Political Violence Exposure, Adolescent School Violence, and Drug Use: The Mediating Role of School Support and Posttraumatic Stress.
Authors: Fang L, Schiff M, Benbenishty R Abstract Adolescents may engage in risk behaviors to cope with the negative psychological impacts resulting from exposure to political violence. Guided by the Deterioration Deterrence Model and General Strain Theory, the present study assessed the mediating role of school support and posttraumatic stress (PTS) on two adolescent risk behaviors (i.e., school violence and drug use) among Arab and Jewish Israeli adolescents. We analyzed data from a nationally representative survey that consisted of 4,733 Israeli high school students (54.5% females; 63.2% Jewish) following the Se...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 23, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Parenting Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Parents of Children With Autism: Perspectives From Singapore.
Authors: Chong WH, Kua SM Abstract Substantial empirical evidence has highlighted the psychological stress and negative well-being of parents whose children are diagnosed with autism. It has further indicated a need for understanding the mechanisms through which these parents come to successfully meet the challenges of caregiving for these children whose condition are often characterized by persistent behavioral, social, and communication problems. This qualitative study aims to bridge the research gap in 3 ways. First, we sought to understand the ways in which mothers of children having autism foster their parenti...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Sources of Heterogeneity in Developmental Outcomes of Children With Past and Current Experiences of Institutionalization in Russia: A Four-Group Comparison.
Authors: Rakhlin N, Hein S, Doyle N, Hart L, Koposov R, Macomber D, Ruchkin V, Strelina A, Tan M, Grigorenko EL Abstract The present study sought to compare 4 groups of age- and gender-matched children-(a) those reared in institutions for children without parental care in Russia; (b) those raised by their biological parents in Russia; (c) those adopted to the United States from Russian institutions; and (d) those born in the United States and raised by their biological parents-on indicators of cognition, language, and early learning. In addition, we aimed to compare the effects of the length of time spent in an ins...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Linking Typologies of Childhood Adversity to Adult Incarceration: Findings From a Nationally Representative Sample.
Authors: Roos LE, Afifi TO, Martin CG, Pietrzak RH, Tsai J, Sareen J Abstract Ecologically valid typologies of adverse child experiences (ACEs) were identified to investigate the link between ACEs and adult incarceration. In a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653, age 20+), latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted with childhood maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, interpersonal violence [IPV] exposure, physical neglect) and caregiver maladjustment (substance use, incarceration, mental illness, and suicidal behavior) indicators. LCA identified a 5-typology model (1. Low Adversity Risk; 2. C...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Parents' Early Life Stressful Experiences, Their Present Well-Being, and That of Their Children.
Authors: O'Neal CW, Richardson EW, Mancini JA, Grimsley RN Abstract Parents' early life stressful experiences have lifelong consequences, not only for themselves but also for their children. The current study utilized a sample of military families (n = 266) including data from both active-duty and civilian parents and their adolescent children. Hypotheses reflecting principles of persistence, transmission, and proximity as pertaining to parents and their children were examined. The impact of parents' childhood experiences on their functioning later in life and, consequently, their adolescent children's well-being w...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Cumulative Contextual Risk and Behavior Problems Among Children With Substance Using Mothers: The Mediating Role of Mothers' and Children's Coping Strategies.
Authors: Zhang J, Slesnick N Abstract Substance using mothers vary in their exposure to an accumulation of contextual risks associated with their drug-using lifestyles, likely leading to variability in their children's behavioral outcomes. The present study examined a mediation model interrelating mothers' cumulative risk exposure, children's behavior problems, and coping strategies of both mothers and children. Findings showed that mothers' greater exposure to cumulative risk was associated with lower utilization of task-oriented coping and higher utilization of emotion-oriented coping. Further, mothers' emotion-o...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Prevalence of DSM-IV Intermittent Explosive Disorder in Black Adolescents: Findings From the National Survey of American Life, Adolescent Supplement.
