Opinion: Will understanding the ocean lead to “the ocean we want”? [Sustainability Science]
The United Nations Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021–2030, henceforth the Ocean Decade) aims to galvanize the international community to acquire and apply scientific knowledge of the ocean. The Ocean Decade is specifically intended to help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), including its promise to “leave no... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 27, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Gerald G. Singh, Harriet Harden–Davies, Edward H. Allison, Andres M. Cisneros–Montemayor, Wilf Swartz, Katherine M. Crosman, Yoshitaka Ota Tags: Opinions, Environmental Sciences, Front Matter, Sustainability Science Source Type: research

A new lease on life for an HIV-neutralizing antibody class and vaccine target [Medical Sciences]
Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs), in the time of COVID-19, have received much attention in the lay press owing to their association with vaccine protection against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The attention is well-deserved and the association of nAbs with protection is true for many viruses (1). For HIV, we... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 27, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Dennis R. Burton Tags: Medical Sciences, Commentaries Commentary Source Type: research

Cancer recurrence and lethality are enabled by enhanced survival and reversible cell cycle arrest of polyaneuploid cells [Medical Sciences]
We present a unifying theory to explain cancer recurrence, therapeutic resistance, and lethality. The basis of this theory is the formation of simultaneously polyploid and aneuploid cancer cells, polyaneuploid cancer cells (PACCs), that avoid the toxic effects of systemic therapy by entering a state of cell cycle arrest. The theory... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 27, 2021 Category: Science Authors: K. J. Pienta, E. U. Hammarlund, J. S. Brown, S. R. Amend, R. M. Axelrod Tags: Medical Sciences, Perspectives Source Type: research

Distinct architecture and composition of mouse axonemal radial spoke head revealed by cryo-EM [Biochemistry]
The radial spoke (RS) heads of motile cilia and flagella contact projections of the central pair (CP) apparatus to coordinate motility, but the morphology is distinct for protozoa and metazoa. Here we show the murine RS head is compositionally distinct from that of Chlamydomonas. Our reconstituted murine RS head core... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 26, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Wei Zheng, Fan Li, Zhanyu Ding, Hao Liu, Lei Zhu, Cong Xu, Jiawei Li, Qi Gao, Yanxing Wang, Zhenglin Fu, Chao Peng, Xiumin Yan, Xueliang Zhu, Yao Cong Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
NEUROSCIENCE How cannabinoid signaling regulates a recurrent excitatory circuit in the hippocampus Dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The hippocampus contains a recurrent excitatory neural network implicated in pattern separation and epilepsy and formed by reciprocal connections between excitatory mossy cells (MCs) and dentate granule cells (GC). MC axons express high... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 26, 2021 Category: Science Tags: In This Issue This Week in PNAS Source Type: research

Heat stress destabilizes symbiotic nutrient cycling in corals [Ecology]
Recurrent mass bleaching events are pushing coral reefs worldwide to the brink of ecological collapse. While the symptoms and consequences of this breakdown of the coral–algal symbiosis have been extensively characterized, our understanding of the underlying causes remains incomplete. Here, we investigated the nutrient fluxes and the physiological as well... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 26, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Nils Radecker, Claudia Pogoreutz, Hagen M. Gegner, Anny Cardenas, Florian Roth, Jeremy Bougoure, Paul Guagliardo, Christian Wild, Mathieu Pernice, Jean–Baptiste Raina, Anders Meibom, Christian R. Voolstra Tags: Ecology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Single-cell atlas of developing murine adrenal gland reveals relation of Schwann cell precursor signature to neuroblastoma phenotype [Developmental Biology]
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor and accounts for ∼10% of pediatric cancer-related deaths. The exact cell of origin has yet to be elucidated, but it is generally accepted that neuroblastoma derives from the neural crest and should thus be considered an embryonal malignancy. About 50% of primary... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 26, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Evelyn S. Hanemaaijer, Thanasis Margaritis, Karin Sanders, Frank L. Bos, Tito Candelli, Hanin Al-Saati, Max M. van Noesel, Friederike A. G. Meyer-Wentrup, Marc van de Wetering, Frank C. P. Holstege, Hans Clevers Tags: Developmental Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Neural network interpretation using descrambler groups [Physics]
The lack of interpretability and trust is a much-criticized feature of deep neural networks. In fully connected nets, the signaling between inner layers is scrambled because backpropagation training does not require perceptrons to be arranged in any particular order. The result is a black box; this problem is particularly severe... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 26, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Jake L. Amey, Jake Keeley, Tajwar Choudhury, Ilya Kuprov Tags: Physics Physical Sciences Source Type: research

