Correction for Otto et al., Past role and future outlook of the Conservation Reserve Program for supporting honey bees in the Great Plains [Correction]
SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Correction for “Past role and future outlook of the Conservation Reserve Program for supporting honey bees in the Great Plains,” by Clint R. V. Otto, Haochi Zheng, Alisa L. Gallant, Rich Iovanna, Benjamin L. Carlson, Matthew D. Smart, and Skip Hyberg, which was first published July 2, 2018;... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Tags: Sustainability Science Corrections Source Type: research

Correction for Daniel et al., Mechanistic insights in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair of ribosomal DNA [Correction]
CELL BIOLOGY Correction for “Mechanistic insights in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair of ribosomal DNA,” by Laurianne Daniel, Elena Cerruti, Lise-Marie Donnio, Julie Nonnekens, Christophe Carrat, Simona Zahova, Pierre-Olivier Mari, and Giuseppina Giglia-Mari, which was first published July 2, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1716581115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:E6770–E6779). The authors note that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Neural detection of socially valued community members [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
As people form social groups, they benefit from being able to detect socially valuable community members—individuals who act prosocially, support others, and form strong relationships. Multidisciplinary evidence demonstrates that people indeed track others’ social value, but the mechanisms through which such detection occurs remain unclear. Here, we combine social network... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Sylvia A. Morelli, Yuan Chang Leong, Ryan W. Carlson, Monica Kullar, Jamil Zaki Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Neural tracking of the musical beat is enhanced by low-frequency sounds [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Music makes us move, and using bass instruments to build the rhythmic foundations of music is especially effective at inducing people to dance to periodic pulse-like beats. Here, we show that this culturally widespread practice may exploit a neurophysiological mechanism whereby low-frequency sounds shape the neural representations of rhythmic input... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Tomas Lenc, Peter E. Keller, Manuel Varlet, Sylvie Nozaradan Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Junctional membrane Ca2+ dynamics in human muscle fibers are altered by malignant hyperthermia causative RyR mutation [Physiology]
We used the nanometer-wide tubules of the transverse tubular (t)-system of human skeletal muscle fibers as sensitive sensors for the quantitative monitoring of the Ca2+-handling properties in the narrow junctional cytoplasmic space sandwiched between the tubular membrane and the sarcoplasmic reticulum cisternae in single muscle fibers. The t-system sealed with... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Tanya R. Cully, Rocky H. Choi, Andrew R. Bjorksten, D. George Stephenson, Robyn M. Murphy, Bradley S. Launikonis Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Microrheology of DNA hydrogels [Physics]
A key objective in DNA-based material science is understanding and precisely controlling the mechanical properties of DNA hydrogels. We perform microrheology measurements using diffusing wave spectroscopy (DWS) to investigate the viscoelastic behavior of a hydrogel made of Y-shaped DNA (Y-DNA) nanostars over a wide range of frequencies and temperatures. We... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zhongyang Xing, Alessio Caciagli, Tianyang Cao, Iliya Stoev, Mykolas Zupkauskas, Thomas O’Neill, Tobias Wenzel, Robin Lamboll, Dongsheng Liu, Erika Eiser Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Quantum optics approach to radiation from atoms falling into a black hole [Physics]
We show that atoms falling into a black hole (BH) emit acceleration radiation which, under appropriate initial conditions, looks to a distant observer much like (but is different from) Hawking BH radiation. In particular, we find the entropy of the acceleration radiation via a simple laser-like analysis. We call this... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Marlan O. Scully, Stephen Fulling, David M. Lee, Don N. Page, Wolfgang P. Schleich, Anatoly A. Svidzinsky Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Endoplasmic reticulum stress leads to accumulation of wild-type SOD1 aggregates associated with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [Neuroscience]
