Correction for CaraDonna et al., Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community [Correction]
ECOLOGY Correction for “Shifts in flowering phenology reshape a subalpine plant community,” by Paul J. CaraDonna, Amy M. Iler, and David W. Inouye, which was first published March 17, 2014; 10.1073/pnas.1323073111 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111:4916–4921). The authors note that Fig. 3 appeared incorrectly. The corrected figure and its... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Correction for Lee et al., Altered ER-mitochondria contact impacts mitochondria calcium homeostasis and contributes to neurodegeneration in vivo in disease models [Correction]
APPLIED BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Correction for “Altered ER–mitochondria contact impacts mitochondria calcium homeostasis and contributes to neurodegeneration in vivo in disease models,” by Kyu-Sun Lee, Sungun Huh, Seongsoo Lee, Zhihao Wu, Ae-Kyeong Kim, Ha-Young Kang, and Bingwei Lu, which was first published September 5, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1721136115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Tags: Corrections Source Type: research

Correction for Sanchez et al., Near-term deployment of carbon capture and sequestration from biorefineries in the United States [Correction]
SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Correction for “Near-term deployment of carbon capture and sequestration from biorefineries in the United States,” by Daniel L. Sanchez, Nils Johnson, Sean T. McCoy, Peter A. Turner, and Katharine J. Mach, which was first published April 23, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1719695115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:4875–4880). The authors note... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Tags: Sustainability Science Corrections Source Type: research

Drought losses in China might double between the 1.5 {degrees}C and 2.0 {degrees}C warming [Sustainability Science]
We project drought losses in China under global temperature increase of 1.5 °C and 2.0 °C, based on the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) and the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), a cluster analysis method, and “intensity-loss rate” function. In contrast to earlier studies, to project the drought losses, we... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Buda Su, Jinlong Huang, Thomas Fischer, Yanjun Wang, Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz, Jianqing Zhai, Hemin Sun, Anqian Wang, Xiaofan Zeng, Guojie Wang, Hui Tao, Marco Gemmer, Xiucang Li, Tong Jiang Tags: Sustainability Science Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Racial disparities in pollution exposure and employment at US industrial facilities [Social Sciences]
Proximity to industrial facilities can have positive employment effects as well as negative pollution exposure impacts on surrounding communities. Although racial disparities in exposure to industrial air pollution in the United States are well documented, there has been little empirical investigation of whether these disparities are mirrored by employment benefits.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Michael Ash, James K. Boyce Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Intergroup social influence on emotion processing in the brain [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Emotions usually occur in a social context; yet little is known about how similar and dissimilar others influence our emotions. In the current study, we examined whether ingroup and outgroup members have differential influence on emotion processing at the behavioral and neural levels. To this end, we recruited 45 participants... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Lynda C. Lin, Yang Qu, Eva H. Telzer Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

Using a natural experiment to estimate the electoral consequences of terrorist attacks [Political Sciences]
This study investigates the consequences of terrorist attacks for political behavior by leveraging a natural experiment in Spain. We study eight attacks against civilians, members of the military, and police officers perpetrated between 1989 and 1997 by Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA), a Basque terrorist organization that was active between 1958... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Laia Balcells, Gerard Torrats-Espinosa Tags: Social Sciences Source Type: research

