then developed, implemented, and evaluated an educational intervention program for adolescents to raise understanding and improve attitudes toward older people. In Study 1, 46 focus groups were conducted, with participants (n = 211) drawn from older people, carers of older people, and adolescents to inform on issues related to the expression of respect to older people. The emergent themes were used to inform the design of the educational program delivered to adolescents and evaluate...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Family functioning and posttraumatic growth among parents and youth following wildfire disasters.
Authors: Felix E, Afifi T, Kia-Keating M, Brown L, Afifi W, Reyes G Abstract A conceptual model was used to investigate how demographic characteristics, perceived fire stress, aspects of the recovery environment (life stressors since the disaster, social support), mental health, and coping influences parent and youth reports of family functioning and posttraumatic growth (PTG) following multiple wildfires. Participants included 50 parent-youth dyads (M = 14.5 years) who had been evacuated because of the fire, many of whom had homes that were damaged (60%) or destroyed (30%). For youth, younger age, being female, gr...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 1, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Positive Aspects of Being a Heterosexual Ally to Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) People.
Authors: Rostosky SS, Black WW, Riggle ED, Rosenkrantz D Abstract Research on heterosexual allies has focused on heterosexual identity development models and pathways to ally activism. The positive aspects or positive experiences of identifying as an ally to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) identified individuals and communities have received little attention. Using an online survey of participants recruited from LGBT ally related social media, we collected open-ended responses to a question about the positive aspects of self-identifying as a heterosexual ally. A final analytic sample of 292 self-iden...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 24, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Comments from the new editors.
Authors: McLeigh JD, Spaulding WD Abstract This editorial provides comments from the new editors of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry (AJO). In the previous issue of the journal, former editors highlighted some of the changes that have occurred over the last several years. AJO will continue its bimonthly production schedule in 2015. In the fall, however, AJO subscribers will receive two special issues that include The Community articles. Each issue will be organized around a theme. One issue will focus on the dramatic generational changes our society is experiencing. It will focus on the ways in which these c...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Teaching with strengths in trauma-affected students: A new approach to healing and growth in the classroom.
Authors: Brunzell T, Waters L, Stokes H Abstract The National Child Traumatic Stress Network in the United States reports that up to 40% of students have experienced, or been witness to, traumatic stressors in their short lifetimes. These include home destabilization, violence, neglect, sexual abuse, substance abuse, death, and other adverse childhood experiences. The effects of trauma on a child severely compound the ability to self-regulate and sustain healthy relationships. In the classroom, the effects of trauma may manifest as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, oppositional defiance di...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Understanding Bhutanese refugee suicide through the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior.
This study sought to understand the apparent high rates of suicide among resettled Bhutanese refugees in the context of the Interpersonal-Psychological Theory of Suicidal Behavior (IPTS). Expanding on a larger investigation of suicide in a randomly selected sample of Bhutanese men and women resettled in Arizona, Georgia, New York, and Texas (Ao et al., 2012), the current study focused on 2 factors, thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness, examined individual and postmigration variables associated with these factors, and explored how they differed by gender. Overall, factors such as poor health were associated w...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A multilevel analysis of the relationship between neighborhood social disorder and depressive symptoms: Evidence from the South African National Income Dynamics Study.
Authors: Tomita A, Labys CA, Burns JK Abstract The apartheid regime that governed South Africa from 1948-1994 established spatial segregation that is understood to have contributed to the magnitude of neighborhood social disorder in the postapartheid era. Although a number of neighborhood social disorder characteristics, such as perceived violence and crime in the community, are prominent issues in South Africa, the extent to which these perceived spatial attributes are linked to depression is unknown at the population level. Multilevel modeling of data from the second wave of the South African National Income Dyna...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Coping with war trauma and psychological distress among school-age Palestinian children.
This study investigated the long-term effects of the 2012 war on children's psychological distress in Gaza Strip. It was hypothesized that a) greater levels of exposure to war trauma would be associated with greater behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD symptoms; b) children who rely more on problem-focused coping will manifest less behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD symptoms whereas children who rely more on emotion-focused coping will manifest higher levels of behavioral and emotional disorders, neuroticism, and PTSD symptoms; and c) certain children's characteristics (i.e., age...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Perceived benefits and proposed solutions for teen pregnancy: Qualitative interviews with youth care workers.
Authors: Boustani MM, Frazier SL, Hartley C, Meinzer M, Hedemann E Abstract The purpose of this article is to examine youth care workers' perceptions of the specific and unique sexual health needs of youth at risk for foster care. Semistructured interviews were conducted with youth care workers (N = 10) at a shelter for youth in or at risk for foster care. Youth care workers perceive that youth have unique experiences and needs related to sexual health programming and pregnancy prevention. Reflecting a great deal of family dysfunction, 3 themes emerged that revealed perceived benefits of teen pregnancy: youths' eff...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Developmental delays at arrival and postmenarcheal Chinese adolescents' adjustment.
