Tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-tube Test for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection among Thai healthcare workers.
Tuberculin skin test and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-tube Test for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection among Thai healthcare workers. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2015 Aug 7; Authors: Khawcharoenporn T, Apisarnthanarak A, Sangkitporn S, Rudeeaneksin J, Srisungngam S, Bunchoo S, Phetsuksiri B Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted on the performance of tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-tube test (QFT-IT) for detecting latent tuberculosis infection among Thai healthcare workers (HCWs). Each HCW underwent simultaneous TST and QFT-IT during the annual health screening. Among 260...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 7, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Khawcharoenporn T, Apisarnthanarak A, Sangkitporn S, Rudeeaneksin J, Srisungngam S, Bunchoo S, Phetsuksiri B Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Cytolethal distending toxin gene-based multiplex PCR assay for Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. upsaliensis, C. hyointestinalis and C. lari.
In this study, we constructed a cytolethal distending toxin (cdt) B subunit gene-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to simultaneously detect and differentiate Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli, C. fetus, C. upsaliensis, C. hyointestinalis and C. lari. The species-specific PCR products were obtained from all 38 C. jejuni, 39 C. coli, 12 C. fetus, 22 C. upsaliensis, 24 C. hyointestinalis and 7 C. lari strains tested. On the other hand, no specific PCR products were obtained from other campylobacters and bacterial species tested (totally 41 strains). The multiplex PCR assay developed in this study provides a va...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 7, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kamei K, Kawabata H, Asakura M, Samosornsuk W, Hienoya A, Nakagawa S, Yamasaki S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Importance of Hybrids of Meccus phyllosomus mazzottii, M. p. pallidipennis and M. p. phyllosomus in Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexico.
chez CG, Toro-Arreola ES, Rocha-Chávez G Abstract Time lapse for beginning feeding, feeding time and defecation delay for three Triatominae subspecies, Meccus phyllosomus mazzottii, M. p. pallidipennis and M. p. phyllosomus and their laboratory hybrids were evaluated. The mean time lapse for beginning feeding was between 0.1 and 10.1 min for all nymphal instars in each cohort, with significant (P
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 7, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Martínez-Ibarra JA, Nogueda-Torres B, García-Lino JC, Arroyo-Reyes D, Salazar-Montaño LF, Hernández-Navarro JÁ, Díaz-Sánchez CG, Toro-Arreola ES, Rocha-Chávez G Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Genotype Diversity and Quasispecies Development of Helicobacter pylori in a Single Host.
Abstract Volume 68, no. 3, p. 176-180, 2015. Page 176, affiliation "(1)Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Tehran; (2)Basic and Molecular Epidemiology of Gastrointestinal Disorders Research Center, Tehran; (3)Department of Mycobacteriology and Pulmonary Research, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran; and (4)Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases Research center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and Liver Diseases, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran" should read "(1)Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Gastroenterology and...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 28, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Farzi N, Malekian T, Alebouyeh M, Vaziri F, Zali MR Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

"Fatal case of Salmonella enterica serovar Wangata diarrhoea with acute kidney injury and hemiplegia-First report from Indian subcontinent."
"Fatal case of Salmonella enterica serovar Wangata diarrhoea with acute kidney injury and hemiplegia-First report from Indian subcontinent." Jpn J Infect Dis. 2015 Jul 10; Authors: Ballal M, Devadas SM, Shetty V, Umakanth S, Ramamurthy T PMID: 26166494 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ballal M, Devadas SM, Shetty V, Umakanth S, Ramamurthy T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Risk factors for colistin-associated acute kidney injury: a multicenter study from Turkey.
Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) and its risk factors due to colistin use in patients infected with multi-drug resistant pathogens. This multicenter, retrospective, observational study was conducted in Turkey at five different research and university hospitals. Cox-regression analyses were performed, to determine independent predictors of acute kidney injury. From April 2012 to July 2014, a total of 216 patients aged between 18-94 years, treated with colistimethate sodium (CMS) were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 60.3±20.1,...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gul S, Kuscu F, Aydemir H, Ozturk DB, Deveci O, Duygu F, Kacmaz B, Yaman F, Aslan E Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology and characterization of genotypic analysis of Acinetobacter baumannii strains isolates from south China.
