Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Hepatitis E Virus in Swine Livers Collected at an Abattoir.
Abstract Volume 66, no. 2, p. 161-164, 2013. Page 161, SUMMARY, line 3 and page 161, column 2, line 18: "September 2010 to March 2011" should read "September 2011 to March 2012." PMID: 23698450 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sasaki Y, Haruna M, Murakami M, Hayashida M, Ito K, Noda M, Yamada Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Comparison between the Effectiveness of Polymerase Chain Reaction and In Situ Hybridization in Detecting the Presence of Pathogenic Fungi by Using the Preserved DNA in Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.
Abstract In situ hybridization (ISH) has been recognized as an important technique for identifying the causative fungi in the foci of infection observed in histopathological specimens which was processed from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. However, few basic studies have conducted an evaluation of the DNA preservation for use in ISH in comparison to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The latter is a DNA amplification-based modality. In the present study, we analyzed 65 FFPE lung tissue specimens collected from autopsy cases for comparing the usefulness of ISH and PCR analysis. As a result, the ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhi Y, Sasai D, Okubo Y, Shinozaki M, Nakayama H, Yamagata Murayama S, Wakayama M, Ide T, Zhang Z, Shibuya K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolated from Human, Food, and Animal Sources in Malaysia.
In this study, we documented the genetic relationship, antimicrobial resistance characteristics, and flagellar-phase dominance among S. Typhimurium strains found in Malaysia. PMID: 23698477 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ngoi ST, Lindstedt BA, Watanabe H, Thong KL Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

First Report on Invasion of Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, at Narita International Airport, Japan in August 2012.
Abstract The invasion of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti at Narita International Airport, Japan was detected for the first time. During the course of routine vector surveillance at Narita International Airport, 27 Ae. aegypti adults emerged from larvae and pupae collected from a single larvitrap placed near No. 88 spot at passenger terminal 2 on August 8, 2012. After the appearance of Ae. aegypti in the larvitrap, we defined a 400-m buffer zone and started an intensive vector survey using an additional 34 larvitraps and 15 CO2 traps. International aircraft and passenger terminal 2 were also inspected, and ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sukehiro N, Kida N, Umezawa M, Murakami T, Arai N, Jinnai T, Inagaki S, Tsuchiya H, Maruyama H, Tsuda Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Characteristics of human metapneumovirus infection prevailing in hospital wards housing patients with severe disabilities.
Abstract Epidemics of infectious diseases often occur at long-term inpatient facilities for patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. However, the pathogens causing these infections remain unknown in approximately half of such epidemics. Two epidemics of respiratory tract infection occurred in 2 wards in the National Hospital Organization Ehime Hospital (prevalence 1, 34 infected out of 59 inpatients in the A ward in September 2011; prevalence 2, 8 infected out of 58 inpatients in the B ward in June 2012). Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was detected from the nasal (and some pharyngeal) swabs from 17 ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matsuda S, Nakamura M, Hirano E, Kiyota N, Omura T, Suzuki Y, Noda M, Kimura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Characterization of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak Strain Whose Shiga Toxin 2 Gene Is Inactivated by IS1203v Insertion.
Abstract A total of 12 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strains were isolated during a recent outbreak in a nursery school in Ehime Prefecture, Japan. These isolates were considered to be derived from a common strain when analyzed using an IS-printing method and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. PCR analysis revealed that the isolates harbor stx1, stx2, eae, and hlyA. However, assessment of the production of the Stx proteins revealed that these isolates produced Stx1 but not Stx2. We determined their stx2 variants such as stx2c and found that the size of the PCR product was much larger than the ex...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Asano Y, Karasudani T, Tanaka H, Matsumoto J, Okada M, Nakamura K, Kondo H, Shinomiya H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Multicolor Flow Cytometric Analyses of CD4(+) T Cell Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Related Latent Antigens.
