Correction to Supporting Information for Sun et al., Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes facilitating human infection [SI Corrections]
MICROBIOLOGY Correction to Supporting Information for “Prevalent Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza virus with 2009 pandemic viral genes facilitating human infection,” by Honglei Sun, Yihong Xiao, Jiyu Liu, Dayan Wang, Fangtao Li, Chenxi Wang, Chong Li, Junda Zhu, Jingwei Song, Haoran Sun, Zhimin Jiang, Litao Liu, Xin Zhang, Kai Wei,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Tags: SI Corrections Source Type: research

Correction to Supporting Information for Roudnicky et al., Inducers of the endothelial cell barrier identified through chemogenomic screening in genome-edited hPSC-endothelial cells [SI Corrections]
APPLIED BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Correction to Supporting Information for “Inducers of the endothelial cell barrier identified through chemogenomic screening in genome-edited hPSC-endothelial cells,” by Filip Roudnicky, Jitao David Zhang, Bo Kyoung Kim, Nikhil J. Pandya, Yanjun Lan, Lisa Sach-Peltason, Heloise Ragelle, Pamela Strassburger, Sabine Gruener, Mirjana Lazendic, Sabine Uhles, Franco Revelant,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Tags: SI Corrections Source Type: research

Correction for Chen et al., Identification of fusion genes and characterization of transcriptome features in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia [Correction]
GENETICS Correction for “Identification of fusion genes and characterization of transcriptome features in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia,” by Bing Chen, Lu Jiang, Meng-Ling Zhong, Jian-Feng Li, Ben-Shang Li, Li-Jun Peng, Yu-Ting Dai, Bo-Wen Cui, Tian-Qi Yan, Wei-Na Zhang, Xiang-Qin Weng, Yin-Yin Xie, Jing Lu, Rui-Bao Ren, Su-Ning Chen, Jian-Da Hu,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Correction for de Beco et al., Endocytosis is required for E-cadherin redistribution at mature adherens junctions [Correction]
CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “Endocytosis is required for E-cadherin redistribution at mature adherens junctions,” by Simon de Beco, Charles Gueudry, François Amblard, and Sylvie Coscoy, which was first published April 28, 2009; 10.1073/pnas.0811253106 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 7010–7015). The authors wish to note the following: “We have found... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Kinetic profiling of metabolic specialists demonstrates stability and consistency of in vivo enzyme turnover numbers [Systems Biology]
Enzyme turnover numbers (kcats) are essential for a quantitative understanding of cells. Because kcats are traditionally measured in low-throughput assays, they can be inconsistent, labor-intensive to obtain, and can miss in vivo effects. We use a data-driven approach to estimate in vivo kcats using metabolic specialist Escherichia coli strains that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: David Heckmann, Anaamika Campeau, Colton J. Lloyd, Patrick V. Phaneuf, Ying Hefner, Marvic Carrillo-Terrazas, Adam M. Feist, David J. Gonzalez, Bernhard O. Palsson Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Public perceptions of federal science advisory boards depend on their composition [Sustainability Science]
The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) provides expert advice to inform agency decision-making. Recent regulations have decreased the representation of academic scientists on the EPA SAB and increased the representation of industry scientists. In an experiment, we asked how the US public views the goals... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Caitlin Drummond, Sara Goto Gray, Kaitlin T. Raimi, Robyn Wilson, Joseph Arvai Tags: Brief Reports, Sustainability Science Social Sciences Source Type: research

The breakdown of antiracist norms: A natural experiment on hate speech after terrorist attacks [Social Sciences]
Terrorist attacks often fuel online hate and increase the expression of xenophobic and antiminority messages. Previous research has focused on the impact of terrorist attacks on prejudiced attitudes toward groups linked to the perpetrators as the cause of this increase. We argue that social norms can contain the expression of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Amalia Alvarez–Benȷumea, Fabian Winter Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Intergenerational resource sharing and mortality in a global perspective [Social Sciences]
Resource sharing has always been a central component of human sociality. Children require heavy investments in human capital; during working years, help is needed due to illness, disability, or bad luck. While hunter-gatherer elders assisted their descendants, more recently, elderly withdraw from work and require assistance as well. Willingness to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Tobias Vogt, Fanny Kluge, Ronald Lee Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Innovative teaching knowledge stays with users [Social Sciences]
