QnAs with Nenad Ban [QnAs]
The central dogma of molecular biology describes the flow of information in a cell from DNA to RNA and onto proteins. Key to this flow of information, ribosomes act as the site of translation, taking in genetic information and producing polypeptides made of amino acids. Although they are complex macromolecular... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Farooq Ahmed Tags: QnAs Source Type: research

When kinetics plays strange tricks [Applied Physical Sciences]
Nanometer-scale ionic crystals, when immersed in an appropriate salt solution, often undergo a process of ion exchange; some atoms of the crystals are replaced by atoms from the solution. Thermodynamics dictates what will happen after the system reaches equilibrium. The concentration of the guest ions should reach a steady state... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Alessandro Laio Tags: Applied Physical Sciences, Commentaries Commentary Source Type: research

A compensatory link between cleavage/polyadenylation and mRNA turnover regulates steady-state mRNA levels in yeast [Cell Biology]
Cells have compensatory mechanisms to coordinate the rates of major biological processes, thereby permitting growth in a wide variety of conditions. Here, we uncover a compensatory link between cleavage/polyadenylation in the nucleus and messenger RNA (mRNA) turnover in the cytoplasm. On a global basis, same-gene 3′ mRNA isoforms with twofold... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Zarmik Moqtaderi, Joseph V. Geisberg, Kevin Struhl Tags: Cell Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Plants protect themselves from herbivores by optimizing the distribution of chemical defenses [Plant Biology]
Plants, as a whole, are well stocked with chemical defense compounds that function in protection against herbivores and pathogens. Within individual plants, however, there is extensive variation in the amounts of chemical defenses among different organs, tissues, and developmental stages. For example, defense compounds are typically present in greater concentrations... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Jonathan Gershenzon, Chhana Ullah Tags: Plant Biology, Commentaries Commentary Source Type: research

