Ultrafast synthesis of hard carbon anodes for sodium-ion batteries [Chemistry]
Hard carbons (HCs) are a significantly promising anode material for alkali metal-ion batteries. However, long calcination time and much energy consumption are required for the traditional fabrication way, resulting in an obstacle for high-throughput synthesis and structure regulation of HCs. Herein, we report an emerging sintering method to rapidly fabricate... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Yichao Zhen, Yang Chen, Feng Li, Zhenyu Guo, Zhensheng Hong, Maria-Magdalena Titirici Tags: Chemistry Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Molecular insights into mechanisms of GPCR hijacking by Staphylococcus aureus [Biochemistry]
Atypical chemokine receptor 1 (ACKR1) is a G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) targeted by Staphylococcus aureus bicomponent pore-forming leukotoxins to promote bacterial growth and immune evasion. Here, we have developed an integrative molecular pharmacology and structural biology approach in order to characterize the effect of leukotoxins HlgA and HlgB on ACKR1... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Claire M. Grison, Paul Lambey, Sylvain Jeannot, Elise Del Nero, Simon Fontanel, Fanny Peysson, Joyce Heuninck, Remy Sounier, Thierry Durroux, Cedric Leyrat, Sebastien Granier, Cherine Bechara Tags: Biochemistry Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The mesoscale order of nacreous pearls [Engineering]
A pearl’s distinguished beauty and toughness are attributable to the periodic stacking of aragonite tablets known as nacre. Nacre has naturally occurring mesoscale periodicity that remarkably arises in the absence of discrete translational symmetry. Gleaning the inspiring biomineral design of a pearl requires quantifying its structural coherence and understanding the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Jiseok Gim, Alden Koch, Laura M. Otter, Benjamin H. Savitzky, Sveinung Erland, Lara A. Estroff, Dorrit E. Jacob, Robert Hovden Tags: Engineering Physical Sciences Source Type: research

A specialized spinal circuit for command amplification and directionality during escape behavior [Neuroscience]
In vertebrates, action selection often involves higher cognition entailing an evaluative process. However, urgent tasks, such as defensive escape, require an immediate implementation of the directionality of escape trajectory, necessitating local circuits. Here we reveal a specialized spinal circuit for the execution of escape direction in adult zebrafish. A central... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Na N. Guan, Lulu Xu, Tianrui Zhang, Chun-Xiao Huang, Zhen Wang, Elin Dahlberg, Haoyu Wang, Fangfang Wang, Irene Pallucchi, Yunfeng Hua, Abdeljabbar El Manira, Jianren Song Tags: Neuroscience Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Spatial transcriptomics reveals a role for sensory nerves in preserving cranial suture patency through modulation of BMP/TGF-{beta} signaling [Developmental Biology]
The patterning and ossification of the mammalian skeleton requires the coordinated actions of both intrinsic bone morphogens and extrinsic neurovascular signals, which function in a temporal and spatial fashion to control mesenchymal progenitor cell (MPC) fate. Here, we show the genetic inhibition of tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA) sensory nerve... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Robert J. Tower, Zhu Li, Yu-Hao Cheng, Xue-Wei Wang, Labchan Rajbhandari, Qian Zhang, Stefano Negri, Cedric R. Uytingco, Arun Venkatesan, Feng-Quan Zhou, Patrick Cahan, Aaron W. James, Thomas L. Clemens Tags: Developmental Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Trained innate immunity, long-lasting epigenetic modulation, and skewed myelopoiesis by heme [Immunology and Inflammation]
Trained immunity defines long-lasting adaptations of innate immunity based on transcriptional and epigenetic modifications of myeloid cells and their bone marrow progenitors [M. Divangahi et al., Nat. Immunol. 22, 2–6 (2021)]. Innate immune cells, however, do not exclusively differentiate between foreign and self but also react to host-derived molecules referred... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Elisa Jentho, Cristian Ruiz-Moreno, Boris Novakovic, Ioannis Kourtzelis, Wout. L. Megchelenbrink, Rui Martins, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Miguel P. Soares, Lydia Kalafati, Joel Guerra, Franziska Roestel, Peter Bohm, Maren Godmann, Tatyana Grinenko, Anne Eugs Tags: Immunology and Inflammation Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Correction for Donate et al., Cigarette smoke induces miR-132 in Th17 cells that enhance osteoclastogenesis in inflammatory arthritis [Immunology and Inflammation]
IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION. Correction for “Cigarette smoke induces miR-132 in Th17 cells that enhance osteoclastogenesis in inflammatory arthritis,” by Paula B. Donate, Kalil Alves de Lima, Raphael S. Peres, Fausto Almeida, Sandra Y. Fukada, Tarcilia A. Silva, Daniele C. Nascimento, Nerry T. Cecilio, Jhimmy Talbot, Rene D. Oliveira, Geraldo A.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Tags: Immunology and Inflammation, Corrections Source Type: research

