Correction for Brutsaert et al., Association of EGLN1 gene with high aerobic capacity of Peruvian Quechua at high altitude [Correction]
ANTHROPOLOGY Correction for “Association of EGLN1 gene with high aerobic capacity of Peruvian Quechua at high altitude,” by Tom D. Brutsaert, Melisa Kiyamu, Gianpietro Elias Revollendo, Jenna L. Isherwood, Frank S. Lee, Maria Rivera-Ch, Fabiola Leon-Velarde, Sudipta Ghosh, and Abigail W. Bigham, which was first published November 11, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1906171116... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Correction for Hammond et al., Insights into the lower torso in late Miocene hominoid Oreopithecus bambolii [Correction]
ANTHROPOLOGY Correction for “Insights into the lower torso in late Miocene hominoid Oreopithecus bambolii,” by Ashley S. Hammond, Lorenzo Rook, Alisha D. Anaya, Elisabetta Cioppi, Loïc Costeur, Salvador Moyà-Solà, and Sergio Almécija, which was first published December 23, 2019; 10.1073/pnas.1911896116 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 278–284). The editors note... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Correction for Yu et al., Wildfire prevention through prophylactic treatment of high-risk landscapes using viscoelastic retardant fluids [Correction]
APPLIED PHYSICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Wildfire prevention through prophylactic treatment of high-risk landscapes using viscoelastic retardant fluids,” by Anthony C. Yu, Hector Lopez Hernandez, Andrew H. Kim, Lyndsay M. Stapleton, Reuben J. Brand, Eric T. Mellor, Cameron P. Bauer, Gregory D. McCurdy, Albert J. Wolff III, Doreen Chan, Craig S.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Molecular adaptations of the blood-brain barrier promote stress resilience vs. depression [Systems Biology]
Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that inflammation and vascular dysfunction contribute to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). Chronic social stress alters blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity through loss of tight junction protein claudin-5 (cldn5) in male mice, promoting passage of circulating proinflammatory cytokines and depression-like behaviors. This effect is... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Katarzyna A. Dudek, Laurence Dion-Albert, Manon Lebel, Katherine LeClair, Simon Labrecque, Ellen Tuck, Carmen Ferrer Perez, Sam A. Golden, Carol Tamminga, Gustavo Turecki, Naguib Mechawar, Scott J. Russo, Caroline Menard Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Designing effective control of dengue with combined interventions [Systems Biology]
Viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, such as dengue, Zika, and chikungunya, have expanding ranges and seem unabated by current vector control programs. Effective control of these pathogens likely requires integrated approaches. We evaluated dengue management options in an endemic setting that combine novel vector control and vaccination using an agent-based... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Thomas J. Hladish, Carl A. B. Pearson, Kok Ben Toh, Diana Patricia Rojas, Pablo Manrique-Saide, Gonzalo M. Vazquez-Prokopec, M. Elizabeth Halloran, Ira M. Longini Jr Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Reassessing enzyme kinetics: Considering protease-as-substrate interactions in proteolytic networks [Systems Biology]
Enzymes are catalysts in biochemical reactions that, by definition, increase rates of reactions without being altered or destroyed. However, when that enzyme is a protease, a subclass of enzymes that hydrolyze other proteins, and that protease is in a multiprotease system, protease-as-substrate dynamics must be included, challenging assumptions of enzyme... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Meghan C. Ferrall-Fairbanks, Chris A. Kieslich, Manu O. Platt Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Genome-scale transcriptional dynamics and environmental biosensing [Systems Biology]
Genome-scale technologies have enabled mapping of the complex molecular networks that govern cellular behavior. An emerging theme in the analyses of these networks is that cells use many layers of regulatory feedback to constantly assess and precisely react to their environment. The importance of complex feedback in controlling the real-time... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Garrett Graham, Nicholas Csicsery, Elizabeth Stasiowski, Gregoire Thouvenin, William H. Mather, Michael Ferry, Scott Cookson, Jeff Hasty Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Diversity buffers winegrowing regions from climate change losses [Sustainability Science]
