Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 appears in Taiwan.
This report is important for hospital and public health administration in Asia to be alert and closely monitor the emergence of this hypervirulent strain to avoid potential outbreaks occurred. PMID: 25672348 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Liao TL, Lin CF, Chiou CS, Shen GH, Wang J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Rubella seroprevalence among the general population in Dongguan, China.
Abstract In order to assess immunity to rubella infection in Dongguan, China, we conducted a seroprevalence survey on rubella and measured rubella-specific IgG in serum samples by ELISA. A total of 1017 individuals aged 0-59 years were selected with a multistage cluster sampling. Among them, 904 (88.9%) were seropositive to rubella. Two groups (20-29 and ≥40 years) had seropositivity rates
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lin W, Wang D, Xiong Y, Tang H, Liao Z, Ni J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Food-borne Outbreak of Gastroenteritis caused by different Salmonella serotypes in two universities,Xiamen, Fujian, China, 2012.
Abstract We investigated a diarrhea outbreak in two universities to identify the etiological agent of the outbreak, the source of infection, the mode of transmission and the risk factors. A case-control study was conducted between the case-students and the asymptomatic control-students who were selected randomly and were frequency matched by class and age, and the source of food or water investigated. 0.25% of total 22,404 students (excluding teachers) developed Salmonella. 96% (54/56) of case-students and 30% (35/117) of control-students consumed bread products provided by the same vendor (odds ratio (OR)=63.3, 9...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guo Z, Su CH, Huang J, Niu J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiological characteristics of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome, in the 2012-2013 epidemics in Tokyo, Japan.
Abstract A large rubella outbreak has been observed since June 2012 in Tokyo, Japan, and rapid growth of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cases have also been reported in Japan since October 2012. All of the clinically diagnosed and laboratory-confirmed rubella cases reported in Tokyo from January 2012 to December 2013 and of the laboratory-confirmed CRS cases from January 2012 to March 2014 were analysed. A total of 4,116 rubella cases were reported in Tokyo. About three quarters were male (n = 3,176; 77.2%); the highest number of cases in male occurred at aged 35-39-year-old and in female 20-24-year-old. Compli...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sugishita Y, Shimatani N, Katow S, Takahashi T, Hori N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiological analysis of Kudoa septempunctata by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis.
Abstract A molecular epidemiological analysis of Kudoa septempunctata isolates from 34 olive flounders associated with foodborne disease outbreaks and 6 reference samples was performed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis. The K. septempunctata isolates analyzed in this study were divided into 8 groups. The 8 isolates obtained from the large Ehime prefecture outbreak in Japan that occurred on October 8, 2010 were divided into 4 groups. The 8 isolates obtained from Korean samples were divided into 3 groups that included isolates that had been identified from the large Ehime prefecture outbreak. Th...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ohnishi T, Furusawa H, Oyama R, Koike S, Yoshinari T, Kamata Y, Sugita-Konishi Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

ABO blood groups and susceptibility to brucellosis.
Abstract The relationship between blood groups and some infections like norovirus, cholera, and malaria has been reported. Given the importance of brucellosis and the failure to address this issue in the case of brucellosis, in this study we examined the relationship between blood groups and brucellosis. In this case-control study, 100 patients with brucellosis and 200 healthy individuals were studied in terms of blood groups. Exclusion criteria for the control group consisted of positive Coombs Wright or the history of brucellosis. Chi-square test was used to compare qualitative variables between the two groups. ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mohsenpour B, Hajibagheri K, Afrasiabian S, Ghaderi E, Ghasembegloo S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Interleukin-17A in Legionella pneumonia: A retrospective study.
