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Correction for Sanjak et al., Evidence of directional and stabilizing selection in contemporary humans [Correction]
EVOLUTION Correction for “Evidence of directional and stabilizing selection in contemporary humans,” by Jaleal S. Sanjak, Julia Sidorenko, Matthew R. Robinson, Kevin R. Thornton, and Peter M. Visscher, which was first published December 18, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1707227114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:151–156). The authors note that on page 152, right... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Correction for Martin-Sanchez et al., TWEAK and RIPK1 mediate a second wave of cell death during AKI [Correction]
CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “TWEAK and RIPK1 mediate a second wave of cell death during AKI,” by Diego Martin-Sanchez, Miguel Fontecha-Barriuso, Susana Carrasco, Maria Dolores Sanchez-Niño, Anne von Mässenhausen, Andreas Linkermann, Pablo Cannata-Ortiz, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Jesus Egido, Alberto Ortiz, and Ana Belen Sanz, which was first published March 27, 2018;... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Correction for Jenkitkasemwong et al., SLC39A14 deficiency alters manganese homeostasis and excretion resulting in brain manganese accumulation and motor deficits in mice [Correction]
BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for “SLC39A14 deficiency alters manganese homeostasis and excretion resulting in brain manganese accumulation and motor deficits in mice,” by Supak Jenkitkasemwong, Adenike Akinyode, Elizabeth Paulus, Ralf Weiskirchen, Shintaro Hojyo, Toshiyuki Fukada, Genesys Giraldo, Jessica Schrier, Armin Garcia, Christopher Janus, Benoit Giasson, and Mitchell D. Knutson, which was first... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Hidden collapse is driven by fire and logging in a socioecological forest ecosystem [Sustainability Science]
Increasing numbers of ecosystems globally are at risk of collapse. However, most descriptions of terrestrial ecosystem collapse are post hoc with few empirically based examples of ecosystems in the process of collapse. This limits learning about collapse and impedes development of effective early-warning indicators. Based on multidecadal and multifaceted monitoring,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: David B. Lindenmayer, Chloe Sato Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Comparative terrestrial feed and land use of an aquaculture-dominant world [Sustainability Science]
Reducing food production pressures on the environment while feeding an ever-growing human population is one of the grand challenges facing humanity. The magnitude of environmental impacts from food production, largely around land use, has motivated evaluation of the environmental and health benefits of shifting diets, typically away from meat toward... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Halley E. Froehlich, Claire A. Runge, Rebecca R. Gentry, Steven D. Gaines, Benjamin S. Halpern Tags: Sustainability Science Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Opinion: Reproducibility failures are essential to scientific inquiry [Social Sciences]
Current fears of a “reproducibility crisis” have led researchers, sources of scientific funding, and the public to question both the efficacy and trustworthiness of science (1, 2). Suggested policy changes have been focused on statistical problems, such as p-hacking, and issues of experimental design and execution (3, 4). However, “reproducibility”... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: A. David Redish, Erich Kummerfeld, Rebecca Lea Morris, Alan C. Love Tags: Opinions, Front Matter Source Type: research

Neuronal activity regulates neurotransmitter switching in the adult brain following light-induced stress [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Neurotransmitter switching in the adult mammalian brain occurs following photoperiod-induced stress, but the mechanism of regulation is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that elevated activity of dopaminergic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PaVN) in the adult rat is required for the loss of dopamine expression after long-day photoperiod... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Da Meng, Hui-quan Li, Karl Deisseroth, Stefan Leutgeb, Nicholas C. Spitzer Tags: Inaugural Articles Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Symbiotic root infections in Medicago truncatula require remorin-mediated receptor stabilization in membrane nanodomains [Plant Biology]