Authors: Oliver DG, Caldwell CH, Faison N, Sweetman JA, Abelson JM, Jackson JS Abstract Little is known about the epidemiology of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) intermittent explosive disorder (IED) in adolescents, and no information is currently available regarding the relationship between race/ethnicity and IED among Black youth in the United States. Using the World Health Organization World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (Adolescent Version), we estimated the prevalence, severity, and disability of IED in a national, probability sample of Afric...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Ethnic Socialization, Perceived Discrimination, and Psychological Adjustment Among Transracially Adopted and Nonadopted Ethnic Minority Adults.
Authors: Arnold T, Braje SE, Kawahara D, Shuman T Abstract Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities r...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 15, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Active War in Sri Lanka: Children's War Exposure, Coping, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity.
Authors: Soysa CK, Azar ST Abstract Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to active war is understudied among Sinhalese children in Sri Lanka. We investigated PTSD symptom severity in children using child (n = 60) and mother (n = 60) reports; child-reported war exposure and coping; as well as self-reported maternal PTSD symptom severity. The study addressed active war in 2 rural locations (acute and chronic community war exposure). Child-reports were significantly greater than mother-reports of child PTSD symptom severity. Furthermore, children's war exposure, child-reported and mother-reported child PTS...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Stability and Change in Callous-Unemotional Traits: Longitudinal Associations With Potential Individual and Contextual Risk and Protective Factors.
Authors: Fanti KA, Colins OF, Andershed H, Sikki M Abstract This longitudinal study examines developmental heterogeneity in callous-unemotional (CU) traits in a large sample of school-age children in Cyprus. Latent Class Growth Analysis revealed 4 trajectory groups of CU traits across 3 time points: stable high, increasing, decreasing, and low. Findings suggested that children in the stable high CU trajectory were more likely to (a) exhibit high and stable levels of conduct problems, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms, impulsivity and narcissism, (b) experience low parental involvement and high paren...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - April 6, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Mandated Reporters' Perceptions of and Encounters With Domestic Minor Sex Trafficking of Adolescent Females in the United States.
Authors: Hartinger-Saunders RM, Trouteaud AR, Matos Johnson J Abstract This is the first study to explore whether mandated reporters who work with adolescent females, ages 10 to 17, recognize domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) and associated risk factors. Because mandated reporters are required by law to report child abuse, neglect, and child exploitation, lack of specific DMST training or not believing DMST exists in communities continues to place young females at risk for revictimization. Results indicate that 60% of mandated reporters in the sample (N = 577) had no specific training on DMST. Furthermore, almo...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

How Subjective Well-Being Is Associated With Material Deprivation and Social Exclusion in Israeli 12-Year-Olds.
Authors: Gross-Manos D, Ben-Arieh A Abstract The literature examining the relations between economic situation and happiness has focused almost exclusively on a household's income as a proxy for economic situation and, accordingly, also focused chiefly on the adult population, excluding children and adolescents. To fill this gap, this study examines the relation between economic deprivation and happiness by using 2 alternative proxies: material deprivation and social exclusion. The study tests the relation of these measures to the most common measure for happiness-subjective well-being (SWB)-in a sample of Israeli ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Improving Psychology Students' Attitudes Toward People With Schizophrenia: A Quasi- Randomized Controlled Study.
Authors: Magliano L, Rinaldi A, Costanzo R, De Leo R, Schioppa G, Petrillo M, Read J Abstract Despite scientific evidence that the majority of people with schizophrenia (PWS) have personal histories of traumatic life events and adversities, their needs for psychological support often remain unmet. Poor availability of nonpharmacological therapies in schizophrenia may be partly because of professionals' attitudes toward people diagnosed with this disorder. As future health professionals, psychology students represent a target population for efforts to increase the probability that PWS will be offered effective psych...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Major Discriminatory Events and Risk for Psychotic Experiences Among Black Americans.
We examined the National Survey of American Life to analyze the effects of 9 major racial discriminatory events on lifetime psychotic experiences among Black Americans. By examining each event separately, we found that police discrimination was associated with increased risk for lifetime psychotic experiences after adjusting for demographic variables, socioeconomic status, and co-occurring psychological or social problems. Being denied a promotion, being a victim of police abuse, and being discouraged from pursuing education were associated with lifetime visual hallucinations, and being discouraged from pursuing education ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

New frontiers in building mental, emotional and behavioral health in children and youth: Introduction to the special section.