Abnormal modifications to mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). Misfolding of wild-type SOD1 (SOD1WT) is also observed in postmortem tissue of a subset of sporadic ALS (sALS) cases, but cellular and molecular mechanisms generating abnormal SOD1WT species are unknown. We analyzed aberrant human... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Danilo B. Medinas, Pablo Rozas, Francisca Martinez Traub, Ute Woehlbier, Robert H. Brown, Daryl A. Bosco, Claudio Hetz Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Gating-induced large aqueous volumetric remodeling and aspartate tolerance in the voltage sensor domain of Shaker K+ channels [Neuroscience]
Neurons encode electrical signals with critically tuned voltage-gated ion channels and enzymes. Dedicated voltage sensor domains (VSDs) in these membrane proteins activate coordinately with an unresolved structural change. Such change conveys the transmembrane translocation of four positively charged arginine side chains, the voltage-sensing residues (VSRs; R1–R4). Countercharges and lipid phosphohead... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ignacio Diaz–Franulic, Vivian Gonzalez–Perez, Hans Moldenhauer, Nieves Navarro–Quezada, David Naranȷo Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

RNA triphosphatase DUSP11 enables exonuclease XRN-mediated restriction of hepatitis C virus [Microbiology]
Seventy percent of people infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) will suffer chronic infection, putting them at risk for liver disease, including hepatocellular carcinoma. The full range of mechanisms that render some people more susceptible to chronic infection and liver disease is still being elucidated. XRN exonucleases can restrict HCV... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Rodney P. Kincaid, Victor L. Lam, Rachel P. Chirayil, Glenn Randall, Christopher S. Sullivan Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Tsix-Mecp2 female mouse model for Rett syndrome reveals that low-level MECP2 expression extends life and improves neuromotor function [Medical Sciences]
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a mutation in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). There is currently no disease-specific treatment, but MECP2 restoration through reactivation of the inactive X (Xi) has been of considerable interest. Progress toward an Xi-reactivation therapy has been hampered by a... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Lieselot L. G. Carrette, Roy Blum, Weiyuan Ma, Raymond J. Kelleher III, Jeannie T. Lee Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Opinion: Risk to study nonparticipants: A procedural approach [Medical Sciences]
Current ethical guidance for research on human subjects is primarily concerned with protecting study participants.* They are, after all, the “human subjects” whose interests are the focus of oversight. But research—whether on human subjects or not—may also strongly affect individuals who are not study participants. US law defines study participants... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Nir Eyal, Marc Lipsitch, Till Barnighausen, Dan Wikler Tags: Opinions, Front Matter Source Type: research

Recombinant Listeria promotes tumor rejection by CD8+ T cell-dependent remodeling of the tumor microenvironment [Immunology and Inflammation]
Agents that remodel the tumor microenvironment (TME), prime functional tumor-specific T cells, and block inhibitory signaling pathways are essential components of effective immunotherapy. We are evaluating live-attenuated, double-deleted Listeria monocytogenes expressing tumor antigens (LADD-Ag) in the clinic. Here we show in numerous mouse models that while treatment with nonrecombinant LADD... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Weiwen Deng, Victor Lira, Thomas E. Hudson, Edward E. Lemmens, William G. Hanson, Ruben Flores, Gonzalo Barajas, George E. Katibah, Anthony L. Desbien, Peter Lauer, Meredith L. Leong, Daniel A. Portnoy, Thomas W. Dubensky Jr. Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Constraints on Paleoproterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels [Evolution]
The oxygenation of Earth’s surface environment dramatically altered key biological and geochemical cycles and ultimately ushered in the rise of an ecologically diverse biosphere. However, atmospheric oxygen partial pressures (pO2) estimates for large swaths of the Precambrian remain intensely debated. Here we evaluate and explore the use of carbonate cerium... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Eric J. Bellefroid, Ashleigh v. S. Hood, Paul F. Hoffman, Matthew D. Thomas, Christopher T. Reinhard, Noah J. Planavsky Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Parametric transitions between bare and vegetated states in water-driven patterns [Environmental Sciences]
Conditions for vegetation spreading and pattern formation are mathematically framed through an analysis encompassing three fundamental processes: flow stochasticity, vegetation dynamics, and sediment transport. Flow unsteadiness is included through Poisson stochastic processes whereby vegetation dynamics appears as a secondary instability, which is addressed by Floquet theory. Results show that the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Matteo Bernard Bertagni, Paolo Perona, Carlo Camporeale Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Indigenous impacts on North American Great Plains fire regimes of the past millennium [Environmental Sciences]
