Correction for Young et al., Conserved transcriptomic profiles underpin monogamy across vertebrates [Correction]
EVOLUTION Correction for “Conserved transcriptomic profiles underpin monogamy across vertebrates,” by Rebecca L. Young, Michael H. Ferkin, Nina F. Ockendon-Powell, Veronica N. Orr, Steven M. Phelps, Ákos Pogány, Corinne L. Richards-Zawacki, Kyle Summers, Tamás Székely, Brian C. Trainor, Araxi O. Urrutia, Gergely Zachar, Lauren A. O’Connell, and Hans A. Hofmann,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Correction for Helbert et al., Discovery of novel carbohydrate-active enzymes through the rational exploration of the protein sequences space [Correction]
BIOCHEMISTRY Correction for “Discovery of novel carbohydrate-active enzymes through the rational exploration of the protein sequences space,” by William Helbert, Laurent Poulet, Sophie Drouillard, Sophie Mathieu, Mélanie Loiodice, Marie Couturier, Vincent Lombard, Nicolas Terrapon, Jeremy Turchetto, Renaud Vincentelli, and Bernard Henrissat, which was first published March 8, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1815791116 (Proc... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Indigenous knowledge networks in the face of global change [Sustainability Science]
Indigenous communities rely extensively on plants for food, shelter, and medicine. It is still unknown, however, to what degree their survival is jeopardized by the loss of either plant species or knowledge about their services. To fill this gap, here we introduce indigenous knowledge networks describing the wisdom of indigenous... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Rodrigo Camara–Leret, Miguel A. Fortuna, Jordi Bascompte Tags: Sustainability Science Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Global warming has increased global economic inequality [Sustainability Science]
Understanding the causes of economic inequality is critical for achieving equitable economic development. To investigate whether global warming has affected the recent evolution of inequality, we combine counterfactual historical temperature trajectories from a suite of global climate models with extensively replicated empirical evidence of the relationship between historical temperature fluctuations... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Noah S. Diffenbaugh, Marshall Burke Tags: Sustainability Science Social Sciences Source Type: research

Economic resilience of Carthage during the Punic Wars: Insights from sediments of the Medjerda delta around Utica (Tunisia) [Sustainability Science]
While the Punic Wars (264–146 BC) have been the subject of numerous studies, generally focused on their most sensational aspects (major battles, techniques of warfare, geopolitical strategies, etc.), curiously, the exceptional economic resilience of the Carthaginians in the face of successive defeats, loss of mining territory, and the imposition of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Hugo Delile, Elisa Pleuger, Janne Blichert-Toft, Jean-Philippe Goiran, Nathalie Fagel, Ahmed Gadhoum, Abdelhakim Abichou, Imed Ben Jerbania, Elizabeth Fentress, Andrew I. Wilson Tags: Sustainability Science Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Responses in area hMT+ reflect tuning for both auditory frequency and motion after blindness early in life [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Previous studies report that human middle temporal complex (hMT+) is sensitive to auditory motion in early-blind individuals. Here, we show that hMT+ also develops selectivity for auditory frequency after early blindness, and that this selectivity is maintained after sight recovery in adulthood. Frequency selectivity was assessed using both moving band-pass... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Elizabeth Huber, Fang Jiang, Ione Fine Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Believability of evidence matters for correcting social impressions [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
To what extent are we beholden to the information we encounter about others? Are there aspects of cognition that are unduly influenced by gossip or outright disinformation, even when we deem it unlikely to be true? Research has shown that implicit impressions of others are often insensitive to the truth... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jeremy Cone, Kathryn Flaharty, Melissa J. Ferguson Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Linguistic inferences without words [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Contemporary semantics has uncovered a sophisticated typology of linguistic inferences, characterized by their conversational status and their behavior in complex sentences. This typology is usually thought to be specific to language and in part lexically encoded in the meanings of words. We argue that it is neither. Using a method... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Lyn Tieu, Philippe Schlenker, Emmanuel Chemla Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