HEIP1 regulates crossover formation during meiosis in rice [Plant Biology]
During meiosis, the number of double-strand breaks (DSBs) far exceeds the final number of crossovers (COs). Therefore, to identify proteins involved in determining which of these DSBs repaired into COs is critical in understanding the mechanism of CO control. Across species, HEI10-related proteins play important roles in CO formation. Here,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Yafei Li, Baoxiang Qin, Yi Shen, Fanfan Zhang, Changzhen Liu, Hanli You, Guijie Du, Ding Tang, Zhukuan Cheng Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Active apolar doping determines routes to colloidal clusters and gels [Physics]
Collections of interacting active particles, self-propelling or not, have shown remarkable phenomena including the emergence of dynamic patterns across different length scales, from animal groups to vibrated grains, microtubules, bacteria, and chemical- or field-driven colloids. Burgeoning experimental and simulation activities are now exploring the possibility of realizing solid and stable... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Helena Massana-Cid, Joan Codina, Ignacio Pagonabarraga, Pietro Tierno Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Submegabase copy number variations arise during cerebral cortical neurogenesis as revealed by single-cell whole-genome sequencing [Neuroscience]
Somatic copy number variations (CNVs) exist in the brain, but their genesis, prevalence, forms, and biological impact remain unclear, even within experimentally tractable animal models. We combined a transposase-based amplification (TbA) methodology for single-cell whole-genome sequencing with a bioinformatic approach for filtering unreliable CNVs (FUnC), developed from machine learning trained... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Suzanne Rohrback, Craig April, Fiona Kaper, Richard R. Rivera, Christine S. Liu, Benjamin Siddoway, Jerold Chun Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Grid-like hexadirectional modulation of human entorhinal theta oscillations [Neuroscience]
The entorhinal cortex contains a network of grid cells that play a fundamental part in the brain’s spatial system, supporting tasks such as path integration and spatial memory. In rodents, grid cells are thought to rely on network theta oscillations, but such signals are not evident in all species, challenging... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Shachar Maidenbaum, Jonathan Miller, Joel M. Stein, Joshua Jacobs Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Lesion network localization of free will [Neuroscience]
Our perception of free will is composed of a desire to act (volition) and a sense of responsibility for our actions (agency). Brain damage can disrupt these processes, but which regions are most important for free will perception remains unclear. Here, we study focal brain lesions that disrupt volition, causing... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: R. Ryan Darby, Juho Joutsa, Matthew J. Burke, Michael D. Fox Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Neural-inspired sensors enable sparse, efficient classification of spatiotemporal data [Neuroscience]
Sparse sensor placement is a central challenge in the efficient characterization of complex systems when the cost of acquiring and processing data is high. Leading sparse sensing methods typically exploit either spatial or temporal correlations, but rarely both. This work introduces a sparse sensor optimization that is designed to leverage... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Thomas L. Mohren, Thomas L. Daniel, Steven L. Brunton, Bingni W. Brunton Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Copper inhibits peptidoglycan LD-transpeptidases suppressing {beta}-lactam resistance due to bypass of penicillin-binding proteins [Microbiology]
The peptidoglycan (PG) layer stabilizes the bacterial cell envelope to maintain the integrity and shape of the cell. Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) synthesize essential 4–3 cross-links in PG and are inhibited by β-lactam antibiotics. Some clinical isolates and laboratory strains of Enterococcus faecium and Escherichia coli achieve high-level β-lactam resistance by... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Katharina Peters, Manuel Pazos, Zainab Edoo, Jean-Emmanuel Hugonnet, Alessandra M. Martorana, Alessandra Polissi, Michael S. VanNieuwenhze, Michel Arthur, Waldemar Vollmer Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Entropically driven aggregation of bacteria by host polymers promotes antibiotic tolerance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa [Microbiology]
Bacteria causing chronic infections are generally observed living in cell aggregates suspended in polymer-rich host secretions, and bacterial phenotypes induced by aggregated growth may be key factors in chronic infection pathogenesis. Bacterial aggregation is commonly thought of as a consequence of biofilm formation; however the mechanisms producing aggregation in vivo... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Patrick R. Secor, Lia A. Michaels, Anina Ratjen, Laura K. Jennings, Pradeep K. Singh Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Measures of single- versus multiple-round translation argue against a mechanism to ensure coupling of transcription and translation [Microbiology]
In prokaryotes, the synthesis of RNA and protein occurs simultaneously in the cytoplasm. A number of studies indicate that translation can strongly impact transcription, a phenomenon often attributed to physical coupling between RNA polymerase (RNAP) and the lead ribosome on the nascent mRNA. Whether there generally exists a mechanism to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Menglin Chen, Kurt Fredrick Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