This study aimed to analyze the molecular epidemiologic characteristics of Acinetobacter baumannii. A total of 398 isolates were collected from seven parts of south China from January to June, 2012. Drug susceptibility was tested against 15 commonly used antibiotics and 146 multi-drug resistant strains (resistant to more than 7 drugs) were identified, representing 36.7% of the total. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were used for molecular typing. Based on PFGE results with a cut off of 70% similarity on the DNA electrophoresis bands, 146 strains were divided into 15 clusters wi...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ying J, Lu J, Zong L, Li A, Pan R, Cheng C, Li K, Chen L, Ying J, Tou H, Zhu C, Xu T, Yi H, Li J, Ni L, Xu Z, Bao Q, Li P Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antibiotic Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Isolated from Children with Diarrhea in Thailand and Japan.
Abstract Twenty nine Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli strains detected from Thai and Japanese children with diarrhea by Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification method were analyzed to investigate the resistance against fluoroquinolones and macrolides by studying the mutations in the gyrA and 23S rRNA genes, respectively. Of these, 9 strains (8 C. jejuni and 1 C. coli) were from Thai children, and the other 20 C. jejuni strains were from Japanese children. The result showed that high fluoroquinolone resistance rates continued to be found in Thailand (66.7%) and Japan (90%). Macrolide resistance was not noted in Japa...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pham NT, Thongprachum A, Tran DN, Nishimura S, Shimizu-Onda Y, Trinh QD, Khamrin P, Ukarapol N, Kongsricharoern T, Komine-Aizawa S, Okitsu S, Maneekarn N, Hayakawa S, Ushijima H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

In Vivo Efficacy of Drugs acting on Toxoplasma gondii combined with Immunomodulators.
k M Abstract The aim of this study is to find out the effects of pyrimethamine (PYR) and sulphadiazine (SDZ) combined with levamisole and echinacea on the survival of mice infected with T. gondii. We have used 99 specific pathogen-free Balb/c mice in this study. All mice were infected intraperitoneally with 10(5) T. gondii tachyzoite and divided into 11 groups, each including 9 mice. Except the control group, oral treatment was initiated in all groups 24 hours later and maintained for 10 days. The treatment regimens included dual combinations of PYR; 6.25 and 12.5mg/kg/day, SDZ; 100 and 200 mg/kg/day; triple combi...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Köksal ZŞ, Yanik K, Bilgin K, MutluYılmaz E, Hokelek M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Improved multiplex real-time SYBR Green PCR assay for analysis of 24 target genes from 16 bacterial species in fecal DNA samples from patients with foodborne illnesses.
Abstract Here, we developed a new version of our screening system, Rapid Foodborne Bacterial Screening 24 (RFBS24), which can simultaneously detect 24 target genes of foodborne pathogens in fecal DNA samples. This new version (RFBS24 ver.5) detected all known stx2 subtypes, ETEC (STh), and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (trh2), which were not detected with the original RFBS24 system. The detection limits of the RFBS24 ver.5 system were approximately 5.6 × 10(-2) to 5.6 × 10(-5) ng DNA/reaction, significantly lower (10-100 times) than those of the RFBS24 system for the 22 target genes studied here. We also eva...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kawase J, Etoh Y, Ikeda T, Yamaguchi K, Watahiki M, Shima T, Kameyama M, Horikawa K, Fukushima H, Goto R, Shirabe K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Pathophysiological implication of CT images of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis.