Agrobiodiversity—the variation within agricultural plants, animals, and practices—is often suggested as a way to mitigate the negative impacts of climate change on crops [S. A. Wood et al., Trends Ecol. Evol. 30, 531–539 (2015)]. Recently, increasing research and attention has focused on exploiting the intraspecific genetic variation within a crop... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Ignacio Morales–Castilla, Inaki Garcia de Cortazar–Atauri, Benȷamin I. Cook, Thierry Lacombe, Amber Parker, Cornelis van Leeuwen, Kimberly A. Nicholas, Elizabeth M. Wolkovich Tags: Sustainability Science Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Market integration accounts for local variation in generalized altruism in a nationwide lost-letter experiment [Social Sciences]
What explains variation in levels of prosocial behavior across communities? And are members of the ingroup and outgroup treated differently? According to evolutionary theories of generalized altruism, market integration should lead to greater levels of prosociality: Market exchange forces people to interact with unknown others, thus creating the conditions for... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Delia Baldassarri Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

How social network sites and other online intermediaries increase exposure to news [Social Sciences]
People can come across news and other internet offerings in a variety of ways, for example, by visiting their favorite websites, using search engines, or following recommendations from contacts on social media (1). These routes do not necessarily lead people to the same venues. While traditionally considered as an important... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Michael Scharkow, Frank Mangold, Sebastian Stier, Johannes Breuer Tags: Brief Reports Social Sciences Source Type: research

Uncertainty in learning, choice, and visual fixation [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Uncertainty plays a critical role in reinforcement learning and decision making. However, exactly how it influences behavior remains unclear. Multiarmed-bandit tasks offer an ideal test bed, since computational tools such as approximate Kalman filters can closely characterize the interplay between trial-by-trial values, uncertainty, learning, and choice. To gain additional insight... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Hrvoȷe Stoȷić, Jacob L. Orquin, Peter Dayan, Raymond J. Dolan, Maarten Speekenbrink Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Transformation of speech sequences in human sensorimotor circuits [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
After we listen to a series of words, we can silently replay them in our mind. Does this mental replay involve a reactivation of our original perceptual dynamics? We recorded electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity across the lateral cerebral cortex as people heard and then mentally rehearsed spoken sentences. For each region,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kathrin Musch, Kevin Himberger, Kean Ming Tan, Taufik A. Valiante, Christopher J. Honey Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Reciprocity and behavioral heterogeneity govern the stability of social networks [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
The dynamics of social networks can determine the transmission of information, the spread of diseases, and the evolution of behavior. Despite this broad importance, a general framework for predicting social network stability has not been proposed. Here we present longitudinal data on the social dynamics of a cooperative bird species,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Roslyn Dakin, T. Brandt Ryder Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

ARABIDOPSIS DEHISCENCE ZONE POLYGALACTURONASE 1 (ADPG1) releases latent defense signals in stems with reduced lignin content [Plant Biology]
There is considerable interest in engineering plant cell wall components, particularly lignin, to improve forage quality and biomass properties for processing to fuels and bioproducts. However, modifying lignin content and/or composition in transgenic plants through down-regulation of lignin biosynthetic enzymes can induce expression of defense response genes in the absence... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Lina Gallego-Giraldo, Chang Liu, Sara Pose-Albacete, Sivakumar Pattathil, Angelo Gabriel Peralta, Jenna Young, Jan Westpheling, Michael G. Hahn, Xiaolan Rao, J. Paul Knox, Barbara De Meester, Wout Boerjan, Richard A. Dixon Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Mapping proteome-wide targets of protein kinases in plant stress responses [Plant Biology]
Protein kinases are major regulatory components in almost all cellular processes in eukaryotic cells. By adding phosphate groups, protein kinases regulate the activity, localization, protein–protein interactions, and other features of their target proteins. It is known that protein kinases are central components in plant responses to environmental stresses such as... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Pengcheng Wang, Chuan-Chih Hsu, Yanyan Du, Peipei Zhu, Chunzhao Zhao, Xing Fu, Chunguang Zhang, Juan Sebastian Paez, Alberto P. Macho, W. Andy Tao, Jian-Kang Zhu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Central clock components modulate plant shade avoidance by directly repressing transcriptional activation activity of PIF proteins [Plant Biology]