Explanations for tropical diversity gradients are rooted in the deep past [Evolution]
Species are distributed unevenly across the surface of Earth. More species are found in the warm tropics than in cool temperate regions. This pattern was first recognized over two centuries ago by Alexander von Humboldt, with his observation “The nearer we approach the tropics, the greater the increase in the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Erin E. Saupe Tags: Evolution, Commentaries Commentary Source Type: research

Aminopeptidases trim Xaa-Pro proteins, initiating their degradation by the Pro/N-degron pathway [Biochemistry]
N-degron pathways are proteolytic systems that recognize proteins bearing N-terminal (Nt) degradation signals (degrons) called N-degrons. Our previous work identified Gid4 as a recognition component (N-recognin) of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteolytic system termed the proline (Pro)/N-degron pathway. Gid4 is a subunit of the oligomeric glucose-induced degradation (GID) ubiquitin ligase. Gid4... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Shun-Jia Chen, Leehyeon Kim, Hyun Kyu Song, Alexander Varshavsky Tags: Biochemistry Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The area rule for circulation in three-dimensional turbulence [Applied Physical Sciences]
An important idea underlying a plausible dynamical theory of circulation in three-dimensional turbulence is the so-called area rule, according to which the probability density function (PDF) of the circulation around closed loops depends only on the minimal area of the loop, not its shape. We assess the robustness of the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Kartik P. Iyer, Sachin S. Bharadwaj, Katepalli R. Sreenivasan Tags: Applied Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Digital printing of shape-morphing natural materials [Engineering]
We demonstrate how programmable shape evolution and deformation can be induced in plant-based natural materials through standard digital printing technologies. With nonallergenic pollen paper as the substrate material, we show how specific geometrical features and architectures can be custom designed through digital printing of patterns to modulate hygrophobicity, geometry, and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Ze Zhao, Jatin Kumar, Youngkyu Hwang, Jingyu Deng, Mohammed Shahrudin Bin Ibrahim, Changjin Huang, Subra Suresh, Nam-Joon Cho Tags: Engineering Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Neural mechanisms of deliberate dishonesty: Dissociating deliberation from other control processes during dishonest behaviors [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Numerous studies have sought proof of whether people are genuinely honest by testing whether cognitive control mechanisms are recruited during honest and dishonest behaviors. The underlying assumption is: Deliberate behaviors require cognitive control to inhibit intuitive responses. However, cognitive control during honest and dishonest behaviors can be required for other... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Liyang Sai, Gabriele Bellucci, Chongxiang Wang, Genyue Fu, Julia A. Camilleri, Simon B. Eickhoff, Frank Krueger Tags: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Brief Reports Social Sciences Source Type: research