FtsZ filaments have the opposite kinetic polarity of microtubules [Microbiology]
FtsZ is the ancestral homolog of tubulin and assembles into the Z ring that organizes the division machinery to drive cell division in most bacteria. In contrast to tubulin that assembles into 13 stranded microtubules that undergo dynamic instability, FtsZ assembles into single-stranded filaments that treadmill to distribute the peptidoglycan... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Shishen Du, Sebastien Pichoff, Karsten Kruse, Joe Lutkenhaus Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Dynamics and determinants of the force of infection of dengue virus from 1994 to 2015 in Managua, Nicaragua [Medical Sciences]
Dengue virus (DENV) is the most prevalent human vector-borne viral disease. The force of infection (FoI), the rate at which susceptible individuals are infected in a population, is an important metric for infectious disease modeling. Understanding how and why the FoI of DENV changes over time is critical for developing... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Leah C. Katzelnick, Rotem Ben–Shachar, Juan Carlos Mercado, Isabel Rodriguez–Barraquer, Douglas Elizondo, Sonia Arguello, Andrea Nunez, Sergio Oȷeda, Nery Sanchez, Brenda Lopez Mercado, Lionel Gresh, Raquel Burger–Calderon, Guille Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Papaverine and its derivatives radiosensitize solid tumors by inhibiting mitochondrial metabolism [Medical Sciences]
Tumor hypoxia reduces the effectiveness of radiation therapy by limiting the biologically effective dose. An acute increase in tumor oxygenation before radiation treatment should therefore significantly improve the tumor cell kill after radiation. Efforts to increase oxygen delivery to the tumor have not shown positive clinical results. Here we show... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Martin Benej, Xiangqian Hong, Sandip Vibhute, Sabina Scott, Jinghai Wu, Edward Graves, Quynh-Thu Le, Albert C. Koong, Amato J. Giaccia, Bing Yu, Shih-Ching Chen, Ioanna Papandreou, Nicholas C. Denko Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