Plant cell infection is tightly controlled by cell surface receptor-like kinases (RLKs). Like other RLKs, the Medicago truncatula entry receptor LYK3 laterally segregates into membrane nanodomains in a stimulus-dependent manner. Although nanodomain localization arises as a generic feature of plant membrane proteins, the molecular mechanisms underlying such dynamic transitions and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Pengbo Liang, Thomas F. Stratil, Claudia Popp, Macarena Marin, Jessica Folgmann, Kirankumar S. Mysore, Jiangqi Wen, Thomas Ott Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Gravisensors in plant cells behave like an active granular liquid [Plant Biology]
Plants are able to sense and respond to minute tilt from the vertical direction of the gravity, which is key to maintain their upright posture during development. However, gravisensing in plants relies on a peculiar sensor made of microsize starch-filled grains (statoliths) that sediment and form tiny granular piles at... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Antoine Berut, Hugo Chauvet, Valerie Legue, Bruno Moulia, Olivier Pouliquen, Yoel Forterre Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Doped Kondo chain, a heavy Luttinger liquid [Physics]
The doped 1D Kondo Lattice describes complex competition between itinerant and magnetic ordering. The numerically computed wave vector-dependent charge and spin susceptibilities give insights into its low-energy properties. Similar to the prediction of the large N approximation, gapless spin and charge modes appear at the large Fermi wave vector. The... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ilia Khait, Patrick Azaria, Claudius Hubig, Ulrich Schollwock, Assa Auerbach Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

High-order fractal states in graphene superlattices [Physics]
Graphene superlattices were shown to exhibit high-temperature quantum oscillations due to periodic emergence of delocalized Bloch states in high magnetic fields such that unit fractions of the flux quantum pierce a superlattice unit cell. Under these conditions, semiclassical electron trajectories become straight again, similar to the case of zero magnetic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: R. Krishna Kumar, A. Mishchenko, X. Chen, S. Pezzini, G. H. Auton, L. A. Ponomarenko, U. Zeitler, L. Eaves, V. I. Fal’ko, A. K. Geim Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Support for the value 5/2 for the spin glass lower critical dimension at zero magnetic field [Physics]
We study numerically various properties of the free energy barriers in the Edwards–Anderson model of spin glasses in the low-temperature region in both three and four spatial dimensions. In particular, we investigated the dependence of height of free energy barriers on system size and on the distance between the initial... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Andrea Maiorano, Giorgio Parisi Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Lipidomic profiling reveals soluble epoxide hydrolase as a therapeutic target of obesity-induced colonic inflammation [Pharmacology]
Obesity is associated with enhanced colonic inflammation, which is a major risk factor for colorectal cancer. Considering the obesity epidemic in Western countries, it is important to identify novel therapeutic targets for obesity-induced colonic inflammation, to develop targeted strategies for prevention. Eicosanoids are endogenous lipid signaling molecules involved in regulating... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Weicang Wang, Jun Yang, Jianan Zhang, Yuxin Wang, Sung Hee Hwang, Weipeng Qi, Debin Wan, Daeyoung Kim, Jia Sun, Katherine Z. Sanidad, Haixia Yang, Yeonhwa Park, Jun-Yan Liu, Xinfeng Zhao, Xiaohui Zheng, Zhenhua Liu, Bruce D. Hammock, Guodong Zhang Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Structured networks support sparse traveling waves in rodent somatosensory cortex [Neuroscience]
Neurons responding to different whiskers are spatially intermixed in the superficial layer 2/3 (L2/3) of the rodent barrel cortex, where a single whisker deflection activates a sparse, distributed neuronal population that spans multiple cortical columns. How the superficial layer of the rodent barrel cortex is organized to support such distributed... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Samat Moldakarimov, Maxim Bazhenov, Daniel E. Feldman, Terrence J. Sejnowski Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Revealing the specificity of regulatory T cells in murine autoimmune diabetes [Immunology and Inflammation]
In this study, we used the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of autoimmune diabetes to investigate the antigen specificity of Tregs present in the inflamed tissue, the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Allyson Spence, Whitney Purtha, Janice Tam, Shen Dong, Youmin Kim, Chia-Hsin Ju, Teague Sterling, Maki Nakayama, William H. Robinson, Jeffrey A. Bluestone, Mark S. Anderson, Qizhi Tang Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Less immune activation following social stress in rural vs. urban participants raised with regular or no animal contact, respectively [Immunology and Inflammation]