Abstract Although IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) provide increased specificity over tuberculin skin tests, the early and sensitive detection of reactivation of latently infected Mycobacterium tuberculosis is required to control tuberculosis (TB). Recently, a multicolor flow cytometry has been developed to study CD4(+) T cell cytokine responses (IFN-γ/IL-2/TNF-α) to purified protein derivatives (PPD) and M. tuberculosis-specific antigens (ESAT-6/CFP-10) and provided useful information regarding anti-TB immunity. However, the diagnostic relevancy remains uncertain. Here, we analyzed three additional ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yamashita Y, Hoshino Y, Oka M, Matsumoto S, Ariga H, Nagai H, Makino M, Ariyoshi K, Tsunetsugu-Yokota Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Histopathological Study of Murine Pulmonary Cryptococcosis Induced by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans.
Abstract Although Cryptococcus gattii can cause life-threatening complications, putative virulence factors of C. gattii remain controversial. Therefore, we conducted the present study to elucidate the virulence factors of the yeast and found that the mortality rate of mice infected with C. gattii R265 was significantly higher than that of those infected with C. gattii 5815; however, no difference was found in the mortality rates between mice infected with C. gattii R265 and Cryptococcus neoformans H99. In contrast, we found a significant difference in histopathological findings of the lungs between mice infected w...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Okubo Y, Wakayama M, Ohno H, Yamamoto S, Tochigi N, Tanabe K, Kaneko Y, Yamagoe S, Umeyama T, Shinozaki M, Nemoto T, Nakayama H, Sasai D, Ishiwatari T, Shimodaira K, Yamamoto Y, Kamei K, Miyazaki Y, Shibuya K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Screening for Group B Streptococci with Reduced Penicillin Susceptibility in Clinical Isolates Obtained between 1977 and 2005.
Abstract Group B streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) is a leading cause of neonatal invasive infections, and until recently, it was thought to be completely susceptible to penicillin. However, we recently identified several clinical GBS isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) whose minimum inhibitory concentrations of penicillin were>0.12 μg/ml, which is above the susceptibility breakpoint set by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. These PRGBS were isolated between 1995 and 2005 in Japan; whether these PRGBS existed in Japan before 1995 is unknown. In the study describe...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kimura K, Nishiyama Y, Shimizu S, Wachino J, Matsui M, Suzuki S, Yamane K, Shibayama K, Arakawa Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Genotyping of mumps virus detected in Yokohama city from 1999 to 2010.
Abstract A survey of mumps infections from 1999 to 2010 was conducted in Yokohama City, Japan, and 17 cases-including 4 cases of aseptic meningitis-were positive for mumps virus (MuV). Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the small hydrophobic gene of the MuV genome, 3, 2, and 12 of the isolates were classified into genotypes B, L, and G, respectively. The results were supported by phylogenetic analysis of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes. The 3 isolates of genotype B, obtained in 2000, 2004, and 2007, were closely related to indigenous lineages and vaccine strains in Japan. Two isolates obtained from 1999 to 20...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Momoki TS Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Optimal cutoff value of serum adenosine deaminase activity for diagnosing acute scrub typhus.
The objective of this study was to determine the optimal cutoff value of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity for diagnosing scrub typhus in acute febrile patients, especially in the autumn. A total of 715 febrile patients were included; 286 of them were diagnosed with acute scrub typhus. The mean serum ADA activities in patients with and without scrub typhus were 42.8 ± 13.4 IU/L and 17.2 ± 11.5 IU/L, respectively. The optimal cutoff value for serum ADA activity was determined to be 25.0 IU/L with a sensitivity of 92.3%, specificity of 86.6%, and area under the curve of 89.4% using a receiver-operating c...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lee JH, Song HY, Lee JM, Cho JH Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prospective Safety Monitoring of Haemophilus influenzae Type b and Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines in Kagoshima, Japan.
Abstract Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine (PRP-T) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) were introduced in Japan in December 2008 and February 2010, respectively. The concurrent administration of these vaccines is routinely performed worldwide. However, the safety of the simultaneous administration of these vaccines has not been fully evaluated in Japan, because it has rarely been performed thus far. We conducted a 2-year prospective, observational, multicenter study on PRP-T and PCV7 safety from February 2009 through January 2011 in 29 facilities located in Kagoshima Prefectur...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nishi J, Tokuda K, Imuta N, Minami T, Kawano Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Culex quinquefasciatus Say, the Vector of Bancroftian Filariasis against Temephos in Delhi and National Capital Region.