Abstract Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) is a refractory disorder that needs long-term antifungal treatment and occasionally results in fatal respiratory failure and hemoptysis. However, the pathological features of the disorder have not been thoroughly delineated. Thirty cases were therefore analyzed clinically and histologically to elucidate the pathophysiology of CPA. The subjects comprised 14 individuals that underwent surgical removal and 16 autopsy patients. No subject exhibited a severely immunocompromised state. Main symptoms included cough, hemosputum, and dyspnea. Chest CT findings revealed a cavit...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ando T, Tochigi N, Gocho K, Moriya A, Ikushima S, Kumasaka T, Takemura T, Shibuya K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Chikungunya fever in Japan imported from the Caribbean islands.
Abstract A 53-year-old Japanese woman who was working as a volunteer in the Commonwealth of Dominica in the Caribbean islands presented with a high-grade fever and severe incapacitating generalized arthralgia. The Asian genotype of the chikungunya virus was confirmed with RT-PCR and serology, based on the presence of specific neutralization titer and IgM antibody. She was diagnosed with post-chikungunya chronic arthritis based on persistence of her polyarthritis for 3 months and the presence of rheumatoid factor, immunoglobulin G-rheumatoid factor, and matrix metalloproteinase-3. Chikungunya virus should be consid...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Imai K, Nakayama E, Maeda T, Mikita K, Kobayashi Y, Mitarai A, Honma Y, Miyake S, Kaku K, Miyahira Y, Kawana A Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Regional Differences in Rates of Macrolide-Resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Hokkaido, Japan.
Abstract Recently, macrolide-resistant (MR) Mycoplasma pneumoniae has been emerging and the rate of MR M. pneumoniae infection varies by country. However, reports on regional differences in the prevalence of MR M. pneumonia within a country are limited. A total of 617 nasopharyngeal swab samples were collected from 617 patients, and DNA of M. pneumoniae was identified from 95 of the 617 samples. From 51 of the 95 M. pneumoniae -positive samples, the presence of A2063G mutation in the 23S rRNA gene conferring macrolide resistance was detected. The overall macrolide resistance rate was 53.7%, but regional difference...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ishiguro N, Koseki N, Kaiho M, Kikuta H, Togashi T, Oba K, Morita K, Nagano N, Nakanishi M, Hazama K, Watanabe T, Sasaki S, Horino A, Kenri T, Ariga T, Hokkaido Pediatric Respiratory Infection Study Group Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clonal Spread of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli O128:H45 strain in the neonate units.
Abstract Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) has the potential to cause nosocomial infantile diarrhea in the hospital settings. We detected 12 ETEC serotype O128:H45 isolates from diarrheal neonates in the neonate unit during the period of July-October in 2012. These babies developed hospital-acquired diarrhea or were epidemiologically related. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis and multilocus sequence typing of these 12 isolates suggested that a specific clone of ETEC serotype O128:H45-CS21-ST2332 caused the nosocomial diarrheal among neonates. Of concern, this ETEC clone strain was resistant to multip...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zeng M, Shi W, Chang H, Wang A, He L, Fu P, Xu X, Wang C Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Osteomyelitis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Patients: A Case Series.
Abstract Nontuberculous mycobacterial bone infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients are rare, although a few studies have described such infections. We retrospectively reviewed the medical and microbiological data of HIV-negative osteomyelitis cases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria treated in our tertiary-care hospital over 14 years from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2013. Three HIV-negative patients had contracted bone infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria. All of the patients had at least one predisposing condition that had led to the infections: idiopathic CD4-positiv...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kobayashi T, Morino E, Takasaki J, Nagahara Y, Sugiyama H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The first case of deceased donor liver transplantation for a patient with end-stage liver cirrhosis due to human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus coinfection in Japan.
Abstract We previously reported that progression of liver cirrhosis is quicker and survival is dismal in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection, especially when acquired in childhood through contaminated blood product. Recently, we performed the first deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) for an HIV/HCV-coinfected hemophilic patient in Japan. A 40-year-old male was referred to our hospital for liver transplantation. Regular DDLT was performed using the piggyback technique with full size liver graft. Cold ischemia time was 465 minutes, and the graft liver weig...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eguchi S, Takatsuki M, Soyama A, Hidaka M, Kugiyama T, Natsuda K, Adachi T, Kitasato A, Fujita F, Kuroki T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Pentagalloylglucose blocks the nuclear transport and nucleocapsid egress process to inhibit HSV-1 infection.