Urbanization is on the rise, and environments offering a narrow range of microbial exposures are linked to an increased prevalence of both physical and mental disorders. Human and animal studies suggest that an overreactive immune system not only accompanies stress-associated disorders but might even be causally involved in their pathogenesis.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Till S. Bobel, Sascha B. Hackl, Dominik Langgartner, Marc N. Jarczok, Nicolas Rohleder, Graham A. Rook, Christopher A. Lowry, Harald Gundel, Christiane Waller, Stefan O. Reber Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Revisiting the role of IRF3 in inflammation and immunity by conditional and specifically targeted gene ablation in mice [Immunology and Inflammation]
IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is a transcription regulator of cellular responses in many cell types that is known to be essential for innate immunity. To confirm IRF3’s broad role in immunity and to more fully discern its role in various cellular subsets, we engineered Irf3-floxed mice to allow for... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Hideyuki Yanai, Shiho Chiba, Sho Hangai, Kohei Kometani, Asuka Inoue, Yoshitaka Kimura, Takaya Abe, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Junko Nishio, Naoko Taguchi-Atarashi, Yu Mizushima, Hideo Negishi, Rudolf Grosschedl, Tadatsugu Taniguchi Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The C-terminal extension landscape of naturally presented HLA-I ligands [Immunology and Inflammation]
HLA-I molecules play a central role in antigen presentation. They typically bind 9- to 12-mer peptides, and their canonical binding mode involves anchor residues at the second and last positions of their ligands. To investigate potential noncanonical binding modes, we collected in-depth and accurate HLA peptidomics datasets covering 54 HLA-I... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Philippe Guillaume, Sarah Picaud, Petra Baumgaertner, Nicole Montandon, Julien Schmidt, Daniel E. Speiser, George Coukos, Michal Bassani-Sternberg, Panagis Filippakopoulos, David Gfeller Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Systematic analysis of copy number variation associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia [Genetics]
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), characterized by malformation of the diaphragm and hypoplasia of the lungs, is one of the most common and severe birth defects, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There is growing evidence demonstrating that genetic factors contribute to CDH, although the pathogenesis remains largely... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Qihui Zhu, Frances A. High, Chengsheng Zhang, Eliza Cerveira, Meaghan K. Russell, Mauro Longoni, Maliackal P. Joy, Mallory Ryan, Adam Mil-homens, Lauren Bellfy, Caroline M. Coletti, Pooja Bhayani, Regis Hila, Jay M. Wilson, Patricia K. Donahoe, Charles Le Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Mechanism for survival of homozygous nonsense mutations in the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 [Genetics]
BRCA1 is essential for repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination, and hence for survival. Complete loss of its function is lethal during early embryonic development. Patients who are compound heterozygous for BRCA1 truncating mutations and missense alleles that retain some DNA repair capacity may survive, albeit with very... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Aaron Seo, Orna Steinberg-Shemer, Sule Unal, Silvia Casadei, Tom Walsh, Fatma Gumruk, Stavit Shalev, Akiko Shimamura, Nurten Ayse Akarsu, Hannah Tamary, Mary-Claire King Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in a reef-building coral [Genetics]
Reef-building corals are critically important species that are threatened by anthropogenic stresses including climate change. In attempts to understand corals’ responses to stress and other aspects of their biology, numerous genomic and transcriptomic studies have been performed, generating a variety of hypotheses about the roles of particular genes and molecular... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Phillip A. Cleves, Marie E. Strader, Line K. Bay, John R. Pringle, Mikhail V. Matz Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Symbiont switching and alternative resource acquisition strategies drive mutualism breakdown [Evolution]
We examined... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Gijsbert D. A. Werner, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen, William K. Cornwell, Nadejda A. Soudzilovskaia, Jens Kattge, Stuart A. West, E. Toby Kiers Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Genomic adaptation to drought in wild barley is driven by edaphic natural selection at the Tabigha Evolution Slope [Evolution]