Abstract Lymphatic filariasis is the second leading cause of long-term disability in the world. In India, filariasis is endemic in 250 districts in 20 states and union territories with about 553 million people at risk of infection. Temephos is being used as a larvicide to control the population of Culex quinquefasciatus mosquito, the vector of bancroftian filariasis. The susceptibility status of Cx. quinquefasciatus to temephos in various urban zones of Delhi and the national capital region (NCR) was evaluated using the WHO standard susceptibility test kit. Results of the test revealed that the larval mortality in...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Thomas TG, Prakash V, Singh S, Mandal AK, Chauhan LS Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

First Isolation of Carbon Dioxide-Dependent Proteus mirabilis from an Uncomplicated Cystitis Patient with Sjögren's Syndrome.
First Isolation of Carbon Dioxide-Dependent Proteus mirabilis from an Uncomplicated Cystitis Patient with Sjögren's Syndrome. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2013;66(3):241-4 Authors: Oana K, Yamaguchi M, Nagata M, Washino K, Akahane T, Takamatsu YU, Tsutsui C, Matsumoto T, Kawakami Y Abstract An uncomplicated cystitis caused by CO2-dependent Proteus mirabilis was observed in a 64-year-old Japanese female patient with Sjögren's syndrome in the Aomori Kyoritsu Hospital, Aomori, Japan. The initial P. mirabilis isolate came from a midstream urine specimen containing large numbers of Gram-negative, rod-shaped orga...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oana K, Yamaguchi M, Nagata M, Washino K, Akahane T, Takamatsu YU, Tsutsui C, Matsumoto T, Kawakami Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Single Clone Acinetobacter baumannii Outbreak in a State Hospital in Turkey.
Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii is an important pathogen in hospitalized patients, particularly those in the intensive care unit (ICU). A total of 21 A. baumannii (6 from 5 patients and 15 from environmental samples) were isolated in the ICU and the isolation room of a state hospital in June 2011. The possible source of the outbreak was investigated. A. baumannii isolates were identified using conventional biochemical tests, BBL Crystal Identification Systems, OXA-51 specific PCR, and 16S rDNA sequencing. All the isolates were multidrug-resistant, showing resistance to cephalosporins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolone...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cicek AC, Karagoz A, Koksal E, Erturk A, Ozgumus OB, Koksal ZS, Durmaz R Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Applicability of In-House Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Rapid Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Grown on Solid Media.
We report the applicability of in-house loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting 16S ribosomal RNA for the rapid identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex grown on Lowenstein-Jensen media. Eighty acid-fast staining-positive clinical isolates were selected and used to evaluate the LAMP assay in comparison with polymerase chain reaction and conventional culture-based tests. The LAMP assay identified 60 M. tuberculosis isolates from 80 clinical isolates using simple heat-extracted DNA directly from the colony suspension. The results were in complete agreement with those obtained using the other metho...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Phetsuksiri B, Rudeeaneksin J, Srisungngam S, Bunchoo S, Roienthong D, Mukai T, Nakajima C, Hamada S, Suzuki Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Improvement in immunological parameters in patients receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy in Nepal.
In conclusion, we observed a significant improvement in the CD4+ T-cell count in participants receiving HAART; however, the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio remained
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tiwari BR, Karki S, Ghimire P, Sharma B, Malla S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis by Immunological and Genetic Methods in Female Sex Workers and the Local Female Population of Reproductive Age in Mymensingh, Bangladesh.