Fire use has played an important role in human evolution and subsequent dispersals across the globe, yet the relative importance of human activity and climate on fire regimes is controversial. This is particularly true for historical fire regimes of the Americas, where indigenous groups used fire for myriad reasons but... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Christopher I. Roos, Maria Nieves Zedeno, Kacy L. Hollenback, Mary M. H. Erlick Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Flexible magnetic composites for light-controlled actuation and interfaces [Engineering]
The interaction between light and matter has been long explored, leading to insights based on the modulation and control of electrons and/or photons within a material. An opportunity exists in optomechanics, where the conversion of radiation into material strain and actuation is currently induced at the molecular level in liquid... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Meng Li, Yu Wang, Aiping Chen, Arin Naidu, Bradley S. Napier, Wenyi Li, Carlos Lopez Rodriguez, Scott A. Crooker, Fiorenzo G. Omenetto Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Chemical feedbacks weaken the wintertime response of particulate sulfate and nitrate to emissions reductions over the eastern United States [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Sulfate (SO42-) and nitrate (NO3-) account for half of the fine particulate matter mass over the eastern United States. Their wintertime concentrations have changed little in the past decade despite considerable precursor emissions reductions. The reasons for this have remained unclear because detailed observations to constrain the wintertime gas–particle chemical... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Viral Shah, Lyatt Jaegle, Joel A. Thornton, Felipe D. Lopez–Hilfiker, Ben H. Lee, Jason C. Schroder, Pedro Campuzano–Jost, Jose L. Jimenez, Hongyu Guo, Amy P. Sullivan, Rodney J. Weber, Jaime R. Green, Marc N. Fiddler, Solomon Bililign, Teresa Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Eda-activated RelB recruits an SWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin-remodeling complex and initiates gene transcription in skin appendage formation [Developmental Biology]
Ectodysplasin A (Eda) signaling activates NF-κB during skin appendage formation, but how Eda controls specific gene transcription remains unclear. Here, we find that Eda triggers the formation of an NF-κB–associated SWI/SNF (BAF) complex in which p50/RelB recruits a linker protein, Tfg, that interacts with BAF45d in the BAF complex. We... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jian Sima, Zhijiang Yan, Yaohui Chen, Elin Lehrmann, Yongqing Zhang, Ramaiah Nagaraja, Weidong Wang, Zhong Wang, David Schlessinger Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Tractable near-optimal policies for crawling [Computer Sciences]
The problem of maintaining a local cache of n constantly changing pages arises in multiple mechanisms such as web crawlers and proxy servers. In these, the resources for polling pages for possible updates are typically limited. The goal is to devise a polling and fetching policy that maximizes the utility... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Yossi Azar, Eric Horvitz, Eyal Lubetzky, Yuval Peres, Dafna Shahaf Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Zinc depletion induces ribosome hibernation in mycobacteria [Chemistry]
Bacteria respond to zinc starvation by replacing ribosomal proteins that have the zinc-binding CXXC motif (C+) with their zinc-free (C−) paralogues. Consequences of this process beyond zinc homeostasis are unknown. Here, we show that the C− ribosome in Mycobacterium smegmatis is the exclusive target of a bacterial protein Y homolog,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Yunlong Li, Manjuli R. Sharma, Ravi K. Koripella, Yong Yang, Prem S. Kaushal, Qishan Lin, Joseph T. Wade, Todd A. Gray, Keith M. Derbyshire, Rajendra K. Agrawal, Anil K. Ojha Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Computational discovery of chemically patterned surfaces that effect unique hydration water dynamics [Chemistry]
The interactions of water with solid surfaces govern their apparent hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity, influenced at the molecular scale by surface coverage of chemical groups of varied nonpolar/polar character. Recently, it has become clear that the precise patterning of surface groups, and not simply average surface coverage, has a significant impact on the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jacob I. Monroe, M. Scott Shell Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Orthogonal self-assembly of an organoplatinum(II) metallacycle and cucurbit[8]uril that delivers curcumin to cancer cells [Chemistry]