Ecological divergence at a microsite suggests adaptive evolution, and this study examined two abutting wild barley populations, each 100 m across, differentially adapted to drought tolerance on two contrasting soil types, Terra Rossa and basalt at the Tabigha Evolution Slope, Israel. We resequenced the genomes of seven and six wild... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Xiaolei Wang, Zhong-Hua Chen, Chongyi Yang, Xuelei Zhang, Gulei Jin, Guang Chen, Yuanyuan Wang, Paul Holford, Eviatar Nevo, Guoping Zhang, Fei Dai Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Optimizing the impact of low-efficacy influenza vaccines [Environmental Sciences]
The efficacy of influenza vaccines varies from one year to the next, with efficacy during the 2017–2018 season anticipated to be lower than usual. However, the impact of low-efficacy vaccines at the population level and their optimal age-specific distribution have yet to be ascertained. Applying an optimization algorithm to a... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Pratha Sah, Jan Medlock, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Burton H. Singer, Alison P. Galvani Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Roughness-dependent tribology effects on discontinuous shear thickening [Engineering]
Surface roughness affects many properties of colloids, from depletion and capillary interactions to their dispersibility and use as emulsion stabilizers. It also impacts particle–particle frictional contacts, which have recently emerged as being responsible for the discontinuous shear thickening (DST) of dense suspensions. Tribological properties of these contacts have been rarely... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Chiao-Peng Hsu, Shivaprakash N. Ramakrishna, Michele Zanini, Nicholas D. Spencer, Lucio Isa Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Global shifts in the phenological synchrony of species interactions over recent decades [Ecology]
Phenological responses to climate change (e.g., earlier leaf-out or egg hatch date) are now well documented and clearly linked to rising temperatures in recent decades. Such shifts in the phenologies of interacting species may lead to shifts in their synchrony, with cascading community and ecosystem consequences. To date, single-system studies... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Heather M. Kharouba, Johan Ehrlen, Andrew Gelman, Kȷell Bolmgren, Jenica M. Allen, Steve E. Travers, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Symbiotic polydnavirus and venom reveal parasitoid to its hyperparasitoids [Ecology]
Symbiotic relationships may provide organisms with key innovations that aid in the establishment of new niches. For example, during oviposition, some species of parasitoid wasps, whose larvae develop inside the bodies of other insects, inject polydnaviruses into their hosts. These symbiotic viruses disrupt host immune responses, allowing the parasitoid’s progeny... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Feng Zhu, Antonino Cusumano, Janneke Bloem, Berhane T. Weldegergis, Alexandre Villela, Nina E. Fatouros, Joop J. A. van Loon, Marcel Dicke, Jeffrey A. Harvey, Heiko Vogel, Erik H. Poelman Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Symbiotic polydnavirus of a parasite manipulates caterpillar and plant immunity [Ecology]
Obligate symbioses occur when organisms require symbiotic relationships to survive. Some parasitic wasps of caterpillars possess obligate mutualistic viruses called “polydnaviruses.” Along with eggs, wasps inject polydnavirus inside their caterpillar hosts where the hatching larvae develop inside the caterpillar. Polydnaviruses suppress the immune systems of their caterpillar hosts, which enables... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ching-Wen Tan, Michelle Peiffer, Kelli Hoover, Cristina Rosa, Flor E. Acevedo, Gary W. Felton Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Habitat degradation negatively affects auditory settlement behavior of coral reef fishes [Ecology]
Coral reefs are increasingly degraded by climate-induced bleaching and storm damage. Reef recovery relies on recruitment of young fishes for the replenishment of functionally important taxa. Acoustic cues guide the orientation, habitat selection, and settlement of many fishes, but these processes may be impaired if degradation alters reef soundscapes. Here,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Timothy A. C. Gordon, Harry R. Harding, Kathryn E. Wong, Nathan D. Merchant, Mark G. Meekan, Mark I. McCormick, Andrew N. Radford, Stephen D. Simpson Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Plant acclimation to long-term high nitrogen deposition in an N-rich tropical forest [Ecology]
Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition has accelerated terrestrial N cycling at regional and global scales, causing nutrient imbalance in many natural and seminatural ecosystems. How added N affects ecosystems where N is already abundant, and how plants acclimate to chronic N deposition in such circumstances, remains poorly understood. Here, we conducted... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Xiankai Lu, Peter M. Vitousek, Qinggong Mao, Frank S. Gilliam, Yiqi Luo, Guoyi Zhou, Xiaoming Zou, Edith Bai, Todd M. Scanlon, Enqing Hou, Jiangming Mo Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Quantifying ecological impacts of mass extinctions with network analysis of fossil communities [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Mass extinctions documented by the fossil record provide critical benchmarks for assessing changes through time in biodiversity and ecology. Efforts to compare biotic crises of the past and present, however, encounter difficulty because taxonomic and ecological changes are decoupled, and although various metrics exist for describing taxonomic turnover, no methods... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: A. D. Muscente, Anirudh Prabhu, Hao Zhong, Ahmed Eleish, Michael B. Meyer, Peter Fox, Robert M. Hazen, Andrew H. Knoll Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Earth’s magnetic field is probably not reversing [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The geomagnetic field has been decaying at a rate of ∼5% per century from at least 1840, with indirect observations suggesting a decay since 1600 or even earlier. This has led to the assertion that the geomagnetic field may be undergoing a reversal or an excursion. We have derived a... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Maxwell Brown, Monika Korte, Richard Holme, Ingo Wardinski, Sydney Gunnarson Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Quantifying flow and stress in ice melange, the world’s largest granular material [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Tidewater glacier fjords are often filled with a collection of calved icebergs, brash ice, and sea ice. For glaciers with high calving rates, this “mélange” of ice can be jam-packed, so that the flow of ice fragments is mostly determined by granular interactions. In the jammed state, ice mélange has... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Justin C. Burton, Jason M. Amundson, Ryan Cassotto, Chin-Chang Kuo, Michael Dennin Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Unexpected slowdown of US pollutant emission reduction in the past decade [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Ground and satellite observations show that air pollution regulations in the United States (US) have resulted in substantial reductions in emissions and corresponding improvements in air quality over the last several decades. However, large uncertainties remain in evaluating how recent regulations affect different emission sectors and pollutant trends. Here we... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zhe Jiang, Brian C. McDonald, Helen Worden, John R. Worden, Kazuyuki Miyazaki, Zhen Qu, Daven K. Henze, Dylan B. A. Jones, Avelino F. Arellano, Emily V. Fischer, Liye Zhu, K. Folkert Boersma Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

A comprehensive omics analysis and functional survey of cuticular proteins in the brown planthopper [Developmental Biology]
In this study, we use comprehensive large-scale technologies to study the full... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Peng-Lu Pan, Yu-Xuan Ye, Yi-Han Lou, Jia-Bao Lu, Chen Cheng, Yan Shen, Bernard Moussian, Chuan-Xi Zhang Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Imaging mycobacterial growth and division with a fluorogenic probe [Chemistry]
Control and manipulation of bacterial populations requires an understanding of the factors that govern growth, division, and antibiotic action. Fluorescent and chemically reactive small molecule probes of cell envelope components can visualize these processes and advance our knowledge of cell envelope biosynthesis (e.g., peptidoglycan production). Still, fundamental gaps remain in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Heather L. Hodges, Robert A. Brown, John A. Crooks, Douglas B. Weibel, Laura L. Kiessling Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Catalytic amino acid production from biomass-derived intermediates [Chemistry]
Amino acids are the building blocks for protein biosynthesis and find use in myriad industrial applications including in food for humans, in animal feed, and as precursors for bio-based plastics, among others. However, the development of efficient chemical methods to convert abundant and renewable feedstocks into amino acids has been... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Weiping Deng, Yunzhu Wang, Sui Zhang, Krishna M. Gupta, Max J. Hulsey, Hiroyuki Asakura, Lingmei Liu, Yu Han, Eric M. Karp, Gregg T. Beckham, Paul J. Dyson, Jianwen Jiang, Tsunehiro Tanaka, Ye Wang, Ning Yan Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Ligand metathesis as rational strategy for the synthesis of cubane-type heteroleptic iron-sulfur clusters relevant to the FeMo cofactor [Chemistry]