Authors: Tan TX, Rice JL, Mahoney EE Abstract Internationally adopted (IA) children often have delays at adoption and undergo massive catch-up after adoption. Before achieving developmental catch-up, however, delays at adoption present a risk for IA children's adjustment, but it remains unknown whether such delays foreshadow IA children's outcomes after catch-up development has completed or ceased. In the current analysis, we utilized menarche as a practical marker to indicate the cessation of developmental catch-up. We investigated how delays at arrival predicted long-term outcomes in 132 postmenarcheal teens (M =...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 6, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Deep in the Heart of Texas: A Phenomenological Exploration of Unsheltered Homelessness.
This study supports the use of nontraditional housing interventions and robust community-based approaches to care for individuals experiencing unsheltered homelessness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID: 25602352 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

"I Have Lost Everything": Trade-Offs of Seeking Safety From Intimate Partner Violence.
"I Have Lost Everything": Trade-Offs of Seeking Safety From Intimate Partner Violence. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2015 Jan 12; Authors: Thomas KA, Goodman L, Putnins S Abstract A primary aim of mainstream domestic violence (DV) programs is to help survivors and their children achieve safety from intimate partner violence. That goal, however, is neither simple nor straightforward. Instead, research demonstrates that the very actions survivors take to achieve safety may trigger a wide range of negative consequences. Missing from this research, however, is a focus on survivors' own perception, evalua...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 15, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Editing on the edge in Denver, New Orleans, and Williamston-and soon in Dallas and Lincoln, too.
Authors: Barbarin O, Melton GB Abstract This editorial provides a farewell from the coeditors of the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID: 25545426 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Milt Shore: Editor and advocate.
Authors: Melton GB Abstract This editorial pays tribute to former editor, Milton F. Shore, who has for many years been one of Ortho's most dedicated members. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID: 25545427 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Marking time in the land of plenty: Reflections on mental health in the United States.
This article focuses on reflections on mental health in the United States. This accumulation of wisdom and knowledge from experts inside and outside government has for the most part been ignored or shelved over the years because of revisions, deferrals, impoundments, vetoes, threatened vetoes, reorganizations, budget cuts, inflation, and military demands. Programs such as Head Start, which have been proven successful, have been fighting for survival, and community mental health centers, which in many ways represented a bold, new approach with much creative promise, were threatened with the loss of federal funding in the ea...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Fifteen years after treatment: A follow-up study of comprehensive vocationally-oriented psychotherapy.
Authors: Shore MF, Massimo JL Abstract This reprinted article originally appeared in American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 1979, Vol. 49, No. 2, 240-245. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-43131-006.) The fourth follow-up study of adolescent delinquent boys treated in a community-based program that combined job placement, remedial education, and psychotherapy indicates that the better overall adjustment of the treated group, compared to untreated controls, is maintained well into adulthood. It reaffirms the importance of developing sound, innovative means of reaching adolescents ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Young adults in conflict: Confident but struggling, networked but disconnected.
This article discusses the conflict the cohort of adults known as the Millennials has been affected by. More specifically this article takes a look at how changes in the economy and society have influenced Millennials and what can be done to promote their well-being and that of future generations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID: 25545430 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Being out at school: The implications for school victimization and young adult adjustment.
This study investigates the associations among adolescent disclosure of LGBT status to others at school, school victimization, and young adult psychosocial adjustment using a sample of 245 LGBT young adults (aged 21-25 years, living in California). After accounting for the association between school victimization and later adjustment, being out at high school was associated with positive psychosocial adjustment in young adulthood. Results have significant implications for training of school-based health and mental health providers, education and guidance for parents and caregivers, fostering positive development of LGBT yo...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Bullied youth: The impact of bullying through lesbian, gay, and bisexual name calling.
This study examines bullying experiences in a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 3,379 rural elementary-, middle-, and high-school youth. We use latent class analysis to establish clusters of bullying behaviors, including forms of biased-based bullying. The resulting classes are examined to ascertain if and how bullying by biased-based labeling is clustered with other forms of bullying behavior. This analysis identifies 3 classes of youth: youth who experience no bullying victimization, youth who experience social and emotional bullying, and youth who experience all forms of social and physical bullying, including b...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The health equity promotion model: Reconceptualization of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) health disparities.
Authors: Fredriksen-Goldsen KI, Simoni JM, Kim HJ, Lehavot K, Walters KL, Yang J, Hoy-Ellis CP, Muraco A Abstract National health initiatives emphasize the importance of eliminating health disparities among historically disadvantaged populations. Yet, few studies have examined the range of health outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people. To stimulate more inclusive research in the area, we present the Health Equity Promotion Model-a framework oriented toward LGBT people reaching their full mental and physical health potential that considers both positive and adverse health-related circum...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Interpersonal relationship narratives of older adults with schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses.
Authors: Ogden LP Abstract Shared themes connected to interpersonal relationships across the life courses of older adults with schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses were identified in first-person life history narratives and explored in depth. Findings were developed through thematic narrative analysis of 35 interviews with 7 older adults currently in treatment for schizophrenia-spectrum diagnoses. A combination of open-ended questions, life history calendars, and time diaries were used to structure interviews, and narrative and analytical development. Themes of relational losses, relational voids, relational adjustment...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Rethinking social inclusion: Experiences of persons in recovery from mental illness.
