Molecular Subtyping of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis and Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis in India: Their Association with Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles.
Abstract Molecular subtyping, and recently DNA sequencing based methods, which are commonly used for discriminating Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates, leads to improved molecular epidemiological investigations for prevention and control of typhoid fever. We included S. Typhi blood isolates (n=66) from India during 2007-14 for molecular subtyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) in association with antibiotic resistance profiles. Genotypic diversity was observed more in MLVA (Simpson's index of diversity, D value 0...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Das S, Samajpati S, Roy I, Sankar S, Gaind R, Deb M, Kulkarni R, Kumar Paul D, Dutta S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

First detection of Escherichia coli harboring mcr-1 gene from retail domestic chicken meat in Japan.
We report here the first detection of mcr-1 from retail chicken meats. A total of 70 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates recovered from retail chicken meats collected between August 2015 and June 2016 were screened for mcr-1, which resulted in positive for one isolate of CTX-M-1 producing E. coli belonging to ST1684, phylogroup A. The mcr-1 was not located in an IncI1 plasmid encoding a blaCTX-M-1. However, whole plasmid sequencing revealed that mcr-1 was located on an IncI2 plasmid. Sequences of nikB-mcr-1-pap2-ydfA-topB region were mostly identical to those of previously described IncI2 plasmid pECJS-61-63 harbored by E. col...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ohsaki Y, Hayashi W, Saito S, Osaka S, Taniguchi Y, Koide S, Kawamura K, Nagano Y, Arakawa Y, Nagano N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Candida tropicalis Biofilm Formation and Efficacy of Liposomal Amphotericin B using time-lapse images.
This study was conducted to investigate the process of biofilm formation by C. tropicalis and the antifungal activity of liposomal amphotericin B (LAB) against both forming-biofilms and developed-biofilms using time-lapse imaging. We found that C. tropicalis has high ability of hyphae growth and gas generation due to high metabolic activity. Thus, we visually observed that C. tropicalis formed aggressive biofilms which are fast-growing type. Also, LAB acts immediately and completely inhibits against forming-biofilms. Furthermore, we demonstrated that LAB was effective against developed-biofilms of C. tropicalis by reducing...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kawai A, Yamagishi Y, Mikamo H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Genomic characterization of travel-associated dengue viruses isolated at entry-exit ports in Fujian province, China, 2013-2015.
In this study, a total of three DENV-2 and two DENV-4 strains were isolated from suspected febrile travelers at two ports-of-entry in Fujian during 2013-2015. Complete viral genome sequences of these new isolates were obtained with Sanger chemistry. Genomic sequence analysis revealed that these strains belonged to genotypes of 2-Cosmopolitan and 4-II. In consistence with the patients' travel information, phylogenetic analyses of complete coding regions also indicated that most of the new isolates were genetically close to the circulating strains in Southeast Asia, rather than previous Chinese strains available. Therefore, ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gao B, Zhang J, Wang Y, Chen F, Zheng C, Xie L Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Vibrio cholerae O1 Ogawa strains carrying the ctxB7 allele caused large cholera outbreak during 2014 in the tribal areas of Odisha, India.
Abstract The large outbreak of cholera reported during July to Sept, 2014 in Narla block of Kalahandi district was investigated to find out the causative organism. The rectal swabs collected from diarrhoea patients and environmental water samples were sub-cultured following standard techniques. The causative organism was V.cholerae O1 Ogawa biotype El Tor while DMAMA-PCR assay confirmed that all strains were ctxB7 of Haitian variants V.cholerae O1. The water samples were negative for V. cholerae .The V.cholerae O1 strains were sensitive to tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, doxycycline, azithromy...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bhusan Pal B, Kumar Khuntia H, Ranjan Nayak S, Mohanty A, Biswal B Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Cerebral syphilitic gumma: case presentation of a brainstem mass lesion and a brief review of the literature.
PMID: 28674317 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shi F, Jiang H, Shi Z, Liu H, Zhang Q Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A case of type 54 human mastadenovirus keratoconjunctivitis causing severe broad epithelial defect ten years after LASIK surgery.
PMID: 28674318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suzuki S, Kawamura T, Saeki Y, Okubo M, Konagaya M, Hanaoka N, Arashiro T, Fujimoto T, Uchio E Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Comparative study on lot release systems for vaccines as of 2016.