Curcumin (Cur) is a naturally occurring anticancer drug isolated from the Curcuma longa plant. It is known to exhibit anticancer properties via inhibiting the STAT3 phosphorylation process. However, its poor water solubility and low bioavailability impede its clinical application. Herein, we used organoplatinum(II) ← pyridyl coordination-driven self-assembly and a cucurbit[8]uril... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Sougata Datta, Santosh K. Misra, Manik Lal Saha, Nabajit Lahiri, Janis Louie, Dipanjan Pan, Peter J. Stang Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Cytoskeletal tension regulates mesodermal spatial organization and subsequent vascular fate [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Morphogenesis during human development relies on the interplay between physiochemical cues that are mediated in part by cellular density and cytoskeletal tension. Here, we interrogated these factors on vascular lineage specification during human-induced pluripotent stem-cell (hiPSC) fate decision. We found that independent of chemical cues, spatially presented physical cues induce... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Quinton Smith, Nash Rochman, Ana Maria Carmo, Dhruv Vig, Xin Yi Chan, Sean Sun, Sharon Gerecht Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Efficient cruising for swimming and flying animals is dictated by fluid drag [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Many swimming and flying animals are observed to cruise in a narrow range of Strouhal numbers, where the Strouhal number St=2fA/U is a dimensionless parameter that relates stroke frequency f, amplitude A, and forward speed U. Dolphins, sharks, bony fish, birds, bats, and insects typically cruise in the range 0.2 (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Daniel Floryan, Tyler Van Buren, Alexander J. Smits Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Elesclomol restores mitochondrial function in genetic models of copper deficiency [Biochemistry]
Copper is an essential cofactor of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), the terminal enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Inherited loss-of-function mutations in several genes encoding proteins required for copper delivery to CcO result in diminished CcO activity and severe pathologic conditions in affected infants. Copper supplementation restores CcO function in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Shivatheja Soma, Andrew J. Latimer, Haarin Chun, Alison C. Vicary, Shrishiv A. Timbalia, Aren Boulet, Jennifer J. Rahn, Sherine S. L. Chan, Scot C. Leary, Byung-Eun Kim, Jonathan D. Gitlin, Vishal M. Gohil Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Ancient drug curcumin impedes 26S proteasome activity by direct inhibition of dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 2 [Biochemistry]
Curcumin, the active ingredient in Curcuma longa, has been in medicinal use since ancient times. However, the therapeutic targets and signaling cascades modulated by curcumin have been enigmatic despite extensive research. Here we identify dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 2 (DYRK2), a positive regulator of the 26S proteasome, as a direct target... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Sourav Banerjee, Chenggong Ji, Joshua E. Mayfield, Apollina Goel, Junyu Xiao, Jack E. Dixon, Xing Guo Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Foam-driven fracture [Applied Physical Sciences]
In hydraulic fracturing, water is injected at high pressure to crack shale formations. More sustainable techniques use aqueous foams as injection fluids to reduce the water use and wastewater treatment of conventional hydrofractures. However, the physical mechanism of foam fracturing remains poorly understood, and this lack of understanding extends to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ching-Yao Lai, Bhargav Rallabandi, Antonio Perazzo, Zhong Zheng, Samuel E. Smiddy, Howard A. Stone Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Isothermal pressure-derived metastable states in 2D hybrid perovskites showing enduring bandgap narrowing [Applied Physical Sciences]
Materials in metastable states, such as amorphous ice and supercooled condensed matter, often exhibit exotic phenomena. To date, achieving metastability is usually accomplished by rapid quenching through a thermodynamic path function, namely, heating−cooling cycles. However, heat can be detrimental to organic-containing materials because it can induce degradation. Alternatively, the application... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Gang Liu, Jue Gong, Lingping Kong, Richard D. Schaller, Qingyang Hu, Zhenxian Liu, Shuai Yan, Wenge Yang, Constantinos C. Stoumpos, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, Ho-kwang Mao, Tao Xu Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Rates of cavity filling by liquids [Applied Physical Sciences]