No evidence that economic inequality moderates the effect of income on generosity [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
A landmark study published in PNAS [Côté S, House J, Willer R (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:15838–15843] showed that higher income individuals are less generous than poorer individuals only if they reside in a US state with comparatively large economic inequality. This finding might serve to reconcile inconsistent... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Stefan C. Schmukle, Martin Korndorfer, Boris Egloff Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Preventing harassment and increasing group participation through social norms in 2,190 online science discussions [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Theories of human behavior suggest that people’s decisions to join a group and their subsequent behavior are influenced by perceptions of what is socially normative. In online discussions, where unruly, harassing behavior is common, displaying community rules could reduce concerns about harassment that prevent people from joining while also influencing... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: J. Nathan Matias Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Ebola vaccination in the Democratic Republic of the Congo [Population Biology]
Following the April 2018 reemergence of Ebola in a rural region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the virus spread to an urban center by early May. Within 2 wk of the first case confirmation, a vaccination campaign was initiated in which 3,017 doses were administered to contacts... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Chad R. Wells, Abhishek Pandey, Alyssa S. Parpia, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Lauren A. Meyers, Burton H. Singer, Alison P. Galvani Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

GUN1 interacts with MORF2 to regulate plastid RNA editing during retrograde signaling [Plant Biology]
In this study, we have discovered an unexpected role for GUN1 in plastid RNA editing,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Xiaobo Zhao, Jianyan Huang, Joanne Chory Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

In vivo selective inhibition of TRPC6 by antagonist BI 749327 ameliorates fibrosis and dysfunction in cardiac and renal disease [Physiology]
Transient receptor potential canonical type 6 (TRPC6) is a nonselective receptor-operated cation channel that regulates reactive fibrosis and growth signaling. Increased TRPC6 activity from enhanced gene expression or gain-of-function mutations contribute to cardiac and/or renal disease. Despite evidence supporting a pathophysiological role, no orally bioavailable selective TRPC6 inhibitor has yet... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Brian Leei Lin, Damian Matera, Julia F. Doerner, Nan Zheng, Donato del Camino, Sumita Mishra, Hong Bian, Svetlana Zeveleva, Xiaoguang Zhen, Nathaniel T. Blair, Jayhong A. Chong, David P. Hessler, Djahida Bedja, Guangshuo Zhu, Grace K. Muller, Mark J. Rane Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Optical properties of high-pressure fluid hydrogen across molecular dissociation [Physics]
Optical properties of compressed fluid hydrogen in the region where dissociation and metallization is observed are computed by ab initio methods and compared with recent experimental results. We confirm that at T> 3,000 K, both processes are continuous, while at T (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Giovanni Rillo, Miguel A. Morales, David M. Ceperley, Carlo Pierleoni Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Stepwise activation of a class C GPCR begins with millisecond dimer rearrangement [Pharmacology]
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key biological switches that transmit both internal and external stimuli into the cell interior. Among the GPCRs, the “light receptor” rhodopsin has been shown to activate with a rearrangement of the transmembrane (TM) helix bundle within ∼1 ms, while all other receptors are thought to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Eugene O. Grushevskyi, Taulant Kukaj, Ralf Schmauder, Andreas Bock, Ulrike Zabel, Tina Schwabe, Klaus Benndorf, Martin J. Lohse Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Differentially synchronized spiking enables multiplexed neural coding [Neuroscience]