Abstract IL-17A is involved in the immune system of the lung. Legionella can potentially cause severe pneumonia. The present study was aimed to evaluate the role of IL-17A in Legionella pneumonia cases. IL-17A was quantified in sera from patients with Legionella pneumonia and control subjects. IL-17A was detected in sera from 4 out of 31 Legionella pneumonia cases; the cytokine was not detected in any control cases. There was no difference in peripheral white blood cell counts or other serum biomarkers (C-reactive protein, and lactate dehydrogenase) between IL-17A positive cases and IL-17A negative cases. The IL-1...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Higa F, Haroon A, Iha Y, Tasato D, Nakamura H, Kinjo T, Tamayose M, Furugen M, Miyagi K, Haranaga S, Tateyama M, Fujita J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Genotype Diversity and Quasispecies Development of Helicobacter pylori in a Single Host.
Abstract Infection with different strains of H. pylori and emergence of new genomic variants during their long term gastric colonization are assumed as main reasons for eradication failure. This project was designed to detect relatedness and genetic variations among the H. pylori single isolates from each patient in Iran. Genotyping and arbitrarily primed PCR fingerprinting (RAPD) were used in this regard. Multiplex-PCR amplification of gene alleles encoding virulence factors vacA (m/s), cagA, iceA (A1/A2) and comparison of RAPD patterns of different singles colonies were performed for each individual patient. The...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Farzi N, Malekian T, Alebouyeh M, Vaziri F, Zali MR Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Contribution of QnrA, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance peptide, to survival of Escherichia coli exposed to lethal ciprofloxacin concentration.
Abstract We evaluated the effects of qnrA gene on (1) survival of bacteria exposed to lethal ciprofloxacin (CIP) concentration, and (2) the development of quinolone resistance through the accumulation of amino acid substitutions in quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of GyrA and ParC, targets of quinolones, in Escherichia coli. CIP-susceptible E. coli strains of different O-serotypes (O1, O6, O18, O25b, O74, and O78) were transformed by a recombinant plasmid harboring qnrA, and the parent strains and their transformants were subjected to killing curve assays and adaptation tests. In the killing curve ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Goto K, Kawamura K, Arakawa Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Lactococcus lactis catheter-related bloodstream infection in an infant: case report.
LACTOCOCCUS LACTIS CATHETER-RELATED BLOODSTREAM INFECTION IN AN INFANT: CASE REPORT. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2014 Dec 24; Authors: Karaaslan A, Soysal A, Sarmış A, Kadayifci EK, Cerit K, Atıcı S, Söyletir G, Bakır M Abstract Lactococcus lactis is a gram-positive coccus that is nonpathogenic in humans. Herein, we present the case of a one-year-old boy with Down's syndrome (DS) and Hirschprung's disease (HD) who developed a catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) with L. lactis after gastrointestinal surgery. The patient had been hospitalized in the pediatric surgery unit from birth because ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Karaaslan A, Soysal A, Sarmış A, Kadayifci EK, Cerit K, Atıcı S, Söyletir G, Bakır M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

New Validated Rapid Screening Methods for Identifying Kudoa septempunctata in Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).
Abstract Kudoa septempunctata is a new causative agent of foodborne diseases associated with the consumption of raw olive flounder. Qualitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR have been developed as notification methods to detect K. septempunctata in Japan; however, these methods require expensive equipment and are time-consuming, taking two to three hours. In order to address these problems, in this study, we developed new rapid and simple methods using real-time LAMP and NASBA-nucleic acid chromatography (NASBA-NAC). In these methods, the total procedure requires approximately 45 minutes, without the need for...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sugita-Konishi Y, Fukuda Y, Mori KI, Mekata T, Namba T, Kuroda M, Yamazaki A, Ohnishi T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Description of hospitalized cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection -based on the national hospitalized-case surveillance, 2009-2010, Japan.
This study reports the epidemiological characteristics of hospitalized cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 infection analysed based on the surveillance data collected from 24 July 2009, the date on which the hospital-based surveillance of influenza cases was implemented in Japan, to 5 September 2010. During the study period, a total of 13,581 confirmed cases was reported. Among those cases with information regarding reason for hospitalization, 39% were admitted to hospitals for non-therapeutic purpose such as medical observation and laboratory testing. Overall hospitalization rate was 5.8 cases per 100,000 population when we e...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 24, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shimada T, Sunagawa T, Taniguchi K, Yahata Y, Kamiya H, Ueno Yamamoto K, Yasui Y, Okabe N, for the National Pandemic Response and Control Headquarters of Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Application of the analytic hierarchy process to a risk assessment of emerging infectious diseases in shaoxing city in southern china.