Programs seeking to transform undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses often strive for participating faculty to share their knowledge of innovative teaching practices with other faculty in their home departments. Here, we provide interview, survey, and social network analyses revealing that faculty who use innovative teaching practices preferentially talk... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: A. Kelly Lane, Jacob D. McAlpin, Brittnee Earl, Stephanie Feola, Jennifer E. Lewis, Karl Mertens, Susan E. Shadle, John Skvoretz, John P. Ziker, Brian A. Couch, Luanna B. Prevost, Marilyne Stains Tags: Brief Reports Social Sciences Source Type: research

Opinion: Use science to stop sexual harassment in higher education [Social Sciences]
Sexual harassment abounds in academia. We know this from a 2018 report published by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (1). As members of the committee who authored that report,* we have presented its findings to colleges and universities around the country. It has been deeply gratifying to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kathryn B. H. Clancy, Lilia M. Cortina, Anna R. Kirkland Tags: Opinions, Medical Sciences, Social Sciences Source Type: research

People with disagreeable personalities (selfish, combative, and manipulative) do not have an advantage in pursuing power at work [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Does being disagreeable—that is, behaving in aggressive, selfish, and manipulative ways—help people attain power? This question has long captivated philosophers, scholars, and laypeople alike, and yet prior empirical findings have been inconclusive. In the current research, we conducted two preregistered prospective longitudinal studies in which we measured participants’ disagreeableness prior... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Cameron Anderson, Daron L. Sharps, Christopher J. Soto, Oliver P. John Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Protecting memory from misinformation: Warnings modulate cortical reinstatement during memory retrieval [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Exposure to even subtle forms of misleading information can significantly alter memory for past events. Memory distortion due to misinformation has been linked to faulty reconstructive processes during memory retrieval and the reactivation of brain regions involved in the initial encoding of misleading details (cortical reinstatement). The current study investigated... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jessica M. Karanian, Nathaniel Rabb, Alia N. Wulff, McKinzey G. Torrance, Ayanna K. Thomas, Elizabeth Race Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Fine-scale heterogeneity in Schistosoma mansoni force of infection measured through antibody response [Population Biology]
Schistosomiasis is among the most common parasitic diseases in the world, with over 142 million people infected in low- and middle-income countries. Measuring population-level transmission is centrally important in guiding schistosomiasis control programs. Traditionally, human Schistosoma mansoni infections have been detected using stool microscopy, which is logistically difficult at program... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Benjamin F. Arnold, Henry Kanyi, Sammy M. Njenga, Fredrick O. Rawago, Jeffrey W. Priest, W. Evan Secor, Patrick J. Lammie, Kimberly Y. Won, Maurice R. Odiere Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Ethnic antagonism erodes Republicans’ commitment to democracy [Political Sciences]
Most Republicans in a January 2020 survey agreed that “the traditional American way of life is disappearing so fast that we may have to use force to save it.” More than 40% agreed that “a time will come when patriotic Americans have to take the law into their own hands.”... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Larry M. Bartels Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Plant expression of NifD protein variants resistant to mitochondrial degradation [Plant Biology]
To engineer Mo-dependent nitrogenase function in plants, expression of the structural proteins NifD and NifK will be an absolute requirement. Although mitochondria have been established as a suitable eukaryotic environment for biosynthesis of oxygen-sensitive enzymes such as NifH, expression of NifD in this organelle has proven difficult due to cryptic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Robert S. Allen, Christina M. Gregg, Shoko Okada, Amratha Menon, Dawar Hussain, Vanessa Gillespie, Ema Johnston, Rosangela Devilla, Andrew C. Warden, Matthew Taylor, Keren Byrne, Michelle Colgrave, Craig C. Wood Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Femtosecond visible transient absorption spectroscopy of chlorophyll-f-containing photosystem II [Plant Biology]