Molybdenum-dependent nitrogenases catalyze the transformation of dinitrogen into ammonia under ambient conditions. The active site (FeMo cofactor) is the structurally and electronically complex weak-field metal cluster [MoFe7S9C] built of Fe4S3 and MoFe3S3C portions connected by three sulfur bridges and containing an interstitial carbon atom centered in an Fe6 trigonal prism.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Gan Xu, Zheng Wang, Rong Ling, Jie Zhou, Xu-Dong Chen, Richard H. Holm Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Butane dihedral angle dynamics in water is dominated by internal friction [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The dihedral dynamics of butane in water is known to be rather insensitive to the water viscosity; possible explanations for this involve inertial effects or Kramers’ turnover, the finite memory time of friction, and the presence of so-called internal friction. To disentangle these factors, we introduce a method to directly... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jan O. Daldrop, Julian Kappler, Florian N. Brunig, Roland R. Netz Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Tertiary structure of apolipoprotein A-I in nascent high-density lipoproteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Understanding the function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) requires detailed knowledge of the structure of its primary protein, apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1). However, APOA1 flexibility and HDL heterogeneity have confounded decades of efforts to determine high-resolution structures and consistent models. Here, molecular dynamics simulations totaling 30 μs on two nascent HDLs, each... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Mohsen Pourmousa, Hyun D. Song, Yi He, Jay W. Heinecke, Jere P. Segrest, Richard W. Pastor Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Ribosome protection by antibiotic resistance ATP-binding cassette protein [Biochemistry]
The ribosome is one of the richest targets for antibiotics. Unfortunately, antibiotic resistance is an urgent issue in clinical practice. Several ATP-binding cassette family proteins confer resistance to ribosome-targeting antibiotics through a yet unknown mechanism. Among them, MsrE has been implicated in macrolide resistance. Here, we report the cryo-EM structure... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Weixin Su, Veerendra Kumar, Yichen Ding, Rya Ero, Aida Serra, Benjamin Sian Teck Lee, Andrew See Weng Wong, Jian Shi, Siu Kwan Sze, Liang Yang, Yong-Gui Gao Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Site-selective measurement of coupled spin pairs in an organic semiconductor [Applied Physical Sciences]
From organic electronics to biological systems, understanding the role of intermolecular interactions between spin pairs is a key challenge. Here we show how such pairs can be selectively addressed with combined spin and optical sensitivity. We demonstrate this for bound pairs of spin-triplet excitations formed by singlet fission, with direct... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: S. L. Bayliss, L. R. Weiss, A. Mitioglu, K. Galkowski, Z. Yang, K. Yunusova, A. Surrente, K. J. Thorley, J. Behrends, R. Bittl, J. E. Anthony, A. Rao, R. H. Friend, P. Plochocka, P. C. M. Christianen, N. C. Greenham, A. D. Chepelianskii Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Mass-correlated rotational Raman spectra with high resolution, broad bandwidth, and absolute frequency accuracy [Applied Physical Sciences]
We present mass-correlated rotational alignment spectroscopy, based on the optical excitation of a coherent rotational quantum wave and the observation of temporal wave interferences in a mass spectrometer. Combined electronic and opto-mechanical delays increased the observation time and energy resolution by an order of magnitude compared with preceding time-domain measurements.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Christian Schroter, Jong Chan Lee, Thomas Schultz Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Symbolic emblems of the Levantine Aurignacians as a regional entity identifier (Hayonim Cave, Lower Galilee, Israel) [Anthropology]
The Levantine Aurignacian is a unique phenomenon in the local Upper Paleolithic sequence, showing greater similarity to the West European classic Aurignacian than to the local Levantine archaeological entities preceding and following it. Herewith we highlight another unique characteristic of this entity, namely, the presence of symbolic objects in the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jose–Miguel Teȷero, Anna Belfer–Cohen, Ofer Bar–Yosef, Vitaly Gutkin, Rivka Rabinovich Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