In this study, we found that PGG treatment delays the nuclear transport process of HSV-1 particles by inhibiting the upregulation of dynein (a cellular major motor protein) induced by HSV-1 infection. Furthermore, PGG treatment affects the nucleocapsid egress of HSV-1 by inhibiting the expression and disrupting the cellular localization of pEGFP-UL31 and pEGFP-UL34, which are indispensable for HSV-1 nucleocapsid egress from the nucleus. And the over-expression of pEGFP-UL31 and pEGFP-UL34 could weaken the antiviral activity of PGG. For the first time, PGG was demonstrated its antiviral activity against ACV-drug resistant v...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jin F, Ma K, Chen M, Zou M, Wu Y, Li F, Wang Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Impact of maraviroc-resistant mutation M434I in the C4 region of HIV-1 gp120 on sensitivity to antibody-mediated neutralization.
In this study, we examined the mutation most responsible for conferring enhanced neutralization sensitivity of the MVC resistant variant to several NMAbs and autologous plasma IgGs. The virus with the first resistant mutation, T297I, became sensitive to all NMAbs compared to the passage control virus. The neutralization sensitivity greatly increased following the second mutation M434I in the C4 region. The M434I mutation conferred the greatest neutralizing sensitivity among four MVC-resistant mutations, and the single M434I mutation was sufficient for the enhanced neutralization by NMAbs, autologous plasma IgGs and heterol...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Boonchawalit S, Harada S, Shirai N, Gatanaga H, Oka S, Matsushita S, Yoshimura K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia among immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients: relation to initial antibiotic therapy and survival.
Abstract Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) bacteremia occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. However, P. aeruginosa bacteremia in immunocompetent patients has also been reported. The aim of the study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of P. aeruginosa bacteremia in relation to the immune status of the patients. The medical records of 126 adult patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia in Nagasaki university hospital were retrospectively reviewed between January 2003 and December 2012. Of 126 patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia, 60 patients (47.6%) were classified as immunocompetent. Mortality i...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Migiyama Y, Yanagihara K, Kaku N, Harada Y, Yamada K, Nagaoka K, Morinaga Y, Akamatsu N, Matsuda J, Izumikawa K, Kohrogi H, Kohno S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Adverse drug reactions in hiv/aids patients at a tertiary care hospital penang, malaysia.
ADVERSE DRUG REACTIONS IN HIV/AIDS PATIENTS AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL PENANG, MALAYSIA. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2015 Jun 12; Authors: Khan K, Khan AH, Sulaiman SA, Soo CT, Akhtar A Abstract Current study is aimed to explore and observe adverse drug reactions occurrence of antiretroviral therapy among HIV/AIDS patients.An observational retrospective study of all patients on HAART therapy diagnosed with HIV infection from Jan 2007 to Dec 2012 was conducted at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Patient socio-demographic details along with clinical features and susceptible ADRs were observed during the study pe...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Khan K, Khan AH, Sulaiman SA, Soo CT, Akhtar A Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Chromobacterium haemolyticum pneumonia possibly due to the aspiration of runoff water.
Abstract Here we report a case of pneumonia possibly caused by the aspiration of runoff water containing Chromobacterium haemolyticum. A 69-year-old man became intoxicated to alcohol and fell into a ditch, suffering a blow to the head and losing consciousness. The lower half of his body was completely paralyzed due to damage sustained by the spinal cord and he aspirated runoff water from the ditch. Chest computed tomography scans revealed consolidation in the right upper lobe and bilateral lower lobes. Sputum culture detected Gram-negative bacterium that was identified as C. haemolyticum. Antibacterial chemotherap...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Takenaka R, Nureki SI, Ueno T, Shigemitsu O, Miyazaki E, Kadota JI, Miki T, Okada N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Relationship between MMP expression and virulence of dengue virus type-2 infected mosquito and mammalian cells.