The genetic source tracking of human urinary exosomes [Genetics]
The genetic origins of nanoscale extracellular vesicles in our body fluids remains unclear. Here, we perform a tracking analysis of urinary exosomes via RNA sequencing, revealing that urine exosomes mostly express tissue-specific genes for the bladder and have close cell-genetic relationships to the endothelial cell, basal cell, monocyte, and dendritic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Qingfu Zhu, Liming Cheng, Chunyu Deng, Liu Huang, Jiaoyuan Li, Yong Wang, Meng Li, Qinsi Yang, Xianjun Dong, Jianzhong Su, Luke P. Lee, Fei Liu Tags: Genetics, Brief Reports Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Critical regulation of follicular helper T cell differentiation and function by G{alpha}13 signaling [Immunology and Inflammation]
GPCR-Gα protein–mediated signal transduction contributes to spatiotemporal interactions between immune cells to fine-tune and facilitate the process of inflammation and host protection. Beyond this, however, how Gα proteins contribute to the helper T cell subset differentiation and adaptive response have been underappreciated. Here, we found that Gα13 signaling in T... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Da-Sol Kuen, Miso Park, Heeju Ryu, Garam Choi, Young-Hye Moon, Jae-Ouk Kim, Keon Wook Kang, Sang Geon Kim, Yeonseok Chung Tags: Immunology and Inflammation Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Proton exchange membrane fuel cells powered with both CO and H2 [Chemistry]
The CO electrooxidation is long considered invincible in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), where even a trace level of CO in H2 seriously poisons the anode catalysts and leads to huge performance decay. Here, we describe a class of atomically dispersed IrRu-N-C anode catalysts capable of oxidizing CO,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Xian Wang, Yang Li, Ying Wang, Hao Zhang, Zhao Jin, Xiaolong Yang, Zhaoping Shi, Liang Liang, Zhijian Wu, Zheng Jiang, Wei Zhang, Changpeng Liu, Wei Xing, Junjie Ge Tags: Chemistry Physical Sciences Source Type: research

COVID-19 lockdowns drive decline in active fires in southeastern United States [Sustainability Science]
Fire is a common ecosystem process in forests and grasslands worldwide. Increasingly, ignitions are controlled by human activities either through suppression of wildfires or intentional ignition of prescribed fires. The southeastern United States leads the nation in prescribed fire, burning ca. 80% of the country’s extent annually. The COVID-19 pandemic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Benjamin Poulter, Patrick H. Freeborn, W. Matt Jolly, J. Morgan Varner Tags: Ecology, Sustainability Science Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Visual exposure enhances stimulus encoding and persistence in primary cortex [Neuroscience]
The brain adapts to the sensory environment. For example, simple sensory exposure can modify the response properties of early sensory neurons. How these changes affect the overall encoding and maintenance of stimulus information across neuronal populations remains unclear. We perform parallel recordings in the primary visual cortex of anesthetized cats... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Andreea Lazar, Christopher Lewis, Pascal Fries, Wolf Singer, Danko Nikolic Tags: Neuroscience Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Early warm-season mesoscale convective systems dominate soil moisture-precipitation feedback for summer rainfall in central United States [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Land–atmosphere interactions play an important role in summer rainfall in the central United States, where mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) contribute to 30 to 70% of warm-season precipitation. Previous studies of soil moisture–precipitation feedbacks focused on the total precipitation, confounding the distinct roles of rainfall from different convective storm types. Here,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Huancui Hu, L. Ruby Leung, Zhe Feng Tags: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Miniaturized wireless, skin-integrated sensor networks for quantifying full-body movement behaviors and vital signs in infants [Engineering]
Early identification of atypical infant movement behaviors consistent with underlying neuromotor pathologies can expedite timely enrollment in therapeutic interventions that exploit inherent neuroplasticity to promote recovery. Traditional neuromotor assessments rely on qualitative evaluations performed by specially trained personnel, mostly available in tertiary medical centers or specialized facilities. Such approaches are... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Hyoyoung Jeong, Sung Soo Kwak, Seokwoo Sohn, Jong Yoon Lee, Young Joong Lee, Megan K. O’Brien, Yoonseok Park, Raudel Avila, Jin–Tae Kim, Jae–Young Yoo, Masahiro Irie, Hokyung Jang, Wei Ouyang, Nicholas Shawen, Youn J. Kang, Seung Sik Ki Tags: Engineering Physical Sciences Source Type: research