Abstract Many countries have established their own vaccine lot release system, which fits each country's situation, while the World Health Organization is promoting convergence in regulatory systems for vaccines so that vaccines of assured quality are provided globally. We conducted questionnaire-based investigation of the lot release systems for vaccines in seven countries and two regions. It was found that a review of the summary protocol by National Regulatory Authorities was commonly applied for independent lot release of vaccines, whereas there was diversity, especially in the testing policy. Some countries a...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 1, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fujita K, Naito S, Ochiai M, Konda T, Kato A Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Laboratory and molecular characterization of dengue virus during the 2014 outbreak in Guangfo region, Southern China.
This study aimed to 1) identify laboratory markers which can predict a positive laboratory diagnosis, and 2) perform a molecular characterization of DENV from the 2014 Guangdong epidemic. This retrospective study enrolled 1044 patients from the Guangdong epidemic who had clinically suspected dengue. Viral RNA was detected by real-time RT-PCR and viral-specific NS1 antigen was detected using ELISA. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed with the C-prM gene junction of the viral genome. Patients with dengue infection had leukopenia (2.8×10(9)/L), thrombocytopenia (109.0×10(9)/L), elevated AST (56.0 U/L) an...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Luo ZF, Hu B, Zhang FY, Lin XH, Xie XY, Pan KY, Li HY, Ren RW, Zhao WZ Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serotype replacement in adult pneumococcal pneumonia after the introduction of seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for children in Japan: a systematic literature review and pooled data analysis.
Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major causative agent of adult pneumonia. Following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) for children, serotype replacement has been reported in adult invasive pneumococcal diseases, but it has not been well-studied for adult pneumococcal pneumonia cases in Asia. To investigate serotype replacement in adult pneumococcal pneumonia in Japan, we conducted a systematic literature search across five databases using terms including pneumococcus, serotype, and their synonyms and derivatives. After the assessment of the identified articles, data on the pneumococc...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Katoh S, Suzuki M, Ariyoshi K, Morimoto K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Minocycline inhibits the Candida albicans budded-to-hyphal-form transition and biofilm formation.
Abstract Candida albicans frequently causes bloodstream infections; the budded-to-hyphal-form transition (BHT) and biofilm formation are major contributors to virulence. In a survey of antibacterial compounds that inhibit C. albicans BHT, we found that the tetracycline derivative minocycline inhibited BHT and subsequent biofilm formation. Minocycline downregulates expression of the hypha-specific genes HWP1 and ECE1, and the adhesion factor gene ALS3 of C. albicans. In addition, minocycline decreases cell surface hydrophobicity and the extracellular β-glucan level in biofilms. Minocycline has been widely used...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kurakado S, Takatori K, Sugita T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Dengue-immune humans have higher levels of complement-independent enhancing antibody than complement-dependent neutralizing antibody.
This study revealed higher level induction of CiEAb than CdNAb in humans naturally infected with dengue viruses. PMID: 28367878 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yamanaka A, Konishi E Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Phenotypic and molecular characterization of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli isolated in Kawasaki, Japan.
Abstract Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), an enteric pathogen, causes persistent diarrhea in children, HIV-infected individuals, and travelers in economically developing countries. However, the pathogenesis of EAEC infection is not well understood. The aim of this study is to characterize EAEC in Japan. During 2012-2014, we identified 40 EAEC strains carrying the aggR gene at the Kawasaki City Institute for Public Health, Japan. We characterized these strains using O:H-antigen typing, polymerase chain reaction (for pCVD432, astA, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase, and four aggregative adherence fimbriae g...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kubomura A, Misaki T, Homma S, Matsuo C, Okabe N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Predation efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus on multidrug-resistant clinical pathogens and their corresponding biofilms.
This study highlights the potential use of B. bacteriovorus as a biological control agent with the capability to prey on MDR/XDR gram-negative pathogens and remove biofilms. PMID: 28367880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sun Y, Ye J, Hou Y, Chen H, Cao J, Zhou T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiological characteristics and clinical treatment outcome of typhoid fever in Ningbo China, 2005-2014, PFGE results revealing great proportion of common transmission sources.