Authors: Wong YL, Stanton MC, Sands RG Abstract This qualitative study examines the relational dimension of social inclusion by exploring the ways in which persons in recovery from mental illness understand and define their relationships with various communities. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 20 participants who were heterogeneous with respect to gender, psychiatric diagnoses, sexual orientation and gender identity, and living environments. We found competencies for establishing reciprocal social relationships and taking on responsibility as citizens and community members, rendering support for the ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A conceptual framework for understanding the association between school bullying victimization and substance misuse.
This article reviews current research findings and presents a conceptual framework for better understanding the relationship between bullying victimization (hereafter referred to as victimization) and substance misuse (hereafter referred to as SM) among adolescents. Although victimization and SM may appear to be separate problems, research suggests an intriguing relationship between the 2. We present a brief, empirical overview of the direct association between victimization and adolescent SM, followed by a proposed conceptual framework that includes co-occurring risk factors for victimization and SM within family, peer, a...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

School-based service delivery for homeless students: Relevant laws and overcoming access barriers.
Authors: Sulkowski ML, Joyce-Beaulieu DK Abstract Schools in the United States are facing a record number of homeless students. These students are highly at-risk for experiencing negative life outcomes, and they face considerable academic and social-emotional functional impairments. To help address the complex needs of homeless students, this article reviews the intersection of laws and practices that impact homeless students, as well as contemporary school-based service delivery efforts to support the academic and social-emotional needs of these students. In addition, this article also reviews several barriers to ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 4, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A Culturally Adapted Depression Intervention for African American Adults Experiencing Depression: Oh Happy Day.
Authors: Ward EC, Brown RL Abstract The purpose of this article is to describe development of a culturally adapted depression intervention (Oh Happy Day Class, OHDC) designed for African American adults experiencing major depressive disorder (MDD). This project included 2 pilot studies testing the feasibility and acceptability of the OHDC and examining short-term effects of the OHDC in reducing symptoms of MDD. The OHDC is a 2.5-hr weekly, culturally specific, cognitive behavioral, group counseling intervention for 12 weeks. Cultural adaptations of the OHDC are based on the ecological validity and culturally sensit...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 30, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Personality Disorders in Previously Detained Adolescent Females: A Prospective Study.
Authors: Krabbendam AA, Colins OF, Doreleijers TA, van der Molen E, Beekman AT, Vermeiren RR Abstract This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed for traumatic experiences and mental health problems (mean age = 15.5 years). Three to 6 years later (M = 4.5; SD = 0.6), ASPD and BPD were diagnosed with a semistructured interview. Forty percent of the women had a per...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - November 30, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Adoption and Guardianship: A Moderated Mediation Analysis of Predictors of Post-Permanency Continuity.
This study examined the mediating effects of caregivers' thoughts about ending an adoption or guardianship, and how this mechanism may be contingent on primordial and bureaucratic factors that child welfare agencies rely on to ensure family continuity after legal permanence. In 2006, a sample of 346 Illinois caregivers who finalized an adoption or guardianship between 1998 and 2002 completed surveys about child behavior problems, the adequacy of financial assistance, and thoughts about maintaining the permanency relationship. Responses were linked to administrative data that tracked continuity of care through 2012. Simple ...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Ethnic Identity, Perceived Support, and Depressive Symptoms Among Racial Minority Immigrant-Origin Adolescents.
Authors: Tummala-Narra P Abstract Although racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents compose a rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population, few studies have examined the role of contextual factors in mental health among these youth. The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms, the relationship between perceived social support and depressive symptoms, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors (ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status) and depressive symptoms, among a culturally diverse group of adolescents. In addition, the potential moderating role...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Regional and National Differences in Stressful Life Events: The Role of Cultural Factors, Economic Development, and Gender.
Authors: Vázquez JJ, Panadero S, Martín RM Abstract The study analyzed differences in the risk of experiencing stressful life events (SLE) according to cultural factors, the level of economic development of the region inhabited, and gender. Information was gathered on the number and nature of SLE experienced by a sample of 604 undergraduates from 3 regions with very different levels of economic development: Madrid (Spain), León (Nicaragua), and Bilwi (Nicaragua). The results indicated a greater risk of experiencing SLE among undergraduates from Nicaragua, but few differences attributed to the u...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - October 21, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

How can policy strengthen community support for children in military families?
Authors: Boberiene LV, Hornback BJ Abstract The extraordinary demands of recent wars have increased burdens on many military families and existing systems of care. The sacrifices made by service members are made also by their children and families, and these sacrifices can have long-term consequences. Therefore, military children and families cannot go unrecognized and unsupported. Policy responses should be less about diagnosing and treating individuals and more about recognizing and supporting families' and communities' resilience in the face of wartime deployment. Policy should focus on identifying military chil...
Source: The American journal of Orthopsychiatry - September 30, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research