The membrane-linked adaptor FRS2{beta} fashions a cytokine-rich inflammatory microenvironment that promotes breast cancer carcinogenesis [Medical Sciences]
Although it is held that proinflammatory changes precede the onset of breast cancer, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that FRS2β, an adaptor protein expressed in a small subset of epithelial cells, triggers the proinflammatory changes that induce stroma in premalignant mammary tissues and is responsible for the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Yasuto Takeuchi, Natsuko Kimura, Takahiko Murayama, Yukino Machida, Daisuke Iejima, Tatsunori Nishimura, Minoru Terashima, Yuming Wang, Mengjiao Li, Reiko Sakamoto, Mizuki Yamamoto, Naoki Itano, Yusuke Inoue, Masataka Ito, Nobuaki Yoshida, Jun-ichiro Inou Tags: Medical Sciences Biological Sciences Source Type: research

No aggregate deforestation reductions from rollout of community land titles in Indonesia yet [Sustainability Science]
In Indonesia, 60 million people live within 1 km of state forest. The government of Indonesia plans to grant community titles for 12.7 million hectares of land to communities living in and around forests. These titles allow for using nontimber forest products, practicing agroforestry, operating tourism businesses, and selective logging... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Sebastian Kraus, Jacqueline Liu, Nicolas Koch, Sabine Fuss Tags: Brief Reports, Sustainability Science Social Sciences Source Type: research

People are more tolerant of inequality when it is expressed in terms of individuals rather than groups at the top [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Despite the ever-growing economic gap between the very wealthy and the rest of the population, support for redistributive policies tends to be low. This research tested whether people’s tolerance of inequality differs when it is represented in terms of a successful individual versus a group of people at the top... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Jesse Walker, Stephanie J. Tepper, Thomas Gilovich Tags: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences Social Sciences Source Type: research

Pterosaurs evolved a muscular wing-body ȷunction providing multifaceted flight performance benefits: Advanced aerodynamic smoothing, sophisticated wing root control, and wing force generation [Evolution]
Pterosaurs were the first vertebrate flyers and lived for over 160 million years. However, aspects of their flight anatomy and flight performance remain unclear. Using laser-stimulated fluorescence, we observed direct soft tissue evidence of a wing root fairing in a pterosaur, a feature that smooths out the wing–body junction, reducing... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 18, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Michael Pittman, Luke A. Barlow, Thomas G. Kaye, Michael B. Habib Tags: Evolution, Brief Reports Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Reply to Cheong and Jones: The role of science in responding to collective behavioral threats [Social Sciences]
In our PNAS article “Stewardship of global collective behavior” (1), we describe the breakneck pace of recent innovations in information technology. This radical transformation has transpired not through a stewarded effort to improve information quality or to further human well-being. Rather, current technologies have been developed and deployed largely for... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Joseph B. Bak-Coleman, Carl T. Bergstrom Tags: Letters, Letters and Replies, Sustainability Science Source Type: research