Light-environment signals, sensed by plant phytochrome photoreceptors, are transduced to target genes through direct regulation of PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) transcription factor abundance and activity. Previous genome-wide DNA-binding and expression analysis has identified a set of genes that are direct targets of PIF transcriptional regulation. However, quantitative analysis of promoter occupancy... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yu Zhang, Anne Pfeiffer, James M. Tepperman, Jutta Dalton-Roesler, Pablo Leivar, Eduardo Gonzalez Grandio, Peter H. Quail Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Theory of the strange metal Sr3Ru2O7 [Physics]
The bilayer perovskite Sr3Ru2O7 has been widely studied as a canonical strange metal. It exhibits T-linear resistivity and a T log(1/T) electronic specific heat in a field-tuned quantum critical fan. Criticality is known to occur in “hot” Fermi pockets with a high density of states close to the Fermi energy.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Connie H. Mousatov, Erez Berg, Sean A. Hartnoll Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

The Nernst effect in Corbino geometry [Physics]
We study the manifestation of the Nernst effect in the Corbino disk subjected to the normal external magnetic field and to the radial temperature gradient. The Corbino geometry offers a precious opportunity for the direct measurement of the magnetization currents that are masked by kinetic contributions to the Nernst current... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: A. V. Kavokin, B. L. Altshuler, S. G. Sharapov, P. S. Grigoryev, A. A. Varlamov Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Removing a single neuron in a vertebrate brain forever abolishes an essential behavior [Neuroscience]
The giant Mauthner (M) cell is the largest neuron known in the vertebrate brain. It has enabled major breakthroughs in neuroscience but its ultimate function remains surprisingly unclear: An actual survival value of M cell-mediated escapes has never been supported experimentally and ablating the cell repeatedly failed to eliminate all... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Alexander Hecker, Wolfram Schulze, Jakob Oster, David O. Richter, Stefan Schuster Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Conservative and disruptive modes of adolescent change in human brain functional connectivity [Neuroscience]
Adolescent changes in human brain function are not entirely understood. Here, we used multiecho functional MRI (fMRI) to measure developmental change in functional connectivity (FC) of resting-state oscillations between pairs of 330 cortical regions and 16 subcortical regions in 298 healthy adolescents scanned 520 times. Participants were aged 14 to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: František Vaša, Rafael Romero–Garcia, Manfred G. Kitzbichler, Jakob Seidlitz, Kirstie J. Whitaker, Matilde M. Vaghi, Prantik Kundu, Ameera X. Patel, Peter Fonagy, Raymond J. Dolan, Peter B. Jones, Ian M. Goodyer, the NSPN Consortium, Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Serotonergic afferents from the dorsal raphe decrease the excitability of pyramidal neurons in the anterior piriform cortex [Neuroscience]
The olfactory system receives extensive serotonergic inputs from the dorsal raphe, a nucleus involved in control of behavior, regulation of mood, and modulation of sensory processing. Although many studies have investigated how serotonin modulates the olfactory bulb, few have focused on the anterior piriform cortex (aPC), a region important for... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Dejuan Wang, Xiaojie Wang, Penglai Liu, Siqi Jing, Han Du, Lingzhi Zhang, Fan Jia, Anan Li Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Simple spike dynamics of Purkinje cells in the macaque vestibulo-cerebellum during passive whole-body self-motion [Neuroscience]
Theories of cerebellar functions posit that the cerebellum implements internal models for online correction of motor actions and sensory estimation. As an example of such computations, an internal model resolves a sensory ambiguity where the peripheral otolith organs in the inner ear sense both head tilts and translations. Here we... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Jean Laurens, Dora E. Angelaki Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

A qualitative solution with quantitative potential for the mouse hippocampal cortex flatmap problem [Neuroscience]
The hippocampal formation (HPF) is a focus of intense experimental investigation, particularly because of its roles in conscious memory consolidation, spatial navigation, emotion, and motivated behaviors. However, the HPF has a complex three-dimensional geometry resulting from extreme curvature of its layers, and this presents a challenge for investigators seeking to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Larry W. Swanson, Joel D. Hahn Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