Understanding the fundamental wetting behavior of liquids on surfaces with pores or cavities provides insights into the wetting phenomena associated with rough or patterned surfaces, such as skin and fabrics, as well as the development of everyday products such as ointments and paints, and industrial applications such as enhanced oil... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Dongjin Seo, Alex M. Schrader, Szu-Ying Chen, Yair Kaufman, Thomas R. Cristiani, Steven H. Page, Peter H. Koenig, Yonas Gizaw, Dong Woog Lee, Jacob N. Israelachvili Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Mice harboring the human SLC30A8 R138X loss-of-function mutation have increased insulin secretory capacity [Physiology]
In this study, we generated a knockin mouse model carrying one of the most... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Sandra Kleiner, Daniel Gomez, Bezawit Megra, Erqian Na, Ramandeep Bhavsar, Katie Cavino, Yurong Xin, Jose Rojas, Giselle Dominguez-Gutierrez, Brian Zambrowicz, Gaelle Carrat, Pauline Chabosseau, Ming Hu, Andrew J. Murphy, George D. Yancopoulos, Guy A. Rut Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

A population of gut epithelial enterochromaffin cells is mechanosensitive and requires Piezo2 to convert force into serotonin release [Physiology]
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells constitute the largest population of intestinal epithelial enteroendocrine (EE) cells. EC cells are proposed to be specialized mechanosensory cells that release serotonin in response to epithelial forces, and thereby regulate intestinal fluid secretion. However, it is unknown whether EE and EC cells are directly mechanosensitive, and if... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Constanza Alcaino, Kaitlyn R. Knutson, Anthony J. Treichel, Gulcan Yildiz, Peter R. Strege, David R. Linden, Joyce H. Li, Andrew B. Leiter, Joseph H. Szurszewski, Gianrico Farrugia, Arthur Beyder Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Synaptotagmin oligomerization is essential for calcium control of regulated exocytosis [Neuroscience]
Regulated exocytosis, which underlies many intercellular signaling events, is a tightly controlled process often triggered by calcium ion(s) (Ca2+). Despite considerable insight into the central components involved, namely, the core fusion machinery [soluble N-ethylmaleimide–sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE)] and the principal Ca2+ sensor [C2-domain proteins like synaptotagmin (Syt)], the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Oscar D. Bello, Ouardane Jouannot, Arunima Chaudhuri, Ekaterina Stroeva, Jeff Coleman, Kirill E. Volynski, James E. Rothman, Shyam S. Krishnakumar Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

“Shepherd’s crook” neurons drive and synchronize the enhancing and suppressive mechanisms of the midbrain stimulus selection network [Neuroscience]
The optic tectum (TeO), or superior colliculus, is a multisensory midbrain center that organizes spatially orienting responses to relevant stimuli. To define the stimulus with the highest priority at each moment, a network of reciprocal connections between the TeO and the isthmi promotes competition between concurrent tectal inputs. In the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Florencia Garrido–Charad, Tomas Vega–Zuniga, Cristian Gutierrez–Ibanez, Pedro Fernandez, Luciana Lopez–Jury, Cristian Gonzalez–Cabrera, Harvey J. Karten, Harald Luksch, Gonzalo J. Marin Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Top-down, contextual entrainment of neuronal oscillations in the auditory thalamocortical circuit [Neuroscience]
Prior studies have shown that repetitive presentation of acoustic stimuli results in an alignment of ongoing neuronal oscillations to the sequence rhythm via oscillatory entrainment by external cues. Our study aimed to explore the neural correlates of the perceptual parsing and grouping of complex repeating auditory patterns that occur based... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Annamaria Barczak, Monica Noelle O’Connell, Tammy McGinnis, Deborah Ross, Todd Mowery, Arnaud Falchier, Peter Lakatos Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Selective visual representation of letters and words in the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex with intracerebral recordings [Neuroscience]
We report a comprehensive cartography of selective responses to visual letters and words in the human ventral occipito-temporal cortex (VOTC) with direct neural recordings, clarifying key aspects of the neural basis of reading. Intracerebral recordings were performed in a large group of patients (n = 37) presented with visual words... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Aliette Lochy, Corentin Jacques, Louis Maillard, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Bruno Rossion, Jacques Jonas Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Liquid crystalline bacterial outer membranes are critical for antibiotic susceptibility [Microbiology]