The ReFRAME library as a comprehensive drug repurposing library and its application to the treatment of cryptosporidiosis [Medical Sciences]
The chemical diversity and known safety profiles of drugs previously tested in humans make them a valuable set of compounds to explore potential therapeutic utility in indications outside those originally targeted, especially neglected tropical diseases. This practice of “drug repurposing” has become commonplace in academic and other nonprofit drug-discovery efforts,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jeff Janes, Megan E. Young, Emily Chen, Nicole H. Rogers, Sebastian Burgstaller-Muehlbacher, Laura D. Hughes, Melissa S. Love, Mitchell V. Hull, Kelli L. Kuhen, Ashley K. Woods, Sean B. Joseph, H. Michael Petrassi, Case W. McNamara, Matthew S. Tremblay, A Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Early adolescent Rai1 reactivation reverses transcriptional and social interaction deficits in a mouse model of Smith-Magenis syndrome [Medical Sciences]
Haploinsufficiency of Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1) causes Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS), a syndromic autism spectrum disorder associated with craniofacial abnormalities, intellectual disability, and behavioral problems. There is currently no cure for SMS. Here, we generated a genetic mouse model to determine the reversibility of SMS-like neurobehavioral phenotypes in Rai1 heterozygous... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Wei-Hsiang Huang, David C. Wang, William E. Allen, Matthew Klope, Hailan Hu, Mehrdad Shamloo, Liqun Luo Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Amphiregulin-producing {gamma}{delta} T cells are vital for safeguarding oral barrier immune homeostasis [Immunology and Inflammation]
γδ T cells are enriched at barrier sites such as the gut, skin, and lung, where their roles in maintaining barrier integrity are well established. However, how these cells contribute to homeostasis at the gingiva, a key oral barrier and site of the common chronic inflammatory disease periodontitis, has not... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Siddharth Krishnan, Ian E. Prise, Kelly Wemyss, Louis P. Schenck, Hayley M. Bridgeman, Flora A. McClure, Tamsin Zangerle–Murray, Conor O’Boyle, Thomas A. Barbera, Faiza Mahmood, Dawn M. E. Bowdish, Dietmar M. W. Zaiss, John R. Grainger, Joann Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Proinsulin C-peptide is an autoantigen in people with type 1 diabetes [Immunology and Inflammation]
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which insulin-producing beta cells, found within the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas, are destroyed by islet-infiltrating T cells. Identifying the antigenic targets of beta-cell reactive T cells is critical to gain insight into the pathogenesis of T1D and develop antigen-specific... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Michelle So, Colleen M. Elso, Eleonora Tresoldi, Miha Pakusch, Vimukthi Pathiraja, John M. Wentworth, Leonard C. Harrison, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Helen E. Thomas, Christine Rodda, Fergus J. Cameron, Jacinta McMahon, Thomas W. H. Kay, Stuart I. Man Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Notch2-dependent DC2s mediate splenic germinal center responses [Immunology and Inflammation]
CD4+ T follicular helper (TFH) cells support germinal center (GC) reactions promoting humoral immunity. Dendritic cell (DC) diversification into genetically distinct subsets allows for specialization in promoting responses against several types of pathogens. Whether any classical DC (cDC) subset is required for humoral immunity is unknown, however. We tested several... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Carlos G. Briseno, Ansuman T. Satpathy, Jesse T. Davidson IV, Stephen T. Ferris, Vivek Durai, Prachi Bagadia, Kevin W. O’Connor, Derek J. Theisen, Theresa L. Murphy, Kenneth M. Murphy Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Convergent evolution of complex structures for ant-bacterial defensive symbiosis in fungus-farming ants [Evolution]
Evolutionary adaptations for maintaining beneficial microbes are hallmarks of mutualistic evolution. Fungus-farming “attine” ant species have complex cuticular modifications and specialized glands that house and nourish antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria symbionts, which in turn protect their hosts’ fungus gardens from pathogens. Here we reconstruct ant–Actinobacteria evolutionary history across the full range of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Hongȷie Li, Jeffrey Sosa–Calvo, Heidi A. Horn, Monica T. Pupo, Jon Clardy, Christian Rabeling, Ted R. Schultz, Cameron R. Currie Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Rapid diversification of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis lung-like conditions [Evolution]
Chronic infection of the cystic fibrosis (CF) airway by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality for adult CF patients. Prolonged infections are accompanied by adaptation of P. aeruginosa to the unique conditions of the CF lung environment, as well as marked diversification of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Alana Schick, Rees Kassen Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