Multiplexing refers to the simultaneous encoding of two or more signals. Neurons have been shown to multiplex, but different stimuli require different multiplexing strategies. Whereas the frequency and amplitude of periodic stimuli can be encoded by the timing and rate of the same spikes, natural scenes, which comprise areas over... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Milad Lankarany, Dhekra Al–Basha, Stephanie Ratte, Steven A. Prescott Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Oxidation of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase positively regulates translational quality control [Microbiology]
Accurate translation of the genetic code is maintained in part by aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRS) proofreading mechanisms that ensure correct attachment of a cognate amino acid to a transfer RNA (tRNA). During environmental stress, such as oxidative stress, demands on aaRS proofreading are altered by changes in the availability of cytoplasmic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Rebecca E. Steiner, Amanda M. Kyle, Michael Ibba Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Molecular dynamics simulation-guided drug sensitivity prediction for lung cancer with rare EGFR mutations [Medical Sciences]
Next generation sequencing (NGS)-based tumor profiling identified an overwhelming number of uncharacterized somatic mutations, also known as variants of unknown significance (VUS). The therapeutic significance of EGFR mutations outside mutational hotspots, consisting of>50 types, in nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) is largely unknown. In fact, our pan-nation screening of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Shinnosuke Ikemura, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Shingo Matsumoto, Mayumi Kamada, Junko Hamamoto, Keita Masuzawa, Keigo Kobayashi, Tadashi Manabe, Daisuke Arai, Ichiro Nakachi, Ichiro Kawada, Kota Ishioka, Morio Nakamura, Ho Namkoong, Katsuhiko Naoki, Fumie Ono, Mits Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

PGE2 signaling via the neuronal EP2 receptor increases injury in a model of cerebral ischemia [Medical Sciences]
The inflammatory prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) EP2 receptor is a master suppressor of beneficial microglial function, and myeloid EP2 signaling ablation reduces pathology in models of inflammatory neurodegeneration. Here, we investigated the role of PGE2 EP2 signaling in a model of stroke in which the initial cerebral ischemic event is followed... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Qingkun Liu, Xibin Liang, Qian Wang, Edward N. Wilson, Rachel Lam, Jing Wang, William Kong, Connie Tsai, Tingting Pan, Paul B. Larkin, Mehrdad Shamloo, Katrin I. Andreasson Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Molecular engineering of an efficient four-domain DAF-MCP chimera reveals the presence of functional modularity in RCA proteins [Immunology and Inflammation]
The complement system is highly efficient in targeting pathogens, but lack of its apposite regulation results in host-cell damage, which is linked to diseases. Thus, complement activation is tightly regulated by a series of proteins, which primarily belong to the regulators of complement activation (RCA) family. Structurally, these proteins are... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Hemendra Singh Panwar, Hina Ojha, Payel Ghosh, Sagar H. Barage, Sunil Raut, Arvind Sahu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Protect, modify, deprotect (PMD): A strategy for creating vaccines to elicit antibodies targeting a specific epitope [Immunology and Inflammation]
We present a method, called protect, modify, deprotect (PMD), to generate immunogenic proteins aimed to direct a vaccine-induced antibody (Ab) response toward an epitope defined by... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Payton A. Weidenbacher, Peter S. Kim Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Hit and run versus long-term activation of PARP-1 by its different domains fine-tunes nuclear processes [Genetics]
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1) is a multidomain multifunctional nuclear enzyme involved in the regulation of the chromatin structure and transcription. PARP-1 consists of three functional domains: the N-terminal DNA-binding domain (DBD) containing three zinc fingers, the automodification domain (A), and the C-terminal domain, which includes the protein interacting WGR domain... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Colin Thomas, Yingbiao Ji, Chao Wu, Haily Datz, Cody Boyle, Brett MacLeod, Shri Patel, Michelle Ampofo, Michelle Currie, Jonathan Harbin, Kate Pechenkina, Niraj Lodhi, Sarah J. Johnson, Alexei V. Tulin Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Complete arsenic-based respiratory cycle in the marine microbial communities of pelagic oxygen-deficient zones [Environmental Sciences]