SYNPLA, a method to identify synapses displaying plasticity after learning [Neuroscience]
Which neural circuits undergo synaptic changes when an animal learns? Although it is widely accepted that changes in synaptic strength underlie many forms of learning and memory, it remains challenging to connect changes in synaptic strength at specific neural pathways to specific behaviors and memories. Here we introduce SYNPLA (synaptic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kim Dore, Yvonne Pao, Jose Soria Lopez, Sage Aronson, Huiqing Zhan, Sanchari Ghosh, Sabina Merrill, Anthony M. Zador, Roberto Malinow, Justus M. Kebschull Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Wireless, battery-free subdermally implantable photometry systems for chronic recording of neural dynamics [Neuroscience]
Recording cell-specific neuronal activity while monitoring behaviors of freely moving subjects can provide some of the most significant insights into brain function. Current means for monitoring calcium dynamics in genetically targeted populations of neurons rely on delivery of light and recording of fluorescent signals through optical fibers that can reduce... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Alex Burton, Sofian N. Obaid, Abraham Vazquez–Guardado, Matthew B. Schmit, Tucker Stuart, Le Cai, Zhiyuan Chen, Irawati Kandela, Chad R. Haney, Emily A. Waters, Haiȷiang Cai, John A. Rogers, Luyao Lu, Philipp Gutruf Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Antibiotic resistance by high-level intrinsic suppression of a frameshift mutation in an essential gene [Microbiology]
A fundamental feature of life is that ribosomes read the genetic code in messenger RNA (mRNA) as triplets of nucleotides in a single reading frame. Mutations that shift the reading frame generally cause gene inactivation and in essential genes cause loss of viability. Here we report and characterize a +1-nt... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Douglas L. Huseby, Gerrit Brandis, Lisa Praski Alzrigat, Diarmaid Hughes Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Orchestration of human macrophage NLRP3 inflammasome activation by Staphylococcus aureus extracellular vesicles [Microbiology]
Release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is a common feature among eukaryotes, archaea, and bacteria. However, the biogenesis and downstream biological effects of EVs released from gram-positive bacteria remain poorly characterized. Here, we report that EVs purified from a community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain were internalized into human macrophages in vitro... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Xiaogang Wang, William J. Eagen, Jean C. Lee Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Pseudomonas aeruginosa lasR mutant fitness in microoxia is supported by an Anr-regulated oxygen-binding hemerythrin [Microbiology]
Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains with loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor LasR are frequently encountered in the clinic and the environment. Among the characteristics common to LasR-defective (LasR−) strains is increased activity of the transcription factor Anr, relative to their LasR+ counterparts, in low-oxygen conditions. One of the Anr-regulated genes found... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Michelle E. Clay, John H. Hammond, Fangfang Zhong, Xiaolei Chen, Caitlin H. Kowalski, Alexandra J. Lee, Monique S. Porter, Thomas H. Hampton, Casey S. Greene, Ekaterina V. Pletneva, Deborah A. Hogan Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

High-complexity extracellular barcoding using a viral hemagglutinin [Microbiology]
While single-cell sequencing technologies have revealed tissue heterogeneity, resolving mixed cellular libraries into cellular clones is essential for many pooled screens and clonal lineage tracing. Fluorescent proteins are limited in number, while DNA barcodes can only be read after cell lysis. To overcome these limitations, we used influenza virus hemagglutinins... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Gavriel Mullokandov, Gayathri Vijayakumar, Paul Leon, Carole Henry, Patrick C. Wilson, Florian Krammer, Peter Palese, Brian D. Brown Tags: Brief Reports Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Histamine receptor agonist alleviates severe cardiorenal damages by eliciting anti-inflammatory programming [Medical Sciences]