Authors: Evans ME, Bruns EJ, Armstrong MI, Hodges S, Hernandez M Abstract The passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA; 2010) has had tremendous influence on behavioral health in the United States (Alker & Chester, 2015). Shortly after its passage, the editors of this special section became interested in examining the provisions of the ACA related to care for mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in children and youth and synthesizing their implications in the context of other contemporary trends in children's behavioral health promotion. We first developed a white paper with the goa...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Toxic stress, behavioral health, and the next major era in public health.
Authors: Shern DL, Blanch AK, Steverman SM Abstract Before the development of the germ theory in the late 19th century, infectious illnesses were largely uncontrollable and caused significant mortality. Implementing public hygiene, preventive, and treatment interventions created remarkable improvements in population health. Today's U.S. public health crises involve threats to health and human capital evidenced by multiple indicators of deteriorating wellbeing. These problems result from the interaction of risk and protective factors. Specifically, we argue that the interaction of genetic vulnerability and toxic str...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Launching forward: The integration of behavioral health in primary care as a key strategy for promoting young child wellness.
This article focuses on the lessons learned from 1 of the 5 core strategies: integration of behavioral health into primary care for young children. This paper analyzes the experiences of a sample of Project LAUNCH grantees, describing 10 common elements of integration approaches and exploring some of the challenges of promoting health and preventing social, emotional, and behavioral problems at a population level. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID: 26963182 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry)
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Building an evidence-based multitiered system of supports for high-risk youth and communities.
This article describes a process and provides a case study example for implementing a comprehensive, multitiered approach in a high-risk community. This includes assessing and prioritizing the specific needs of individuals and communities; selecting evidence-based programs based upon assessed needs; and creating a continuum of programs to improve the health and well-being of youth across developmental age spans, social contexts, and levels of risk. Operational details and challenges for organizing and implementing this comprehensive approach are also described. We estimate that the collective impact of a multitiered eviden...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Using communities that care for community child maltreatment prevention.
This article provides an overview of the CTC framework and discusses the adaptation process of CTC to prevent development of MEBs through preventing child abuse and neglect and bolstering child well-being in children aged 0 to 10. Adaptations include those to the intervention itself as well as those to the evaluation approach. Preliminary findings from the Keeping Families Together pilot study of this evolving approach suggest that the implementation was manageable for sites, and community board functioning and community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in pilot sites looks promising. Implications and nex...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Fostering SMART partnerships to develop an effective continuum of behavioral health services and supports in schools.
Authors: Bruns EJ, Duong MT, Lyon AR, Pullmann MD, Cook CR, Cheney D, McCauley E Abstract The education sector offers compelling opportunities to address the shortcomings of traditional mental health delivery systems and to prevent and treat youth mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) problems. Recognizing that social and emotional wellness is intrinsically related to academic success, schools are moving to adopt multi-tier frameworks based on the public health model that provide a continuum of services to all children, including services to address both academic and MEB problems. In this article, we review the p...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Using public health strategies to shape early childhood policy.
Authors: Nagle GA, Usry LR Abstract There is clear evidence that ensuring safe, stimulating, and nurturing caregiving environments for young children may be one of the most impactful health promotion strategies available, with lifelong and intergenerational benefits. Supports and interventions in the early years of life may in fact be the most effective way to improve school performance, increase high school graduation rates, job performance, and adult productivity. A public health approach to early childhood well-being, as opposed to the needs of children being addressed in multiple siloes, may be a more effective...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Can behavioral health drive its own reformation? The challenges of shifting direction.
Authors: Morris JA Abstract This paper is designed to provide a broad-view perspective on at least some of the implications of the Affordable Care Act for children's behavioral health. Historical trends in behavioral health have tended to isolate both consumers of services (including children, youth and families) and practitioners from the larger world of healthcare, with decidedly mixed results. This paper uses the concept of path dependence to highlight the multiple challenges facing child behavioral health as it moves forward. The paper builds its recommendations on the 4 pillars of sustainable change: politics,...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Reducing primary and secondary traumatic stress symptoms among educators by training them to deliver a resiliency program (ERASE-Stress) following the Christchurch earthquake in New Zealand.