Microbial capacity to metabolize arsenic is ancient, arising in response to its pervasive presence in the environment, which was largely in the form of As(III) in the early anoxic ocean. Many biological arsenic transformations are aimed at mitigating toxicity; however, some microorganisms can respire compounds of this redox-sensitive element to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jaclyn K. Saunders, Clara A. Fuchsman, Cedar McKay, Gabrielle Rocap Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Directional soliton and breather beams [Engineering]
We report the observation of slanted solitons and breathers propagating at an angle with respect to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Amin Chabchoub, Kento Mozumi, Norbert Hoffmann, Alexander V. Babanin, Alessandro Toffoli, James N. Steer, Ton S. van den Bremer, Nail Akhmediev, Miguel Onorato, Takuji Waseda Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Science and Culture: Can the principles of topology help improve the world’s slums? [Economic Sciences]
According to the United Nations (UN), nearly 1 billion of the 8 billion people in the world live in slums (1). These dense and disordered communities form in urban areas without a formal plan; their residents frequently lack addresses. Often they don’t have immediate access to water, power, or emergency... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Stephen Ornes Tags: Science and Culture, Front Matter Source Type: research

Disentangling the abundance-impact relationship for invasive species [Ecology]
To predict the threat of biological invasions to native species, it is critical that we understand how increasing abundance of invasive alien species (IAS) affects native populations and communities. The form of this relationship across taxa and ecosystems is unknown, but is expected to depend strongly on the trophic position... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Bethany A. Bradley, Brittany B. Laginhas, Raȷ Whitlock, Jenica M. Allen, Amanda E. Bates, Genevieve Bernatchez, Jeffrey M. Diez, Regan Early, Jonathan Lenoir, Montserrat Vila, Cascade J. B. Sorte Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Widespread nitrous oxide undersaturation in farm waterbodies creates an unexpected greenhouse gas sink [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Nitrogen pollution and global eutrophication are predicted to increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from freshwater ecosystems. Surface waters within agricultural landscapes experience the full impact of these pressures and can contribute substantially to total landscape N2O emissions. However, N2O measurements to date have focused on flowing waters. Small artificial waterbodies... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jackie R. Webb, Nicole M. Hayes, Gavin L. Simpson, Peter R. Leavitt, Helen M. Baulch, Kerri Finlay Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Shallow particulate organic carbon regeneration in the South Pacific Ocean [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Particulate organic carbon (POC) produced in the surface ocean sinks through the water column and is respired at depth, acting as a primary vector sequestering carbon in the abyssal ocean. Atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are sensitive to the length (depth) scale over which respiration converts POC back to inorganic carbon,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Frank J. Pavia, Robert F. Anderson, Phoebe J. Lam, B. B. Cael, Sebastian M. Vivancos, Martin Q. Fleisher, Yanbin Lu, Pu Zhang, Hai Cheng, R. Lawrence Edwards Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Ecological and hydroclimate responses to strengthening of the Hadley circulation in South America during the Late Miocene cooling [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Near-modern ecosystems were established as a result of rapid ecological adaptation and climate change in the Late Miocene. On land, Late Miocene aridification spread in tandem with expansion of open habitats including C4 grassland ecosystems. Proxy records for the central Andes spanning the Late Miocene cooling (LMC) show the reorganization... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Barbara Carrapa, Mark Clementz, Ran Feng Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Photoelectric conversion on Earth’s surface via widespread Fe- and Mn-mineral coatings [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Sunlight drives photosynthesis and associated biological processes, and also influences inorganic processes that shape Earth’s climate and geochemistry. Bacterial solar-to-chemical energy conversion on this planet evolved to use an intricate intracellular process of phototrophy. However, a natural nonbiological counterpart to phototrophy has yet to be recognized. In this work, we... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Anhuai Lu, Yan Li, Hongrui Ding, Xiaoming Xu, Yanzhang Li, Guiping Ren, Jing Liang, Yuwei Liu, Hao Hong, Ning Chen, Shengqi Chu, Feifei Liu, , Haoran Wang, Cong Ding, Changqiu Wang, Yong Lai, Juan Liu, Jeffrey Dick, Kaihui Liu, Michael F. Hochella Jr. Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Low-cost high-efficiency system for solar-driven conversion of CO2 to hydrocarbons [Chemistry]
