Log in to search using one of your social media accounts:

 

Correction for Mano et al., Optimal run-and-tumble-based transportation of a Janus particle with active steering [Corrections]
PHYSICS Correction for “Optimal run-and-tumble–based transportation of a Janus particle with active steering,” by Tomoyuki Mano, Jean-Baptiste Delfau, Junichiro Iwasawa, and Masaki Sano, which was first published March 14, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1616013114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 114:E2580–E2589). The authors wish to note the following: “We wish to acknowledge that during... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Tags: Correction Source Type: research

Climate vulnerability and resilience in the most valuable North American fishery [Sustainability Science]
Managing natural resources in an era of increasing climate impacts requires accounting for the synergistic effects of climate, ecosystem changes, and harvesting on resource productivity. Coincident with recent exceptional warming of the northwest Atlantic Ocean and removal of large predatory fish, the American lobster has become the most valuable fishery... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Arnault Le Bris, Katherine E. Mills, Richard A. Wahle, Yong Chen, Michael A. Alexander, Andrew J. Allyn, Justin G. Schuetz, James D. Scott, Andrew J. Pershing Tags: Sustainability Science Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Iterative random forests to discover predictive and stable high-order interactions [Statistics]
Genomics has revolutionized biology, enabling the interrogation of whole transcriptomes, genome-wide binding sites for proteins, and many other molecular processes. However, individual genomic assays measure elements that interact in vivo as components of larger molecular machines. Understanding how these high-order interactions drive gene expression presents a substantial statistical challenge. Building... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Sumanta Basu, Karl Kumbier, James B. Brown, Bin Yu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Bayesian selection of misspecified models is overconfident and may cause spurious posterior probabilities for phylogenetic trees [Statistics]
The Bayesian method is noted to produce spuriously high posterior probabilities for phylogenetic trees in analysis of large datasets, but the precise reasons for this overconfidence are unknown. In general, the performance of Bayesian selection of misspecified models is poorly understood, even though this is of great scientific interest since... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ziheng Yang, Tianqi Zhu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Heritable aspects of biological motion perception and its covariation with autistic traits [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
The ability to detect biological motion (BM) and decipher the meaning therein is essential to human survival and social interaction. However, at the individual level, we are not equally equipped with this ability. In particular, impaired BM perception and abnormal neural responses to BM have been observed in autism spectrum... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ying Wang, Li Wang, Qian Xu, Dong Liu, Lihong Chen, Nikolaus F. Troje, Sheng He, Yi Jiang Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Personal bests as reference points [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Personal bests act as reference points. Examining 133 million chess games, we find that players exert effort to set new personal best ratings and quit once they have done so. Although specific and difficult goals have been shown to inspire greater motivation than vague pronouncements to “do your best,” doing... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ashton Anderson, Etan A. Green Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Ancient duons may underpin spatial patterning of gene expression in C4 leaves [Plant Biology]
If the highly efficient C4 photosynthesis pathway could be transferred to crops with the C3 pathway there could be yield gains of up to 50%. It has been proposed that the multiple metabolic and developmental modifications associated with C4 photosynthesis are underpinned by relatively few master regulators that have allowed... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ivan Reyna-Llorens, Steven J. Burgess, Gregory Reeves, Pallavi Singh, Sean R. Stevenson, Ben P. Williams, Susan Stanley, Julian M. Hibberd Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Piezo2 channel regulates RhoA and actin cytoskeleton to promote cell mechanobiological responses [Physiology]