Remodeling of lateral geniculate nucleus projections to extrastriate area MT following long-term lesions of striate cortex [Neuroscience]
Here, we report on a previously unknown form of thalamocortical plasticity observed following lesions of the primary visual area (V1) in marmoset monkeys. In primates, lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons form parallel pathways to the cortex, which are characterized by the expression of different calcium-binding proteins. LGN projections to the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Nafiseh Atapour, Katrina H. Worthy, Marcello G. P. Rosa Tags: Neuroscience Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Atomic-resolution chemical characterization of (2x)72-kDa tryptophan synthase via four- and five-dimensional 1H-detected solid-state NMR [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
NMR chemical shifts provide detailed information on the chemical properties of molecules, thereby complementing structural data from techniques like X-ray crystallography and electron microscopy. Detailed analysis of protein NMR data, however, often hinges on comprehensive, site-specific assignment of backbone resonances, which becomes a bottleneck for molecular weights beyond 40 to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Alexander Klein, Petra Rovo, Varun V. Sakhrani, Yangyang Wang, Jacob B. Holmes, Viktoriia Liu, Patricia Skowronek, Laura Kukuk, Suresh K. Vasa, Peter Guntert, Leonard J. Mueller, Rasmus Linser Tags: Biophysics and Computational Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Trade-offs between bycatch and target catches in static versus dynamic fishery closures [Sustainability Science]
While there have been recent improvements in reducing bycatch in many fisheries, bycatch remains a threat for numerous species around the globe. Static spatial and temporal closures are used in many places as a tool to reduce bycatch. However, their effectiveness in achieving this goal is uncertain, particularly for highly... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Maite Pons, Jordan T. Watson, Daniel Ovando, Sandra Andraka, Stephanie Brodie, Andres Domingo, Mark Fitchett, Rodrigo Forselledo, Martin Hall, Elliott L. Hazen, Jason E. Jannot, Miguel Herrera, Sebastian Jimenez, David M. Kaplan, Sven Kerwath, Jon Lopez, Tags: Sustainability Science Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Engineered human antibodies for the opsonization and killing of Staphylococcus aureus [Microbiology]
Gram-positive organisms with their thick envelope cannot be lysed by complement alone. Nonetheless, antibody-binding on the surface can recruit complement and mark these invaders for uptake and killing by phagocytes, a process known as opsonophagocytosis. The crystallizable fragment of immunoglobulins (Fcγ) is key for complement recruitment. The cell surface of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Xinhai Chen, Olaf Schneewind, Dominique Missiakas Tags: Microbiology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Pathogenic TNF-{alpha} drives peripheral nerve inflammation in an Aire-deficient model of autoimmunity [Immunology and Inflammation]
Immune cells infiltrate the peripheral nervous system (PNS) after injury and with autoimmunity, but their net effect is divergent. After injury, immune cells are reparative, while in inflammatory neuropathies (e.g., Guillain Barré Syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy), immune cells are proinflammatory and promote autoimmune demyelination. An understanding of immune... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Yan Wang, Lily Guo, Xihui Yin, Ethan C. McCarthy, Mandy I. Cheng, Aline T. Hoang, Ho-Chung Chen, Anushi Y. Patel, Denise Allard Trout, Erin Xu, Natalie Yakobian, Willy Hugo, James F. Howard Jr., Katherine M. Sheu, Alexander Hoffmann, Melissa G. Lechner, M Tags: Immunology and Inflammation Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Understanding the local chemical environment of bioelectrocatalysis [Chemistry]
Bioelectrochemistry employs an array of high-surface-area meso- and macroporous electrode architectures to increase protein loading and the electrochemical current response. While the local chemical environment has been studied in small-molecule and heterogenous electrocatalysis, conditions in enzyme electrochemistry are still commonly established based on bulk solution assays, without appropriate consideration of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Esther Edwardes Moore, Samuel J. Cobb, Ana Margarida Coito, Ana Rita Oliveira, Ines A. C. Pereira, Erwin Reisner Tags: Chemistry Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Recurrent mutations in topoisomerase II{alpha} cause a previously undescribed mutator phenotype in human cancers [Genetics]
Topoisomerases nick and reseal DNA to relieve torsional stress associated with transcription and replication and to resolve structures such as knots and catenanes. Stabilization of the yeast Top2 cleavage intermediates is mutagenic in yeast, but whether this extends to higher eukaryotes is less clear. Chemotherapeutic topoisomerase poisons also elevate cleavage,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Arnoud Boot, Mo Liu, Nicole Stantial, Viraj Shah, Willie Yu, Karin C. Nitiss, John L. Nitiss, Sue Jinks-Robertson, Steven G. Rozen Tags: Genetics Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Cell-free DNA profiling informs all major complications of hematopoietic cell transplantation [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) provides effective treatment for hematologic malignancies and immune disorders. Monitoring of posttransplant complications is critical, yet current diagnostic options are limited. Here, we show that cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in blood is a versatile analyte for monitoring of the most important complications that occur after HCT:... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Alexandre Pellan Cheng, Matthew Pellan Cheng, Conor James Loy, Joan Sesing Lenz, Kaiwen Chen, Sami Smalling, Philip Burnham, Kaitlyn Marie Timblin, Jose Luis Oreȷas, Emily Silverman, Paz Polak, Francisco M. Marty, Jerome Ritz, Iwiȷn De Vlami Tags: Systems Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