Conversion of carbon dioxide into hydrocarbons using solar energy is an attractive strategy for storing such a renewable source of energy into the form of chemical energy (a fuel). This can be achieved in a system coupling a photovoltaic (PV) cell to an electrochemical cell (EC) for CO2 reduction. To... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Tran Ngoc Huan, Daniel Alves Dalla Corte, Sarah Lamaison, Dilan Karapinar, Lukas Lutz, Nicolas Menguy, Martin Foldyna, Silver-Hamill Turren-Cruz, Anders Hagfeldt, Federico Bella, Marc Fontecave, Victor Mougel Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Highly conductive and chemically stable alkaline anion exchange membranes via ROMP of trans-cyclooctene derivatives [Chemistry]
Alkaline anion exchange membranes (AAEMs) are an important component of alkaline exchange membrane fuel cells (AEMFCs), which facilitate the efficient conversion of fuels to electricity using nonplatinum electrode catalysts. However, low hydroxide conductivity and poor long-term alkaline stability of AAEMs are the major limitations for the widespread application of AEMFCs.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Wei You, Elliot Padgett, Samantha N. MacMillan, David A. Muller, Geoffrey W. Coates Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Cell contact and Nf2/Merlin-dependent regulation of TEAD palmitoylation and activity [Cell Biology]
The Hippo pathway is involved in regulating contact inhibition of proliferation and organ size control and responds to various physical and biochemical stimuli. It is a kinase cascade that negatively regulates the activity of cotranscription factors YAP and TAZ, which interact with DNA binding transcription factors including TEAD and activate... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Nam-Gyun Kim, Barry M. Gumbiner Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Iron regulatory protein 2 modulates the switch from aerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts [Cell Biology]
The importance of the role of iron regulatory proteins (IRPs) in mitochondrial iron homeostasis and function has been raised. To understand how an IRP affects mitochondrial function, we used globally Irp2-depleted mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and found that Irp2 ablation significantly induced the expression of both hypoxia-inducible factor subunits, Hif1α... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Huihui Li, Yutong Liu, Longcheng Shang, Jing Cai, Jing Wu, Wei Zhang, Xiaojiang Pu, Weichen Dong, Tong Qiao, Kuanyu Li Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Mutations in MAGT1 lead to a glycosylation disorder with a variable phenotype [Cell Biology]
Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of rare metabolic diseases, due to impaired protein and lipid glycosylation. We identified two patients with defective serum transferrin glycosylation and mutations in the MAGT1 gene. These patients present with a phenotype that is mainly characterized by intellectual and developmental disability. MAGT1... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Eline Blommaert, Romain Peanne, Natalia A. Cherepanova, Daisy Rymen, Frederik Staels, Jaak Jaeken, Valerie Race, Liesbeth Keldermans, Erika Souche, Anniek Corveleyn, Rebecca Sparkes, Kaustuv Bhattacharya, Christine Devalck, Rik Schriȷvers, Francois Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Insight into microtubule nucleation from tubulin-capping proteins [Cell Biology]
Nucleation is one of the least understood steps of microtubule dynamics. It is a kinetically unfavorable process that is templated in the cell by the γ-tubulin ring complex or by preexisting microtubules; it also occurs in vitro from pure tubulin. Here we study the nucleation inhibition potency of natural or... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Valerie Campanacci, Agathe Urvoas, Soraya Cantos–Fernandes, Magali Aumont–Nicaise, Ana–Andreea Arteni, Christophe Velours, Marie Valerio–Lepiniec, Birgit Dreier, Andreas Pluckthun, Antoine Pilon, Christian Pous, Philippe Minard, Be Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Mic60 exhibits a coordinated clustered distribution along and across yeast and mammalian mitochondria [Cell Biology]