Abstract Dengue virus infection is mostly asymptotic or produces a mild self-limiting acute febrile illness, dengue fever, or life threatening severe illness, dengue hemorrhagic fever, which is associated with increased vascular permeability in part as the result of elevated matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Herein, we characterized MMP-2 and MMP-9 production in mosquito and mammalian cells after infection with three strains of dengue virus type-2 ranging in virulence: the prototype New Guinea C (NGC), 16681, and PDK-53 vaccine strain to test variations in viral properties in vaccine candidates and confirm the pro...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: P L, Jf K, A S, A J, N L Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Geo-demography of HIV/AIDS in Japan from 1985 to 2011 - Incidence and transmission mode under influence of population size/density.
Abstract A stable relation was found between number of HIV/AIDS (P) and population size (N) and between incidence of HIV/AIDS (I) and population density (D). The relation could be expressed as P=kN(m) or I=hD(n), where k, h, m and n are constants. For "AIDS"/"AIDS diagnosis", the constant m was 1.5 for Japan and 1.3 for USA, and n was 0.38 both for Japan and USA. These observations indicated that the larger the population size the larger the number of HIV/AIDS patients disproportionately, and the denser the population the higher the incidence of HIV/AIDS disproportionately. Considering the wide...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Sporogonic cycles based on degree-days for malaria parasite development in different eco-epidemiological settings in India.
Abstract Malaria transmission is prevalent in diverse geo-ecological paradigms in India. Temperature is one of the key determinants for transmission of malaria, causing low endemicity in some areas while intensified transmission in others. Using a degree-day model, we estimated maximum and minimum possible number of days necessary to complete a sporogonic cycle and possible number of Sporogonic cycles for Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in two different ecological settings with low and high endemicity for malaria at different elevations. In Raikhalkhatta (Himalayan foothills) not a single sporogonic cyc...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Singh P, Dhiman RC Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prognostic factors in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and the effect of leukocyte counts on mortality.
Abstract Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a life threatening illness. We aimed to detect the effect of the leukocyte counts on survival. This is the first study analyzing the relationship between mortality and leukocyte counts. A total of 220 patients were evaluated retrospectively. The mortality rate was found 16.4%. The analysis of relationship between leukocyte counts and mortality rates showed us some important clues for pathogenesis. ROC curve analysis revealed that if the leukocyte counts on admission were ≥ 2950/mm(3), mortality rate could be predicted with 62.1% sensitivity. In consideration of the me...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bastug A, Kayaaslan B, Kazancioglu S, Aslaner H, But A, Akinci E, Yetkin MA, Eren S, Bodur H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Cleanliness of Linen and Clothing Items Professionally Laundered or Dry-cleaned.
Abstract We asked 14 professional cleaners (laundry services) to clean various unused (new) linen and clothing items with a microbial contamination level of
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oie S, Furukawa H, Kobayashi H, Okubo T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Field and laboratory evaluations of the efficacy of DEET repellent against Ixodes ticks.
The objective of this study was to clarify the efficacy of a currently-available DEET repellent against tick species in Japan. We performed two different field trials: "human trap," and "flag-dragging." In total, 482 ticks were collected from white flannel cloths in field studies. The species of collected ticks consisted of Ixodes persulcatus and I. ovatus which accounted for 5.3 and 94.7% in the human trap test and 31.4 and 68.6% in the flag-dragging test, respectively. The repellency levels of DEET-treated flannel cloths in the human trap and flag-dragging tests were 84.0 and 99.7%, respectively. The ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ogawa K, Komagata O, Hayashi T, Itokawa K, Morikawa S, Sawabe K, Tomita T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

An Epidemiological Investigation of a Nosocomial Outbreak of Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a Critical Care Center in Japan, 2011-2012.