No link between population isolation and speciation rate in squamate reptiles [Evolution]
Rates of species formation vary widely across the tree of life and contribute to massive disparities in species richness among clades. This variation can emerge from differences in metapopulation-level processes that affect the rates at which lineages diverge, persist, and evolve reproductive barriers and ecological differentiation. For example, populations that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Sonal Singhal, Guarino R. Colli, Maggie R. Grundler, Gabriel C. Costa, Ivan Prates, Daniel L. Rabosky Tags: Evolution Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Phagocytosis and self-destruction break down dendrites of Drosophila sensory neurons at distinct steps of Wallerian degeneration [Neuroscience]
After injury, severed dendrites and axons expose the “eat-me” signal phosphatidylserine (PS) on their surface while they break down. The degeneration of injured axons is controlled by a conserved Wallerian degeneration (WD) pathway, which is thought to activate neurite self-destruction through Sarm-mediated nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) depletion. While neurite PS... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Hui Ji, Maria L. Sapar, Ankita Sarkar, Bei Wang, Chun Han Tags: Neuroscience Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Pseudouridine synthase 7 is an opportunistic enzyme that binds and modifies substrates with diverse sequences and structures [Biochemistry]
Pseudouridine (Ψ) is a ubiquitous RNA modification incorporated by pseudouridine synthase (Pus) enzymes into hundreds of noncoding and protein-coding RNA substrates. Here, we determined the contributions of substrate structure and protein sequence to binding and catalysis by pseudouridine synthase 7 (Pus7), one of the principal messenger RNA (mRNA) modifying enzymes.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Meredith K. Purchal, Daniel E. Eyler, Mehmet Tardu, Monika K. Franco, Megan M. Korn, Taslima Khan, Ryan McNassor, Rachel Giles, Katherine Lev, Hari Sharma, Jeremy Monroe, Leena Mallik, Markos Koutmos, Kristin S. Koutmou Tags: Biochemistry Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Occasional paternal inheritance of the germline-restricted chromosome in songbirds [Evolution]
Songbirds have one special accessory chromosome, the so-called germline-restricted chromosome (GRC), which is only present in germline cells and absent from all somatic tissues. Earlier work on the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata castanotis) showed that the GRC is inherited only through the female line—like the mitochondria—and is eliminated from the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Yifan Pei, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Francisco J. Ruiz–Ruano, Jakob C. Mueller, Josefa Cabrero, Juan Pedro M. Camacho, Juan D. Alche, Andre Franke, Marc Hoeppner, Stefan Borno, Ivana Gessara, Moritz Hertel, Kim Teltscher, Ulrich Knief, Alexander Suh, Bar Tags: Evolution Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Measuring infectious SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples reveals a higher viral titer:RNA ratio for Delta and Epsilon vs. Alpha variants [Microbiology]
Novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants pose a challenge to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous studies indicate that clinical samples collected from individuals infected with the Delta variant may contain higher levels of RNA than previous variants, but the relationship between levels of viral RNA and infectious... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 20, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Hannah W. Despres, Margaret G. Mills, David J. Shirley, Madaline M. Schmidt, Meei-Li Huang, Pavitra Roychoudhury, Keith R. Jerome, Alexander L. Greninger, Emily A. Bruce Tags: Microbiology, Brief Reports, Coronavirus (COVID-19) Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Injectable amnion hydrogel-mediated delivery of adipose-derived stem cells for osteoarthritis treatment [Applied Biological Sciences]
Current treatment strategies for osteoarthritis (OA) predominantly address symptoms with limited disease-modifying potential. There is a growing interest in the use of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for OA treatment and developing biomimetic injectable hydrogels as cell delivery systems. Biomimetic injectable hydrogels can simulate the native tissue microenvironment by providing appropriate... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Maumita Bhattacharjee, Jorge L. Escobar Ivirico, Ho-Man Kan, Shiv Shah, Takayoshi Otsuka, Rosalie Bordett, Mohammed Barajaa, Naveen Nagiah, Rishikesh Pandey, Lakshmi S. Nair, Cato T. Laurencin Tags: Applied Biological Sciences, Engineering Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Reply to Elias et al.: Multiproxy evidence of widespread landscape disturbance in multiple Azorean lakes before the Portuguese arrival [Biological Sciences]
Despite the multidisciplinary and comprehensive approach taken in ref. 1, we acknowledge that there are still open questions that require further research. We emphasize that our study relies on multiple records that show the synchronous arrival of humans on multiple islands before ca. 1400 CE. Elias et al. (2) raise... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Pedro M. Raposeiro, Armand Hernandez, Sergi Pla–Rabes, Vitor Goncalves, Roberto Bao, Alberto Saez, Timothy Shanahan, Mario Benavente, Erik J. de Boer, Nora Richter, Veronica Gordon, Helena Marques, Pedro M. Sousa, Martin Souto, Miguel G. Matias, Nic Tags: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Letters Source Type: research