Mitochondria are tubular double-membrane organelles essential for eukaryotic life. They form extended networks and exhibit an intricate inner membrane architecture. The MICOS (mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system) complex, crucial for proper architecture of the mitochondrial inner membrane, is localized primarily at crista junctions. Harnessing superresolution fluorescence microscopy, we... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Stefan Stoldt, Till Stephan, Daniel C. Jans, Christian Bruser, Felix Lange, Jan Keller–Findeisen, Dietmar Riedel, Stefan W. Hell, Stefan Jakobs Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Targeting RIPK1 for the treatment of human diseases [Cell Biology]
RIPK1 kinase has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of a wide range of human neurodegenerative, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases. This was supported by extensive studies which demonstrated that RIPK1 is a key mediator of apoptotic and necrotic cell death as well as inflammatory pathways. Furthermore, human... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Alexei Degterev, Dimitry Ofengeim, Junying Yuan Tags: Inaugural Articles Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Nanomechanics of cellulose deformation reveal molecular defects that facilitate natural deconstruction [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Technologies surrounding utilization of cellulosic materials have been integral to human society for millennia. In many materials, controlled introduction of defects provides a means to tailor properties, introduce reactivity, and modulate functionality for various applications. The importance of defects in defining the behavior of cellulose is becoming increasingly recognized. However,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Peter N. Ciesielski, Ryan Wagner, Vivek S. Bharadwaj, Jason Killgore, Ashutosh Mittal, Gregg T. Beckham, Stephen R. Decker, Michael E. Himmel, Michael F. Crowley Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Family of neural wiring receptors in bilaterians defined by phylogenetic, biochemical, and structural evidence [Biochemistry]
The evolution of complex nervous systems was accompanied by the expansion of numerous protein families, including cell-adhesion molecules, surface receptors, and their ligands. These proteins mediate axonal guidance, synapse targeting, and other neuronal wiring-related functions. Recently, 32 interacting cell surface proteins belonging to two newly defined families of the Ig... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Shouqiang Cheng, Yeonwoo Park, Justyna D. Kurleto, Mili Jeon, Kai Zinn, Joseph W. Thornton, Engin Ozkan Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Growth model interpretation of planet size distribution [Astronomy]
The radii and orbital periods of 4,000+ confirmed/candidate exoplanets have been precisely measured by the Kepler mission. The radii show a bimodal distribution, with two peaks corresponding to smaller planets (likely rocky) and larger intermediate-size planets, respectively. While only the masses of the planets orbiting the brightest stars can be... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Li Zeng, Stein B. Jacobsen, Dimitar D. Sasselov, Michail I. Petaev, Andrew Vanderburg, Mercedes Lopez-Morales, Juan Perez-Mercader, Thomas R. Mattsson, Gongjie Li, Matthew Z. Heising, Aldo S. Bonomo, Mario Damasso, Travis A. Berger, Hao Cao, Amit Levi, Ro Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Inner Workings: Search intensifies for primordial gravitational waves [Astronomy]
In March 2014, researchers who had been working at the South Pole made a stunning announcement: With a telescope called BICEP2 (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization), they had found evidence of primordial gravitational waves, or ripples in the fabric of spacetime produced in the first fractions of a second... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Anil Ananthaswamy Tags: Inner Workings, Front Matter Source Type: research

Influenza A virus mimetic nanoparticles trigger selective cell uptake [Applied Biological Sciences]
Poor target cell specificity is currently a major shortcoming of nanoparticles (NPs) used for biomedical applications. It causes significant material loss to off-target sites and poor availability at the intended delivery site. To overcome this limitation, we designed particles that identify cells in a virus-like manner. As a blueprint, we... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Sara Maslanka Figueroa, Anika Veser, Kathrin Abstiens, Daniel Fleischmann, Sebastian Beck, Achim Goepferich Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Archaic human remains from Hualongdong, China, and Middle Pleistocene human continuity and variation [Anthropology]