Abstract We aimed to describe the molecular epidemiological characteristics and clinical treatment outcome of typhoid fever in Ningbo, China, 2005-2014. Eighty-eight Salmonella Typhi isolates were obtained from 307 admitted patients. Three prevalent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of 54 isolates in 3 outbreaks were identified. Overall, there were 64 (72.7%) isolates from cases in clusters and 24 (27.3%) isolates from sporadic cases. Resistance to nalidixic acid (n=47; 53.4%) and ampicillin (n=40; 45.4%) and rare resistance to tetracycline (n=2; 2.3%) and gentamicin (n=2; 2.3%) were observed. Isola...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Song Q, Yang Y, Lin W, Yi B, Xu G Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) surveillance for hospitalized patients in Northern Vietnam, 2011-2014.
CONCLUSION: Respiratory viral infection, particularly Influenza and Rhino viruses were associated with high rates of SARI hospitalized, and future studies correlating clinical aspects are needed to inform interventions including targeted vaccination. PMID: 28367882 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nguyen HK, Nguyen SV, Nguyen AP, Hoang PM, Le TT, Nguyen TC, Hoang HT, Vuong CD, Tran LT, Mai LQ Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

QuantiFERON( ®)-TB Gold In-tube Test for tuberculosis prevention in HIV-infected patients.
QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-tube Test for tuberculosis prevention in HIV-infected patients. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2017 Mar 28;: Authors: Khawcharoenporn T, Phetsuksiri B, Rudeeaneksin J, Srisungngam S, Apisarnthanarak A Abstract Optimal testing strategy for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection and guiding isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is uncertain among HIV-infected patients. A 4-year prospective study was conducted among Thai HIV-infected patients who underwent simultaneous tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-tube Test (QFT-IT) at care entry. Based on baseline test resul...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Khawcharoenporn T, Phetsuksiri B, Rudeeaneksin J, Srisungngam S, Apisarnthanarak A Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in Foods and Fecal Specimens Obtained from Cattle, Pigs, Chickens, Asymptomatic Carriers, and Patients in Osaka and Hyogo, Japan.
Abstract The source and routes of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) remain poorly clarified. To investigate the involvement of domestic animals in the dissemination of DEC, the prevalence of DEC among foods and fecal specimens of cattle, pigs, chickens, healthy carriers, and patients in Osaka and Hyogo, Japan, was investigated using a multiplex real-time PCR assay. The most prevalent virulence genes were astA and eae, with prevalences of 46.8% and 27.4%, respectively. stx1 (26.6%) and stx2 (45.9%) were prevalent in cattle feces, and est (8.5%) and elt (7.6%) were prevalent in pig feces. The afaB gene was the se...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wang L, Zhang S, Zheng D, Fujihara S, Wakabayashi A, Okahata K, Suzuki M, Saeki A, Nakamura H, Hara-Kudo Y, Kage-Nakadai E, Nishikawa Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antimicrobial susceptibility surveillance of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates in Changsha, China during 2003-2015.
Abstract A total of 1294 Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained in Changsha, China from 2003 to 2015 were examed for susceptibility to penicillin, ciprofloxacin, spectinomycin and ceftriaxone by disc diffusion method and the ceftriaxone MICs of 460 isolates during 2008-2015 were determined by agar dilution method and the ceftriaxone intermediate susceptible isolates were tested for azithromycin susceptibility in addition. The results exhibited that the resistant rate to penicillin and ciprofloxacin were 77.5% and 94.2%, respectively. Only 4 spectinomycin resistant and 2 spectinomycin intermediate susceptible isol...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Peng T, Lin H, Liu Q, Yang J, Cao W, Ding H, Tang L Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Changes in Serum IgA Antibody Levels against the Glycopeptidolipid Core Antigen during Antibiotic Treatment of Mycobacterium avium Complex Lung Disease.
Abstract We evaluated serial changes in the levels of serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody to the glycopeptidolipid (GPL) core antigen during antibiotic treatment in 57 patients with M. avium complex (MAC) lung disease, at baseline (T0) and after 3 months (T3) and 6 months (T6) of treatment. The median patient age was 59 years and 37 (65%) were female. Etiologic organisms included M. avium in 32 (56%) patients and M. intracellulare in 25 (44%). Seven (12%) patients had the fibrocavitary form of the disease on computed tomography. After 12 months of treatment, 42 (74%) patients achieved favorable responses, wherea...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jhun BW, Kim SY, Park HY, Jeon K, Shin SJ, Koh WJ Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from dogs and cats in primary veterinary hospitals in Japan.