Actin polymerization and assembly into stress fibers (SFs) is central to many cellular processes. However, how SFs form in response to the mechanical interaction of cells with their environment is not fully understood. Here we have identified Piezo2 mechanosensitive cationic channel as a transducer of environmental physical cues into mechanobiological... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Carlos Pardo–Pastor, Fanny Rubio–Moscardo, Marina Vogel–Gonzalez, Selma A. Serra, Alexandros Afthinos, Sanela Mrkonȷic, Olivier Destaing, Juan F. Abenza, Jose M. Fernandez–Fernandez, Xavier Trepat, Corinne Albiges–Rizo Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Spatial patterns of tree yield explained by endogenous forces through a correspondence between the Ising model and ecology [Physics]
Spatial patterning of periodic dynamics is a dramatic and ubiquitous ecological phenomenon arising in systems ranging from diseases to plants to mammals. The degree to which spatial correlations in cyclic dynamics are the result of endogenous factors related to local dynamics vs. exogenous forcing has been one of the central... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Andrew E. Noble, Todd S. Rosenstock, Patrick H. Brown, Jonathan Machta, Alan Hastings Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Maximizing the information learned from finite data selects a simple model [Physics]
We use the language of uninformative Bayesian prior choice to study the selection of appropriately simple effective models. We advocate for the prior which maximizes the mutual information between parameters and predictions, learning as much as possible from limited data. When many parameters are poorly constrained by the available data,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Henry H. Mattingly, Mark K. Transtrum, Michael C. Abbott, Benjamin B. Machta Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Three classes of recurrent DNA break clusters in brain progenitors identified by 3D proximity-based break joining assay [Neuroscience]
We recently discovered 27 recurrent DNA double-strand break (DSB) clusters (RDCs) in mouse neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). Most RDCs occurred across long, late-replicating RDC genes and were found only after mild inhibition of DNA replication. RDC genes share intriguing characteristics, including encoding surface proteins that organize brain architecture and neuronal... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Pei-Chi Wei, Cheng-Sheng Lee, Zhou Du, Bjoern Schwer, Yuxiang Zhang, Jennifer Kao, Jeffrey Zurita, Frederick W. Alt Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Identification of genetic risk factors in the Chinese population implicates a role of immune system in Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis [Neuroscience]
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a leading cause of mortality among the elderly. We performed a whole-genome sequencing study of AD in the Chinese population. In addition to the variants identified in or around the APOE locus (sentinel variant rs73052335, P = 1.44 × 10−14), two common variants, GCH1 (rs72713460, P... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Xiaopu Zhou, Yu Chen, Kin Y. Mok, Qianhua Zhao, Keliang Chen, Yuewen Chen, John Hardy, Yun Li, Amy K. Y. Fu, Qihao Guo, Nancy Y. Ip, for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Tags: Inaugural Articles Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Single-bacterial genomics validates rich and varied specialized metabolism of uncultivated Entotheonella sponge symbionts [Microbiology]
Marine sponges are prolific sources of unique bioactive natural products. The sponge Theonella swinhoei is represented by several distinct variants with largely nonoverlapping chemistry. For the Japanese chemotype Y harboring diverse complex polyketides and peptides, we previously provided genomic and functional evidence that a single symbiont, the filamentous, multicellular organism... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Tetsushi Mori, Jackson K. B. Cahn, Micheal C. Wilson, Roy A. Meoded, Vincent Wiebach, Ana Flavia Canovas Martinez, Eric J. N. Helfrich, Andreas Albersmeier, Daniel Wibberg, Steven Datwyler, Ray Keren, Adi Lavy, Christian Ruckert, Micha Ilan, Jorn Kalinows Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Polo-like kinase 4 inhibition produces polyploidy and apoptotic death of lung cancers [Medical Sciences]
Polo-like kinase 4 (PLK4) is a serine/threonine kinase regulating centriole duplication. CFI-400945 is a highly selective PLK4 inhibitor that deregulates centriole duplication, causing mitotic defects and death of aneuploid cancers. Prior work was substantially extended by showing CFI-400945 causes polyploidy, growth inhibition, and apoptotic death of murine and human lung... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Masanori Kawakami, Lisa Maria Mustachio, Lin Zheng, Yulong Chen, Jaime Rodriguez-Canales, Barbara Mino, Jonathan M. Kurie, Jason Roszik, Pamela Andrea Villalobos, Kelsie L. Thu, Jennifer Silvester, David W. Cescon, Ignacio I. Wistuba, Tak W. Mak, Xi Liu, Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 antagonism prevents experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm [Medical Sciences]
Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LTs) are 5-lipoxygenase-derived lipid mediators involved in the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory disorders, in particular asthma. We have previously found evidence linking these mediators to increased levels of proteolytic enzymes in tissue specimens of human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Here we show that antagonism of the CysLT1 receptor... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Antonio Di Gennaro, Ana Carolina Arauȷo, Albert Busch, Hong Jin, Dick Wagsater, Emina Vorkapic, Kenneth Caidahl, Per Eriksson, Bengt Samuelsson, Lars Maegdefessel, Jesper Z. Haeggstrom Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Adaptive antibody diversification through N-linked glycosylation of the immunoglobulin variable region [Immunology and Inflammation]
A hallmark of B-cell immunity is the generation of a diverse repertoire of antibodies from a limited set of germline V(D)J genes. This repertoire is usually defined in terms of amino acid composition. However, variable domains may also acquire N-linked glycans, a process conditional on the introduction of consensus amino... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Fleur S. van de Bovenkamp, Ninotska I. L. Derksen, Pleuni Ooiȷevaar–de Heer, Karin A. van Schie, Simone Kruithof, Magdalena A. Berkowska, C. Ellen van der Schoot, Hanna IJspeert, Mirȷam van der Burg, Ann Gils, Lise Hafkenscheid, Rene E Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Accelerated wound healing in mice by on-site production and delivery of CXCL12 by transformed lactic acid bacteria [Immunology and Inflammation]
Impaired wound closure is a growing medical problem associated with metabolic diseases and aging. Immune cells play important roles in wound healing by following instructions from the microenvironment. Here, we developed a technology to bioengineer the wound microenvironment and enhance healing abilities of the immune cells. This resulted in strongly... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Evelina Vagesȷo, Emelie Ohnstedt, Anneleen Mortier, Hava Lofton, Fredrik Huss, Paul Proost, Stefan Roos, Mia Phillipson Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Role of a selecting ligand in shaping the murine {gamma}{delta}-TCR repertoire [Immunology and Inflammation]
Unlike αβ-T lineage cells, where the role of ligand in intrathymic selection is well established, the role of ligand in the development of γδ-T cells remains controversial. Here we provide evidence for the role of a bona fide selecting ligand in shaping the γδ-T cell-receptor (TCR) repertoire. Reactivity of the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Shawn P. Fahl, Francis Coffey, Lisa Kain, Payam Zarin, Roland L. Dunbrack Jr., Luc Teyton, Juan Carlos Zuniga–Pflucker, Dietmar J. Kappes, David L. Wiest Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Thymic involution and rising disease incidence with age [Immunology and Inflammation]
For many cancer types, incidence rises rapidly with age as an apparent power law, supporting the idea that cancer is caused by a gradual accumulation of genetic mutations. Similarly, the incidence of many infectious diseases strongly increases with age. Here, combining data from immunology and epidemiology, we show that many... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Sam Palmer, Luca Albergante, Clare C. Blackburn, T. J. Newman Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

T cell receptors for the HIV KK10 epitope from patients with differential immunologic control are functionally indistinguishable [Immunology and Inflammation]
HIV controllers (HCs) are individuals who can naturally control HIV infection, partially due to potent HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Here, we examined the hypothesis that superior function of CD8+ T cells from HCs is encoded by their T cell receptors (TCRs). We compared the functional properties of immunodominant HIV-specific... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Alok V. Joglekar, Zhe Liu, Jeffrey K. Weber, Yong Ouyang, John D. Jeppson, Won Jun Noh, Pedro A. Lamothe-Molina, Huabiao Chen, Seung-gu Kang, Michael T. Bethune, Ruhong Zhou, Bruce D. Walker, David Baltimore Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Detection of aneuploidy in patients with cancer through amplification of long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINEs) [Genetics]