This study aimed to assess the likelihood of an outbreak or epidemic of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in Shaoxing city, China, and its resulting impact to provide decision makers with quantitative, directive results. Factors related to the risk of EIDs were selected through meeting with experts and were arranged in a hierarchical structure. These evaluation factors were also weighted to allow the use of a point system for evaluation. As a result, 14 evaluation factors comprising a 3-layer hierarchy were generated. The riskiest top 10 EIDs were HIV/AIDS (consistency index [CI] = 3.206), cholera (CI = 3.103), SARS (CI ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tu C, Fang Y, Huang Z, Tan R Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Effects of ribavirin on severe Fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus in vitro.
We examined the effects of ribavirin and mizoribine, which are nucleoside analogue drugs with broad antiviral activities, on SFTSV proliferation in vitro. When 3 cell lines were treated with these drugs before and during infection with a Chinese SFTSV strain, the 99% effective concentrations (EC99) of ribavirin were 19-64 μg/ml (78-262 μM); in contrast, the EC99 of mizoribine was>500 μg/ml (1,929 μM). Similar levels of inhibitory effects of ribavirin were observed with 4 Japanese SFTSV strains. However, when Vero cells were treated with ribavirin 3 days after inoculation, the inhibitory effect was dramatical...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shimojima M, Fukushi S, Tani H, Yoshikawa T, Fukuma A, Taniguchi S, Suda Y, Maeda K, Takahashi T, Morikawa S, Saijo M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Validation of thwaites' diagnostic scoring system for the differential diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis and bacterial meningitis.
Abstract To compare the clinical features of patients with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and bacterial meningitis (BM) and to validate Thwaites' diagnostic scoring system for the differential diagnosis of TBM and BM, a retrospective review of 211 patients with TBM or BM who were admitted to Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, from 2007 to 2012 was conducted. The clinical characteristics and laboratory data were compared, and Thwaites' diagnostic scores were assessed at the time of admission for the differential diagnosis of TBM and BM. Significant differences were observed between the 2 groups in general informatio...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhang YL, Lin S, Shao LY, Zhang WH, Weng XH Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Lack of Association between BSG Polymorphisms and Cerebral Malaria.
In conclusion, common SNPs in BSG do not influence the risk of cerebral malaria in the Thai population. PMID: 25410557 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Naka I, Patarapotikul J, Hananantachai H, Ohashi J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Effect of Host Factors on Neutrophil Functions in Response to Burkholderia pseudomallei in Healthy Thai Subjects.
This study therefore indicated the importance of age, glycemic control, and antibody levels in the activity of neutrophils in melioidosis. PMID: 25410558 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Saengmuang P, Kewcharoenwong C, Tippayawat P, Nithichanon A, Buddhisa S, Lertmemongkolchai G Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Comparison of Two Methods of Bacterial DNA Extraction from Human Fecal Samples Contaminated with Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni.
In this study, 2 methods of DNA extraction were evaluated for use in conjunction with the screening system Rapid Foodborne Bacterial Screening 24 (RFBS24), which employs multiplex real-time SYBR Green polymerase chain reaction (SG-PCR) and can simultaneously detect 24 target genes of foodborne pathogens in fecal DNA samples. The QIAamp DNA Stool mini kit (Qkit) and Ultra Clean Fecal DNA Isolation Kit (Ukit) were used for bacterial DNA extraction from fecal samples artificially inoculated with Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni. SG-PCR and simplex real-time quant...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kawase J, Kurosaki M, Kawakami Y, Kashimoto T, Tsunomori Y, Sato K, Ikeda T, Yamaguchi K, Watahiki M, Shima T, Kameyama M, Etoh Y, Horikawa K, Fukushima H, Goto R, Shirabe K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Impact of population size on incidence of rubella and measles in comparison with that of other infectious diseases.