Abstract To investigate antimicrobial resistance, 200 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were collected from dogs and cats in primary veterinary hospitals in Japan. Resistance rates against ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, gentamicin, amikacin, and fosfomycin were 9, 12.5, 4.5, 2.5, and 35.5%, respectively. One strain (0.5%) displayed resistance to ceftazidime. We did not detect any strain resistant to imipenem nor any multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa as defined by the Law Concerning the Prevention of Infections and Medical Care for Patients with Infections of the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. In addit...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yukawa S, Tsuyuki Y, Sato T, Fukuda A, Usui M, Tamura Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The first isolation of Zika virus from a Japanese patient who returned to Japan from Fiji in 2016.
Abstract Outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in tropical and subtropical regions are cause of worldwide concern and represents a public health emergency. ZIKV was isolated from a 17-year-old patient with fever and maculopapular rash. The patient returned to Japan from the Republic of Fiji in late April 2016. The complete genome sequence of the ZIKV isolate, ZIKV/Hu/S36/Chiba/2016, which might be the first strain to be isolated in Japan, was determined and reported. PMID: 28367888 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Taira M, Ogawa T, Nishijima H, Yamamoto K, Hotta C, Akita M, Tajima S, Saijo M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Studying DDT susceptibility at discriminating time interval focusing maximum limit of exposure time survived by DDT resistant Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) - an investigatory report.
Abstract Extensive application of routine insecticide i.e., Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to control Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the proven vector of Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in India, had evoked the problem of resistance/ tolerance against DDT, eventually nullifying the DDT dependent strategies to handle the nuisance caused by them. Because tolerating an hour exposure of DDT is not so challenging for resistant P. argentipes, estimating susceptibility by exposing sand flies to insecticide for just an hour becomes trivial and futile task.Therefore, present bioassay study was carried ou...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rama A, Kesari S, Das P, Kumar V Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Association of IL10, IL4, IFNG and CTLA4 Gene Polymorphisms with Efavirenz Hypersensitivity Reaction in Patients Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
In conclusion, our data suggest that polymorphisms in regulatory regions of cytokine could modulate an individual's susceptibility to efavirenz hypersensitivity reaction. PMID: 28250252 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rodrigues RO, Rabenhorst SH, de Carvalho PG, Sasahara GL, Vasconcelos LM, de Arruda ÉA, da Silva SF, Ribeiro IF, Nagao-Dias EA Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Geographical Distribution of Japanese Spotted Fever and Tsutsugamushi Disease in Japan - Possible Effect of Environmental Temperature.
PMID: 28250253 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Changes in rotavirus genotypes before and after vaccine introduction: a multicenter, prospective observational study in three areas of Japan.
Abstract In Japan, monovalent and pentavalent rotavirus (RV) vaccines were approved in 2011 and 2012, respectively. To monitor the changes in the RV genotypes before and after vaccine introduction, we performed a prospective observational study among children (
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tanaka T, Kamiya H, Asada K, Suga S, Ido M, Umemoto M, Ouchi K, Ito H, Kuroki H, Nakano T, Taniguchi K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Two Siblings with Abnormal Findings of Head MRI Born to an HIV-positive Woman.
PMID: 28250255 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tsuzuki S, Hosokawa S, Matsushita T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antimicrobial resistance and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from child patients of high-risk wards in Shenzhen, China.
Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes high rates of mortality and a substantial burden to health systems worldwide. Here, we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characteristics of MRSA isolated from children treated at Shenzhen Children's Hospital. 140 MRSA strains were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. We further performed spa typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec), pvl gene and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). These MRSA strains were sensitive to most non-β-lactam antimicrobi...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qin Y, Wen F, Zheng Y, Zhao R, Hu Q, Zhang R Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clinical study of new tetravalent (type A, B, E, and F) botulinum toxoid vaccine derived from M toxin in Japan.
This study indicated that the vaccine has marked immunogenicity and safety for humans. PMID: 28250257 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Torii Y, Sugimoto N, Kohda T, Kozaki S, Morokuma K, Horikawa Y, Ginnaga A, Yamamoto A, Takahashi M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular detection and characterization of Anaplasma species in wild deer and boars in Gifu Prefecture, Japan.
PMID: 28250258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matsuo K, Moribe J, Abe N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A case of congenital folliculitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a preterm neonate.