A new clade of basal Early Cretaceous pygostylian birds and developmental plasticity of the avian shoulder girdle [Evolution]
Early members of the clade Pygostylia (birds with a short tail ending in a compound bone termed “pygostyle”) are critical for understanding how the modern avian bauplan evolved from long-tailed basal birds like Archaeopteryx. However, the currently limited known diversity of early branching pygostylians obscures our understanding of this major... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Min Wang, Thomas A. Stidham, Zhonghe Zhou Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Mercury isotope signatures record photic zone euxinia in the Mesoproterozoic ocean [Environmental Sciences]
Photic zone euxinia (PZE) is a condition where anoxic, H2S-rich waters occur in the photic zone (PZ). PZE has been invoked as an impediment to the evolution of complex life on early Earth and as a kill mechanism for Phanerozoic mass extinctions. Here, we investigate the potential application of mercury... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Wang Zheng, Geoffrey J. Gilleaudeau, Linda C. Kah, Ariel D. Anbar Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Viable cyanobacteria in the deep continental subsurface [Ecology]
Cyanobacteria are ecologically versatile microorganisms inhabiting most environments, ranging from marine systems to arid deserts. Although they possess several pathways for light-independent energy generation, until now their ecological range appeared to be restricted to environments with at least occasional exposure to sunlight. Here we present molecular, microscopic, and metagenomic evidence... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Fernando Puente–Sanchez, Aleȷandro Arce–Rodriguez, Monike Oggerin, Miriam Garcia–Villadangos, Mercedes Moreno–Paz, Yolanda Blanco, Nuria Rodriguez, Laurence Bird, Sara A. Lincoln, Fernando Tornos, Olga Prieto–Ballester Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Diplogastrellus nematodes are sexually transmitted mutualists that alter the bacterial and fungal communities of their beetle host [Ecology]
A recent accumulation of studies has demonstrated that nongenetic, maternally transmitted factors are often critical to the health and development of offspring and can therefore play a role in ecological and evolutionary processes. In particular, microorganisms such as bacteria have been championed as heritable, symbiotic partners capable of conferring fitness... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Cristina C. Ledon–Rettig, Armin P. Moczek, Erik J. Ragsdale Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Model of bacterial toxin-dependent pathogenesis explains infective dose [Ecology]
The initial amount of pathogens required to start an infection within a susceptible host is called the infective dose and is known to vary to a large extent between different pathogen species. We investigate the hypothesis that the differences in infective doses are explained by the mode of action in... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Joel Rybicki, Eva Kisdi, Jani V. Anttila Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Natural forcing of the North Atlantic nitrogen cycle in the Anthropocene [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Human alteration of the global nitrogen cycle intensified over the 1900s. Model simulations suggest that large swaths of the open ocean, including the North Atlantic and the western Pacific, have already been affected by anthropogenic nitrogen through atmospheric transport and deposition. Here we report an ∼130-year-long record of the 15N/14N... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Xingchen Tony Wang, Anne L. Cohen, Victoria Luu, Haojia Ren, Zhan Su, Gerald H. Haug, Daniel M. Sigman Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Modulation of the Hippo pathway and organ growth by RNA processing proteins [Developmental Biology]
The Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway regulates organ growth, cell proliferation, and stem cell biology. Defects in Hippo signaling and hyperactivation of its downstream effectors—Yorkie (Yki) in Drosophila and YAP/TAZ in mammals—result in progenitor cell expansion and overgrowth of multiple organs and contribute to cancer development. Deciphering the mechanisms that regulate the... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jana Mach, Mardelle Atkins, Kathleen M. Gajewski, Violaine Mottier-Pavie, Leticia Sansores-Garcia, Jun Xie, Robert Andrew Mills, Weronika Kowalczyk, Leen Van Huffel, Gordon B. Mills, Georg Halder Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

N-cadherin provides a cis and trans ligand for astrotactin that functions in glial-guided neuronal migration [Developmental Biology]
Prior studies demonstrate that astrotactin (ASTN1) provides a neuronal receptor for glial-guided CNS migration. Here we report that ASTN1 binds N-cadherin (CDH2) and that the ASTN1:CDH2 interaction supports cell–cell adhesion. To test the function of ASTN1:CDH2 binding in glial-guided neuronal migration, we generated a conditional loss of Cdh2 in cerebellar... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zachi Horn, Hourinaz Behesti, Mary E. Hatten Tags: Inaugural Articles Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Unique size-dependent nanocatalysis revealed at the single atomically precise gold cluster level [Chemistry]
Atomically precise metal clusters have attracted increasing interest owing to their unique size-dependent properties; however, little has been known about the effect of size on the catalytic properties of metal clusters at the single-cluster level. Here, by real-time monitoring with single-molecule fluorescence microscopy the size-dependent catalytic process of individual Au... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Yuwei Zhang, Ping Song, Tiankai Chen, Xiaodong Liu, Tao Chen, Zhemin Wu, Yong Wang, Jianping Xie, Weilin Xu Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Cytoprotective metal-organic frameworks for anaerobic bacteria [Chemistry]
We report a strategy to uniformly wrap Morella thermoacetica bacteria with a metal-organic framework (MOF) monolayer of nanometer thickness for cytoprotection in artificial photosynthesis. The catalytic activity of the MOF enclosure toward decomposition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduces the death of strictly anaerobic bacteria by fivefold in the presence... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Zhe Ji, Hao Zhang, Hao Liu, Omar M. Yaghi, Peidong Yang Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Enhanced dynamic nuclear polarization via swept microwave frequency combs [Chemistry]
Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) has enabled enormous gains in magnetic resonance signals and led to vastly accelerated NMR/MRI imaging and spectroscopy. Unlike conventional cw-techniques, DNP methods that exploit the full electron spectrum are appealing since they allow direct participation of all electrons in the hyperpolarization process. Such methods typically entail... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: A. Ajoy, R. Nazaryan, K. Liu, X. Lv, B. Safvati, G. Wang, E. Druga, J. A. Reimer, D. Suter, C. Ramanathan, C. A. Meriles, A. Pines Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