Abstract In 2011, a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) outbreak occurred at a critical care center (CCC) in a tertiary hospital in Japan. Multidrug-resistance is defined as resistance to amikacin, carbapenem, and fluoroquinolone. We conducted an epidemiological investigation of this outbreak to identify risk factors for MDRAB respiratory tract acquisition in this hospital. A case was defined as a hospitalized patient whose culture was MDRAB positive at least 3 days after admission to the CCC between June 1, 2011 and April 20, 2012. Fifteen MDRAB cases were identified, including three with infectio...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ushizawa H, Yahata Y, Endo T, Iwashima T, Misawa M, Sonobe M, Yamagishi T, Kamiya H, Nakashima K, Matsui T, Matsui M, Suzuki S, Shibayama K, Doi M, Irie F, Yamato S, Otomo Y, Oishi K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Phage display-derived cross-reactive neutralizing antibody against enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16.
Abstract Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the members of the Picornaviridae family and considered as major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Large outbreaks of HFMD caused by EV71 and CVA16 infection are becoming a substantial public health concern in the Asia-Pacific region in the past decades. No particular vaccine or antiviral drugs are yet available against EV71 and CVA16. In the current study, a chimeric antibody targeting a highly conserved peptide in EV71 VP4 protein was successfully isolated by using phage display technique, which showed cross-neutralizing abi...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhang X, Sun C, Xiao X, Pang L, Shen S, Zhang J, Cen S, Yang BB, Huang Y, Sheng W, Zeng Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serological and Virological Studies of an Imported Dengue Case Occurring in 2014 in Okinawa, Japan.
Abstract A 72-year-old man was hospitalized in Okinawa due to a high fever and rash, after returning from Bali, Indonesia, in February 2014; dengue was clinically suspected, and IgM for dengue is positive in commercial kit. Serologically, the patient showed secondary sero-reactivity. Significant rises in neutralization titers (N-titers) against all four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) strains were recognized between acute- and convalescent-phase sera. N-titer against dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) was the highest among those for all serotypes of DENV. Interestingly, N-titer...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Saito M, Tamayose M, Miyagi K, Takaragawa H, Tateyama M, Tadano M, Fujita J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Isolation of Escherichia albertii from Raw Chicken Liver in Fukuoka City, Japan.
PMID: 25993974 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Asoshima N, Matsuda M, Shigemura K, Honda M, Yoshida H, Oda T, Hiwaki H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection not found in camels in Japan.
PMID: 25993975 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shirato K, Azumano A, Nakao T, Hagihara D, Ishida M, Tamai K, Yamazaki K, Kawase M, Okamoto Y, Kawakami S, Okada N, Fukushima K, Nakajima K, Matsuyama S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Outbreak of human bocavirus 1 infection in young children in toyama, Japan.
PMID: 25993976 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 24, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Obuchi M, Yagi S, Oguri A, Takizawa T, Kimura H, Sata T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular and Serological Survey of Rickettsiales Bacteria in Wild Sika Deer (Cervus nippon nippon) in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan: High Prevalence of Anaplasma Species.
Abstract We surveyed Rickettsiales bacteria including Rickettsia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, and Neoehrlichia in wild sika deer (Cervus nippon nippon) in Shizuoka prefecture, Japan. In spleen samples from 187 deer, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (deer type), A. bovis, and A. centrale were successfully detected by PCR assay targeted to 16S rDNA or p44/msp2, and their positive rates were 96.3% (180/187), 53.5% (100/187), and 78.1% (146/187), respectively. Additionally, two or three Anaplasma species could be detected from a single deer in 165 spleen samples (88.2%), indicating the dual or triple infection in deer. In contrast...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wu D, Wuritu, Yoshikawa Y, Gaowa, Kawamori F, Ikegaya A, Ohtake M, Ohashi M, Shimada M, Takada A, Iwai K, Ohashi N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Evaluation of non-viral surrogate markers as predictive indicators for monitoring progression of HIV infection, Eight-year analysis in a regional center.