Abstract A strong dependency of rubella and measles epidemics on population size was confirmed by 2 types of plots: the cumulative frequency distribution of number of cases per prefecture and the slope of the log-log plots of number of cases per prefecture on the y-axis vs. prefecture population size on the x-axis. These parameters were found to be constant and unique to each infectious agent. The broader cumulative frequency distribution and steeper slope of the log-log plots were characteristic to measles and rubella, i.e., a higher population size was correlated with a disproportionate high incidence of measles...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiology of scrub typhus and the eschars patterns in South Korea from 2008 to 2012.
Abstract In South Korea, scrub typhus is the most common acute febrile illness in autumn. We analyzed scrub typhus cases reported from 2008 to 2012 to describe the epidemiology of scrub typhus as well as eschar patterns. A total of 30,478 cases were reported from 2008 to 2012; the incidence rates were higher in the southern and western regions of South Korea. The common clinical symptoms of confirmed scrub typhus cases from 2010 to 2012 were fever/chills (95.2%), eschars (78.9%), and myalgia (61.7%). The primary sites of eschars were the lower extremities (19.0%), abdomen/waist (13.4%), and axilla (11.5%) in men a...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Park JH, Kim SJ, Youn SK, Park K, Gwack J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Retrospective, Hospital-Based Study to Determine the Incidence of Rotavirus Hospitalizations among Children Less than 5 Years of Age over a 10-Year Period (2001-2011) in Akita Prefecture, Japan.
Abstract Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in children worldwide. This retrospective, cross-sectional study was undertaken in a sentinel hospital that provides the only pediatric beds for the local population with an average of 4,400 children aged
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kinoshita S, Noguchi A, Miura S, Nakagomi T, Nakagomi O, Takahashi T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Associations between Co-Detected Respiratory Viruses in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections.
Abstract Viruses are the major etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in young children. Although respiratory virus co-detections are common, analysis of combinations of co-detected viruses has never been conducted in Japan. Nineteen respiratory viruses or subtypes were surveyed using multiplex real-time PCR on 1,044 pediatric (patient age
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kaida A, Kubo H, Takakura K, Sekiguchi J, Yamamoto SP, Kohdera U, Togawa M, Amo K, Shiomi M, Ohyama M, Goto K, Hase A, Kageyama T, Iritani N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Pili Promote Adhesion to and Invasion of THP-1 Macrophages.
Abstract Central to the paradigm of the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is its ability to attach to, enter, and subsequently survive in host macrophages. However, little is known regarding the bacterial adhesins and invasins involved in this interaction with host macrophages. Pili are cell-surface structures produced by certain bacteria and have been implicated in adhesion to and invasion of phagocytes in several species. M. tuberculosis pili (MTP) are encoded by the Rv3312A (mtp) gene. In the present study, we assessed the ability of a Δmtp mutant and an mtp-complemented clinical strain to adhere...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ramsugit S, Pillay M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiology and Laboratory Diagnoses of Rubella in Hokkaido District during the Nationwide Outbreak in Japan, 2011-2013.
We report the epidemiology and laboratory diagnostic results of rubella cases from 2011 to 2013 in Hokkaido district, Japan. A total of 150 cases were officially reported as rubella; 102 (68%) involved males and 48 (32%) involved females. The highest proportion of cases were notified in 40-49-year-old age group among males and the 20-29-years-old age group among females. Forty-six cases (25 males and 21 females) had not been vaccinated, and 17 had been vaccinated, whereas 87 had the unknown vaccination status. Eighty-three cases (55.3%) showed the 3 typical principal rubella symptoms (fever, rash, and lymphadenopathy). Sev...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Miyoshi M, Komagome R, Ishida S, Nagano H, Okano M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Evaluation of the In Vivo Efficacy of Novel Monosubstituted Sulfonylureas against H37Rv and Extensively Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis.