We present an ultrafast transient absorption study of FR-PSII, investigating energy transfer and charge separation processes. Results show a rapid... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Noura Zamzam, Rafal Rakowski, Marius Kaucikas, Gabriel Dorlhiac, Sefania Viola, Dennis J. Nurnberg, Andrea Fantuzzi, A. William Rutherford, Jasper J. van Thor Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Supergene evolution via stepwise duplications and neofunctionalization of a floral-organ identity gene [Plant Biology]
Heterostyly represents a fascinating adaptation to promote outbreeding in plants that evolved multiple times independently. While l-morph individuals form flowers with long styles, short anthers, and small pollen grains, S-morph individuals have flowers with short styles, long anthers, and large pollen grains. The difference between the morphs is controlled by... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Cuong Nguyen Huu, Barbara Keller, Elena Conti, Christian Kappel, Michael Lenhard Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Structures of Arabidopsis thaliana oxygen-sensing plant cysteine oxidases 4 and 5 enable targeted manipulation of their activity [Plant Biology]
In higher plants, molecular responses to exogenous hypoxia are driven by group VII ethylene response factors (ERF-VIIs). These transcriptional regulators accumulate in the nucleus under hypoxia to activate anaerobic genes but are destabilized in normoxic conditions through the action of oxygen-sensing plant cysteine oxidases (PCOs). The PCOs catalyze the reaction... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Mark D. White, Laura Dalle Carbonare, Mikel Lavilla Puerta, Sergio Iacopino, Martin Edwards, Kate Dunne, Elisabete Pires, Colin Levy, Michael A. McDonough, Francesco Licausi, Emily Flashman Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein DTH1 mediates degradation of lipid droplets in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [Plant Biology]
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular organelles found in a wide range of organisms and play important roles in stress tolerance. During nitrogen (N) starvation, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii stores large amounts of triacylglycerols (TAGs) inside LDs. When N is resupplied, the LDs disappear and the TAGs are degraded, presumably providing carbon and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jihyeon Lee, Yasuyo Yamaoka, Fantao Kong, Caroline Cagnon, Audrey Beyly-Adriano, Sunghoon Jang, Peng Gao, Byung-Ho Kang, Yonghua Li-Beisson, Youngsook Lee Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Cuscuta australis (dodder) parasite eavesdrops on the host plants’ FT signals to flower [Plant Biology]
Many plants use environmental cues, including seasonal changes of day length (photoperiod), to control their flowering time. Under inductive conditions, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein is synthesized in leaves, and FT protein is a mobile signal, which is able to travel to the shoot apex to induce flowering. Dodders (Cuscuta,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Guojing Shen, Nian Liu, Jingxiong Zhang, Yuxing Xu, Ian T. Baldwin, Jianqiang Wu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Characterization and validation of a preventative therapy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in a murine model of the disease [Physiology]
Currently there is an unmet need for treatments that can prevent hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Using a murine model we previously identified that HCM causing cardiac troponin I mutation Gly203Ser (cTnI-G203S) is associated with increased mitochondrial metabolic activity, consistent with the human condition. These alterations precede development of the cardiomyopathy. Here... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Helena M. Viola, Ashay A. Shah, Victoria P. A. Johnstone, Henrietta Cserne Szappanos, Mark P. Hodson, Livia C. Hool Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Hypnotic effect of thalidomide is independent of teratogenic ubiquitin/proteasome pathway [Pharmacology]
Thalidomide exerts its teratogenic and immunomodulatory effects by binding to cereblon (CRBN) and thereby inhibiting/modifying the CRBN-mediated ubiquitination pathway consisting of the Cullin4-DDB1-ROC1 E3 ligase complex. The mechanism of thalidomide’s classical hypnotic effect remains largely unexplored, however. Here we examined whether CRBN is involved in the hypnotic effect of thalidomide... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yuki Hirose, Tomohiro Kitazono, Maiko Sezaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Hiromasa Funato, Hiroshi Handa, Kaspar E. Vogt, Masashi Yanagisawa Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Analysis of {beta}2AR-Gs and {beta}2AR-Gi complex formation by NMR spectroscopy [Pharmacology]