The low-complexity domain of the FUS RNA binding protein self-assembles via the mutually exclusive use of two distinct cross-{beta} cores [Biochemistry]
The low-complexity (LC) domain of the fused in sarcoma (FUS) RNA binding protein self-associates in a manner causing phase separation from an aqueous environment. Incubation of the FUS LC domain under physiologically normal conditions of salt and pH leads to rapid formation of liquid-like droplets that mature into a gel-like... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Masato Kato, Steven L. McKnight Tags: Biochemistry Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Curvature thylakoid 1 proteins modulate prolamellar body morphology and promote organized thylakoid biogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana [Plant Biology]
The term “de-etiolation” refers to the light-dependent differentiation of etioplasts to chloroplasts in angiosperms. The underlying process involves reorganization of prolamellar bodies (PLBs) and prothylakoids into thylakoids, with concurrent changes in protein, lipid, and pigment composition, which together lead to the assembly of active photosynthetic complexes. Despite the highly conserved... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Omar Sandoval–Ibanez, Anurag Sharma, Michał Bykowski, Guillem Borras–Gas, James B. Y. H. Behrendorff, Silas Mellor, Klaus Qvortrup, Julian C. Verdonk, Ralph Bock, Łucȷa Kowalewska, Mathias Pribil Tags: Plant Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Swarm intelligence begins now or never [Social Sciences]
In vivid detail, Bak-Coleman et al. (1) describe explosively multiplicative global pathologies of scale posing existential risk to humanity. They argue that the study of collective behavior in the age of digital social media must rise to a “crisis discipline” dedicated to averting global ruin through the adaptive manipulation of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Kang Hao Cheong, Michael C. Jones Tags: Letters, Letters and Replies, Sustainability Science Source Type: research

Changes in selection pressure can facilitate hybridization during biological invasion in a Cuban lizard [Evolution]
Hybridization is among the evolutionary mechanisms most frequently hypothesized to drive the success of invasive species, in part because hybrids are common in invasive populations. One explanation for this pattern is that biological invasions coincide with a change in selection pressures that limit hybridization in the native range. To investigate... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Dan G. Bock, Simon Baeckens, Jessica N. Pita-Aquino, Zachary A. Chejanovski, Sozos N. Michaelides, Pavitra Muralidhar, Oriol Lapiedra, Sungdae Park, Douglas B. Menke, Anthony J. Geneva, Jonathan B. Losos, Jason J. Kolbe Tags: Evolution Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Bioinspired micro/nanomotor with visible light energy-dependent forward, reverse, reciprocating, and spinning schooling motion [Applied Physical Sciences]
In nature, microorganisms could sense the intensity of the incident visible light and exhibit bidirectional (positive or negative) phototaxis. However, it is still challenging to achieve the similar biomimetic phototaxis for the artificial micro/nanomotor (MNM) counterparts with the size from a few nanometers to a few micrometers. In this work,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Jintao Tong, Dalei Wang, Ye Liu, Xin Lou, Jiwei Jiang, Bin Dong, Renfeng Dong, Mingcheng Yang Tags: Applied Physical Sciences Source Type: research

A cell-ECM mechanism for connecting the ipsilateral eye to the brain [Neuroscience]
Information about features in the visual world is parsed by circuits in the retina and is then transmitted to the brain by distinct subtypes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Axons from RGC subtypes are stratified in retinorecipient brain nuclei, such as the superior colliculus (SC), to provide a segregated relay... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Jianmin Su, Ubadah Sabbagh, Yanping Liang, Lucie Oleȷnikova, Karen G. Dixon, Ashley L. Russell, Jiang Chen, Yuchin Albert Pan, Jason W. Triplett, Michael A. Fox Tags: Neuroscience Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Leishmania type II dehydrogenase is essential for parasite viability irrespective of the presence of an active complex I [Microbiology]
Type II NADH dehydrogenases (NDH2) are monotopic enzymes present in the external or internal face of the mitochondrial inner membrane that contribute to NADH/NAD+ balance by conveying electrons from NADH to ubiquinone without coupled proton translocation. Herein, we characterize the product of a gene present in all species of the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Margarida Duarte, Cleide Ferreira, Gurleen Kaur Khandpur, Tamara Flohr, Jannik Zimmermann, Helena Castro, Johannes M. Herrmann, Bruce Morgan, Ana M. Tomas Tags: Microbiology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Single-nanometer iron oxide nanoparticles as tissue-permeable MRI contrast agents [Chemistry]
Magnetic nanoparticles are robust contrast agents for MRI and often produce particularly strong signal changes per particle. Leveraging these effects to probe cellular- and molecular-level phenomena in tissue can, however, be hindered by the large sizes of typical nanoparticle contrast agents. To address this limitation, we introduce single-nanometer iron oxide... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: He Wei, Agata Wiśniowska, Jingxuan Fan, Peter Harvey, Yuanyuan Li, Victoria Wu, Eric C. Hansen, Juanye Zhang, Michael G. Kaul, Abigail M Frey, Gerhard Adam, Anatoly I. Frenkel, Moungi G. Bawendi, Alan Jasanoff Tags: Chemistry, Medical Sciences Biological Sciences Source Type: research