GRK5 is a regulator of fibroblast activation and cardiac fibrosis [Medical Sciences]
Pathological remodeling of the heart is a hallmark of chronic heart failure (HF) and these structural changes further perpetuate the disease. Cardiac fibroblasts are the critical cell type that is responsible for maintaining the structural integrity of the heart. Stress conditions, such as a myocardial infarction (MI), can activate quiescent... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 26, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Akito Eguchi, Ryan Coleman, Kenneth Gresham, Erhe Gao, Jessica Ibetti, J. Kurt Chuprun, Walter J. Koch Tags: Medical Sciences Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Tissue-specific dynamic codon redefinition in Drosophila [Developmental Biology]
Translational stop codon readthrough occurs in organisms ranging from viruses to mammals and is especially prevalent in decoding Drosophila and viral mRNAs. Recoding of UGA, UAG, or UAA to specify an amino acid allows a proportion of the protein encoded by a single gene to be C-terminally extended. The extended... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 26, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Andrew M. Hudson, Nicholas L. Szabo, Gary Loughran, Norma M. Wills, John F. Atkins, Lynn Cooley Tags: Developmental Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Direct evidence that KNDy neurons maintain gonadotropin pulses and folliculogenesis as the GnRH pulse generator [Physiology]
The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse is fundamental for mammalian reproduction: GnRH pulse regimens are needed as therapies for infertile women as continuous GnRH treatment paradoxically inhibits gonadotropin release. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the hypothalamic arcuate KNDy neurons expressing kisspeptin (encoded by Kiss1), neurokinin B (encoded by Tac3), and dynorphin A... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 26, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Mayuko Nagae, Yoshihisa Uenoyama, Saki Okamoto, Hitomi Tsuchida, Kana Ikegami, Teppei Goto, Sutisa Majarune, Sho Nakamura, Makoto Sanbo, Masumi Hirabayashi, Kenta Kobayashi, Naoko Inoue, Hiroko Tsukamura Tags: Physiology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

ZFP57 dictates allelic expression switch of target imprinted genes [Genetics]
In this study, we found that DNA methylation was lost at most known ICRs in Zfp57 mutant embryos. Furthermore, loss of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 26, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Weijun Jiang, Jiajia Shi, Jingjie Zhao, Qiu Wang, Dan Cong, Fenghua Chen, Yu Zhang, Yuhan Liu, Junzheng Zhao, Qian Chen, Linhao Gu, Wenjia Zhou, Chenhang Wang, Zhaoyuan Fang, Shuhui Geng, Wei Xie, Luo-Nan Chen, Yang Yang, Yun Bai, Haodong Lin, Xiajun Li Tags: Genetics Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Correction for Pu et al., Maternal glyphosate exposure causes autism-like behaviors in offspring through increased expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase [Corrections]
NEUROSCIENCE Correction for “Maternal glyphosate exposure causes autism-like behaviors in offspring through increased expression of soluble epoxide hydrolase,” by Yaoyu Pu, Jun Yang, Lijia Chang, Youge Qu, Siming Wang, Kai Zhang, Zhongwei Xiong, Jiancheng Zhang, Yunfei Tan, Xingming Wang, Yuko Fujita, Tamaki Ishima, Debin Wang, Sung Hee Hwang, Bruce D.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Correction for Bryant et al., Detecting affiliation in colaughter across 24 societies [Corrections]
PSYCHOLOGICAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCES Correction for “Detecting affiliation in colaughter across 24 societies,” by Gregory A. Bryant, Daniel M. T. Fessler, Riccardo Fusaroli, Edward Clint, Lene Aarøe, Coren L. Apicella, Michael Bang Petersen, Shaneikiah T. Bickham, Alexander Bolyanatz, Brenda Chavez, Delphine De Smet, Cinthya Díaz, Jana Fančovičová, Michal Fux, Paulina... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Reply to Letten and Yamamichi: A rescue at the cost of falsifiability [Biological Sciences]
Letten and Yamamichi (1) make valuable comments about our recent paper (2). They point out that the gleaner−exploiter trade-off commonly refers to population growth rates and not prey consumption (the focus of our study). We agree and should have made our reasoning clearer. We assume that food consumption and population... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Thomas Kiorboe, Mridul K. Thomas Tags: Ecology, Letters, Letters and Replies Source Type: research