News Feature: Deadly deficiency at the heart of an environmental mystery [Chemistry]
Researchers are puzzling over a widespread vitamin B shortage that appears to be killing wildlife. During spring and summer, busy colonies of a duck called the common eider (Somateria mollissima) and other wild birds are usually seen breeding on the rocky coasts around the Baltic Sea. Thousands of eager new... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Natasha Gilbert Tags: News Features, Front Matter Source Type: research

Coordination of cell migration mediated by site-dependent cell-cell contact [Cell Biology]
Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL), the repulsive response of cells upon cell–cell contact, has been the predominant paradigm for contact-mediated responses. However, it is difficult for CIL alone to account for the complex behavior of cells within a multicellular environment, where cells often migrate in cohorts such as sheets, clusters,... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: David Li, Yu-li Wang Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Allosteric potentiation of a ligand-gated ion channel is mediated by access to a deep membrane-facing cavity [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Theories of general anesthesia have shifted in focus from bulk lipid effects to specific interactions with membrane proteins. Target receptors include several subtypes of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels; however, structures of physiologically relevant proteins in this family have yet to define anesthetic binding at high resolution. Recent cocrystal structures of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Stephanie A. Heusser, Marie Lycksell, Xueqing Wang, Sarah E. McComas, Rebecca J. Howard, Erik Lindahl Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Literature-based automated discovery of tumor suppressor p53 phosphorylation and inhibition by NEK2 [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Scientific progress depends on formulating testable hypotheses informed by the literature. In many domains, however, this model is strained because the number of research papers exceeds human readability. Here, we developed computational assistance to analyze the biomedical literature by reading PubMed abstracts to suggest new hypotheses. The approach was tested... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Byung-Kwon Choi, Tajhal Dayaram, Neha Parikh, Angela D. Wilkins, Meena Nagarajan, Ilya B. Novikov, Benjamin J. Bachman, Sung Yun Jung, Peter J. Haas, Jacques L. Labrie, Curtis R. Pickering, Anbu K. Adikesavan, Sam Regenbogen, Linda Kato, Ana Lelescu, Chri Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Oscillatory fluid flow drives scaling of contraction wave with system size [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Flows over remarkably long distances are crucial to the functioning of many organisms, across all kingdoms of life. Coordinated flows are fundamental to power deformations, required for migration or development, or to spread resources and signals. A ubiquitous mechanism to generate flows, particularly prominent in animals and amoebas, is actomyosin... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jean-Daniel Julien, Karen Alim Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Bypassing a 8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine lesion by human DNA polymerase {eta} at atomic resolution [Biochemistry]
Oxidatively induced DNA lesions 8,5′-cyclopurine-2′-deoxynucleosides (cdPus) are prevalent and cytotoxic by impeding DNA replication and transcription. Both the 5′R- and 5′S-diastereomers of cdPu can be removed by nucleotide excision repair; however, the 5′S-cdPu is more resistant to repair than the 5′R counterpart. Here, we report the crystal structures of human... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Peter J. Weng, Yang Gao, Mark T. Gregory, Pengcheng Wang, Yinsheng Wang, Wei Yang Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Pharmacological bypass of NAD+ salvage pathway protects neurons from chemotherapy-induced degeneration [Biochemistry]
Axon degeneration, a hallmark of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), is thought to be caused by a loss of the essential metabolite nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) via the prodegenerative protein SARM1. Some studies challenge this notion, however, and suggest that an aberrant increase in a direct precursor of NAD+, nicotinamide mononucleotide... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Hui-wen Liu, Chadwick B. Smith, Mark S. Schmidt, Xiaolu A. Cambronne, Michael S. Cohen, Marie E. Migaud, Charles Brenner, Richard H. Goodman Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Nonsaturating large magnetoresistance in semimetals [Applied Physical Sciences]
The rapidly expanding class of quantum materials known as topological semimetals (TSMs) displays unique transport properties, including a striking dependence of resistivity on applied magnetic field, that are of great interest for both scientific and technological reasons. So far, many possible sources of extraordinarily large nonsaturating magnetoresistance have been proposed.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ian A. Leahy, Yu-Ping Lin, Peter E. Siegfried, Andrew C. Treglia, Justin C. W. Song, Rahul M. Nandkishore, Minhyea Lee Tags: Physical Sciences Source Type: research