FACT complex is required for DNA demethylation at heterochromatin during reproduction in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
The DEMETER (DME) DNA glycosylase catalyzes genome-wide DNA demethylation and is required for endosperm genomic imprinting and embryo viability. Targets of DME-mediated DNA demethylation reside in small, euchromatic, AT-rich transposons and at the boundaries of large transposons, but how DME interacts with these diverse chromatin states is unknown. The STRUCTURE... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jennifer M. Frost, M. Yvonne Kim, Guen Tae Park, Ping-Hung Hsieh, Miyuki Nakamura, Samuel J. H. Lin, Hyunjin Yoo, Jaemyung Choi, Yoko Ikeda, Tetsu Kinoshita, Yeonhee Choi, Daniel Zilberman, Robert L. Fischer Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

MYB30 links ROS signaling, root cell elongation, and plant immune responses [Plant Biology]
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to be important signal molecules that are involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses as well as in growth regulation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ROS act as a growth regulator, as well as how ROS-dependent growth regulation relates to its roles in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Kaho Mabuchi, Hiromasa Maki, Tomotaka Itaya, Takamasa Suzuki, Mika Nomoto, Satomi Sakaoka, Atsushi Morikami, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Yasuomi Tada, Wolfgang Busch, Hironaka Tsukagoshi Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Comparative genomics of the nonlegume Parasponia reveals insights into evolution of nitrogen-fixing rhizobium symbioses [Plant Biology]
Nodules harboring nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are a well-known trait of legumes, but nodules also occur in other plant lineages, with rhizobia or the actinomycete Frankia as microsymbiont. It is generally assumed that nodulation evolved independently multiple times. However, molecular-genetic support for this hypothesis is lacking, as the genetic changes underlying nodule... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Robin van Velzen, Rens Holmer, Fengȷiao Bu, Luuk Rutten, Arȷan van Zeiȷl, Wei Liu, Luca Santuari, Qingqin Cao, Trupti Sharma, Defeng Shen, Yuda Roswanȷaya, Titis A. K. Wardhani, Maryam Seifi Kalhor, Joelle Jansen, Johan van den Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Loss of a highly conserved sterile alpha motif domain gene (WEEP) results in pendulous branch growth in peach trees [Plant Biology]
Plant shoots typically grow upward in opposition to the pull of gravity. However, exceptions exist throughout the plant kingdom. Most conspicuous are trees with weeping or pendulous branches. While such trees have long been cultivated and appreciated for their ornamental value, the molecular basis behind the weeping habit is not... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Courtney A. Hollender, Thierry Pascal, Amy Tabb, Toto Hadiarto, Chinnathambi Srinivasan, Wanpeng Wang, Zhongchi Liu, Ralph Scorza, Chris Dardick Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Cell-specific discrimination of desmosterol and desmosterol mimetics confers selective regulation of LXR and SREBP in macrophages [Physiology]
Activation of liver X receptors (LXRs) with synthetic agonists promotes reverse cholesterol transport and protects against atherosclerosis in mouse models. Most synthetic LXR agonists also cause marked hypertriglyceridemia by inducing the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)1c and downstream genes that drive fatty acid biosynthesis. Recent studies demonstrated that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Evan D. Muse, Shan Yu, Chantle R. Edillor, Jenhan Tao, Nathanael J. Spann, Ty D. Troutman, Jason S. Seidman, Adam Henke, Jason T. Roland, Katherine A. Ozeki, Bonne M. Thompson, Jeffrey G. McDonald, John Bahadorani, Sotirios Tsimikas, Tamar R. Grossman, Ma Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Structural homo- and heterosynaptic plasticity in mature and adult newborn rat hippocampal granule cells [Neuroscience]
Adult newborn hippocampal granule cells (abGCs) contribute to spatial learning and memory. abGCs are thought to play a specific role in pattern separation, distinct from developmentally born mature GCs (mGCs). Here we examine at which exact cell age abGCs are synaptically integrated into the adult network and which forms of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 15, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Tassilo Jungenitz, Marcel Beining, Tijana Radic, Thomas Deller, Hermann Cuntz, Peter Jedlicka, Stephan W. Schwarzacher Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research