Aneuploidy is a feature of most cancer cells, and a myriad of approaches have been developed to detect it in clinical samples. We previously described primers that could be used to amplify ∼38,000 unique long interspersed nucleotide elements (LINEs) from throughout the genome. Here we have developed an approach to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Christopher Douville, Simeon Springer, Isaac Kinde, Joshua D. Cohen, Ralph H. Hruban, Anne Marie Lennon, Nickolas Papadopoulos, Kenneth W. Kinzler, Bert Vogelstein, Rachel Karchin Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Divergent and parallel routes of biochemical adaptation in high-altitude passerine birds from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau [Evolution]
When different species experience similar selection pressures, the probability of evolving similar adaptive solutions may be influenced by legacies of evolutionary history, such as lineage-specific changes in genetic background. Here we test for adaptive convergence in hemoglobin (Hb) function among high-altitude passerine birds that are native to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Xiaojia Zhu, Yuyan Guan, Anthony V. Signore, Chandrasekhar Natarajan, Shane G. DuBay, Yalin Cheng, Naijian Han, Gang Song, Yanhua Qu, Hideaki Moriyama, Federico G. Hoffmann, Angela Fago, Fumin Lei, Jay F. Storz Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Hamilton's inclusive fitness maintains heritable altruism polymorphism through rb = c [Evolution]
How can altruism evolve or be maintained in a selfish world? Hamilton’s rule shows that the former process will occur when rb> c—the benefits to the recipients of an altruistic act b, weighted by the relatedness between the social partners r, exceed the costs to the altruists c—drives altruistic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Changcao Wang, Xin Lu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Geometrical control of dissipation during the spreading of liquids on soft solids [Engineering]
Gel layers bound to a rigid substrate are used in cell culture to control differentiation and migration and to lower the friction and tailor the wetting of solids. Their thickness, often considered a negligible parameter, affects cell mechanosensing or the shape of sessile droplets. Here, we show that the adjustment... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Menghua Zhao, Julien Dervaux, Tetsuharu Narita, Francois Lequeux, Laurent Limat, Matthieu Roche Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Field study of charitable giving reveals that reciprocity decays over time [Economic Sciences]
We examine how reciprocity changes over time by studying a large quasiexperiment in the field. Specifically, we analyze administrative data from a university hospital system. The data include information about over 18,000 donation requests made by the hospital system via mail to a set of its former patients in the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Amanda Chuan, Judd B. Kessler, Katherine L. Milkman Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Range dynamics of mountain plants decrease with elevation [Ecology]
Many studies report that mountain plant species are shifting upward in elevation. However, the majority of these reports focus on shifts of upper limits. Here, we expand the focus and simultaneously analyze changes of both range limits, optima, and abundances of 183 mountain plant species. We therefore resurveyed 1,576 vegetation... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Sabine B. Rumpf, Karl Hulber, Gunther Klonner, Dietmar Moser, Martin Schutz, Johannes Wessely, Wolfgang Willner, Niklaus E. Zimmermann, Stefan Dullinger Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Divergent biodiversity change within ecosystems [Ecology]
The Earth’s ecosystems are under unprecedented pressure, yet the nature of contemporary biodiversity change is not well understood. Growing evidence that community size is regulated highlights the need for improved understanding of community dynamics. As stability in community size could be underpinned by marked temporal turnover, a key question is... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Anne E. Magurran, Amy E. Deacon, Faye Moyes, Hideyasu Shimadzu, Maria Dornelas, Dawn A. T. Phillip, Indar W. Ramnarine Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Phylogenetic classification of the world’s tropical forests [Ecology]
Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world’s tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: J. W. Ferry Slik, Janet Franklin, Victor Arroyo–Rodriguez, Richard Field, Salomon Aguilar, Nikolay Aguirre, Jorge Ahumada, Shin–Ichiro Aiba, Luciana F. Alves, Anitha K, Andres Avella, Francisco Mora, Gerardo A. Aymard C., Selene Baez, Patricia Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Ocean acidification affects coral growth by reducing skeletal density [Ecology]