Nascent fusion pore opening monitored at single-SNAREpin resolution [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Vesicle fusion with a target membrane is a key event in cellular trafficking and ensures cargo transport within the cell and between cells. The formation of a protein complex, called SNAREpin, provides the energy necessary for the fusion process. In a three-dimensional microfluidic chip, we monitored the fusion of small... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Paul Heo, Jeff Coleman, Jean-Baptiste Fleury, James E. Rothman, Frederic Pincet Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Herbert Tabor, 1918-2020: Polyamines, NIH, and the JBC [Retrospectives]
On August 20, 2020, at the age of 101, Herbert Tabor died peacefully at his home on the National Institutes of Health campus in Bethesda, Maryland. Herb was best known for his elucidation of the biochemical pathways for polyamines, including characterization of the biosynthetic enzymes, their genes and regulation, and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Reed B. Wickner Tags: Retrospectives Source Type: research

Mechanistic basis of propofol-induced disruption of kinesin processivity [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Propofol is a widely used general anesthetic to induce and maintain anesthesia, and its effects are thought to occur through impact on the ligand-gated channels including the GABAA receptor. Propofol also interacts with a large number of proteins including molecular motors and inhibits kinesin processivity, resulting in significant decrease in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Mandira Dutta, Susan P. Gilbert, Jose N. Onuchic, Biman Jana Tags: Biophysics and Computational Biology Physical Sciences Source Type: research

DNA methylation-linked chromatin accessibility affects genomic architecture in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
DNA methylation is a major epigenetic modification found across species and has a profound impact on many biological processes. However, its influence on chromatin accessibility and higher-order genome organization remains unclear, particularly in plants. Here, we present genome-wide chromatin accessibility profiles of 18 Arabidopsis mutants that are deficient in CG,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Zhenhui Zhong, Suhua Feng, Sascha H. Duttke, Magdalena E. Potok, Yiwei Zhang, Javier Gallego–Bartolome, Wanlu Liu, Steven E. Jacobsen Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Gleaning, fast and slow: In defense of a canonical ecological trade-off [Biological Sciences]
In an elegant analysis of resource utilization data from>500 eukaryote species, Kiørboe and Thomas (1) describe a positive relationship between the rate at which organisms acquire and ingest food. From this, they infer that “perhaps the most commonly assumed trade-off in ecology—between relative performance at low and high resource... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Andrew D. Letten, Masato Yamamichi Tags: Ecology, Letters, Letters and Replies Source Type: research

Universal law for the vibrational density of states of liquids [Applied Physical Sciences]
An analytical derivation of the vibrational density of states (DOS) of liquids, and, in particular, of its characteristic linear in frequency low-energy regime, has always been elusive because of the presence of an infinite set of purely imaginary modes—the instantaneous normal modes (INMs). By combining an analytic continuation of the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Alessio Zaccone, Matteo Baggioli Tags: Brief Reports Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) promotes social behavior through mTORC1 in the excitatory neurotransmission [Neuroscience]
Clinical studies have reported that the psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) enhances empathy and social behavior (SB) in humans, but its mechanism of action remains elusive. Using a multidisciplinary approach including in vivo electrophysiology, optogenetics, behavioral paradigms, and molecular biology, the effects of LSD on SB and glutamatergic neurotransmission in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Danilo De Gregorio, Jelena Popic, Justine P. Enns, Antonio Inserra, Agnieszka Skalecka, Athanasios Markopoulos, Luca Posa, Martha Lopez-Canul, He Qianzi, Christopher K. Lafferty, Jonathan P. Britt, Stefano Comai, Argel Aguilar-Valles, Nahum Sonenberg, Gab Tags: Neuroscience Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Performance of molecular crystals in conversion of light to mechanical work [Chemistry]
Dynamic molecular crystals have recently received ample attention as an emerging class of energy-transducing materials, yet have fallen short of developing into fully realized actuators. Through the trans–cis surface isomerization of three crystalline azobenzene materials, here, we set out to extensively characterize the light-to-work energy conversion of photoinduced bending in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Jad Mahmoud Halabi, Eȷaz Ahmed, Samuel Sofela, Panče Naumov Tags: Chemistry Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Tumor-suppressor function of Beclin 1 in breast cancer cells requires E-cadherin [Cell Biology]
Beclin 1, an autophagy and haploinsufficient tumor-suppressor protein, is frequently monoallelically deleted in breast and ovarian cancers. However, the precise mechanisms by which Beclin 1 inhibits tumor growth remain largely unknown. To address this question, we performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen in MCF7 breast cancer cells to identify genes whose... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Tobias Wijshake, Zhongju Zou, Beibei Chen, Lin Zhong, Guanghua Xiao, Yang Xie, John G. Doench, Lynda Bennett, Beth Levine Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Targeting OCT3 attenuates doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury [Pharmacology]
Doxorubicin is a commonly used anticancer agent that can cause debilitating and irreversible cardiac injury. The initiating mechanisms contributing to this side effect remain unknown, and current preventative strategies offer only modest protection. Using stem-cell–derived cardiomyocytes from patients receiving doxorubicin, we probed the transcriptomic landscape of solute carriers and identified... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Kevin M. Huang, Megan Zavorka Thomas, Tarek Magdy, Eric D. Eisenmann, Muhammad Erfan Uddin, Duncan F. DiGiacomo, Alexander Pan, Markus Keiser, Marcus Otter, Sherry H. Xia, Yang Li, Yan Jin, Qiang Fu, Alice A. Gibson, Ingrid M. Bonilla, Cynthia A. Carnes, Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Timing matters when correcting fake news [Political Sciences]
Countering misinformation can reduce belief in the moment, but corrective messages quickly fade from memory. We tested whether the longer-term impact of fact-checks depends on when people receive them. In two experiments (total N = 2,683), participants read true and false headlines taken from social media. In the treatment conditions,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Nadia M. Brashier, Gordon Pennycook, Adam J. Berinsky, David G. Rand Tags: Political Sciences, Brief Reports Social Sciences Source Type: research