The β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) is a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that preferentially couples to the stimulatory G protein Gs and stimulates cAMP formation. Functional studies have shown that the β2AR also couples to inhibitory G protein Gi, activation of which inhibits cAMP formation [R. P. Xiao, Sci. STKE 2001,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Xiuyan Ma, Yunfei Hu, Hossein Batebi, Jie Heng, Jun Xu, Xiangyu Liu, Xiaogang Niu, Hongwei Li, Peter W. Hildebrand, Changwen Jin, Brian K. Kobilka Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Active vision shapes and coordinates flight motor responses in flies [Neuroscience]
Animals use active sensing to respond to sensory inputs and guide future motor decisions. In flight, flies generate a pattern of head and body movements to stabilize gaze. How the brain relays visual information to control head and body movements and how active head movements influence downstream motor control remains... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Benjamin Cellini, Jean-Michel Mongeau Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

CRL5-dependent regulation of the small GTPases ARL4C and ARF6 controls hippocampal morphogenesis [Neuroscience]
The small GTPase ARL4C participates in the regulation of cell migration, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and vesicular trafficking in epithelial cells. The ARL4C signaling cascade starts by the recruitment of the ARF–GEF cytohesins to the plasma membrane, which, in turn, bind and activate the small GTPase ARF6. However, the role of ARL4C–cytohesin–ARF6... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jisoo S. Han, Keiko Hino, Wenzhe Li, Raenier V. Reyes, Cesar P. Canales, Adam M. Miltner, Yasmin Haddadi, Junqing Sun, Chao–Yin Chen, Anna La Torre, Sergi Simo Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Finding the neural correlates of collaboration using a three-person fMRI hyperscanning paradigm [Neuroscience]
Humans have an extraordinary ability to interact and cooperate with others. Despite the social and evolutionary significance of collaboration, research on finding its neural correlates has been limited partly due to restrictions on the simultaneous neuroimaging of more than one participant (also known as hyperscanning). Several studies have used dyadic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hua Xie, Iliana I. Karipidis, Amber Howell, Meredith Schreier, Kristen E. Sheau, Mai K. Manchanda, Rafi Ayub, Gary H. Glover, Malte Jung, Allan L. Reiss, Manish Saggar Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Fusogen-mediated neuron-neuron fusion disrupts neural circuit connectivity and alters animal behavior [Neuroscience]
The 100-y-old neuron doctrine from Ramón y Cajal states that neurons are individual cells, rejecting the process of cell−cell fusion in the normal development and function of the nervous system. However, fusogens—specialized molecules essential and sufficient for the fusion of cells—are expressed in the nervous system of different species under... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Rosina Giordano-Santini, Eva Kaulich, Kate M. Galbraith, Fiona K. Ritchie, Wei Wang, Zhaoyu Li, Massimo A. Hilliard Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Mechanism for analogous illusory motion perception in flies and humans [Neuroscience]
Visual motion detection is one of the most important computations performed by visual circuits. Yet, we perceive vivid illusory motion in stationary, periodic luminance gradients that contain no true motion. This illusion is shared by diverse vertebrate species, but theories proposed to explain this illusion have remained difficult to test.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Margarida Agrochao, Ryosuke Tanaka, Emilio Salazar-Gatzimas, Damon A. Clark Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Dark noise and retinal degeneration from D190N-rhodopsin [Neuroscience]
Numerous rhodopsin mutations have been implicated in night blindness and retinal degeneration, often with unclear etiology. D190N-rhodopsin (D190N-Rho) is a well-known inherited human mutation causing retinitis pigmentosa. Both higher-than-normal spontaneous-isomerization activity and misfolding/mistargeting of the mutant protein have been proposed as causes of the disease, but neither explanation has been... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Daniel Silverman, Zuying Chai, Wendy W. S. Yue, Sravani Keerthi Ramisetty, Sowmya Bekshe Lokappa, Kazumi Sakai, Rikard Frederiksen, Parinaz Bina, Stephen H. Tsang, Takahiro Yamashita, Jeannie Chen, King-Wai Yau Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Low-dimensional dynamics for working memory and time encoding [Neuroscience]