Heart failure and chronic kidney disease are major causes of morbidity and mortality internationally. Although these dysfunctions are common and frequently coexist, the factors involved in their relationship in cardiorenal regulation are still largely unknown, mainly due to a lack of detailed molecular targets. Here, we found the increased plasma... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kazuyuki Noguchi, Junji Ishida, Jun-Dal Kim, Naoto Muromachi, Koichiro Kako, Hayase Mizukami, Weizhe Lu, Tomohiro Ishimaru, Shohei Kawasaki, Shuzo Kaneko, Joichi Usui, Hiroshi Ohtsu, Kunihiro Yamagata, Akiyoshi Fukamizu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance imaging of glycogen using its magnetic coupling with water [Medical Sciences]
We report an MRI method for imaging glycogen noninvasively with enhanced detection sensitivity and high specificity, using the magnetic coupling between glycogen and water protons through the nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE). We show in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yang Zhou, Peter C. M. van Zijl, Xiang Xu, Jiadi Xu, Yuguo Li, Lin Chen, Nirbhay N. Yadav Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

FOXO1 and FOXO3 transcription factors have unique functions in meniscus development and homeostasis during aging and osteoarthritis [Medical Sciences]
The objective of this study was to examine FoxO expression and FoxO function in meniscus. In menisci from human knee joints with osteoarthritis (OA), FoxO1 and 3 expression were significantly reduced compared with normal menisci from young and old normal donors. The expression of FoxO1 and 3 was also significantly... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kwang Il Lee, Sungwook Choi, Tokio Matsuzaki, Oscar Alvarez–Garcia, Merissa Olmer, Shawn P. Grogan, Darryl D. D’Lima, Martin K. Lotz Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Remethylation of Dnmt3a-/- hematopoietic cells is associated with partial correction of gene dysregulation and reduced myeloid skewing [Medical Sciences]
Mutations in the DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) gene are the most common cause of age-related clonal hematopoiesis (ARCH) in older individuals, and are among the most common initiating events for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The most frequent DNMT3A mutation in AML patients (R882H) encodes a dominant-negative protein that reduces methyltransferase... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Shamika Ketkar, Angela M. Verdoni, Amanda M. Smith, Celia V. Bangert, Elizabeth R. Leight, David Y. Chen, Meryl K. Brune, Nichole M. Helton, Mieke Hoock, Daniel R. George, Catrina Fronick, Robert S. Fulton, Sai Mukund Ramakrishnan, Gue Su Chang, Allegra A Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Optimization of a Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein repeat vaccine using the tobacco mosaic virus platform [Immunology and Inflammation]
Plasmodium falciparum vaccine RTS,S/AS01 is based on the major NPNA repeat and the C-terminal region of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP). RTS,S-induced NPNA-specific antibody titer and avidity have been associated with high-level protection in naïve subjects, but efficacy and longevity in target populations is relatively low. In an effort to improve... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Mark D. Langowski, Farhat A. Khan, Alexis A. Bitzer, Christopher J. Genito, Andrew J. Schrader, Monica L. Martin, Kimberly Soto, Xiaoyan Zou, Sri Hadiwidjojo, Zoltan Beck, Gary R. Matyas, Merricka C. Livingstone, Adrian H. Batchelor, Sheetij Dutta Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

IL-4 controls activated neutrophil Fc{gamma}R2b expression and migration into inflamed ȷoints [Immunology and Inflammation]
Neutrophils are the most abundant immune cells found in actively inflamed joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and most animal models for RA depend on neutrophils for the induction of joint inflammation. Exogenous IL-4 and IL-13 protect mice from antibody-mediated joint inflammation, although the mechanism is not understood. Neutrophils... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Sudeepta Kumar Panda, Gustaf Wigerblad, Long Jiang, Yanek Jimenez–Andrade, Vaishnavi Srinivasan Iyer, Yunbing Shen, Sanȷaykumar V. Boddul, Andre Ortlieb Guerreiro–Cacais, Bruno Raposo, Zsolt Kasza, Fredrik Wermeling Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Allosteric activation of MALT1 by its ubiquitin-binding Ig3 domain [Immunology and Inflammation]
The catalytic activity of the protease MALT1 is required for adaptive immune responses and regulatory T (Treg)-cell development, while dysregulated MALT1 activity can lead to lymphoma. MALT1 activation requires its monoubiquitination on lysine 644 (K644) within the Ig3 domain, localized adjacent to the protease domain. The molecular requirements for MALT1... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Rebekka Schairer, Gareth Hall, Ming Zhang, Richard Cowan, Roberta Baravalle, Frederick W. Muskett, Peter J. Coombs, Chido Mpamhanga, Lisa R. Hale, Barbara Saxty, Justyna Iwaszkiewicz, Chantal Decaillet, Mai Perroud, Mark D. Carr, Margot Thome Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