A pair of dopamine neurons mediate chronic stress signals to induce learning deficit in Drosophila melanogaster [Neuroscience]
Chronic stress could induce severe cognitive impairments. Despite extensive investigations in mammalian models, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Here, we show that chronic stress could induce dramatic learning and memory deficits in Drosophila melanogaster. The chronic stress–induced learning deficit (CSLD) is long lasting and associated with other depression-like behaviors. We... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Jia Jia, Lei He, Junfei Yang, Yichun Shuai, Jingjing Yang, Yalan Wu, Xin Liu, Tianli Chen, Guaxiu Wang, Xingyu Wang, Xiaoxu Song, Zhaowen Ding, Yan Zhu, Li Zhang, Peng Chen, Hongtao Qin Tags: Neuroscience Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Endogenous cannabinoids are required for MC4R-mediated control of energy homeostasis [Medical Sciences]
Hypothalamic regulation of feeding and energy expenditure is a fundamental and evolutionarily conserved neurophysiological process critical for survival. Dysregulation of these processes, due to environmental or genetic causes, can lead to a variety of pathological conditions ranging from obesity to anorexia. Melanocortins and endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) have been implicated in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Yu Yong, Isin Cakir, Pauline Lining Pan, Jessica E. Biddinger, Rebecca J. Bluett, Ken Mackie, Nathan Bingham, Sachin Patel, Masoud Ghamari-Langroudi Tags: Medical Sciences Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Forestalling age-impaired angiogenesis and blood flow by targeting NOX: Interplay of NOX1, IL-6, and SASP in propagating cell senescence [Medical Sciences]
In an aging population, intense interest has shifted toward prolonging health span. Mounting evidence suggests that cellular reactive species are propagators of cell damage, inflammation, and cellular senescence. Thus, such species have emerged as putative provocateurs and targets for senolysis, and a clearer understanding of their molecular origin and regulation... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Yao Li, Damir Kračun, Christopher M. Dustin, Mohamed El Massry, Shuai Yuan, Christian J. Goossen, Evan R. DeVallance, Sanghamitra Sahoo, Cynthia St. Hilaire, Aditi U. Gurkar, Toren Finkel, Adam C. Straub, Eugenia Cifuentes–Pagano, Patrick J. Tags: Medical Sciences Biological Sciences Source Type: research