Abstract Intrauterine infections are associated with life-threatening neonatal conditions such as sepsis, intracranial hemorrhage, and chronic lung disease. Herein we present a case of generalized congenital folliculitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) in a preterm neonate of 27 weeks gestational age successfully treated with antibiotics. Folliculitis is an important manifestation of intrauterine P. aeruginosa infection and prompt, effective treatment is crucial to ensuring a good prognosis. PMID: 28250259 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matsui K, Okazaki K, Horikoshi Y, Kakinuma R, Kondo M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Burden of rotavirus and enteric bacterial pathogens among children under five years old hospitalized with diarrhea in suburban and rural areas in Kenya.
This study aimed to investigate the incidence of rotavirus and enteric bacterial infections among children up to five years old with diarrhea living in suburban and rural areas in Kenya. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study, and a total of 1060 diarrheal fecal specimens were obtained from 722 children at the Kiambu County Hospital (KCH) located in a suburban area and 338 children from the Mbita District Hospital (MDH) located in a rural part of western Kenya, between August 2011 and December 2013. Of the 1060 isolates, group A rotavirus (RVA) was detected in 29.6% (214/722) and 11.3% (38/338) fecal specimens from KCH...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shah M, Odoyo E, Wandera E, Kathiiko C, Bundi M, Miringu G, Guyo S, Komoto S, Nyangao J, Karama M, Tsuji T, Taniguchi K, Morita K, Ichinose Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

High prevalence of Campylobacter ureolyticus in stool specimens of children with diarrhea in Japan.
In this study, a total 586 stool samples were collected from 0-12 year-old children with diarrhea between November 2013 and April 2015 and examined with microbiological tests in the hospital for diagnosis of common enteric pathogens including C. jejuni and C. coli. Then in our laboratory, these samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequence-based Campylobacter genus-specific PCR (C16S PCR) and 283 (48.3%) samples show positive with this PCR assay. Furthermore, C. ureolyticus was screened in these 283 samples by PCR assay, which can detect this species specifically. Surprisingly, C. ureolyticus was detected in 147 out of the 28...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hatanaka N, Shimizu A, Somroop S, Li Y, Asakura M, Nagita A, Awasthi SP, Hinenoya A, Yamasaki S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Increased irisin concentrations in patients with crimean-congo hemorragic fever.
INCREASED IRISIN CONCENTRATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CRIMEAN-CONGO HEMORRAGIC FEVER. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2017 Feb 28;: Authors: Büyüktuna SA, Doğan HO, Bakır D, Erşan S, Koç D, Bakır S Abstract Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a life-threatening viral infection. The pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine the change in irisin concentrations in patients with CCHF. The study included a total of 30 patients with CCHF and 30 control subjects. Irisin concentrations were determined using a commercial ELISA kit. Median irisin concentr...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Büyüktuna SA, Doğan HO, Bakır D, Erşan S, Koç D, Bakır S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Lambda-Interferons inhibit Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Replication in Human Cervical Epithelial Cells through Activation of JAK/STAT Pathway.
In this study, we demonstrated that IFN-λs could potently inhibit HSV-2 replication without cytotoxicity. Investigation of the mechanism(s) showed that IFN-λs induced expression of IFN stimulated genes (ISGs) and also enhanced the expression of several pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Among these IFN-λs members, IFN-λ3 induced higher levels of ISGs and PRRs expression. In addition, IFN-λs upregulated a number of genes for components of the Janus kinase signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway. Inhibition of JAK/STAT signaling pathway by a JAK in...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Li Z, Lu X, Zhu Y, Cheng P, Liu S, Zhang Y, Tang J, Yang S, Zhou L Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Methicillin susceptible teicoplanin resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus from bloodstream infection: Novel mutation in teicoplanin resistant operon (tcaRAB).
Abstract Staphylococcus haemolyticus is the frequently isolated coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) from blood culture. Here we port a case of methicillin-susceptible S. haemolyticus resistant to teicoplanin and heteroresistant to vancomycin. The isolate was found to susceptible to cefoxitin and resistant to teicoplanin in E-test. PAP-AUC analysis confirmed the presence of vancomycin heteroresistant subpopulation. NGS analysis of the genome revealed the presence of blaZ, msr(A) codes for cross-resistance of macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B and quinolone resistance encoding norA gene. Amino acid subst...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bakthavatchalam YD, David Sudarsanam T, Babu P, Munuswamy E, Muthuirulandi Sethuvel DP, Devanga Ragupathi NK, Veeraraghavan B Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Peripheral blood plasmacytosis in severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome.