Our decisions often depend on multiple sensory experiences separated by time delays. The brain can remember these experiences and, simultaneously, estimate the timing between events. To understand the mechanisms underlying working memory and time encoding, we analyze neural activity recorded during delays in four experiments on nonhuman primates. To disambiguate... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Christopher J. Cueva, Alex Saez, Encarni Marcos, Aldo Genovesio, Mehrdad Jazayeri, Ranulfo Romo, C. Daniel Salzman, Michael N. Shadlen, Stefano Fusi Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Visual experience is not necessary for the development of face-selectivity in the lateral fusiform gyrus [Neuroscience]
The fusiform face area responds selectively to faces and is causally involved in face perception. How does face-selectivity in the fusiform arise in development, and why does it develop so systematically in the same location across individuals? Preferential cortical responses to faces develop early in infancy, yet evidence is conflicting... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: N. Apurva Ratan Murty, Santani Teng, David Beeler, Anna Mynick, Aude Oliva, Nancy Kanwisher Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Statistical prediction of the future impairs episodic encoding of the present [Neuroscience]
Memory is typically thought of as enabling reminiscence about past experiences. However, memory also informs and guides processing of future experiences. These two functions of memory are often at odds: Remembering specific experiences from the past requires storing idiosyncratic properties that define particular moments in space and time, but by... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Brynn E. Sherman, Nicholas B. Turk-Browne Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Developing a population-state decision system for intelligently reprogramming extracellular electron transfer in Shewanella oneidensis [Microbiology]
The unique extracellular electron transfer (EET) ability has positioned electroactive bacteria (EAB) as a major class of cellular chassis for genetic engineering aimed at favorable environmental, energy, and geoscience applications. However, previous efforts to genetically enhance EET ability have often impaired the basal metabolism and cellular growth due to the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Feng-He Li, Qiang Tang, Yang-Yang Fan, Yang Li, Jie Li, Jing-Hang Wu, Chen-Fei Luo, Hong Sun, Wen-Wei Li, Han-Qing Yu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Glycosylation-dependent opsonophagocytic activity of staphylococcal protein A antibodies [Microbiology]
Antibodies may bind to bacterial pathogens or their toxins to control infections, and their effector activity is mediated through the recruitment of complement component C1q or the engagement with Fcγ receptors (FcγRs). For bacterial pathogens that rely on a single toxin to cause disease, immunity correlates with toxin neutralization. Most... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Xinhai Chen, Miaomiao Shi, Xin Tong, Hwan Keun Kim, Lai-Xi Wang, Olaf Schneewind, Dominique Missiakas Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Early evolutionary loss of the lipid A modifying enzyme PagP resulting in innate immune evasion in Yersinia pestis [Microbiology]
Immune evasion through membrane remodeling is a hallmark of Yersinia pestis pathogenesis. Yersinia remodels its membrane during its life cycle as it alternates between mammalian hosts (37 °C) and ambient (21 °C to 26 °C) temperatures of the arthropod transmission vector or external environment. This shift in growth temperature induces... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Courtney E. Chandler, Erin M. Harberts, Mark R. Pelletier, Iyarit Thaipisuttikul, Jace W. Jones, Adeline M. Hajjar, Jason W. Sahl, David R. Goodlett, Aaron C. Pride, David A. Rasko, M. Stephen Trent, Russell E. Bishop, Robert K. Ernst Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Engineering carboxylic acid reductase for selective synthesis of medium-chain fatty alcohols in yeast [Microbiology]
Medium-chain fatty alcohols (MCFOHs, C6 to C12) are potential substitutes for fossil fuels, such as diesel and jet fuels, and have wide applications in various manufacturing processes. While today MCFOHs are mainly sourced from petrochemicals or plant oils, microbial biosynthesis represents a scalable, reliable, and sustainable alternative. Here, we aim... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yating Hu, Zhiwei Zhu, David Gradischnig, Margit Winkler, Jens Nielsen, Verena Siewers Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Relationship of estrogen synthesis capacity in the brain with obesity and self-control in men and women [Medical Sciences]