Cellular and molecular architecture of submucosal glands in wild-type and cystic fibrosis pigs [Cell Biology]
Submucosal glands (SMGs) protect lungs but can also contribute to disease. For example, in cystic fibrosis (CF), SMGs produce abnormal mucus that disrupts mucociliary transport. CF is an ion transport disease, yet knowledge of the ion transporters expressed by SMG acini, which produce mucus, and SMG ducts that carry it... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Wenjie Yu, Thomas O. Moninger, Andrew L. Thurman, Yuliang Xie, Akansha Jain, Keyan Zarei, Linda S. Powers, Alejandro A. Pezzulo, David A. Stoltz, Michael J. Welsh Tags: Cell Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Larger images are better remembered during naturalistic encoding [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
We are constantly exposed to multiple visual scenes, and while freely viewing them without an intentional effort to memorize or encode them, only some are remembered. It has been suggested that image memory is influenced by multiple factors, such as depth of processing, familiarity, and visual category. However, this is... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Shaimaa Masarwa, Olga Kreichman, Sharon Gilaie-Dotan Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Carcinomas assemble a filamentous CXCL12-keratin-19 coating that suppresses T cell-mediated immune attack [Immunology and Inflammation]
Cancer immunotherapy frequently fails because most carcinomas have few T cells, suggesting that cancers can suppress T cell infiltration. Here, we show that cancer cells of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), colorectal cancer, and breast cancer are coated with transglutaminase-2 (TGM2)–dependent covalent CXCL12–keratin-19 (KRT19) heterodimers that are organized as filamentous... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Zhikai Wang, Philip Moresco, Ran Yan, Jiayun Li, Ya Gao, Daniele Biasci, Min Yao, Jordan Pearson, Jaclyn F. Hechtman, Tobias Janowitz, Raza M. Zaidi, Matthew J. Weiss, Douglas T. Fearon Tags: Immunology and Inflammation Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Reply to Komatsu et al.: From local social mindfulness to global sustainability efforts? [Social Sciences]
Komatsu et al. (1) argue that Van Doesum et al. (2) may have overlooked the role of GDP in reporting a positive association between social mindfulness (SoMi) and the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) at country level. Although the relationship between EPI and SoMi is relatively weaker for countries with higher... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Niels J. Van Doesum, Ryan O. Murphy, Marcello Gallucci, Efrat Aharonov–Maȷar, Ursula Athenstaedt, Wing Tung Au, Liying Bai, Robert Bohm, Inna Bovina, Nancy R. Buchan, Xiao–Ping Chen, Kitty B. Dumont, Jan B. Engelmann, Kimmo Eriksson, Hy Tags: Letters, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences Source Type: research

Is there solid evidence of widespread landscape disturbance in the Azores before the arrival of the Portuguese? [Biological Sciences]
Raposeiro et al. (1) conclude that human occupation of the Azores islands began between 700 and 850 CE, causing widespread landscape disturbance and raising doubts about the islands’ presumed pristine nature when the Portuguese arrived. However, previous paleoecological studies from Flores, Pico, and São Miguel Islands (Table 1) show that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Rui B. Elias, Simon E. Connor, Carlos A. Gois–Marques, Hanno Schaefer, Luis Silva, Miguel M. Sequeira, Monica Moura, Paulo A. V. Borges, Rosalina Gabriel Tags: Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Letters Source Type: research

Ca2+ leak through ryanodine receptor 1 regulates thermogenesis in resting skeletal muscle [Physiology]
Mammals rely on nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) from skeletal muscle so that cold temperatures can be tolerated. NST results from activity of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ pump in skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms that regulate this activity are unknown. Here, we develop a single-fiber assay to investigate the role of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Aldo Meizoso-Huesca, Luke Pearce, Christopher J. Barclay, Bradley S. Launikonis Tags: Physiology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Development and quantitative analysis of a biosensor based on the Arabidopsis SWEET1 sugar transporter [Biochemistry]
SWEETs are transporters with homologs in Archeae, plants, some fungi, and animals. As the only transporters known to facilitate the cellular release of sugars in plants, SWEETs play critical roles in the allocation of sugars from photosynthetic leaves to storage tissues in seeds, fruits, and tubers. Here, we report the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Jihyun Park, Taylor M. Chavez, Jordan A. Guistwhite, Sojeong Gwon, Wolf B. Frommer, Lily S. Cheung Tags: Biochemistry Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Social mindfulness for global environmental sustainability? [Social Sciences]
Van Doesum et al. (1) report a positive correlation between social mindfulness and national environmental performance represented by the Environmental Performance Index (EPI), that is, a higher EPI for countries with higher scores of social mindfulness (SoMi). This result comes at a crucial time, as it highlights the relationship between... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Hikaru Komatsu, Jeremy Rappleye, Iveta Silova Tags: Letters, Psychological and Cognitive Sciences Source Type: research