Middle to Late Pleistocene human evolution in East Asia has remained controversial regarding the extent of morphological continuity through archaic humans and to modern humans. Newly found ∼300,000-y-old human remains from Hualongdong (HLD), China, including a largely complete skull (HLD 6), share East Asian Middle Pleistocene (MPl) human traits of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Xiu-Jie Wu, Shu-Wen Pei, Yan-Jun Cai, Hao-Wen Tong, Qiang Li, Zhe Dong, Jin-Chao Sheng, Ze-Tian Jin, Dong-Dong Ma, Song Xing, Xiao-Li Li, Xing Cheng, Hai Cheng, Ignacio de la Torre, R. Lawrence Edwards, Xi-Cheng Gong, Zhi-Sheng An, Erik Trinkaus, Wu Liu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Tinbergen’s challenge for the neuroscience of behavior [Neuroscience]
Nobel laureate Nikolaas Tinbergen provided clear criteria for declaring a neuroscience problem solved, criteria which despite the passage of more than 50 years and vastly expanded neuroscience tool kits remain applicable today. Tinbergen said for neuroscientists to claim that a behavior is understood, they must correspondingly understand its (i) development... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Donald Pfaff, Inna Tabansky, Wulf Haubensak Tags: Perspective Source Type: research

Role for the shoot apical meristem in the specification of juvenile leaf identity in Arabidopsis [Plant Biology]
The extent to which the shoot apical meristem (SAM) controls developmental decisions, rather than interpreting them, is a longstanding issue in plant development. Previous work suggests that vegetative phase change is regulated by signals intrinsic and extrinsic to the SAM, but the relative importance of these signals for this process... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Jim P. Fouracre, R. Scott Poethig Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Soluble CX3CL1 gene therapy improves cone survival and function in mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa [Neuroscience]
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a disease that initially presents as night blindness due to genetic deficits in the rod photoreceptors of the retina. Rods then die, causing dysfunction and death of cone photoreceptors, the cell type that mediates high acuity and color vision, ultimately leading to blindness. We investigated immune... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Sean K. Wang, Yunlu Xue, Parimal Rana, Christin M. Hong, Constance L. Cepko Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Gene expression in oligodendrocytes during remyelination reveals cholesterol homeostasis as a therapeutic target in multiple sclerosis [Neuroscience]
Regional differences in neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia exist in the brain during health, and regional differences in the transcriptome may occur for each cell type during neurodegeneration. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is multifocal, and regional differences in the astrocyte transcriptome occur in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an MS model. MS... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Rhonda R. Voskuhl, Noriko Itoh, Alessia Tassoni, Macy Akiyo Matsukawa, Emily Ren, Vincent Tse, Ellis Jang, Timothy Takazo Suen, Yuichiro Itoh Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Optogenetic fMRI interrogation of brain-wide central vestibular pathways [Neuroscience]
Blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI (fMRI) constitutes a powerful neuroimaging technology to map brain-wide functions in response to specific sensory or cognitive tasks. However, fMRI mapping of the vestibular system, which is pivotal for our sense of balance, poses significant challenges. Physical constraints limit a subject’s ability to perform motion-... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Alex T. L. Leong, Yong Gu, Ying-Shing Chan, Hairong Zheng, Celia M. Dong, Russell W. Chan, Xunda Wang, Yilong Liu, Li Hai Tan, Ed X. Wu Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

An oscillator model better predicts cortical entrainment to music [Neuroscience]
A body of research demonstrates convincingly a role for synchronization of auditory cortex to rhythmic structure in sounds including speech and music. Some studies hypothesize that an oscillator in auditory cortex could underlie important temporal processes such as segmentation and prediction. An important critique of these findings raises the plausible... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - May 14, 2019 Category: Science Authors: Keith B. Doelling, M. Florencia Assaneo, Dana Bevilacqua, Bijan Pesaran, David Poeppel Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research