PMID: 28250265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wada T, Iwata Y, Kamikawa Y, Wada T, Yachie A Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Acute Encephalitic Syndrome in Adults and its Correlation with Cytokine Levels in Serum and Cerebrospinal Fluid.
In this study, we assessed the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines and their correlation with clinical symptoms. Patients with AES of less than 2 weeks duration underwent brain imaging followed by a CSF examination for routine parameters and viral studies. Cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and RANTES levels were assessed in the serum in all patients and in 50 CSF samples and compared with serum cytokine levels in 64 age and sex matched controls. Of the 87 AES patients, 13 had Japanese Encephalitis. Serum IL-6, IL-10 and RANTES were significantly elevated in patients of AES compared to control group. Serum IL-10 was...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Singh SK, Kulshreshtha D, Singh AK, Maurya PK, Thacker AK Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Multicenter study of the clinical presentation of Staphylococcus lugdunensis bacteremia in Japan.
In this study, SL resulted in the development of bacteremia in select patients. Clinicians in Japan should be aware of the prevalence of SL and the complications of SL bacteremia. PMID: 28003590 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ainoda Y, Takeshita N, Hase R, Mikawa T, Hosokawa N, Kawamura I, Kurai H, Abe M, Kimura M, Araoka H, Fujita T, Totsuka K, Mezaki K, Sekiya N, Ohmagari N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Comparison of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 and EHEC non-O157 isolates from diarrheal patients in the Republic of Korea.
Abstract We compared 47 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 isolates with 184 EHEC non-O157 isolates from Korean patients with diarrhea. In the O157 group, the strains harboring both shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) were detected with highest frequency, whereas the strains harboring only stx1 gene were most frequently detected in the non-O157 group. Eight virulence genes (eaeA, hlyA, ehx, iha, efa1, tir, toxB, and espA ) were found to show a higher frequency of occurrence in the O157 group than in the non-O157 group. In addition, the symptom of bloody diarrhea was found with a higher occurrence in the ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oh KH, Jung SM, Shin E, Chung GT, Seong WK, Cho SH Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antibiotic susceptibilities and genetic characterization of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli isolated from stools of pediatric diarrhea patients in Surabaya, Indonesia.
Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli isolated from pediatric (0-3 year old) diarrhea patients, as well as bacterial antibiotic susceptibilities, ESBL typing, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) typing and diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC)-typing in Surabaya, Indonesia, where this kind of survey is rarely done. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in 18.8 % of strains. Many ESBL-producing E. coli had significantly less susceptibility to gentamicin (p
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wasito EB, Shigemura K, Osawa K, Fardah A, Kanaida A, Raharjo D, Kuntaman K, Hadi U, Harijono S, Sudarmo SM, Nakamura T, Shibayama K, Fujisawa M, Shirakawa T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Dengue virus-induced reactive oxygen species production in rat microglia cells.
In conclusion, DV2 and DV4 have the capability to induce ROS production and activate microglia, which have been reported as the key components for neuronal damage. PMID: 28003593 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suwanprinya L, Morales NP, Sanvarinda P, Dieng H, Okabayashi T, Vargas RE Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

First Isolation of Hybrid Shigatoxigenic and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC/ETEC) Strain Harboring stx2 and elt Genes in Republic of Korea.
PMID: 28003594 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oh KH, Shin E, Jung SM, Im J, Cho SH, Hong S, Yoo CK, Chung GT Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Detection of measles virus genotypes B3, D4, D5, D8, and H1 in the surveillance system in Hokkaido, Japan, during pre- and post-elimination Era, 2006-2015.
Abstract Measles is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by measles virus (MeV). In Japan, since the last epidemic in 2007 and 2008 caused by the genotype D5 strains, the government introduced a catch-up-vaccination program for teenagers during fiscal years of Japan 2008-2012 and the mandatory case-based reporting system for the nationwide elimination. Furthermore, the laboratory confirmation based on genotyping has been performed to clarify the source of infection and to support the interruption of measles cases. While such preventive measure have been conducted, the number of measles cases decreased ste...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Miyoshi M, Komagome R, Yamaguchi H, Ohnishi A, Kikuchi M, Ishida S, Nagano H, Okano M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A case of rat bite fever caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis.