Abstract To investigate the accurate prevalence of genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Mymensingh, a local area in central-northern Bangladesh, 40 female sex workers (FSW) and 110 sexually active women (SAW, non-FSW) of reproductive age from a local community with clinical symptoms were examined by an immunochromatography test (ICT) and plasmid-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) during a 1-year period from July 2011 to June 2012 using the endocervical swab as a specimen. By ICT and/or PCR, the C. trachomatis detection rate was 58% and 27% in FSW and SAW, respectively, showing a significant difference (P
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hoque SM, Hossain MA, Paul SK, Mahmud MC, Ahmed S, Mahmud NU, Khan ER, Sakib MA, Ghosh S, Kobayashi N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clinical manifestations of coxsackievirus a6 infection associated with a major outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Japan.
PMID: 23698493 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kobayashi M, Makino T, Hanaoka N, Shimizu H, Enomoto M, Okabe N, Kanou K, Konagaya M, Oishi K, Fujimoto T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clinical and Microbiological Characteristics of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci with the VanD Phenotype and vanA Genotype.
In conclusion, VanD-vanA VRE isolates might represent an unstable, heterogeneous population that can convert to the VanA phenotype after exposure to glycopeptides. PMID: 23429076 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Song JY, Cheong HJ, Seo YB, Kim IS, Heo JY, Noh JY, Choi WS, Kim WJ Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Reemergence of measles in South Korea: implications for immunization and surveillance programs.
In conclusion, inadequate immunization coverage, non-timely immunization, infants under 12 months of age, nosocomial transmission, and international importation may play important roles in the reemergence of measles in Korea during the attempted sustained elimination of the disease. PMID: 23429077 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Park YJ, Eom HS, Kim ES, Choe YJ, Bae GR, Lee DH Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Dynamic Changes in the Initial Colonization of Actinomyces naeslundii and Streptococcus gordonii Using a New Animal Model.
In this study, we aimed to determine whether NOD/SCID.e2f1(-) mice can be used for studying oral colonization of A. naeslundii and S. gordonii. Colonization of A. naeslundii in mice fed with 1% sucrose water for 24 h before inoculation was higher than that among mice fed with sucrose water for 1 h. A. naeslundii colonization using mixed species-inoculation was lower than that using single-species inoculation 30-90 min after inoculation; however, the colonization was higher 120-180 min after inoculation. The mixed inoculation induced better colonization of S. gordonii than single-species inoculation 60-180 min after inocula...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhang X, Senpuku H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Relationship between Virus-Neutralizing Antibody Levels and the Number of Rabies Vaccinations: a Prospective Study of Dogs in Japan.
Abstract A mass rabies vaccination of dogs has been conducted annually in Japan over the last 60 years. To assess both current levels of rabies virus-neutralizing antibody (VNA) in dogs and the rationale for current vaccination procedures, we used a rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test to determine VNA levels in 756 dogs that had visited animal hospitals in Japan. We found that 51.1% of the dogs that had received 1 rabies vaccination had protective VNA levels (≥0.5 IU/ml) with a geometric mean of 0.61 IU/ml. In contrast, 97.8% of the dogs that had been vaccinated at least twice had protective VNA levels with...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Watanabe I, Yamada K, Aso A, Suda O, Matsumoto T, Yahiro T, Ahmed K, Nishizono A Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Healthy Children in Japan.
Abstract The findings of this study revealed a 22% prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae among healthy children in Japan; the prevalence tended to increase with age. We identified attendance at day-care facilities and the presence of older siblings as the major risk factors associated with pneumococcal carriage. A significant decrease in pneumococcal colonization was observed among children during the summer; however, a seasonal variation was independent of various factors. Our findings suggest that prior immunization with heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine within the current recommended schedule is requi...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ueno M, Ishii Y, Tateda K, Anahara Y, Ebata A, Iida M, Inamura S, Takahata K, Suzuki Y, Chang B, Wada A, Sugita M, Tanaka T, Nishiwaki Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clinical Efficacy of Antivenom and Cepharanthine for the Treatment of Mamushi (Gloydius blomhoffii) Bites in Tertiary Care Centers in Japan.