Authors: Berger R, Abu-Raiya H, Benatov J Abstract The current investigation evaluated the impact of a universal school-based resiliency intervention (ERASE-Stress) on educators who were working with elementary schoolchildren exposed to the Canterbury earthquake in New Zealand. In the context of major disasters, educators may suffer from "dual trauma"; they can experience symptoms of both primary trauma (as a result of the disaster itself) and secondary trauma (as a result of working with traumatized students). Sixty-three educators were randomly assigned to either the ERASE-Stress intervention or an alte...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Posttraumatic stress symptoms in context: Examining trauma responses to violent exposures and homicide death among Black males in urban neighborhoods.
Authors: Smith JR, Patton DU Abstract Concentrated disadvantage in urban communities places young Black men at disproportionate risk for exposure to violence and trauma. Homicide, a health disparity, positions Black males vulnerable to premature violent death and traumatic loss, particularly when peers are murdered. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been demonstrated as a health consequence for middle-income and White homicide survivors; however, understandings of traumatic stress among young Black men situated in contexts of chronic violence exposure remains limited. Guided by phenomenological variant of ec...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 12, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Evaluating Dosage Effects for the Positive Action Program: How Implementation Impacts Internalizing Symptoms, Aggression, School Hassles, and Self-Esteem.
Authors: Smokowski PR, Guo S, Wu Q, Evans CB, Cotter KL, Bacallao M Abstract Positive Action (PA) is a school-based intervention for elementary-, middle-, and high-school students that aims to decrease problem behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use) and increase positive behaviors (e.g., academic achievement, school engagement). PA has a long history of documented success achieving these aims, making it an Evidence Based Practice (EBP). Intervention research on EBP's has established the importance of implementation fidelity, especially with regard to program dosage; failure to properly implement an EBP can have n...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Caregiving-Specific Worry, Affiliate Stigma, and Perceived Social Support on Psychological Distress of Caregivers of Children With Physical Disability in Hong Kong.
Authors: Ma GY, Mak WW Abstract The present study tested a model on the relationship between functional status of children with physical disability, caregiving-specific worry, affiliate stigma, and psychological distress among their caregivers. One hundred thirty-one caregivers of children with physical disability in Hong Kong completed a self-report questionnaire. Structural equation modeling showed that the final model had good fit to the data: χ2 = 102.05, (df = 83, p = .08), comparative fit index = .98, nonnormed fit index = .98, standardized root mean square residual = .08, root mean square error of approx...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - March 9, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Living in a Continuous Traumatic Reality: Impact on Elderly Persons Residing in Urban and Rural Communities.
This study is an exploration of the contribution of exposure to the continuous threat of Qassam rocket attacks to PTSD among elderly residents of urban and rural communities. Specifically, we examined the contribution of sociodemographic variables, psychological resources, and perceived social support to PTSD, and whether this relationship is mediated by cognitive appraisals. The sample consisted of 298 residents of 2 different communities: urban (n = 190), and rural (n = 108). We examined the main research question by calculating the correlations of the sociodemographic variables, the psychological resource (self-esteem),...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 27, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

A Mental Health Intervention Strategy for Low-Income, Trauma-Exposed Latina Immigrants in Primary Care: A Preliminary Study.
This study sought to develop and preliminarily evaluate a mental health intervention for trauma-exposed Latina immigrants with depression and/or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for primary care clinics that serve the uninsured. The intervention was designed to be simultaneously responsive to patients' preferences for individual psychotherapy and to the needs of safety-net primary care clinics for efficient services and to address the social isolation that is common to the Latina immigrant experience. The resulting intervention, developed on the basis of findings from the research team's formative research, incorporate...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 27, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Predictors of Maternal Depressive Symptom Trajectories Over the First 18 Months in Home Visiting.
Authors: Teeters AR, Ammerman RT, Shenk CE, Goyal NK, Folger AT, Putnam FW, Van Ginkel JB Abstract Maternal depression negatively impacts maternal functioning and parenting behaviors. Mothers participating in home visiting programs are at particularly elevated risk for depressive symptoms due to demographic and associated risk factors. Moreover, additional empirical evidence has demonstrated that mothers with depression do not benefit from home visiting interventions to the same extent as their peers without depression. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of depression course in mothers participati...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Risk and Protective Factors Across Multiple Microsystems Associated With Internalizing Symptoms and Aggressive Behavior in Rural Adolescents: Modeling Longitudinal Trajectories From the Rural Adaptation Project.