We report a case of rat bite fever (RBF) diagnosed by detection of Streptobacillus moniliformis from blood culture and synovial fluid. The patient was a 45-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. He was bitten on his third finger by a rat, which was caught in a mousetrap installed in his house. After the bite, fever, rash and arthralgia developed over a period of about two weeks. The patient was admitted to our hospital and treated with combination of Ampicillin- Sulbactam (SAM), Vancomycin (VAN) and Minocycline (MIN). The Anaerobic/F resin blood culture bottle became positive with gram negative bacillus in overnight ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hayakawa Y, Suzuki J, Suzuki M, Sugiura W, Ohkusu K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Safety and Immunogenicity Study of a 9-Valent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Administered to 9-To-15 Year-Old Japanese Girls.
We report here the results of an open-label phase III study conducted to bridge the findings in women age 16 to 26 years to Japanese girls aged 9 to 15 years. All subjects (n = 100) received a 3-dose regimen of 9vHPV vaccine at day 1, month 2 and month 6. Anti-HPV serologic assays were performed at day 1, month 7, month 12, month 24 and month 30. At month 7 (4 weeks after dose 3), 100% of subjects seroconverted for each vaccine HPV type. Increases in geometric mean titers of anti-HPV 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 in girls were similar to those in Japanese women aged 16 to 26 years in the pivotal phase III study. Persistence of...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Iwata S, Murata S, Han SR, Wakana A, Sawata M, Tanaka Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

An iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics study of refractory mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia patients.
In this study, we applied the quantitative proteomic technique(iTRAQ) to globally analyze MP-related proteins in serum samples from five RMPP and five non-refractory MP pneumonia(NRMPP) patients, and five healthy children. Functional classification, sub-cellular localization, and protein interaction network were carried out based on PANTHER and cytoscape analysis. A total of 260 differentially expressed proteins were identified in the RMPP and NRMPP groups. Compared with the control group, there were 134(70 up-regulated and 64 down-regulated) and 126(63 up-regulated and 63 down-regulated) differentially expressed proteins ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yu JL, Song QF, Xie ZW, Jiang WH, Chen JH, Fan HF, Xie YP, Lu G Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Establishment of Subclones of Severe Fever with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome Virus YG1 Strain Selected by the Degree of Low-pH-dependent Cell Fusion Activity.
Abstract Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus YG1 strain was isolated from the first clinical case in Japan. We found that only some of the cells underwent low-pH-dependent cell fusion, though all of the cells were confirmed to have been infected with viruses, suggesting that YG1 strain consists of heterogeneous mixtures of related viruses. Here, we established three subclones, E3, A4 and B7, from YG1 strain by the limiting dilution method with pH-dependent cell fusion activities. Subclone E3 showed weak fusion activity and cytopathic effect (CPE) in Vero E6 cells. It has an amino acid sequence identi...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nishio S, Tsuda Y, Ito R, Shimizu K, Yoshimatsu K, Arikawa J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Identification of Group G Streptococci Isolates from Companion Animals in Japan and Their Antimicrobial Resistance.
This study determined species-level identification and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) properties in group G streptococci (GGS) isolates from companion animals in Japan. Strains were isolated from sterile/non-sterile specimens of 72 animals with clinical symptoms or signs in April-May, 2015. We identified them based on 16S rRNA sequencing, mass spectrometry (MS), and an automated method based on their biochemical properties. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined with broth microdilution method and Etest. AMR determinants [erm(A), erm(B), mef(A), tet(M), tet(O), tet(K), tet(L), and tet(S)] were amplified by polymerase ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tsuyuki Y, Kurita G, Murata Y, Goto M, Takahashi T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiological study of mumps epidemics of 2015 in Okinawa, Japan.
Abstract In Okinawa Prefecture in Japan, although major mumps epidemics have occurred every 4-5 years, no laboratory diagnoses have been conducted. The mumps epidemic spread in Okinawa from October 2014, and we collected clinical materials from 31 mumps patients in 4 areas (Hokubu, Nanbu, Miyako and Yaeyama) from July to December 2015 for virus isolation and RT-PCR, whose positive ratios were 52% and 87%, respectively. The phylogenetic analyses showed that all isolates were classified into genotype G, most of which, except for 1, consisted of two subgenotypes, Ge (55.6%) and Gw (40.7%), which have been prominent i...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 22, 2016 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kuba Y, Kyan H, Arakaki E, Takara T, Kato T, Okano S, Oshiro Y, Kudaka J, Kidokoro M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research