Abstract Sulfonylureas have been regarded as potential drug candidates against tuberculosis (TB) because they can inhibit the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids by targeting acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS). We demonstrated previously that novel monosubstituted sulfonylureas showed potent in vitro activities against TB. In the current study, we further explored the anti-TB activity of monosubstituted sulfonylureas in a mouse model. Compounds 30 and 31 exhibited the most efficacy: a single intragastric administration at a dose of 250 mg/kg led to a reduced lung bacterial count, and the dose of 500 mg/kg ach...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Liu Y, Bao P, Wang D, Li Z, Li Y, Tang L, Zhou Y, Zhao W Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Severe Case of Lemierre Syndrome with Streptococcus constellatus Infection.
Abstract A 76-year-old Japanese male presenting with high fever, headache, and disturbance of consciousness was hospitalized. Contrast computed tomography revealed thrombophlebitis in the internal jugular vein and abscesses in the posterior neck region, pharynx, and pterygoid muscle. Streptococcus constellatus infection was confirmed by culture of blood samples, and the patient was diagnosed with Lemierre syndrome. In addition to the administration of antibiotics and anticoagulants, abscess drainage was performed. S. constellatus should be considered as a causative bacterium in elderly patients with Lemierre syndr...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shimada M, Morinaga Y, Kitazaki T, Fukuda M, Hashiguchi K, Yanagihara K, Kohno S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni Isolates from Korea and Travel-Associated Cases from East and Southeast Asian Countries.
Abstract Forty domestic and travel-associated Campylobacter jejuni isolates were analyzed by profiling 7 pathogenic genes (cdtB, cadF, Cj0131, ciaB, racR, wlaN, and virB11) along with multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. cdtB, cadF, and Cj0131 were present in all isolates, whereas virB11 was not detected in either domestic or travel-associated isolates. ciaB was present in all domestic isolates and 94% of travel-associated isolates. The respective detection rates of racR and wlaN in domestic and travel-associated isolates were 94% and 71% and 35.3% and 23%, respectively. MLST...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cha I, Kim NO, Nam JG, Choi ES, Chung GT, Kang YH, Hong S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Construction of New Primer Sets for Corresponding to Genetic Evolution of Human Adenoviruses in Major Capsid Genes through Frequent Recombination.
This study contributes to the accumulation of correct information regarding genetic diversity and evolution in the worldwide HAdV surveillance. PMID: 25410569 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matsushima Y, Nakajima E, Ishikawa M, Kano A, Komane A, Fujimoto T, Hanaoka N, Okabe N, Shimizu H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Nonspecificity of Primers for Escherichia albertii Detection.
PMID: 25410570 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maeda E, Murakami K, Okamoto F, Etoh Y, Sera N, Ito K, Fujimoto S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiological Investigation and Seroprevalence of Human Parainfluenza Virus in Mie Prefecture in Japan during 2009-2013.
PMID: 25410571 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - November 26, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yano T, Fukuta M, Maeda C, Akachi S, Matsuno Y, Yamadera M, Kobayashi A, Nagai Y, Kusuhara H, Kobayashi T, Amano H, Nishinaka T, Ochiai H, Watanabe M, Nakamura H, Suga S, Ihara T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serodiagnosis of Mycobacterium avium Complex Disease in Humans: Translational Research from Basic Mycobacteriology to Clinical Medicine.
Abstract Rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases, including mycobacterial disease such as tuberculosis (TB) and diseases due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), is a very important element of global health. The gold standard in diagnosis of mycobacterial diseases remains clinical examination, combined with direct microscopic examination of sputum and culture of bacteria. Culture of slowly growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and NTM (such as M. avium complex: MAC), can take up to 4 to 6 weeks, and in 10-20% of cases the bacillus is not successfully cultivated. Diagnosis of MAC p...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kobayashi K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Comparison of the Detection Rates of RT-PCR and Virus Culture Using a Combination of Specimens from Multiple Sites for Enterovirus-Associated Encephalomyelitis during Enterovirus 71 Epidemic.