Gonadal hormones are linked to mechanisms that govern appetitive behavior and its suppression. Estrogens are synthesized from androgens by the enzyme aromatase, highly expressed in the ovaries of reproductive-aged women and in the brains of men and women of all ages. We measured aromatase availability in the amygdala using positron... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Anat Biegon, Nelly Alia-Klein, David L. Alexoff, Joanna S. Fowler, Sung Won Kim, Jean Logan, Deborah Pareto, Rebecca Preston-Campbell, Gene-Jack Wang, Tom Hildebrandt Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Rapid isothermal amplification and portable detection system for SARS-CoV-2 [Medical Sciences]
The COVID-19 pandemic provides an urgent example where a gap exists between availability of state-of-the-art diagnostics and current needs. As assay protocols and primer sequences become widely known, many laboratories perform diagnostic tests using methods such as RT-PCR or reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Here, we report an... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Anurup Ganguli, Ariana Mostafa, Jacob Berger, Mehmet Y. Aydin, Fu Sun, Sarah A. Stewart de Ramirez, Enrique Valera, Brian T. Cunningham, William P. King, Rashid Bashir Tags: Coronavirus (COVID-19) Physical Sciences Source Type: research

A network-based explanation of why most COVID-19 infection curves are linear [Medical Sciences]
Many countries have passed their first COVID-19 epidemic peak. Traditional epidemiological models describe this as a result of nonpharmaceutical interventions pushing the growth rate below the recovery rate. In this phase of the pandemic many countries showed an almost linear growth of confirmed cases for extended time periods. This new... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Stefan Thurner, Peter Klimek, Rudolf Hanel Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Core Concept: Nascent exascale supercomputers offer promise, present challenges [Medical Sciences]
Sometime next year, managers at the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory in Lemont, IL, will power up a calculating machine the size of 10 tennis courts and vault the country into a new age of computing. The $500-million mainframe, called Aurora, could become the world’s first “exascale”... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Adam Mann Tags: Core Concepts, Computer Sciences, Medical Sciences Source Type: research

DNA-PKcs phosphorylation at the T2609 cluster alters the repair pathway choice during immunoglobulin class switch recombination [Immunology and Inflammation]
The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), which is composed of the KU heterodimer and the large catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), is a classical nonhomologous end-joining (cNHEJ) factor. Naïve B cells undergo class switch recombination (CSR) to generate antibodies with different isotypes by joining two DNA double-strand breaks at different switching regions via... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jennifer L. Crowe, Xiaobin S. Wang, Zhengping Shao, Brian J. Lee, Verna M. Estes, Shan Zha Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Human {gamma}{delta} T cells recognize CD1b by two distinct mechanisms [Immunology and Inflammation]
γδ T cells form an abundant part of the human cellular immune system, where they respond to tissue damage, infection, and cancer. The spectrum of known molecular targets recognized by Vδ1-expressing γδ T cells is becoming increasingly diverse. Here we describe human γδ T cells that recognize CD1b, a lipid... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Josephine F. Reijneveld, Tonatiuh A. Ocampo, Adam Shahine, Benjamin S. Gully, Pierre Vantourout, Adrian C. Hayday, Jamie Rossjohn, D. Branch Moody, Ildiko Van Rhijn Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

A pathogenic and clonally expanded B cell transcriptome in active multiple sclerosis [Immunology and Inflammation]
Central nervous system B cells have several potential roles in multiple sclerosis (MS): secretors of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, presenters of autoantigens to T cells, producers of pathogenic antibodies, and reservoirs for viruses that trigger demyelination. To interrogate these roles, single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-Seq) was performed on paired cerebrospinal fluid... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Akshaya Ramesh, Ryan D. Schubert, Ariele L. Greenfield, Ravi Dandekar, Rita Loudermilk, Joseph J. Sabatino Jr, Matthew T. Koelzer, Edwina B. Tran, Kanishka Koshal, Kicheol Kim, Anne–Katrin Probstel, Debarko Banerȷi, University of California, Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