The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a robust, impermeable, asymmetric bilayer of outer lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and inner phospholipids containing selective pore proteins which confer on it the properties of a molecular sieve. This structure severely limits the variety of antibiotic molecules effective against Gram-negative pathogens and, as antibiotic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Nicolo Paracini, Luke A. Clifton, Maximilian W. A. Skoda, Jeremy H. Lakey Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Analysis of CD8+ T cell response during the 2013-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa [Medical Sciences]
The recent Ebola epidemic exemplified the importance of understanding and controlling emerging infections. Despite the importance of T cells in clearing virus during acute infection, little is known about Ebola-specific CD8+ T cell responses. We investigated immune responses of individuals infected with Ebola virus (EBOV) during the 2013–2016 West Africa... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Saori Sakabe, Brian M. Sullivan, Jessica N. Hartnett, Refugio Robles-Sikisaka, Karthik Gangavarapu, Beatrice Cubitt, Brian C. Ware, Dylan Kotliar, Luis M. Branco, Augustine Goba, Mambu Momoh, John Demby Sandi, Lansana Kanneh, Donald S. Grant, Robert F. Ga Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Unbiased classification of mosquito blood cells by single-cell genomics and high-content imaging [Immunology and Inflammation]
Mosquito blood cells are immune cells that help control infection by vector-borne pathogens. Despite their importance, little is known about mosquito blood cell biology beyond morphological and functional criteria used for their classification. Here, we combined the power of single-cell RNA sequencing, high-content imaging flow cytometry, and single-molecule RNA hybridization... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Maiara S. Severo, Jonathan J. M. Landry, Randall L. Lindquist, Christian Goosmann, Volker Brinkmann, Paul Collier, Anja E. Hauser, Vladimir Benes, Johan Henriksson, Sarah A. Teichmann, Elena A. Levashina Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Identifying a large number of high-yield genes in rice by pedigree analysis, whole-genome sequencing, and CRISPR-Cas9 gene knockout [Evolution]
Repeated artificial selection of a complex trait facilitates the identification of genes underlying the trait, especially if multiple selected descendant lines are available. Here we developed a pedigree-based approach to identify genes underlying the Green Revolution (GR) phenotype. From a pedigree analysis, we selected 30 cultivars including the “miracle rice”... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ju Huang, Jing Li, Jun Zhou, Long Wang, Sihai Yang, Laurence D. Hurst, Wen-Hsiung Li, Dacheng Tian Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Inferring the shape of global epistasis [Evolution]
Genotype–phenotype relationships are notoriously complicated. Idiosyncratic interactions between specific combinations of mutations occur and are difficult to predict. Yet it is increasingly clear that many interactions can be understood in terms of global epistasis. That is, mutations may act additively on some underlying, unobserved trait, and this trait is then... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jakub Otwinowski, David M. McCandlish, Joshua B. Plotkin Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Warming reverses top-down effects of predators on belowground ecosystem function in Arctic tundra [Ecology]
Predators can disproportionately impact the structure and function of ecosystems relative to their biomass. These effects may be exacerbated under warming in ecosystems like the Arctic, where the number and diversity of predators are low and small shifts in community interactions can alter carbon cycle feedbacks. Here, we show that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Amanda M. Koltz, Aimee T. Classen, Justin P. Wright Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Waves cue distinct behaviors and differentiate transport of congeneric snail larvae from sheltered versus wavy habitats [Ecology]
Marine population dynamics often depend on dispersal of larvae with infinitesimal odds of survival, creating selective pressure for larval behaviors that enhance transport to suitable habitats. One intriguing possibility is that larvae navigate using physical signals dominating their natal environments. We tested whether flow-induced larval behaviors vary with adults’ physical... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Heidi L. Fuchs, Gregory P. Gerbi, Elias J. Hunter, Adam J. Christman Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Tumor promoter TPA activates Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in a casein kinase 1-dependent manner [Cell Biology]