Abstract Suitable methods for clinical monitoring of HIV-infected patients are very crucial in resource-poor setting areas. Demographic data, clinical staging and laboratory findings for 112 HIV asymptomatic subjects were assessed at the first admission and the last visit from 2002 to 2010. On Cox regression analysis, hemoglobin (Hb) (HR=0.643, p=0.021) was predictive indicator for disease progression, however; in spite of having significant probability values, CD4, CD8 and platelet counts showed low hazard ratios. Hb and total lymphocyte count (TLC) demonstrated a phase of rapid declining rates (10.9 and 29.6%, r...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Rafatpanah H, Essmailian L, Hedayati-Moghaddam MR, Vakili R, Norouzi M, Sarvghad MR, Hosseinpour AM, Sharebiani H, Rezaee SA Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Raltegravir and abacavir/lamivudine in Japanese treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients: a 48-week retrospective pilot analysis.
Raltegravir and abacavir/lamivudine in Japanese treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients: a 48-week retrospective pilot analysis. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2015 May 12; Authors: Suzuki A, Uehara Y, Saita M, Inui A, Isonuma H, Naito T Abstract Abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used for treating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hypersensitivity reactive skin eruptions caused by ABC is well-known, but rarely occurs in Asians. Raltegravir (RAL) is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor, also recently used for treating HIV because of few si...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suzuki A, Uehara Y, Saita M, Inui A, Isonuma H, Naito T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A verification of an overestimation of "deaths associated with influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, Japan" claimed in a demographic study.
A verification of an overestimation of "deaths associated with influenza pandemic of 1918-1919, Japan" claimed in a demographic study. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2015 May 12; Authors: Nishimura H, Ohkusa Y Abstract Official records show Japanese influenza-death toll in 1918-1920 as 385 thousand. However, a recently published study claimed the records as skeptical, claiming the figure as "an anomaly by Asian standard", and re-estimated the number as about two million by its unique demographical calculation. However, it is not sound from the following socio-historical and statistical perspect...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nishimura H, Ohkusa Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

What We Have Learned of the Influenza A pH1N1 2009/10 pandemic: High Clinical Impact of Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients.
Abstract The influenza pandemic in 2009/2010 shifted the public awareness to respiratory tract infections caused by influenza virus. A prospective study was conducted from November 2009 through April 2010 to determine the causing pathogens and clinical symptoms of all children and adolescents admitted for signs and symptoms of respiratory tract infections to the University Children's Hospital Duesseldorf, Germany during the influenza pandemic. A total number of 272 children and adolescents were admitted for acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) or influenza like illness symptoms (ILI). Viral pathogens were detec...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Vogel M, Grund S, Pandey S, Mayatepek E, Schroten H, Tenenbaum T, Adams O Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

An Outbreak of Foodborne Illness Caused by Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli in a High School, South Korea.
Abstract In June 2013, a diarrheal outbreak occurred among high school students in Incheon, South Korea. We investigated the outbreak to identify the pathogen and the mode of transmission. A case-control study was conducted using self-administered questionnaire by local authorities and the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Bacterial cultivation was performed on stool, environmental samples, and samples of preserved food items. PCR and serotyping were used for the identification of bacteria. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on the outbreak-related pathogens. We identified 54 ca...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shin J, Oh SS, Oh KH, Park JH, Jang EJ, Chung GT, Yoo CK, Bae GR, Cho SH Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Evaluation of the in vitro efficacy of novel oxazolidinone analogues against Nontuberculous mycobacteria.
Abstract Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are associated with a number of clinical diseases and only a few antitubercular agents are active. Oxazolidinones comprise a novel class of antimicrobials as inhibitors of bacterial ribosomal protein synthesis. The first oxazolidinone antibacterial agent that was approved for clinical use, linezolid, has excellent activity against part of NTM but inefficacy against others. Sy142 and sy144 are novel oxazolidinones with proved activies against Mycobacterium.tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. In this work, we compared the susceptibilities of key NTM species to linezolid...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhao W, Jiang Y, Bao P, Li Y, Tang L, Zhou Y, Zhao Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Economic Burden of Hepatitis A, B, and C in South Korea.