Functional muscle recovery with nanoparticle-directed M2 macrophage polarization in mice [Applied Biological Sciences]
Persistence of inflammation, and associated limits in tissue regeneration, are believed to be due in part to the imbalance of M1 over M2 macrophages. Here, we hypothesized that providing a sustained source of an antiinflammatory polarizing cytokine would shift the balance of macrophages at a site of tissue damage to... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Theresa M. Raimondo, David J. Mooney Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Maize yields over Europe may increase in spite of climate change, with an appropriate use of the genetic variability of flowering time [Agricultural Sciences]
Projections based on invariant genotypes and agronomic practices indicate that climate change will largely decrease crop yields. The comparatively few studies considering farmers’ adaptation result in a diversity of impacts depending on their assumptions. We combined experiments and process-based modeling for analyzing the consequences of climate change on European maize... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Boris Parent, Margot Leclere, Sebastien Lacube, Mikhail A. Semenov, Claude Welcker, Pierre Martre, Francois Tardieu Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

Converging evidence for functional and structural segregation within the left ventral occipitotemporal cortex in reading [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
The ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOTC) is crucial for recognizing visual patterns, and previous evidence suggests that there may be different subregions within the vOTC involved in the rapid identification of word forms. Here, we characterize vOTC reading circuitry using a multimodal approach combining functional, structural, and quantitative MRI and behavioral... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Garikoitz Lerma-Usabiaga, Manuel Carreiras, Pedro M. Paz-Alonso Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

Abscisic acid-independent stomatal CO2 signal transduction pathway and convergence of CO2 and ABA signaling downstream of OST1 kinase [Plant Biology]
Stomatal pore apertures are narrowing globally due to the continuing rise in atmospheric [CO2]. CO2 elevation and the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) both induce rapid stomatal closure. However, the underlying signal transduction mechanisms for CO2/ABA interaction remain unclear. Two models have been considered: (i) CO2 elevation enhances ABA concentrations... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Po-Kai Hsu, Yohei Takahashi, Shintaro Munemasa, Ebe Merilo, Kristiina Laanemets, Rainer Waadt, Dianne Pater, Hannes Kollist, Julian I. Schroeder Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research

DNA demethylase ROS1 negatively regulates the imprinting of DOGL4 and seed dormancy in Arabidopsis thaliana [Plant Biology]
Genomic imprinting is a form of epigenetic regulation resulting in differential gene expression that reflects the parent of origin. In plants, imprinted gene expression predominantly occurs in the seed endosperm. Maternal-specific DNA demethylation by the DNA demethylase DME frequently underlies genomic imprinting in endosperm. Whether other more ubiquitously expressed DNA... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - October 16, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Haifeng Zhu, Wenxiang Xie, Dachao Xu, Daisuke Miki, Kai Tang, Chao-Feng Huang, Jian-Kang Zhu Tags: PNAS Plus Source Type: research