Authors: Smokowski PR, Guo S, Evans CB, Wu Q, Rose RA, Bacallao M, Cotter KL Abstract The current study examined risk and protective factors across microsystems that impact the development of internalizing symptoms and aggression over 4 years in a sample of culturally diverse, rural adolescents. We explored whether risk and protective factors across microsystems were associated with changes in rates of internalizing symptoms and aggressive behavior. Data came from the Rural Adaptation Project (RAP), a 5-year longitudinal panel study of more than 4,000 students from 26 public middle schools and 12 public high school...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 19, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Growth and Perceived Health: The Role of Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms.
Authors: Lahav Y, Solomon Z, Levin Y Abstract The contested discourse regarding the nature of posttraumatic growth (PTG) includes 2 main competitive claims. The first argues that PTG reflects authentic positive transformation while the second posits that PTG reflects illusory defenses that could be maladaptive in the long run. The present study assesses these competing claims by investigating secondary PTG in relation to the somatic domain. Specifically, this study investigates: (a) the association between PTG, and perceived health (PH), as measured by 3 indices of somatic complaints, self-rated health (SRH) and a ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Ethnic Differences in Problem Perception: Immigrant Mothers in a Parenting Intervention to Reduce Disruptive Child Behavior.
Authors: Leijten P, Raaijmakers MA, Orobio de Castro B, Matthys W Abstract Ethnic minority families in Europe are underrepresented in mental health care-a profound problem for clinicians and policymakers. One reason for their underrepresentation seems that, on average, ethnic minority families tend to perceive externalizing and internalizing child behavior as less problematic. There is concern that this difference in problem perception might limit intervention effectiveness. We tested the extent to which ethnic differences in problem perception exist when ethnic minority families engage in mental health service and...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 13, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health.
Authors: Herrenkohl TI, Jung H, Klika JB, Mason WA, Brown EC, Leeb RT, Herrenkohl RC Abstract A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal stud...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 10, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Masculine and Family Honor and Youth Violence: The Moderating Role of Ethnic-Cultural Affiliation.
This study examines the involvement in violent behavior of at-risk Arab and Jewish male youth from a large city in Israel. It explores the role masculine and family honor plays in predicting youth involvement in violence and tests whether this association is moderated by ethnic-cultural affiliation. A total of 282 males (59.2% Arab), aged 15-21, filled out a self-report closed-ended questionnaire. We found that among both Jewish and Arab youth a greater concern with masculine honor was positively associated with involvement in violence. We also found that Arab youth are significantly more involved in violent behavior than ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 10, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Navigating in Murky Waters: How Multiracial Black Individuals Cope With Racism.
Authors: Snyder CR Abstract Multiracial people are often lauded as evidence of the waning significance of race and racism in the United States. In reality, the experiences of multiracial people illuminate the ways that racism still exists and efforts to classify people based on assumed racial characteristics for the purposes of inclusion and exclusion are alive and well. Multiracial individuals experience racism from multiple sources and in various forms, which has the potential to negatively impact their development and well-being. Thus, scholars and practitioners must better understand how the growing population ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - February 10, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Justifications of Feticide.
Authors: Leichtentritt RD, Leichtentritt J, Mahat Shamir M Abstract This qualitative research explores the justifications that Israeli women provided for their decision to end their late-stage pregnancies, or in other words to undergo feticide. A constructivist approach was used, as it recognizes the significance of sociocultural narratives in the construction of people's experiences. Data from in-depth interviews were analyzed using an adapted version of constant comparative analysis to identify and develop categories and thematic patterns. Three main themes were identified, which incorporated the various justific...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 30, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Intergenerational Continuity of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Homeless Families: Unpacking Exposure to Maltreatment Versus Family Dysfunction.