ECM1 is an essential factor for the determination of M1 macrophage polarization in IBD in response to LPS stimulation [Immunology and Inflammation]
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises chronic relapsing disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized pathologically by intestinal inflammation and epithelial injury. Here, we uncover a function of extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) in promoting the pathogenesis of human and mouse IBD. ECM1 was highly expressed in macrophages, particularly tissue-infiltrated macrophages under... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yaguang Zhang, Xuezhen Li, Zhongguang Luo, Liyan Ma, Songling Zhu, Zhishuo Wang, Jing Wen, Shipeng Cheng, Wangpeng Gu, Qiaoshi Lian, Xinhao Zhao, Weiguo Fan, Zhiyang Ling, Jing Ye, Songguo Zheng, Dangsheng Li, Hongyan Wang, Jie Liu, Bing Sun Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Dysregulation of TLR9 in neonates leads to fatal inflammatory disease driven by IFN-{gamma} [Immunology and Inflammation]
Recognition of self-nucleic acids by innate immune receptors can lead to the development of autoimmune and/or autoinflammatory diseases. Elucidating mechanisms associated with dysregulated activation of specific receptors may identify new disease correlates and enable more effective therapies. Here we describe an aggressive in vivo model of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 9... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Alison G. Stanbery, Zachary R. Newman, Gregory M. Barton Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

A molecular basis for the T cell response in HLA-DQ2.2 mediated celiac disease [Immunology and Inflammation]
The highly homologous human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 molecules, HLA-DQ2.5 and HLA-DQ2.2, are implicated in the pathogenesis of celiac disease (CeD) by presenting gluten peptides to CD4+ T cells. However, while HLA-DQ2.5 is strongly associated with disease, HLA-DQ2.2 is not, and the molecular basis underpinning this differential disease association is unresolved.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Yi Tian Ting, Shiva Dahal-Koirala, Hui Shi Keshia Kim, Shuo-Wang Qiao, Ralf S. Neumann, Knut E. A. Lundin, Jan Petersen, Hugh H. Reid, Ludvig M. Sollid, Jamie Rossjohn Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Regulation of adipose tissue inflammation by interleukin 6 [Immunology and Inflammation]
Obesity is associated with a chronic state of low-grade inflammation and progressive tissue infiltration by immune cells and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. It is established that interleukin 6 (IL6) regulates multiple aspects of metabolism, including glucose disposal, lipolysis, oxidative metabolism, and energy expenditure. IL6 is secreted by many tissues,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Myoung Sook Han, Alexis White, Rachel J. Perry, Joao-Paulo Camporez, Juan Hidalgo, Gerald I. Shulman, Roger J. Davis Tags: Inaugural Articles Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Evolutionary dynamics of recent selection on cognitive abilities [Evolution]
Cognitive abilities can vary dramatically among species. The relative importance of social and ecological challenges in shaping cognitive evolution has been the subject of a long-running and recently renewed debate, but little work has sought to understand the selective dynamics underlying the evolution of cognitive abilities. Here, we investigate recent... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Sara E. Miller, Andrew W. Legan, Michael T. Henshaw, Katherine L. Ostevik, Kieran Samuk, Floria M. K. Uy, Michael J. Sheehan Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Ontogeny of the anuran urostyle and the developmental context of evolutionary novelty [Evolution]
Developmental novelties often underlie the evolutionary origins of key metazoan features. The anuran urostyle, which evolved nearly 200 MYA, is one such structure. It forms as the tail regresses during metamorphosis, when locomotion changes from an axial-driven mode in larvae to a limb-driven one in adult frogs. The urostyle comprises... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Gayani Senevirathne, Stephanie Baumgart, Nathaniel Shubin, James Hanken, Neil H. Shubin Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Impact of past climate warming on genomic diversity and demographic history of collared lemmings across the Eurasian Arctic [Evolution]
The Arctic climate was warmer than today at the last interglacial and the Holocene thermal optimum. To reveal the impact of past climate-warming events on the demographic history of an Arctic specialist, we examined both mitochondrial and nuclear genomic variation in the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus, Pallas), a keystone species... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Vadim B. Fedorov, Emiliano Trucchi, Anna V. Goropashnaya, Eric Waltari, Susan Erin Whidden, Nils Chr. Stenseth Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Declines in an abundant aquatic insect, the burrowing mayfly, across major North American waterways [Environmental Sciences]