Abstract To our knowledge, no one has conducted a multi-center trial evaluating the efficacy of antivenom and cepharanthine (CEP) for the treatment of mamushi (Gloydius blomhoffii) bites. Thus, we conducted a large-scale survey among tertiary care centers in Japan from November 2009 to October 2010 to evaluate the efficacy of antivenom and CEP for the treatment of mamushi bites. We divided the therapeutic interventions received by patients into 4 groups: CEP, antivenom, both CEP and antivenom, and neither CEP nor antivenom. We collected data on age, sex, comorbidities, laboratory measurements, length of hospital s...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hifumi T, Yamamoto A, Morokuma K, Okada I, Kiriu N, Ogasawara T, Hasegawa E, Kato H, Inoue J, Koido Y, Takahashi M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Imported malaria cases in okinawa prefecture, Japan.
Abstract With the increase in global transportation, imported malaria has become a significant public health concern in Japan. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed all imported malaria cases in Okinawa Prefecture from 1988 to 2012. In that period, 23 patients with imported malaria were admitted to the University of the Ryukyus Hospital. Malaria types observed included Plasmodium falciparum (14 cases), P. vivax (7 cases), combined P. falciparum and P. ovale (1 case), and combined P. vivax and P. malariae (1 case). All cases were resolved by anti-malarial treatment. The clinical data from these patients...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Higa F, Tateyama M, Tasato D, Karimata Y, Nakamura H, Miyagi K, Haranaga S, Hirata T, Hokama A, Cash HL, Toma H, Fujita J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Characteristics of patients with primary and late latent syphilis patients who were initially non-reactive to the rapid plasma reagin test.
This study suggests that RPR testing alone is insufficient to diagnose primary and late latent infections, especially in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Syphilis detection was lower for patients with primary syphilis than for those with late latent syphilis based on the results of the RPR. PMID: 23429083 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jun L, He-Yi Z Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Effects of Simultaneous Immunization of Haemophilus influenzae Type b Conjugate Vaccine and Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis Vaccine on Anti-Tetanus Potencies in Mice, Guinea Pigs, and Rats.
In this study, we investigated the effect of HibT containing combination vaccines on anti-tetanus potencies by using animal models (mouse, guinea pig, and rat). HibT vaccine and HibT components of imported DTaP-HibT vaccine alone showed comparable or higher anti-tetanus potency than DTaP vaccine and DTaP-containing components of combination vaccines. Mixing these components before injection resulted in potencies greater than the sum of individual potencies. Injecting individual components at separate sites in animals resulted in potency roughly equivalent to the sum of the individual potencies. These results provide useful...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fukuda T, Iwaki M, Komiya T, Shibayama K, Takahashi M, Nakashima H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Production of a Neutralizing Mouse-Human Chimeric Antibody against Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype E.
Abstract A mouse-human chimeric antibody that can neutralize botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E) was developed. Variable regions of heavy and light chains obtained using a mouse hybridoma clone (E9-4) cDNA, which was selected on the basis of neutralizing activity against BoNT/E, were fused with the upstream regions of the constant counterparts of human kappa light and gamma 1 heavy chain genes, respectively. CHO-DG44 cells were transfected with these plasmids and a mouse-human chimeric antibody (EC94) was purified to examine binding and neutralizing activity against BoNT/E. EC94 exhibited the same levels of b...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mukamoto M, Maeda H, Kohda T, Nozaki C, Takahashi M, Kozaki S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Determination of Epidemiology of Clinically Isolated Cryptococcus neoformans Strains in Japan by Multilocus Sequence Typing.
Abstract Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are the causative agents of cryptococcosis. Despite its importance, our knowledge of the epidemiology of cryptococcosis in Japan remains limited. To establish an epidemiological database on cryptococcosis in Japan, we determined the genetic variability of 44 Japanese clinical isolates of C. neoformans (var. grubii: serotype A) by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The strains were clinically isolated from 1992 to 2011 in 5 different areas of Japan (the Hokkaido region [n = 1], Kanto region [n = 32], Chubu region [n = 1], Kansai region [n = 1], and Kyushu reg...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Umeyama T, Ohno H, Minamoto F, Takagi T, Tanamachi C, Tanabe K, Kaneko Y, Yamagoe S, Kishi K, Fujii T, Takemura H, Watanabe H, Miyazaki Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of human metapneumovirus from 2005 to 2011 in fukui, Japan.