Genome-wide detection of cytosine methylation by single molecule real-time sequencing [Medical Sciences]
5-Methylcytosine (5mC) is an important type of epigenetic modification. Bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) has limitations, such as severe DNA degradation. Using single molecule real-time sequencing, we developed a methodology to directly examine 5mC. This approach holistically examined kinetic signals of a DNA polymerase (including interpulse duration and pulse width) and sequence... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: O. Y. Olivia Tse, Peiyong Jiang, Suk Hang Cheng, Wenlei Peng, Huimin Shang, John Wong, Stephen L. Chan, Liona C. Y. Poon, Tak Y. Leung, K. C. Allen Chan, Rossa W. K. Chiu, Y. M. Dennis Lo Tags: Medical Sciences Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Drosophila Sex Peptide controls the assembly of lipid microcarriers in seminal fluid [Cell Biology]
Seminal fluid plays an essential role in promoting male reproductive success and modulating female physiology and behavior. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, Sex Peptide (SP) is the best-characterized protein mediator of these effects. It is secreted from the paired male accessory glands (AGs), which, like the mammalian prostate and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: S. Mark Wainwright, Ben R. Hopkins, Claudia C. Mendes, Aashika Sekar, Benȷamin Kroeger, Josephine E. E. U. Hellberg, Shih–Jung Fan, Abigail Pavey, Pauline P. Marie, Aaron Leiblich, Irem Sepil, Philip D. Charles, Marie L. Thezenas, Roman Fisch Tags: Cell Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Structural insights into a dimeric Psb27-photosystem II complex from a cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus vulcanus [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Photosystem II (PSII) is a multisubunit pigment-protein complex and catalyzes light-driven water oxidation, leading to the conversion of light energy into chemical energy and the release of molecular oxygen. Psb27 is a small thylakoid lumen-localized protein known to serve as an assembly factor for the biogenesis and repair of the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Guoqiang Huang, Yanan Xiao, Xiong Pi, Liang Zhao, Qingjun Zhu, Wenda Wang, Tingyun Kuang, Guangye Han, Sen-Fang Sui, Jian-Ren Shen Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The mortality impacts of current and planned coal-fired power plants in India [Sustainability Science]
We examine the health implications of electricity generation from the 2018 stock of coal-fired power plants in India, as well as the health impacts of the expansion in coal-fired generation capacity expected to occur by 2030. We estimate emissions of SO2, NOX, and particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM2.5) for each... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Maureen Cropper, Ryna Cui, Sarath Guttikunda, Nate Hultman, Puja Jawahar, Yongjoon Park, Xinlu Yao, Xiao-Peng Song Tags: Sustainability Science Social Sciences Source Type: research