Seasonal animal movement among disparate habitats is a fundamental mechanism by which energy, nutrients, and biomass are transported across ecotones. A dramatic example of such exchange is the annual emergence of mayfly swarms from freshwater benthic habitats, but their characterization at macroscales has remained impossible. We analyzed radar observations of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Phillip M. Stepanian, Sally A. Entrekin, Charlotte E. Wainwright, Djordje Mirkovic, Jennifer L. Tank, Jeffrey F. Kelly Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The role of forest conversion, degradation, and disturbance in the carbon dynamics of Amazon indigenous territories and protected areas [Environmental Sciences]
Maintaining the abundance of carbon stored aboveground in Amazon forests is central to any comprehensive climate stabilization strategy. Growing evidence points to indigenous peoples and local communities (IPLCs) as buffers against large-scale carbon emissions across a nine-nation network of indigenous territories (ITs) and protected natural areas (PNAs). Previous studies have... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Wayne S. Walker, Seth R. Gorelik, Alessandro Baccini, Jose Luis Aragon–Oseȷo, Carmen Josse, Chris Meyer, Marcia N. Macedo, Cicero Augusto, Sandra Rios, Tuntiak Katan, Alana Almeida de Souza, Saul Cuellar, Andres Llanos, Irene Zager, Gregorio Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Ocean sentinel albatrosses locate illegal vessels and provide the first estimate of the extent of nondeclared fishing [Environmental Sciences]
With threats to nature becoming increasingly prominent, in order for biodiversity levels to persist, there is a critical need to improve implementation of conservation measures. In the oceans, the surveillance of fisheries is complex and inadequate, such that quantifying and locating nondeclared and illegal fisheries is persistently problematic. Given that... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Henri Weimerskirch, Julien Collet, Alexandre Corbeau, Adrien Paȷot, Floran Hoarau, Cedric Marteau, Dominique Filippi, Samantha C. Patrick Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Fire synchronizes flowering and boosts reproduction in a widespread but declining prairie species [Ecology]
Fire is an important determinant of habitat structure and biodiversity across ecosystems worldwide. In fire-dependent communities, similar to the North American prairie, fire suppression contributes to local plant extinctions. Yet the demographic mechanisms responsible for species loss have not been directly investigated. We conducted a 21-y longitudinal study of 778... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Stuart Wagenius, Jared Beck, Gretel Kiefer Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Influence of Arctic sea-ice variability on Pacific trade winds [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
A conceptual model connecting seasonal loss of Arctic sea ice to midlatitude extreme weather events is applied to the 21st-century intensification of Central Pacific trade winds, emergence of Central Pacific El Nino events, and weakening of the North Pacific Aleutian Low Circulation. According to the model, Arctic Ocean warming following... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Charles F. Kennel, Elena Yulaeva Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Designing a hybrid electrode toward high energy density with a staged Li+ and PF6- deintercalation/intercalation mechanism [Chemistry]
Existing lithium-ion battery technology is struggling to meet our increasing requirements for high energy density, long lifetime, and low-cost energy storage. Here, a hybrid electrode design is developed by a straightforward reengineering of commercial electrode materials, which has revolutionized the “rocking chair” mechanism by unlocking the role of anions in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Junnan Hao, Fuhua Yang, Shilin Zhang, Hanna He, Guanglin Xia, Yajie Liu, Christophe Didier, Tongchao Liu, Wei Kong Pang, Vanessa K. Peterson, Jun Lu, Zaiping Guo Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Sum frequency generation, calculation of absolute intensities, comparison with experiments, and two-field relaxation-based derivation [Chemistry]
The experimental sum frequency generation (SFG) spectrum is the response to an infrared pulse and a visible pulse and is a highly surface-sensitive technique. We treat the surface dangling OH bonds at the air/water interface and focus on the absolute SFG intensities for the resonant terms, a focus that permits... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - February 11, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Kai Niu, Rudolph A. Marcus Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research