Ocean acidification (OA) is considered an important threat to coral reef ecosystems, because it reduces the availability of carbonate ions that reef-building corals need to produce their skeletons. However, while theory predicts that coral calcification rates decline as carbonate ion concentrations decrease, this prediction is not consistently borne out in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Nathaniel R. Mollica, Weifu Guo, Anne L. Cohen, Kuo-Fang Huang, Gavin L. Foster, Hannah K. Donald, Andrew R. Solow Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Pressure-induced structural change in MgSiO3 glass at pressures near the Earth’s core-mantle boundary [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Knowledge of the structure and properties of silicate magma under extreme pressure plays an important role in understanding the nature and evolution of Earth’s deep interior. Here we report the structure of MgSiO3 glass, considered an analog of silicate melts, up to 111 GPa. The first (r1) and second (r2)... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Yoshio Kono, Yuki Shibazaki, Curtis Kenney-Benson, Yanbin Wang, Guoyin Shen Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Identification and paleoclimatic significance of magnetite nanoparticles in soils [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
In the world-famous sediments of the Chinese Loess Plateau, fossil soils alternate with windblown dust layers to record monsoonal variations over the last ∼3 My. The less-weathered, weakly magnetic dust layers reflect drier, colder glaciations. The fossil soils (paleosols) contain variable concentrations of nanoscale, strongly magnetic iron oxides, formed in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Imad A. M. Ahmed, Barbara A. Maher Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Double abdomen in a short-germ insect: Zygotic control of axis formation revealed in the beetle Tribolium castaneum [Developmental Biology]
The distinction of anterior versus posterior is a crucial first step in animal embryogenesis. In the fly Drosophila, this axis is established by morphogenetic gradients contributed by the mother that regulate zygotic target genes. This principle has been considered to hold true for insects in general but is fundamentally different... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Salim Ansari, Nicole Troelenberg, Van Anh Dao, Tobias Richter, Gregor Bucher, Martin Klingler Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Germ-layer commitment and axis formation in sea anemone embryonic cell aggregates [Developmental Biology]
Robust morphogenetic events are pivotal for animal embryogenesis. However, comparison of the modes of development of different members of a phylum suggests that the spectrum of developmental trajectories accessible for a species might be far broader than can be concluded from the observation of normal development. Here, by using a... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Anastasia Kirillova, Grigory Genikhovich, Ekaterina Pukhlyakova, Adrien Demilly, Yulia Kraus, Ulrich Technau Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Capicua controls Toll/IL-1 signaling targets independently of RTK regulation [Developmental Biology]
The HMG-box protein Capicua (Cic) is a conserved transcriptional repressor that functions downstream of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathways in a relatively simple switch: In the absence of signaling, Cic represses RTK-responsive genes by binding to nearly invariant sites in DNA, whereas activation of RTK signaling down-regulates Cic activity,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Aikaterini Papagianni, Marta Fores, Wanqing Shao, Shuonan He, Nina Koenecke, Maria Jose Andreu, Nuria Samper, Ze’ev Paroush, Sergio Gonzalez–Crespo, Julia Zeitlinger, Gerardo Jimenez Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Control of chemoselectivity in asymmetric tandem reactions: Direct synthesis of chiral amines bearing nonadjacent stereocenters [Chemistry]
This paper describes the mechanistic insight-guided development of a catalyst system, employing a phenolic proton donor catalyst in addition to a cinchonium-derived phase-transfer catalyst, to control the chemoselectivity of two distinct intermediates, thereby enabling the desired asymmetric tandem conjugate addition–protonation pathway to dominate over a number of side-reaction pathways to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zhe Li, Bin Hu, Yongwei Wu, Chao Fei, Li Deng Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Fast and accurate quantum Monte Carlo for molecular crystals [Chemistry]
Computer simulation plays a central role in modern-day materials science. The utility of a given computational approach depends largely on the balance it provides between accuracy and computational cost. Molecular crystals are a class of materials of great technological importance which are challenging for even the most sophisticated ab initio... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Andrea Zen, Jan Gerit Brandenburg, Jiři Klimeš, Alexandre Tkatchenko, Dario Alfe, Angelos Michaelides Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Naked mole rats can undergo developmental, oncogene-induced and DNA damage-induced cellular senescence [Cell Biology]