A protease-mediated mechanism regulates the cytochrome c6/plastocyanin switch in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 [Plant Biology]
After the Great Oxidation Event (GOE), iron availability was greatly decreased, and photosynthetic organisms evolved several alternative proteins and mechanisms. One of these proteins, plastocyanin, is a type I blue-copper protein that can replace cytochrome c6 as a soluble electron carrier between cytochrome b6f and photosystem I. In most cyanobacteria,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Raquel Garcia–Canas, Joaquin Giner–Lamia, Francisco J. Florencio, Luis Lopez–Maury Tags: Plant Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Efficient detection and post-surgical monitoring of colon cancer with a multi-marker DNA methylation liquid biopsy [Medical Sciences]
Multiplex assays, involving the simultaneous use of multiple circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) markers, can improve the performance of liquid biopsies so that they are highly predictive of cancer recurrence. We have developed a single-tube methylation-specific quantitative PCR assay (mqMSP) that uses 10 different methylation markers and is capable of quantitative... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Shengnan Jin, Dewen Zhu, Fanggui Shao, Shiliang Chen, Ying Guo, Kuan Li, Yourong Wang, Rongxiu Ding, Lingjia Gao, Wen Ma, Tong Lu, Dandan Li, Zhengzheng Zhang, Suili Cai, Xue Liang, Huayu Song, Ling Ji, Jinlei Li, Zhihai Zheng, Feizhao Jiang, Xiaoli Wu, J Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The diversity bonus in pooling local knowledge about complex problems [Sustainability Science]
Recently, theoreticians have hypothesized that diverse groups, as opposed to groups that are homogeneous, may have relative merits [S. E. Page, The Diversity Bonus (2019)]—all of which lead to more success in solving complex problems. As such, understanding complex, intertwined environmental and social issues may benefit from the integration of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Payam Aminpour, Steven A. Gray, Alison Singer, Steven B. Scyphers, Antonie J. Jetter, Rebecca Jordan, Robert Murphy Jr, Jonathan H. Grabowski Tags: Environmental Sciences, Sustainability Science, Sustainability Science Social Sciences Source Type: research

Sensing the presence of gods and spirits across cultures and faiths [Social Sciences]
Hearing the voice of God, feeling the presence of the dead, being possessed by a demonic spirit—such events are among the most remarkable human sensory experiences. They change lives and in turn shape history. Why do some people report experiencing such events while others do not? We argue that experiences... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Tanya Marie Luhrmann, Kara Weisman, Felicity Aulino, Joshua D. Brahinsky, John C. Dulin, Vivian A. Dzokoto, Cristine H. Legare, Michael Lifshitz, Emily Ng, Nicole Ross-Zehnder, Rachel E. Smith Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Effects of management outweigh effects of plant diversity on restored animal communities in tallgrass prairies [Sustainability Science]
A primary goal of ecological restoration is to increase biodiversity in degraded ecosystems. However, the success of restoration ecology is often assessed by measuring the response of a single functional group or trophic level to restoration, without considering how restoration affects multitrophic interactions that shape biodiversity. An ecosystem-wide approach to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Peter W. Guiden, Nicholas A. Barber, Ryan Blackburn, Anna Farrell, Jessica Fliginger, Sheryl C. Hosler, Richard B. King, Melissa Nelson, Erin G. Rowland, Kirstie Savage, John P. Vanek, Holly P. Jones Tags: Ecology, Sustainability Science Biological Sciences Source Type: research