This study investigated the intergenerational continuity of ACEs in mothers and young children aged 4 to 6 years living in emergency homeless shelters. It also examined whether unpacking ACEs into categories of exposure to maltreatment versus family dysfunction affected intergenerational continuity patterns or child socioemotional problems in school. Negative parenting, in the form of observed inept coercive discipline with children, and cumulative sociodemographic risk were examined as additional predictors of child ACEs and socioemotional problems. Mothers (N = 95; aged 20-45; 64.2% African American, 3.2% African Native,...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

"I Used to Be an Ordinary Mom": The Maternal Identity of Mothers of Women Abused by an Intimate Partner.
This study aims to examine the construction of the maternal identity by Israeli women whose grown daughters have been subjected to intimate partner violence (IPV), in the light of cultural representations of motherhood and domestic violence (DV). Thematic discourse analysis of in-depth interviews with 11 mothers identified discursive strategies that they used to negotiate a troubled maternal identity following their daughters' IPV experience. The mothers asserted a positive maternal identity by referring to common discourses about DV and motherhood, in a bid to bolster their "good mother" identity, to reframe mot...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Actors, Observers, and Causal Attributions of Homelessness: Differences in Attribution for the Causes of Homelessness Among Domiciled and Homeless People in Madrid (Spain).
Authors: Vázquez JJ, Panadero S, Zúñiga C Abstract The study analyzes the differences in causal attributions of homelessness and attributions of responsibility among the members of 3 groups: homeless group, consisting of a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid, Spain (n = 188); domiciled service-users group, consisting of people at risk of homelessness (n = 164); and domiciled nonservice-users group, consisting of people at no imminent risk of homelessness (n = 180). The domiciled service-users group and domiciled nonservice-users group were matched to the homeless group or sex, ag...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Associations of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder With Conflict-Related Trauma, Ongoing Adversity, and the Psychosocial Disruptions of Mass Conflict Among West Papuan Refugees.
Authors: Tay AK, Rees S, Kareth M, Silove D Abstract Refugees commonly experience traumatic events that threaten the self and close others, suggesting the possibility that they may experience overlapping symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD). We examine this possibility among West Papua refugees (n = 230) displaced to Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. We also examine associations between the combined PTSD-SAD construct and indices of past trauma exposure, ongoing adversity, and the psychosocial disruptions caused by mass conflict and displacement. We applied culturally...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Andrew Carnegie and Bill Gates: Philanthropy and oligarchy, then and now.
This article discusses the work of three large foundations (Bill and Melinda Gates, Walton Family, and Eli and Edyth Broad) in their mission to reform public education. These three foundations have diverse interests, and without a doubt they do good work in many fields. However, my late wife and I were interested in their work in public education. My comments here are restricted to what I know of their work in public education. I use two of Andrew Carnegie's philanthropic projects in a compare-and-contrast exercise. In this essay, I compare and contrast the early philanthropic effort of Andrew Carnegie to the philanthropy ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The increasing impact of socioeconomics and race on standardized academic test scores across elementary, middle, and high school.
Authors: White GW, Stepney CT, Hatchimonji DR, Moceri DC, Linsky AV, Reyes-Portillo JA, Elias MJ Abstract For students and schools, the current policy is to measure success via standardized testing. Yet the immutable factors of socioeconomic status (SES) and race have, consistently, been implicated in fostering an achievement gap. The current study explores, at the school-level, the impact of these factors on test scores. Percentage of students proficient for Language and Math was analyzed from 452 schools across the state of New Jersey. By high school, 52% of the variance in Language and 59% in Math test scores ca...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Profiles of bullying victimization, discrimination, social support, and school safety: Links with Latino/a youth acculturation, gender, depressive symptoms, and cigarette use.
Authors: Lorenzo-Blanco EI, Unger JB, Oshri A, Baezconde-Garbanati L, Soto D Abstract Latino/a youth are at risk for symptoms of depression and cigarette smoking but this risk varies by acculturation and gender. To understand why some youth are at greater risk than others, we identified profiles of diverse community experiences (perceived discrimination, bullying victimization, social support, perceived school safety) and examined associations between profiles of community experience and depressive symptoms, cigarette smoking, acculturation, and gender. Data came from Project Red (Reteniendo y Entendiendo Diversida...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Suicidality and sexual orientation: Characteristics of symptom severity, disclosure, and timing across the life course.