Cellular senescence is an important anticancer mechanism that restricts proliferation of damaged or premalignant cells. Cellular senescence also plays an important role in tissue remodeling during development. However, there is a trade-off associated with cellular senescence as senescent cells contribute to aging pathologies. The naked mole rat (NMR) (Heterocephalus glaber)... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Yang Zhao, Alexander Tyshkovskiy, Daniel Munoz–Espin, Xiao Tian, Manuel Serrano, Joao Pedro de Magalhaes, Eviatar Nevo, Vadim N. Gladyshev, Andrei Seluanov, Vera Gorbunova Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Changes in the flagellar bundling time account for variations in swimming behavior of flagellated bacteria in viscous media [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Although the motility of the flagellated bacteria, Escherichia coli, has been widely studied, the effect of viscosity on swimming speed remains controversial. The swimming mode of wild-type E. coli is often idealized as a run-and-tumble sequence in which periods of swimming at a constant speed are randomly interrupted by a... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zijie Qu, Fatma Zeynep Temel, Rene Henderikx, Kenneth S. Breuer Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Elucidating the structural basis for differing enzyme inhibitor potency by cryo-EM [Biochemistry]
Histidine biosynthesis is an essential process in plants and microorganisms, making it an attractive target for the development of herbicides and antibacterial agents. Imidazoleglycerol-phosphate dehydratase (IGPD), a key enzyme within this pathway, has been biochemically characterized in both Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc_IGPD) and Arabidopsis thaliana (At_IGPD). The plant enzyme, having been... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Shaun Rawson, Claudine Bisson, Daniel L. Hurdiss, Asif Fazal, Martin J. McPhillie, Svetlana E. Sedelnikova, Patrick J. Baker, David W. Rice, Stephen P. Muench Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Poldip2 is an oxygen-sensitive protein that controls PDH and {alpha}KGDH lipoylation and activation to support metabolic adaptation in hypoxia and cancer [Biochemistry]
Although the addition of the prosthetic group lipoate is essential to the activity of critical mitochondrial catabolic enzymes, its regulation is unknown. Here, we show that lipoylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (αKDH) complexes is a dynamically regulated process that is inhibited under hypoxia and in cancer cells... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Felipe Paredes, Kely Sheldon, Bernard Lassegue, Holly C. Williams, Elizabeth A. Faidley, Gloria A. Benavides, Gloria Torres, Fernanda Sanhueza–Olivares, Samantha M. Yeligar, Kathy K. Griendling, Victor Darley–Usmar, Aleȷandra San Martin Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Mechanism of ubiquitin transfer promoted by TRAF6 [Biochemistry]
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) plays a vital role in immune signal transduction pathways by acting as a ubiquitin ligase (E3) for Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chain synthesis. However, the detailed mechanism by which the TRAF6 RING dimer promotes ubiquitin transfer was unknown. Through structural modeling and biochemical analysis,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Tian-Min Fu, Chen Shen, Qiubai Li, Pengfei Zhang, Hao Wu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Role of ubiquitylation of components of mitotic checkpoint complex in their dissociation from anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome [Biochemistry]
The mitotic checkpoint system ensures the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis by preventing premature initiation of anaphase until correct bipolar attachment of chromosomes to the mitotic spindle is reached. It promotes the assembly of a mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), composed of BubR1, Bub3, Cdc20, and Mad2, which inhibits the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Danielle Sitry-Shevah, Sharon Kaisari, Adar Teichner, Shirly Miniowitz-Shemtov, Avram Hershko Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Diamond anvil cell behavior up to 4 Mbar [Applied Physical Sciences]
The diamond anvil cell (DAC) is considered one of the dominant devices to generate ultrahigh static pressure. The development of the DAC technique has enabled researchers to explore rich high-pressure science in the multimegabar pressure range. Here, we investigated the behavior of the DAC up to 400 GPa, which is... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Bing Li, Cheng Ji, Wenge Yang, Junyue Wang, Ke Yang, Ruqing Xu, Wenjun Liu, Zhonghou Cai, Jiuhua Chen, Ho-kwang Mao Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Science and Culture: Quantum games aim to demystify heady science [Applied Physical Sciences]