Molecular basis of differential receptor usage for naturally occurring CD55-binding and -nonbinding coxsackievirus B3 strains [Microbiology]
This study identified VP3-234 residues (234Q/N/V/D/E) as critical... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Qingling Wang, Qian Yang, Congcong Liu, Guoqing Wang, Hao Song, Guijun Shang, Ruchao Peng, Xiao Qu, Sheng Liu, Yingzi Cui, Peiyi Wang, Wenbo Xu, Xin Zhao, Jianxun Qi, Mengsu Yang, George F. Gao Tags: Microbiology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The flagellar motor protein FliL forms a scaffold of circumferentially positioned rings required for stator activation [Microbiology]
The flagellar motor stator is an ion channel nanomachine that assembles as a ring of the MotA5MotB2 units at the flagellar base. The role of accessory proteins required for stator assembly and activation remains largely enigmatic. Here, we show that one such assembly factor, the conserved protein FliL, forms an... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Shoichi Tachiyama, Kar L. Chan, Xiaolin Liu, Skander Hathroubi, Briana Peterson, Mohammad F. Khan, Karen M. Ottemann, Jun Liu, Anna Roujeinikova Tags: Microbiology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Opinion: To assess marine cloud brightening's technical feasibility, we need to know what to study—and when to stop [Environmental Sciences]
To avoid the worst impacts of climate change, it’s paramount that we decarbonize the economy and preserve and restore natural ecosystems. Unfortunately, pledges made from countries thus far will not limit warming to below 1.5 °C, even after accounting for the more ambitious targets set at the recent COP26 climate... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Michael S. Diamond, Andrew Gettelman, Matthew D. Lebsock, Allison McComiskey, Lynn M. Russell, Robert Wood, Graham Feingold Tags: Opinions, Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Front Matter Source Type: research

Skin-resident dendritic cells mediate postoperative pain via CCR4 on sensory neurons [Immunology and Inflammation]
Inflammatory pain, such as hypersensitivity resulting from surgical tissue injury, occurs as a result of interactions between the immune and nervous systems with the orchestrated recruitment and activation of tissue-resident and circulating immune cells to the site of injury. Our previous studies identified a central role for Ly6Clow myeloid cells... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Jaqueline Raymondi Silva, Mircea Iftinca, Francisco I. Fernandes Gomes, Julia P. Segal, Olivia M. A. Smith, Courtney A. Bannerman, Atlante Silva Mendes, Manon Defaye, Madeline E. C. Robinson, Ian Gilron, Thiago Mattar Cunha, Christophe Altier, Nader Ghase Tags: Immunology and Inflammation Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The psychology of separation: Border walls, soft power, and international neighborliness [Political Sciences]
This study assesses the impact of international border walls on evaluations of countries and on beliefs about bilateral relationships between states. Using a short video, we experimentally manipulate whether a border wall image appears in a broader description of the history and culture of a little-known country. In a third... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Diana C. Mutz, Beth A. Simmons Tags: Political Sciences Social Sciences Source Type: research

Aluminum Cayley trees as scalable, broadband, multiresonant optical antennas [Applied Physical Sciences]
An optical antenna can convert a propagative optical radiation into a localized excitation and the reciprocal. Although optical antennas can be readily created using resonant nanoparticles (metallic or dielectric) as elementary building blocks, the realization of antennas sustaining multiple resonances over a broad range of frequencies remains a challenging task.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Thomas Simon, Xiaoyan Li, Jerome Martin, Dmitry Khlopin, Odile Stephan, Mathieu Kociak, Davy Gerard Tags: Applied Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Structure and function of an effector domain in antiviral factors and tumor suppressors SAMD9 and SAMD9L [Medical Sciences]
SAMD9 and SAMD9L (SAMD9/9L) are antiviral factors and tumor suppressors, playing a critical role in innate immune defense against poxviruses and the development of myeloid tumors. SAMD9/9L mutations with a gain-of-function (GoF) in inhibiting cell growth cause multisystem developmental disorders including many pediatric myelodysplastic syndromes. Predicted to be multidomain proteins... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Shuxia Peng, Xiangzhi Meng, Fushun Zhang, Prabhat Kumar Pathak, Juhi Chaturvedi, Jaime Coronado, Marisol Morales, Yuanhui Mao, Shu-Bing Qian, Junpeng Deng, Yan Xiang Tags: Medical Sciences Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Yeast cells actively tune their membranes to phase separate at temperatures that scale with growth temperatures [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Membranes of vacuoles, the lysosomal organelles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), undergo extraordinary changes during the cell’s normal growth cycle. The cycle begins with a stage of rapid cell growth. Then, as glucose becomes scarce, growth slows, and vacuole membranes phase separate into micrometer-scale domains of two liquid phases. Recent... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Chantelle L. Leveille, Caitlin E. Cornell, Alexey J. Merz, Sarah L. Keller Tags: Biophysics and Computational Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Organic molecular dynamics and charge-carrier lifetime in lead iodide perovskite MAPbI3 [Physics]
The long charge carrier lifetime of the hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) is the key for their remarkable performance as a solar cell material. The microscopic mechanism for the long lifetime is still in debate. Here, by using a muon spin relaxation technique that probes the fluctuation of local magnetic fields,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Akihiro Koda, Hirotaka Okabe, Masatoshi Hiraishi, Ryosuke Kadono, Katelyn A. Dagnall, Joshua J. Choi, Seung-Hun Lee Tags: Physics Physical Sciences Source Type: research