Abstract Enterovirus (EV) 71 may cause severe neurological illness in the pediatric population. The present study aimed to compare the detection rates of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with pan-EV/EV71 type- specific primers and virus culture (VC) for the identification of EV and EV71 using specimens from multiple sites. In total, specimens from throat/rectal swabs, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and blood from 66 patients diagnosed with EV encephalomyelitis were subjected to both RT-PCR and VC for detecting the presence of pan-EV and EV71. The results revealed that the positive RT-PCR rate w...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tsai JD, Tsai HJ, Lin TH, Chang YY, Yang SH, Kuo HT Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Effect of the Different Treatment Protocols on Virological and Immunological Responses in Patients with HIV/AIDS.
This study analyzed the differences between the virological and immunological responses in patients with HIV/AIDS subjected to different treatment protocols. The cases treated with HAART were divided into groups on the basis of treatment protocols. The groups were evaluated with respect to the differences by comparing the virological and immunological responses prior to treatment and at 12 and 24 weeks of therapy. Six different treatment protocols were applied in the treated patients. As the largest clusters, the lopinavir/ritonavir-based patient group (Group 1, n = 29) and efavirenz-based patient group (Group 2, n = 18) w...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sari ND, Fincanci M, Soysal F Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clinical manifestations of children with microbiologically confirmed pertussis infection and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated strains in a regional hospital in Japan, 2008-2012.
Abstract We conducted a retrospective study in 57 children (median age, 3.5 years; range, 1 month-14.5 years) with microbiologically confirmed pertussis infection over a recent 4-year period in a regional hospital in Japan. We obtained nasal swabs from all patients for Bordetella pertussis isolation as well as performed B. pertussis DNA detection using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Of the 57 cases, 34 (60%) were culture-positive and 57 (100%) were LAMP-positive. The frequency of each symptom was as follows: typical paroxysmal cough for over 14 days, 96% (55/57); paroxysms, 86% (49/57); posttussive...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Horiba K, Nishimura N, Gotoh K, Kawaguchi M, Takeuchi S, Hattori F, Isaji M, Okai Y, Hosono H, Takemoto K, Ozaki T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Etiology of acute conjunctivitis due to coxsackievirus a24 variant, human adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, and Chlamydia in beijing, china.
In conclusion, HAdV followed by CA24v, chlamydia, and HSV were the most common causative agents of acute conjunctivitis in Beijing. Comprehensive, continuous surveillance and advanced laboratory techniques are needed for further studies. PMID: 25241684 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Li J, Yang Y, Lin C, Li W, Yang Y, Zhang Y, Jia L, Li X, Chen L, Wang Q Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Characteristics of group B streptococcus isolated from infants with invasive infections: a population-based study in Japan.
Abstract Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the leading causes of neonatal bacterial infections. Population-based surveillance of GBS-related invasive diseases among newborns and infants from 10 prefectures in Japan was performed between 2007 and 2012. The characteristics of cases and isolated GBS are described in this study. The incidence rate of GBS-related invasive diseases was 0.13 per 1,000 live births. Analysis of GBS samples obtained from 60 invasive cases showed that the most frequent serotypes were III (48.3%), Ia (30.0%), and Ib (10.0%). All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, ampicillin, cefot...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chang B, Wada A, Hosoya M, Oishi T, Ishiwada N, Oda M, Sato T, Terauchi Y, Okada K, Nishi J, Akeda H, Kamiya H, Ohnishi M, Ihara T, Japanese Invasive Disease Study Group Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Phylogenetic Analysis of the Oriental-Palearctic-Afrotropical Members of Anopheles (Culicidae: Diptera) Based on Nuclear rDNA and Mitochondrial DNA Characteristics.
Abstract The phylogenetic relationships of Anopheles spp. at the junction of Oriental, Palearctic, and Afrotropical regions in the Iranian plateau were investigated using molecular markers. A 711-bp mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase C subunit I (COI) fragment and the entire second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region (286-576 bp) of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA-ITS2) were sequenced from 14 and 28 taxa, respectively. The analyses included 12 species within Anopheles and 4 within the Myzorhynchus Series of the subgenus Anopheles, 8 within Neocellia, 6 within Myzomyia, 3 within Paramyzomyia, and 1 within t...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Karimian F, Oshaghi MA, Sedaghat MM, Waterhouse RM, Vatandoost H, Hanafi-Bojd AA, Ravasan NM, Chavshin AR Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Characteristics of Geographical Spread and Temporal Accumulation of the 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Epidemic in Japan Based on National Surveillance Data.