SIRT7-dependent deacetylation of NPM promotes p53 stabilization following UV-induced genotoxic stress [Cell Biology]
Adaptation to different forms of environmental stress is crucial for maintaining essential cellular functions and survival. The nucleolus plays a decisive role as a signaling hub for coordinating cellular responses to various extrinsic and intrinsic cues. p53 levels are normally kept low in unstressed cells, mainly due to E3 ubiquitin... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Alessandro Ianni, Poonam Kumari, Shahriar Tarighi, Nicolas G. Simonet, Daniela Popescu, Stefan Guenther, Soraya Holper, Andreas Schmidt, Christian Smolka, Shiȷing Yue, Marcus Kruger, Claudia Fiorillo, Aleȷandro Vaquero, Eva Bober, Thomas Bra Tags: Cell Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Reassessment of the phylogenetic relationships of the late Miocene apes Hispanopithecus and Rudapithecus based on vestibular morphology [Anthropology]
Late Miocene great apes are key to reconstructing the ancestral morphotype from which earliest hominins evolved. Despite consensus that the late Miocene dryopith great apes Hispanopithecus laietanus (Spain) and Rudapithecus hungaricus (Hungary) are closely related (Hominidae), ongoing debate on their phylogenetic relationships with extant apes (stem hominids, hominines, or pongines)... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Alessandro Urciuoli, Clement Zanolli, Sergio Almeciȷa, Amelie Beaudet, Jean Dumoncel, Naoki Morimoto, Masato Nakatsukasa, Salvador Moya–Sola, David R. Begun, David M. Alba Tags: Anthropology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Genome-wide CRISPR screens reveal a specific ligand for the glycan-binding immune checkpoint receptor Siglec-7 [Biochemistry]
Glyco-immune checkpoint receptors, molecules that inhibit immune cell activity following binding to glycosylated cell-surface antigens, are emerging as attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy. Defining biologically relevant ligands that bind and activate such receptors, however, has historically been a significant challenge. Here, we present a CRISPRi genomic screening strategy that allowed... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Simon Wisnovsky, Leonhard Mockl, Stacy A. Malaker, Kayvon Pedram, Gaelen T. Hess, Nicholas M. Riley, Melissa A. Gray, Benȷamin A. H. Smith, Michael C. Bassik, W. E. Moerner, Carolyn R. Bertozzi Tags: Biochemistry Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Replication-independent instability of Friedreich’s ataxia GAA repeats during chronological aging [Genetics]
Nearly 50 hereditary diseases result from the inheritance of abnormally long repetitive DNA microsatellites. While it was originally believed that the size of inherited repeats is the key factor in disease development, it has become clear that somatic instability of these repeats throughout an individual’s lifetime strongly contributes to disease... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Alexander J. Neil, Julia A. Hisey, Ishtiaque Quasem, Ryan J. McGinty, Marcin Hitczenko, Alexandra N. Khristich, Sergei M. Mirkin Tags: Genetics Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Anomalous influenza seasonality in the United States and the emergence of novel influenza B viruses [Population Biology]
The 2019/2020 influenza season in the United States began earlier than any season since the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, with an increase in influenza-like illnesses observed as early as August. Also noteworthy was the numerical domination of influenza B cases early in this influenza season, in contrast to their typically later... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Rebecca K. Borchering, Christian E. Gunning, Deven V. Gokhale, K. Bodie Weedop, Arash Saeidpour, Tobias S. Brett, Pejman Rohani Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Nanopore-mediated protein delivery enabling three-color single-molecule tracking in living cells [Chemistry]
Multicolor single-molecule tracking (SMT) provides a powerful tool to mechanistically probe molecular interactions in living cells. However, because of the limitations in the optical and chemical properties of currently available fluorophores and the multiprotein labeling strategies, intracellular multicolor SMT remains challenging for general research studies. Here, we introduce a practical... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Zhongwen Chen, Yuhong Cao, Chun-Wei Lin, Steven Alvarez, Dongmyung Oh, Peidong Yang, Jay T. Groves Tags: Biophysics and Computational Biology, Chemistry Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Laboratory earthquake forecasting: A machine learning competition [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Earthquake prediction, the long-sought holy grail of earthquake science, continues to confound Earth scientists. Could we make advances by crowdsourcing, drawing from the vast knowledge and creativity of the machine learning (ML) community? We used Google’s ML competition platform, Kaggle, to engage the worldwide ML community with a competition to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Paul A. Johnson, Bertrand Rouet-Leduc, Laura J. Pyrak-Nolte, Gregory C. Beroza, Chris J. Marone, Claudia Hulbert, Addison Howard, Philipp Singer, Dmitry Gordeev, Dimosthenis Karaflos, Corey J. Levinson, Pascal Pfeiffer, Kin Ming Puk, Walter Reade Tags: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Perspectives Source Type: research