The tumor promoter 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) has been defined by its ability to promote tumorigenesis on carcinogen-initiated mouse skin. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling has a decisive role in mouse skin carcinogenesis, but it remains unclear how TPA activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Here, we found that TPA could enhance... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zijie Su, Jiaxing Song, Zhongyuan Wang, Liang Zhou, Yuqing Xia, Shubin Yu, Qi Sun, Shan-Shan Liu, Liang Zhao, Shiyue Li, Lei Wei, Dennis A. Carson, Desheng Lu Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Tethered multifluorophore motion reveals equilibrium transition kinetics of single DNA double helices [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
We describe a tethered multifluorophore motion assay based on DNA origami for revealing bimolecular reaction kinetics on the single-molecule level. Molecular binding partners may be placed at user-defined positions and in user-defined stoichiometry; and binding states are read out by tracking the motion of quickly diffusing fluorescent reporter units. Multiple... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Matthias Schickinger, Martin Zacharias, Hendrik Dietz Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Electrostatic lock in the transport cycle of the multidrug resistance transporter EmrE [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
EmrE is a small, homodimeric membrane transporter that exploits the established electrochemical proton gradient across the Escherichia coli inner membrane to export toxic polyaromatic cations, prototypical of the wider small-multidrug resistance transporter family. While prior studies have established many fundamental aspects of the specificity and rate of substrate transport in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Josh V. Vermaas, Susan B. Rempe, Emad Tajkhorshid Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Many-body effect determines the selectivity for Ca2+ and Mg2+ in proteins [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Calcium ion is a versatile messenger in many cell-signaling processes. To achieve their functions, calcium-binding proteins selectively bind Ca2+ against a background of competing ions such as Mg2+. The high specificity of calcium-binding proteins has been intriguing since Mg2+ has a higher charge density than Ca2+ and is expected to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zhifeng Jing, Chengwen Liu, Rui Qi, Pengyu Ren Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Mavacamten stabilizes an autoinhibited state of two-headed cardiac myosin [Biochemistry]
We used transient biochemical and structural kinetics to elucidate the molecular mechanism of mavacamten, an allosteric cardiac myosin inhibitor and a prospective treatment for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. We find that mavacamten stabilizes an autoinhibited state of two-headed cardiac myosin not found in the single-headed S1 myosin motor fragment. We determined this... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: John A. Rohde, Osha Roopnarine, David D. Thomas, Joseph M. Muretta Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Switching of the folding-energy landscape governs the allosteric activation of protein kinase A [Biochemistry]
Protein kinases are dynamic molecular switches that sample multiple conformational states. The regulatory subunit of PKA harbors two cAMP-binding domains [cyclic nucleotide-binding (CNB) domains] that oscillate between inactive and active conformations dependent on cAMP binding. The cooperative binding of cAMP to the CNB domains activates an allosteric interaction network that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jeneffer P. England, Yuxin Hao, Lihui Bai, Virginia Glick, H. Courtney Hodges, Susan S. Taylor, Rodrigo A. Maillard Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Selection of an ASIC1a-blocking combinatorial antibody that protects cells from ischemic death [Applied Biological Sciences]
Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have emerged as important, albeit challenging therapeutic targets for pain, stroke, etc. One approach to developing therapeutic agents could involve the generation of functional antibodies against these channels. To select such antibodies, we used channels assembled in nanodiscs, such that the target ASIC1a has a configuration... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - August 7, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Min Qiang, Xue Dong, Zhao Zha, Xiao-Kun Zuo, Xing-Lei Song, Lixia Zhao, Chao Yuan, Chen Huang, Pingdong Tao, Qin Hu, Wei-Guang Li, Wanhui Hu, Jie Li, Yan Nie, Damiano Buratto, Francesco Zonta, Peixiang Ma, Zheng Yu, Lili Liu, Yi Zhang, Bei Yang, Jia Xie, Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research