Abstract To investigate the molecular epidemiology of human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infections in acute respiratory infections (ARI), we performed genetic analysis of the F gene in HMPV from patients with ARI in Fukui Prefecture from August 2005 to July 2011. HMPV was detected in 53 of 741 nasopharyngeal swabs (7.2%). Phylogenetic analysis helped us assign 31 strains to subgroup A2, 1 strain to subgroup B1, and 21 strains to subgroup B2. The prevalence of HMPV was peaked between January and June. A high degree of nucleotide identity was seen among subgroup A2 strains (95.6-100%) and subgroup B2 strains (97.5-100%)....
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nakamura M, Hirano E, Ishiguro F, Mizuta K, Noda M, Tanaka R, Tsukagoshi H, Kimura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Newly Developed Rapid Stool Antigen Test Using an Immunochromatographic Assay To Detect Helicobacter pylori.
Abstract The ASAN Easy Test H. pylori is a newly developed rapid test for Helicobacter pylori that uses a stool antigen immunochromatographic assay (S-ICT). The aim of this study was to evaluate this kit for the diagnosis of H. pylori under various histological conditions. We enrolled 266 consecutive patients undergoing a routine health checkup and endoscopy with biopsy. H. pylori infection was confirmed if at least 2 out of the 3 following tests were positive: histology, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the stool antigen test by enzyme immunoassay (S-EIA). Histological examination was performed usin...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jekarl DW, An YJ, Lee S, Lee J, Kim Y, Park YJ, Kim TJ, Kim JI, Park SH Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Composition of Hemagglutinin and Neuraminidase Affects the Antigen Yield of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Candidate Vaccine Viruses.
In this study, we showed that the balance between HA and NA in the influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus affects its protein and antigen yield. PMID: 23429089 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shirakura M, Kawaguchi A, Tashiro M, Nobusawa E Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Difference in Distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes among Different Provinces: a Pilot Study from Four Provinces in China.
The objective of this study was to assess the distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis genovars in male sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients from 1 province in eastern China (Jiangsu) and 3 provinces in southern China (Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan). Urine specimens (n = 140) were collected from 46 public STD clinics in the 4 provinces. Specimens that tested positive for C. trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction were genotyped for the infecting C. trachomatis strain by amplifying and sequencing the genovar-specific ompA gene, which encodes the chlamydial major outer-membrane protein. Nine C. trachomatis genov...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Han Y, Yin YP, Shi MQ, Zhong MY, Chen SC, Xang Z, Jiang N, Chen XS Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Phenotypic and Genetic Analyses of Campylobacter jejuni Lior Serotype 76 Isolated from Chicken Meat and Clinical Specimens.
Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the link between Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained from chicken meat (n = 7) and gastroenteritis patients (n = 744). In total, 751 isolates were subjected to Lior serotyping. All the isolates from chicken meats were serotyped as Lior serotype 76 (LIO76). Among 23 of the identified LIO76 strains, 13 strains (6 from chicken meat and 7 from clinical specimens) were indistinguishable by Penner serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These strains were isolated in 2 different Japanese prefectures in 2004-2005, suggesting ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matsumoto M, Hiramatsu R, Yamada K, Suzuki M, Miwa Y, Yabutani M, Nagai Y, Tsuchiya M, Noda M, Nagata A, Kawakami K, Shima T, Tatsumi N, Minagawa H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

An Outbreak of Parainfluenza Virus Type 4 Infections among Children with Acute Respiratory Infections during the 2011-2012 Winter Season in Yamagata, Japan.
PMID: 23429092 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abiko C, Mizuta K, Aoki Y, Ikeda T, Itagaki T, Noda M, Kimura H, Ahiko T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

First Report of OXA-48 Carbapenemase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in Japan from a Patient Returned from Southeast Asia.
PMID: 23429093 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - March 1, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nagano N, Endoh Y, Nagano Y, Toyama M, Matsui M, Shibayama K, Arakawa Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research