B cells expressing authentic naive human VRC01-class BCRs can be recruited to germinal centers and affinity mature in multiple independent mouse models [Immunology and Inflammation]
Animal models of human antigen-specific B cell receptors (BCRs) generally depend on “inferred germline” sequences, and thus their relationship to authentic naive human B cell BCR sequences and affinities is unclear. Here, BCR sequences from authentic naive human VRC01-class B cells from healthy human donors were selected for the generation... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Deli Huang, Robert K. Abbott, Colin Havenar-Daughton, Patrick D. Skog, Rita Al-Kolla, Bettina Groschel, Tanya R. Blane, Sergey Menis, Jenny Tuyet Tran, Theresa C. Thinnes, Sabrina A. Volpi, Alessia Liguori, Torben Schiffner, Sophia M. Villegas, Oleksandr Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Visualization of human T lymphocyte-mediated eradication of cancer cells in vivo [Immunology and Inflammation]
Lymphocyte-based immunotherapy has emerged as a breakthrough in cancer therapy for both hematologic and solid malignancies. In a subpopulation of cancer patients, this powerful therapeutic modality converts malignancy to clinically manageable disease. However, the T cell- and chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cell-mediated antimetastatic activity, especially their impacts on microscopic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Xingkang He, Xin Yin, Jing Wu, Stina L. Wickstrom, Yanhong Duo, Qiqiao Du, Shuhang Qin, Shuzhong Yao, Xu Jing, Kayoko Hosaka, Jieyu Wu, Lasse D. Jensen, Andreas Lundqvist, Alexander I. Salter, Lars Brautigam, Wei Tao, Yuguo Chen, Rolf Kiessling, Yihai Cao Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

POLQ suppresses interhomolog recombination and loss of heterozygosity at targeted DNA breaks [Genetics]
Interhomolog recombination (IHR) occurs spontaneously in somatic human cells at frequencies that are low but sufficient to ameliorate some genetic diseases caused by heterozygous mutations or autosomal dominant mutations. Here we demonstrate that DNA nicks or double-strand breaks (DSBs) targeted by CRISPR-Cas9 to both homologs can stimulate IHR and associated... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Luther Davis, Kevin J. Khoo, Yinbo Zhang, Nancy Maizels Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Multiplexed conditional genome editing with Cas12a in Drosophila [Genetics]
CRISPR-Cas genome engineering has revolutionized biomedical research by enabling targeted genome modification with unprecedented ease. In the popular model organism Drosophila melanogaster, gene editing has so far relied exclusively on the prototypical CRISPR nuclease Cas9. Additional CRISPR systems could expand the genomic target space, offer additional modes of regulation, and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Fillip Port, Maja Starostecka, Michael Boutros Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The genetic basis for PRC1 complex diversity emerged early in animal evolution [Evolution]
Polycomb group proteins are essential regulators of developmental processes across animals. Despite their importance, studies on Polycomb are often restricted to classical model systems and, as such, little is known about the evolution of these important chromatin regulators. Here we focus on Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) and trace the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: James M. Gahan, Fabian Rentzsch, Christine E. Schnitzler Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Human social preferences cluster and spread in the field [Evolution]
While it is undeniable that the ability of humans to cooperate in large-scale societies is unique in animal life, it remains open how such a degree of prosociality is possible despite the risks of exploitation. Recent evidence suggests that social networks play a crucial role in the development of prosociality... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Alexander Ehlert, Martin Kindschi, Rene Algesheimer, Heiko Rauhut Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Latitudinal gradient in the respiration quotient and the implications for ocean oxygen availability [Environmental Sciences]
Climate-driven depletion of ocean oxygen strongly impacts the global cycles of carbon and nutrients as well as the survival of many animal species. One of the main uncertainties in predicting changes to marine oxygen levels is the regulation of the biological respiration demand associated with the biological pump. Derived from... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - September 15, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Allison R. Moreno, Catherine A. Garcia, Alyse A. Larkin, Jenna A. Lee, Wei-Lei Wang, J. Keith Moore, Francois W. Primeau, Adam C. Martiny Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research