Authors: Blosnich JR, Nasuti LJ, Mays VM, Cochran SD Abstract This investigation explored suicide-related characteristics and help-seeking behavior by sexual orientation. Population-based data are from the California Quality of Life Surveys, which included 1,478 sexual minority (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and homosexually experienced individuals) and 3,465 heterosexual individuals. Bisexual women had a nearly six-fold increased risk of lifetime suicide attempts than heterosexual women (RR = 5.88, 95%CI: 3.89-8.90), and homosexually experienced men had almost 7 times higher risk of lifetime suicide attempts than hetero...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Social support networks among diverse sexual minority populations.
This article reports a study of the function and composition of social support networks among diverse lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women (n = 396) in comparison to their heterosexual peers (n = 128). Data were collected using a structured social support network matrix in a community sample recruited in New York City. Our findings show that gay and bisexual men may rely on "chosen families" more than lesbian and bisexual women. Both heterosexuals and LGBs relied less on family and more on other people (e.g., friends, coworkers) for everyday social support (e.g., recreational and social activities, talk...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Multigenerational Legacies of Trauma: Modeling the What and How of Transmission.
Authors: Danieli Y, Norris FH, Engdahl B Abstract To operationalize the theory of Trauma and the Continuity of Self: A Multidimensional, Multidisciplinary, Integrative Framework (Danieli, 1998), we created a testable model using factors in Holocaust survivors' lives that may have affected their offspring's adaptation. A web-based sample of 422 adult children of survivors completed a 3-part inventory assessing multigenerational legacies of trauma. To explain the severity of the child's reparative adaptational impacts, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses (Phase 1) and path analyses (Phase 2). We hypothesize...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

South Asian Adolescents' Experiences of Acculturative Stress and Coping.
Authors: Tummala-Narra P, Deshpande A, Kaur J Abstract Despite the significant growth in the South Asian population in the United States over the past 2 decades, the experiences of South Asian adolescents have remained largely invisible. Guided by a socioecological perspective (American Psychological Association, 2012; García Coll & Marks, 2012), this study examined South Asian adolescents' experiences of acculturative stress and approaches to coping with this stress across home and school contexts. A semistructured interview was completed by 16 participants (9 girls, 7 boys; ages 14-18 years) from diffe...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - January 16, 2016 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

The Content and Process of Self-Stigma in People With Mental Illness.
In this study, 189 individuals with mental illness completed the STARS, along with several explicit (self-report) and implicit (response latency) measures of theoretically related constructs. Consistent with theories of mental habit, an exploratory factor analysis of the STARS items identified a 2-factor structure that represents the repetition (4 items) and automaticity (4 items) of self-stigmatization. The reliability of the STARS was supported by a Cronbach's α of .90, and its validity was supported by its significant correlations with theoretical predictors (content of self-stigma, experiential avoidance, and lac...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 26, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Guardianship Law Versus Supported Decision-Making Policies: Perceptions of Persons With Intellectual or Psychiatric Disabilities and Parents.
Authors: Werner S, Chabany R Abstract Article 12 of the Convention for the Rights of Persons with Disabilities recognizes all persons with disabilities as having legal capacity in all areas of life. However, in adherence to the Israeli Legal Capacity and Guardianship Law (1962), many persons with intellectual disability (ID) or mental illness (MI) have these rights revoked because of the appointment of a guardian. Little is known about these persons' perceptions about guardianship and supported decision making (SDM). Using focus groups, we examined the perceptions of persons with ID, persons with MI, and parents re...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 17, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research

Weighing the Evidence for Harm From Long-Term Treatment With Antipsychotic Medications: A Systematic Review.
Authors: Sohler N, Adams BG, Barnes DM, Cohen GH, Prins SJ, Schwartz S Abstract Research findings supporting the use of antipsychotic medication for acute treatment of schizophrenia are relatively consistent and undisputed. However, the rationale for recommending long-term antipsychotic medication treatment-the current standard of care treatment strategy-is unclear. A controversial hypothesis proposed recently suggests people with schizophrenia who are exposed to long-term treatment with antipsychotic medications have worse outcomes than people with schizophrenia who are not exposed to these medications. We tested ...
Source: The American Journal of Orthopsychiatry - December 17, 2015 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Am J Orthopsychiatry Source Type: research