A class II MHC-targeted vaccine elicits immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and its variants [Immunology and Inflammation]
The pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in over 100 million infections and millions of deaths. Effective vaccines remain the best hope of curtailing SARS-CoV-2 transmission, morbidity, and mortality. The vaccines in current use require cold storage and sophisticated manufacturing capacity, which complicates their... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 15, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Novalia Pishesha, Thibault J. Harmand, Paul W. Rothlauf, Patrique Praest, Ryan K. Alexander, Renate van den Doel, Mariel J. Liebeskind, Maria A. Vakaki, Nicholas McCaul, Charlotte Wijne, Elisha Verhaar, William Pinney III, Hailey Heston, Louis-Marie Bloye Tags: Immunology and Inflammation, Coronavirus (COVID-19) Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Inherent hepatocytic heterogeneity determines expression and retention of edited F9 alleles post-AAV/CRISPR infusion [Medical Sciences]
Infusing CRISPR/donor-loaded adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV/CRISPR) could enable in vivo hepatic gene editing to remedy hemophilia B (HB) with inherited deficiency of clotting factor IX (FIX). Yet, current regimens focus on correcting HB with simple mutations in the coding region of the F9, overlooking those carrying complicated mutations involving the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Qiang Wang, Lin Zhang, Guo-Wei Zhang, Jian-Hua Mao, Xiao-Dong Xi, Lu Jiang, Gang Lv, Jing Lu, Yan Shen, Zhu Chen, Jiang Zhu, Sai-Juan Chen Tags: Medical Sciences Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Prediction of unconventional magnetism in doped FeSb2 [Physics]
It is commonly believed that the energy bands of typical collinear antiferromagnets (AFs), which have zero net magnetization, are Kramers spin-degenerate. Kramers nondegeneracy is usually associated with a global time-reversal symmetry breaking (e.g., via ferromagnetism) or with a combination of spin–orbit interaction and broken spatial inversion symmetry. Recently, another type... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Igor I. Mazin, Klaus Koepernik, Michelle D. Johannes, Rafael Gonzalez–Hernandez, Libor Šmeȷkal Tags: Physics Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Low-bias ncRNA libraries using ordered two-template relay: Serial template jumping by a modified retroelement reverse transcriptase [Biochemistry]
Selfish, non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retroelements and mobile group II introns encode reverse transcriptases (RTs) that can initiate DNA synthesis without substantial base pairing of primer and template. Biochemical characterization of these enzymes has been limited by recombinant expression challenges, hampering understanding of their properties and the possible exploitation of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Heather E. Upton, Lucas Ferguson, Morayma M. Temoche-Diaz, Xiao-Man Liu, Sydney C. Pimentel, Nicholas T. Ingolia, Randy Schekman, Kathleen Collins Tags: Biochemistry Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Totimorphic assemblies from neutrally stable units [Engineering]
Inspired by the quest for shape-shifting structures in a range of applications, we show how to create morphable structural materials using a neutrally stable unit cell as a building block. This unit cell is a self-stressed hinged structure with a one-parameter family of morphing motions that are all energetically equivalent.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Gaurav Chaudhary, S. Ganga Prasath, Edward Soucy, L. Mahadevan Tags: Engineering Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Spatial social dilemmas promote diversity [Social Sciences]
Cooperative investments in social dilemmas can spontaneously diversify into stably coexisting high and low contributors in well-mixed populations. Here we extend the analysis to emerging diversity in (spatially) structured populations. Using pair approximation, we derive analytical expressions for the invasion fitness of rare mutants in structured populations, which then yields... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Christoph Hauert, Michael Doebeli Tags: Evolution, Social Sciences Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Stiffness of targeted layer-by-layer nanoparticles impacts elimination half-life, tumor accumulation, and tumor penetration [Applied Biological Sciences]
Nanoparticle (NP) stiffness has been shown to significantly impact circulation time and biodistribution in anticancer drug delivery. In particular, the relationship between particle stiffness and tumor accumulation and penetration in vivo is an important phenomenon to consider in optimizing NP-mediated tumor delivery. Layer-by-layer (LbL) NPs represent a promising class of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Stephanie M. Kong, Daniel F. Costa, Anna Jagielska, Krystyn J. Van Vliet, Paula T. Hammond Tags: Applied Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Neogene continental denudation and the beryllium conundrum [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Reconstructing Cenozoic history of continental silicate weathering is crucial for understanding Earth’s carbon cycle and greenhouse history. The question of whether continental silicate weathering increased during the late Cenozoic, setting the stage for glacial cycles, has remained controversial for decades. Whereas numerous independent proxies of weathering in ocean sediments (e.g.,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Shilei (李石磊) Li, Steven L. Goldstein, Maureen E. Raymo Tags: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Genome evolution of the psammophyte Pugionium for desert adaptation and further speciation [Evolution]
Deserts exert strong selection pressures on plants, but the underlying genomic drivers of ecological adaptation and subsequent speciation remain largely unknown. Here, we generated de novo genome assemblies and conducted population genomic analyses of the psammophytic genus Pugionium (Brassicaceae). Our results indicated that this bispecific genus had undergone an allopolyploid... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Quanȷun Hu, Yazhen Ma, Terezie Mandakova, Sheng Shi, Chunlin Chen, Pengchuan Sun, Lei Zhang, Landi Feng, Yudan Zheng, Xiaoqin Feng, Wenȷie Yang, Jiebei Jiang, Ting Li, Pingping Zhou, Qiushi Yu, Dongshi Wan, Martin A. Lysak, Zhenxiang Xi, Evi Tags: Evolution Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Timing outweighs magnitude of rainfall in shaping population dynamics of a small mammal species in steppe grassland [Population Biology]
Climate change–induced shifts in species phenology differ widely across trophic levels, which may lead to consumer–resource mismatches with cascading population and ecosystem consequences. Here, we examined the effects of different rainfall patterns (i.e., timing and amount) on the phenological asynchrony of population of a generalist herbivore and their food sources... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Guoliang Li, Xinrong Wan, Baofa Yin, Wanhong Wei, Xianglei Hou, Xin Zhang, Erdenetuya Batsuren, Jidong Zhao, Shuli Huang, Xiaoming Xu, Jing Liu, Yiran Song, Arpat Ozgul, Christopher R. Dickman, Guiming Wang, Charles J. Krebs, Zhibin Zhang Tags: Population Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Cadmium hijacks the high zinc response by binding and activating the HIZR-1 nuclear receptor [Genetics]
Cadmium is an environmental pollutant and significant health hazard that is similar to the physiological metal zinc. In Caenorhabditis elegans, high zinc homeostasis is regulated by the high zinc activated nuclear receptor (HIZR-1) transcription factor. To define relationships between the responses to high zinc and cadmium, we analyzed transcription. Many... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Brian J. Earley, Ciro Cubillas, Kurt Warnhoff, Raheel Ahmad, Alan Alcantar, Maximilian D. Lyon, Daniel L. Schneider, Kerry Kornfeld Tags: Genetics Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Retraction for Start et al., Physiology underlies the assembly of ecological communities [Retractions]
ECOLOGY Retraction for “Physiology underlies the assembly of ecological communities,” by Denon Start, Shannon McCauley, and Benjamin Gilbert, which was first published May 21, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1802091115 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115, 6016–6021). The undersigned authors wish to retract this article and note the following: “This paper tested the relationship... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 14, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Shannon McCauley, Benjamin Gilbert Tags: Retraction Source Type: research