In a video game called Quantum Moves, the players’ goal is straightforward: Move an atom from one place to another as quickly and efficiently as possible while a timer counts down the seconds. Atoms in the game aren’t represented as mini solar systems with electron “planets” moving around them, like... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Stephen Ornes Tags: Science and Culture, Front Matter Source Type: research

Endocytosis as a stabilizing mechanism for tissue homeostasis [Systems Biology]
Cells in tissues communicate by secreted growth factors (GF) and other signals. An important function of cell circuits is tissue homeostasis: maintaining proper balance between the amounts of different cell types. Homeostasis requires negative feedback on the GFs, to avoid a runaway situation in which cells stimulate each other and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Miri Adler, Avi Mayo, Xu Zhou, Ruth A. Franklin, Jeremy B. Jacox, Ruslan Medzhitov, Uri Alon Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Circadian clock-dependent and -independent posttranscriptional regulation underlies temporal mRNA accumulation in mouse liver [Systems Biology]
The mammalian circadian clock coordinates physiology with environmental cycles through the regulation of daily oscillations of gene expression. Thousands of transcripts exhibit rhythmic accumulations across mouse tissues, as determined by the balance of their synthesis and degradation. While diurnally rhythmic transcription regulation is well studied and often thought to be... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jingkui Wang, Laura Symul, Jake Yeung, Cedric Gobet, Jonathan Sobel, Sarah Luck, Pal O. Westermark, Nacho Molina, Felix Naef Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Regulation of Arabidopsis brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 endocytosis and degradation by plant U-box PUB12/PUB13-mediated ubiquitination [Plant Biology]
Plants largely rely on plasma membrane (PM)-resident receptor-like kinases (RLKs) to sense extracellular and intracellular stimuli and coordinate cell differentiation, growth, and immunity. Several RLKs have been shown to undergo internalization through the endocytic pathway with a poorly understood mechanism. Here, we show that endocytosis and protein abundance of the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jinggeng Zhou, Derui Liu, Ping Wang, Xiyu Ma, Wenwei Lin, Sixue Chen, Kiril Mishev, Dongping Lu, Rahul Kumar, Isabelle Vanhoutte, Xiangzong Meng, Ping He, Eugenia Russinova, Libo Shan Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Normal aging induces A1-like astrocyte reactivity [Neuroscience]
The decline of cognitive function occurs with aging, but the mechanisms responsible are unknown. Astrocytes instruct the formation, maturation, and elimination of synapses, and impairment of these functions has been implicated in many diseases. These findings raise the question of whether astrocyte dysfunction could contribute to cognitive decline in aging.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Laura E. Clarke, Shane A. Liddelow, Chandrani Chakraborty, Alexandra E. Munch, Myriam Heiman, Ben A. Barres Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Septal cholinergic neurons gate hippocampal output to entorhinal cortex via oriens lacunosum moleculare interneurons [Neuroscience]
Neuromodulation of neural networks, whereby a selected circuit is regulated by a particular modulator, plays a critical role in learning and memory. Among neuromodulators, acetylcholine (ACh) plays a critical role in hippocampus-dependent memory and has been shown to modulate neuronal circuits in the hippocampus. However, it has remained unknown how... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Juhee Haam, Jingheng Zhou, Guohong Cui, Jerrel L. Yakel Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

NAD+ supplementation normalizes key Alzheimer’s features and DNA damage responses in a new AD mouse model with introduced DNA repair deficiency [Neuroscience]
Emerging findings suggest that compromised cellular bioenergetics and DNA repair contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but their role in disease-defining pathology is unclear. We developed a DNA repair-deficient 3xTgAD/Polβ+/− mouse that exacerbates major features of human AD including phosphorylated Tau (pTau) pathologies, synaptic dysfunction, neuronal death, and... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 20, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Yuȷun Hou, Sofie Lautrup, Stephanie Cordonnier, Yue Wang, Deborah L. Croteau, Eduardo Zavala, Yongqing Zhang, Kanako Moritoh, Jennifer F. O’Connell, Beverly A. Baptiste, Tinna V. Stevnsner, Mark P. Mattson, Vilhelm A. Bohr Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research