NO rapidly mobilizes cellular heme to trigger assembly of its own receptor [Biochemistry]
Nitric oxide (NO) signaling in biology relies on its activating cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production by the NO receptor soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). sGC must obtain heme and form a heterodimer to become functional, but paradoxically often exists as an immature heme-free form in cells and tissues. Based on our... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Yue Dai, Emily M. Faul, Arnab Ghosh, Dennis J. Stuehr Tags: Biochemistry Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Cryptochrome proteins regulate the circadian intracellular behavior and localization of PER2 in mouse suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons [Neuroscience]
The ∼20,000 cells of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock of the mammalian brain, coordinate subordinate cellular clocks across the organism, driving adaptive daily rhythms of physiology and behavior. The canonical model for SCN timekeeping pivots around transcriptional/translational feedback loops (TTFL) whereby PERIOD (PER) and CRYPTOCHROME (CRY) clock... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Nicola J. Smyllie, James Bagnall, Alex A. Koch, Dhevahi Niranjan, Lenka Polidarova, Johanna E. Chesham, Jason W. Chin, Carrie L. Partch, Andrew S. I. Loudon, Michael H. Hastings Tags: Neuroscience Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Probing molecular crowding in compressed tissues with Brillouin light scattering [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Volume regulation is key in maintaining important tissue functions, such as growth or healing. This is achieved by modulation of active contractility as well as water efflux that changes molecular crowding within individual cells. Local sensors have been developed to monitor stresses or forces in model tissues, but these approaches... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Guqi Yan, Sylvain Monnier, Maleke Mouelhi, Thomas Dehoux Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

A multiscale biophysical model gives quantized metachronal waves in a lattice of beating cilia [Applied Mathematics]
Motile cilia are slender, hair-like cellular appendages that spontaneously oscillate under the action of internal molecular motors and are typically found in dense arrays. These active filaments coordinate their beating to generate metachronal waves that drive long-range fluid transport and locomotion. Until now, our understanding of their collective behavior largely... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Brato Chakrabarti, Sebastian Furthauer, Michael J. Shelley Tags: Applied Mathematics Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Multiple representations of the body schema for the same body part [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Purposeful motor actions depend on the brain’s representation of the body, called the body schema, and disorders of the body schema have been reported to show motor deficits. The body schema has been assumed for almost a century to be a common body representation supporting all types of motor actions,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Kazumichi Matsumiya Tags: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Parkinson's disease protein PARK7 prevents metabolite and protein damage caused by a glycolytic metabolite [Biochemistry]
Cells are continuously exposed to potentially dangerous compounds. Progressive accumulation of damage is suspected to contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and aging, but the molecular identity of the damage remains largely unknown. Here we report that PARK7, an enzyme mutated in hereditary Parkinson’s disease, prevents damage of proteins and metabolites caused... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Isaac P. Heremans, Francesco Caligiore, Isabelle Gerin, Marina Bury, Marilena Lutz, Julie Graff, Vincent Stroobant, Didier Vertommen, Aurelio A. Teleman, Emile Van Schaftingen, Guido T. Bommer Tags: Biochemistry Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Ultrasound controlled mechanophore activation in hydrogels for cancer therapy [Applied Physical Sciences]
Mechanophores are molecular motifs that respond to mechanical perturbance with targeted chemical reactions toward desirable changes in material properties. A large variety of mechanophores have been investigated, with applications focusing on functional materials, such as strain/stress sensors, nanolithography, and self-healing polymers, among others. The responses of engineered mechanophores, such as... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Gun Kim, Qiong Wu, James L. Chu, Emily J. Smith, Michael L. Oelze, Jeffrey S. Moore, King C. Li Tags: Applied Physical Sciences Source Type: research