This study aimed to describe the geographical spread and temporal accumulation of cases during the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) epidemic in Japan. Using a method adopted by the National Epidemiological Surveillance of Infectious Diseases (NESID) to identify epidemics, we described the frequency and temporal change of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) epidemic among designated public health center areas in Japan. We calculated the proportion of public health center areas with an epidemic by week from 1999 to 2010. The 2009 influenza A (H1N1) epidemic had several distinguishing features compared with previous seasonal influenza epidemi...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ohta A, Hashimoto S, Murakami Y, Kawado M, Taniguchi K, Tada Y, Shigematsu M, Nagai M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Sensitive and rapid detection of campylobacter species from stools of children with diarrhea in Japan by the loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.
Abstract We detected Campylobacter spp. in 5% (20/380) of diarrheal stool samples collected at an outpatient clinic in Kyoto using a commercial loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) kit with a fluorescent detection reagent after DNA extraction. The sensitivity and specificity were 100% in comparison with those of semi-nested PCR for the differentiation of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Fourteen of the 20 samples were already determined as C. jejuni by the culture method. All 20 samples were also positive for C. jejuni by the PCR method. Among the 58 cultured samples, the sensitivity of the cu...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ushijima H, Nishimura S, Thongprachum A, Shimizu-Onda Y, Tran DN, Pham NT, Takanashi S, Dey SK, Okitsu S, Yamazaki W, Mizuguchi M, Hayakawa S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Organization of nosocomial infection control measures and local networks for infectious disease control in middle-scale hospitals in Japan.
Abstract The aims of this study were to assess nosocomial infection control measures at middle-scale hospitals throughout Japan. Of the 823 hospitals participating in this questionnaire-based survey, more than half of the middle-scale hospitals have implemented nosocomial infection control measures, including infection surveillance or infection control rounds, while acknowledging a shortage of infection control staff. These hospitals most frequently consulted public health centers to obtain information and advice. Improved nosocomial infection control in middle-scale hospitals requires sufficient staffing and a lo...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mori-Yoshikawa N, Ohmagari N, Kirikae T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Identification of a Novel Metallo-β-Lactamase VIM-28 Located within Unusual Arrangement of Class 1 Integron Structure in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Egypt.
In conclusion, the presence of a new variant of blaVIM, blaVIM-28, on a new organization of class 1 integron having ISPa21 increases the possibility of dissemination of resistance genes within the integron in P. aeruginosa among hospitalized patients in Egypt. PMID: 25241690 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: El-Mahdy TS Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Oseltamivir-Resistant Seasonal A(H1N1) and A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza Viruses from the 2007/2008 to 2012/2013 Season in Nara Prefecture, Japan.
We examined the incidence of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A(H1N1) and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza viruses from the 2007/2008 to 2012/2013 season in Nara Prefecture, Japan. To detect the oseltamivir resistance marker in neuraminidase (NA), 365 influenza viruses (60 seasonal A(H1N1) and 305 A(H1N1)pdm09) were sequenced. The H275Y mutation in the NA gene, which confers resistance to oseltamivir, was identified in 93.8% (30/32) of seasonal A(H1N1) viruses that were circulating during the 2008/2009 season. Moreover, the detection rate of oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses was 4.1% (3/74) and 2.8% (5/180) in the 2009/2010 a...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoneda M, Okayama A, Kitahori Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Detection and Genotyping of Rubella Virus from Exanthematous Patients Suspected of Having Measles Using Reverse Transcription-PCR.