Unexpected nascent atmospheric emissions of three ozone-depleting hydrochlorofluorocarbons [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Global and regional atmospheric measurements and modeling can play key roles in discovering and quantifying unexpected nascent emissions of environmentally important substances. We focus here on three hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) that are restricted by the Montreal Protocol because of their roles in stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on measurements of archived air... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Martin K. Vollmer, Jens Muhle, Stephan Henne, Dickon Young, Matthew Rigby, Blagoȷ Mitrevski, Sunyoung Park, Chris R. Lunder, Tae Siek Rhee, Christina M. Harth, Matthias Hill, Ray L. Langenfelds, Myriam Guillevic, Paul M. Schlauri, Ove Hermansen, Jg Tags: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Abscisic acid regulates secondary cell-wall formation and lignin deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana through phosphorylation of NST1 [Plant Biology]
Plant secondary cell-wall (SCW) deposition and lignification are affected by both seasonal factors and abiotic stress, and these responses may involve the hormone abscisic acid (ABA). However, the mechanisms involved are not clear. Here we show that mutations that limit ABA synthesis or signaling reduce the extent of SCW thickness... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Chang Liu, Hasi Yu, Xiaolan Rao, Laigeng Li, Richard A. Dixon Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Virus-like insertions with sequence signatures similar to those of endogenous nonretroviral RNA viruses in the human genome [Genetics]
Understanding the genetics and taxonomy of ancient viruses will give us great insights into not only the origin and evolution of viruses but also how viral infections played roles in our evolution. Endogenous viruses are remnants of ancient viral infections and are thought to retain the genetic characteristics of viruses... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Shohei Kojima, Kohei Yoshikawa, Jumpei Ito, So Nakagawa, Nicholas F. Parrish, Masayuki Horie, Shuichi Kawano, Keizo Tomonaga Tags: Genetics Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Loss of hepatic miR-33 improves metabolic homeostasis and liver function without altering body weight or atherosclerosis [Physiology]
miR-33 is an intronic microRNA within the gene encoding the SREBP2 transcription factor. Like its host gene, miR-33 has been shown to be an important regulator of lipid metabolism. Inhibition of miR-33 has been shown to promote cholesterol efflux in macrophages by targeting the cholesterol transporter ABCA1, thus reducing atherosclerotic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Nathan L. Price, Xinbo Zhang, Pablo Fernandez–Tussy, Abhishek K. Singh, Sean A. Burnap, Noemi Rotllan, Leigh Goedeke, Jonathan Sun, Alberto Canfran–Duque, Binod Aryal, Manuel Mayr, Yaȷaira Suarez, Carlos Fernandez–Hernando Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Time-evolving controllability of effective connectivity networks during seizure progression [Applied Mathematics]
Over one third of the estimated 3 million people with epilepsy in the United States are medication resistant. Responsive neurostimulation from chronically implanted electrodes provides a promising treatment alternative to resective surgery. However, determining optimal personalized stimulation parameters, including when and where to intervene to guarantee a positive patient outcome,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Brittany H. Scheid, Arian Ashourvan, Jennifer Stiso, Kathryn A. Davis, Fadi Mikhail, Fabio Pasqualetti, Brian Litt, Danielle S. Bassett Tags: Applied Mathematics, Neuroscience Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Bistability in oxidative stress response determines the migration behavior of phytoplankton in turbulence [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Turbulence is an important determinant of phytoplankton physiology, often leading to cell stress and damage. Turbulence affects phytoplankton migration both by transporting cells and by triggering switches in migratory behavior, whereby vertically migrating cells can actively invert their direction of migration upon exposure to turbulent cues. However, a mechanistic link... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Francesco Carrara, Anupam Sengupta, Lars Behrendt, Assaf Vardi, Roman Stocker Tags: Biophysics and Computational Biology, Ecology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Energetics and fear of humans constrain the spatial ecology of pumas [Environmental Sciences]
Energetic demands and fear of predators are considered primary factors shaping animal behavior, and both are likely drivers of movement decisions that ultimately determine the spatial ecology of wildlife. Yet energetic constraints on movement imposed by the physical landscape have only been considered separately from those imposed by risk avoidance,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Barry A. Nickel, Justin P. Suraci, Anna C. Nisi, Christopher C. Wilmers Tags: Ecology, Environmental Sciences Biological Sciences Source Type: research

DUB esterase activity further decodes ubiquitin’s enigma [Biochemistry]
Posttranslational modifications of proteins are often key to understanding their biological function, localization, and fate. In particular, the covalent attachment of ubiquitin, a small 76-amino acid polypeptide, to substrates has attracted recent attention and is being exploited to generate novel drugs capable of removing pathogenic targets in a selective fashion... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 25, 2021 Category: Science Authors: Benedikt M. Kessler Tags: Biochemistry, Commentaries Commentary Source Type: research