High-throughput selection of cells based on accumulated growth and division using PicoShell particles [Engineering]
Production of high-energy lipids by microalgae may provide a sustainable energy source that can help tackle climate change. However, microalgae engineered to produce more lipids usually grow slowly, leading to reduced overall yields. Unfortunately, culture vessels used to select cells based on growth while maintaining high biomass production, such as... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Mark van Zee, Joseph de Rutte, Rose Rumyan, Cayden Williamson, Trevor Burnes, Randor Radakovits, Andrew Sonico Eugenio, Sara Badih, Sohyung Lee, Dong-Hyun Lee, Maani Archang, Dino Di Carlo Tags: Applied Biological Sciences, Engineering Source Type: research

Individuals with adverse childhood experiences explore less and underweight reward feedback [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are extreme stressors that lead to negative psychosocial outcomes in adulthood. Nonhuman animals explore less after exposure to early stress. Therefore, in this preregistered study, we hypothesized that reduced exploration following ACEs would also be evident in human adults. Further, we predicted that adults with ACEs,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Alex Lloyd, Ryan Thomas McKay, Nicholas Furl Tags: Psychological and Cognitive Sciences Social Sciences Source Type: research

Fundamental limitations on efficiently forecasting certain epidemic measures in network models [Ecology]
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic underscores the importance of developing reliable forecasts that would allow decision makers to devise appropriate response strategies. Despite much recent research on the topic, epidemic forecasting remains poorly understood. Researchers have attributed the difficulty of forecasting contagion dynamics to a multitude of factors, including complex behavioral... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Daniel J. Rosenkrantz, Anil Vullikanti, S. S. Ravi, Richard E. Stearns, Simon Levin, H. Vincent Poor, Madhav V. Marathe Tags: Computer Sciences, Ecology Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Quantifying the effectiveness of betaherpesvirus-vectored transmissible vaccines [Ecology]
Transmissible vaccines have the potential to revolutionize how zoonotic pathogens are controlled within wildlife reservoirs. A key challenge that must be overcome is identifying viral vectors that can rapidly spread immunity through a reservoir population. Because they are broadly distributed taxonomically, species specific, and stable to genetic manipulation, betaherpesviruses are... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Tanner J. Varrelman, Christopher H. Remien, Andrew J. Basinski, Shelley Gorman, Alec Redwood, Scott L. Nuismer Tags: Ecology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Universal adaptability: Target-independent inference that competes with propensity scoring [Statistics]
The gold-standard approaches for gleaning statistically valid conclusions from data involve random sampling from the population. Collecting properly randomized data, however, can be challenging, so modern statistical methods, including propensity score reweighting, aim to enable valid inferences when random sampling is not feasible. We put forth an approach for making... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Michael P. Kim, Christoph Kern, Shafi Goldwasser, Frauke Kreuter, Omer Reingold Tags: Statistics Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal analysis identifies ABF2 and ABF3 as key hubs of endodermal response to nitrate [Plant Biology]
Nitrate is a nutrient and a potent signal that impacts global gene expression in plants. However, the regulatory factors controlling temporal and cell type–specific nitrate responses remain largely unknown. We assayed nitrate-responsive transcriptome changes in five major root cell types of the Arabidopsis thaliana root as a function of time.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Orlando Contreras–Lopez, Elena A. Vidal, Eleodoro Riveras, Jose M. Alvarez, Tomas C. Moyano, Erin E. Sparks, Joaquin Medina, Angelo Pasquino, Philip N. Benfey, Gloria M. Coruzzi, Rodrigo A. Gutierrez Tags: Plant Biology Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Template switching in DNA replication can create and maintain RNA hairpins [Evolution]
The evolutionary origin of RNA stem structures and the preservation of their base pairing under a spontaneous and random mutation process have puzzled theoretical evolutionary biologists. DNA replication–related template switching is a mutation mechanism that creates reverse-complement copies of sequence regions within a genome by replicating briefly along either the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - January 19, 2022 Category: Science Authors: Heli A. M. Monttinen, Ari Loytynoȷa Tags: Evolution Biological Sciences Source Type: research