Abstract Between July 2012 and March 2013, a total of 133 clinical specimens from 47 patients suspected of having measles were collected for virological surveillance in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Facing the rubella epidemic, the reverse transcription (RT)-PCR protocol for measles virus (MeV) was modified to simultaneously detect rubella virus (RUBV) in these clinical specimens. As a result, 30 specimens from 15 patients were positive for RUBV and 8 specimens from 3 patients were positive for MeV. The RUBV genotype analysis for the samples from 13 patients revealed 12 samples as 2B and 1 sample as 1E. The results pro...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yasui Y, Mori Y, Adachi H, Kobayashi S, Yamashita T, Minagawa H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Alteration in Serum Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines during Parainfluenza Virus Type 1 Infection in Patients with Severe Multiple Disabilities.
Abstract An epidemic of parainfluenza virus type 1 (PIV1) infection occurred in a hospital ward housing patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. Twenty-three infected patients exhibited persistent high fever for 4-16 days and decreased lymphocyte counts. One-half of the symptomatic patients had increased blood monocyte counts and the other half progressed to bronchitis or pneumonia. We also compared levels of 27 cytokines in the sera of 21 patients during the acute and normal phases of infection. Cytokine levels were measured with a bead immunoassay performed using the Luminex Multiplex System. Se...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matsuda S, Kiyota N, Yoshizumi M, Noda M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of crimean-congo hemorrhagic Fever in southeastern bulgaria.
Abstract Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), which is endemic in Bulgaria, is caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). The seroprevalence of CCHFV in southeastern Bulgaria was examined in this study. For this purpose, a total of 751 human blood samples were collected and examined by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In addition, a questionnaire was completed for every participant. Anti-CCHFV antibodies were detected in 3.20% (24/751) of the tested sera. None of the seropositive individuals had a history of CCHF. The results indicate that the proportion of positive findings increase with ag...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gergova I, Kamarinchev B Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Human rhinovirus infection in children with cystic fibrosis.
This study highlights that RV is frequently found in the respiratory secretions of patients with CF and the impact of HRV-A appears higher than that of the other HRV types in patients with pulmonary exacerbations. PMID: 25241695 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Esposito S, Daccò V, Daleno C, Gambazza S, Montinaro V, Bisogno A, Principi N, Colombo C Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

In Vitro Activity of Novel Oxazolidinone Analogs and 13 Conventional Antimicrobial Agents against Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus in Beijing, China.
In this study, we investigated the prevalence of MRSA in the PLA 309 Hospital located in Beijing, China, and we determined the susceptibility of S. aureus to novel oxazolidinone analogs and 13 conventional antimicrobial agents. It was shown that drug resistant patterns were severe among the clinical isolates, and the average rate of MRSA among the S. aureus strains was 56.3%. All the S. aureus strains tested were completely susceptible to linezolid, but the minimum inhibitory concentration distribution drifted upwards. Among the novel oxazolidinone analogs, sy142 exhibited more potent antimicrobial activity than linezolid ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lei H, Jiang Y, Wang D, Gong P, Li Y, Dong Y, Dong M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Toxoplasma gondii Infection: Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors among Primary School Children in the Capital Area of the Republic of the Marshall Islands.
Abstract Although Toxoplasma gondii infection is commonly prevalent in the tropical/subtropical regions, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) remains unclear. A seroepidemiological survey was undertaken for investigating T. gondii infection in primary school children (PSC) using the latex agglutination (LA) test in the capital area of RMI. Information on demographic characteristics and environmental risk factors was collected via a structured questionnaire. Logistic regression model was applied for multivariate analysis. The overall infection rate of T. gondii was found to ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fu CJ, Chuang TW, Lin HS, Wu CH, Liu YC, Langinlur MK, Lu MY, Hsiao WW, Fan CK Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A gastroenteritis outbreak attributed to sapovirus genogroup v in Yokohama, Japan.
PMID: 25241698 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Usuku S, Kumazaki M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Influenza H7N9 Epidemic in China: Monitoring Case Fatality Rate and Epidemiology Reconstitution Using Two-Population Model.
PMID: 25241699 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 25, 2014 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research