Opinion: Transformational opportunities for an equitable ocean commons [Environmental Sciences]
A frontier mentality has been a defining aspect of human history. Often this sentiment is optimistically framed in the language of aspirations and opportunities. But it can also be accompanied by unsavory narratives of over-exploitation, inequity, and conflict (1). If any place on Earth can be considered a final frontier,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 13, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Joachim Claudet, Diva J. Amon, Robert Blasiak Tags: Opinions, Environmental Sciences, Front Matter, Sustainability Science Source Type: research

Surface equilibration mechanism controls the molecular packing of glassy molecular semiconductors at organic interfaces [Chemistry]
Glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD) are anisotropic, and the average molecular orientation can be varied significantly by controlling the deposition conditions. While previous work has characterized the average structure of thick PVD glasses, most experiments are not sensitive to the structure near an underlying substrate or interface. Given... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 13, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Marie E. Fiori, Kushal Bagchi, Michael F. Toney, M. D. Ediger Tags: Chemistry Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Frequency of enforcement is more important than the severity of punishment in reducing violation behaviors [Social Sciences]
External enforcement policies aimed to reduce violations differ on two key components: the probability of inspection and the severity of the punishment. Different lines of research offer different insights regarding the relative importance of each component. In four studies, students and Prolific crowdsourcing participants (Ntotal = 816) repeatedly faced temptations... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 13, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Kinneret Teodorescu, Ori Plonsky, Shahar Ayal, Rachel Barkan Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research