This study was performed to estimate the economic costs of hepatitis A, B, and C virus and to determine the trends in Korea during 2008-2011 using nationally representative data. The prevalence of hepatitis A has decreased but hepatitis B and C increased overall. The mortality rate of hepatitis A was higher than others. The mortality rate of hepatitis B changed little but hepatitis C rose. The total cost of hepatitis A decreased (US$62.2 million to US$45.7 million), except in 2009 (US$126.6 million). The total cost of hepatitis B tended to increase rapidly during the same period (US$501.4 million to US$607.8 million). Fina...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shon C, Choi HY, Shim JJ, Park SY, Lee KS, Yoon SJ, Oh IH Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The first report of Vibrio parahaemolyticus O10:K60 in Japan, a new combination of O and K serotypes strain isolated from a gastroenteritis patient.
In this study, we examined a V. parahaemolyticus isolate from a gastroenteritis patient. It was isolated from the stool culture at the hospital in Saitama City, Japan in 2013. As a result of serotyping O and K antigen, it was determined as O10:K60. As far as we know, this is the first reported case with this combination in Japan. Subsequently, we used PCR methods to detect the genes associated with pathogenicity. As a result, it was positive for tdh, T3SS1 and T3SS2α genes. As for antibiotic susceptibility testing, it was susceptible to all selected antibiotics except for ampicillin. Moreover, we detected the specifi...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ueno H, Tomari K, Kikuchi K, Kobori S, Miyazaki M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Coronavirus Infections in Pediatric Outpatients with Febrile Respiratory Tract Infections in Hiroshima, Japan, over a 3-Year Period.
In conclusion, the burden of human coronaviruses was relatively light among this cohort of 495 pediatric outpatients, and the incidence of these infections was low. PMID: 25971327 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 12, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hara M, Takao S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Development of a multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Treponema pallidum, HCV, HIV-1 and HBV.
This study aims to establish an assay to detect these pathogens in clinical serum specimens. We established a TaqMan-LNA real-time PCR assay for rapid, sensitive, specific, quantitative, and simultaneous detection and identification. The copy numbers of standards of these four pathogens were quantified. Standard curves were generated by determining the mean cycle threshold (Ct) values versus 10-fold serial dilutions of standards over a range of 10(6) to 10(1) copies / μL with the lowest detection limit of the assay at 10(1) copies / μL. The assay was applied for 328 clinical specimens, and compared with ELISA and com...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhou L, Gong R, Lu X, Zhang Y, Tang J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Dynamic constitution of the pathogens inducing encephalitis in hand, foot and mouth disease in Kunming, 2009-2011.
Abstract Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by the various viral pathogens is an emerging infectious disease in children in Asia. Understanding the composition of these pathogens is necessary to prevent and control this disease. In present, the pathogens in 436 HFMD patients who also had clinical indications of encephalitis, meningoencephalitis, or both, were defined using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A systematic analysis of the composition of these pathogens was performed. From 2009 to 2011, various enteroviruses were found that are capable of inducing central nervous system (CNS) damage ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ma S, Zhang Y, Du C, Yang T, Liu Q, Pan Y, Chen J, Shi H, Sun Q, Liu L, Li Q Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Procalcitonin levels and their predictive effect on mortality in Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Patients.
Abstract Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal disease which is endemic to Turkey. We aimed to investigate the procalcitonin levels and their prognostic value over fatality in CCHF patients. The sera were harvested from the patients who were diagnosed with CCHF within the first two days of the onset of their symptoms. Patients were divided into two groups according to their survival status: fatal or non-fatal. The biochemical and haematological parameters were studied in Biochemistry Laboratory of Sorgun City Hospital. The sera were stored in -80°C until testing for procalcitonin and th...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gul S, Ozturk DB, Kisa U, Kacmaz B, Yesilyurt M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serologic investigation of Hantavirus infection in patients with thrombocytopenia, and elevated urea and creatinin levels in an epidemic region of Turkey.
kvist A Abstract The first cases of Hantavirus infection were reported in the first months of 2009 from the Zonguldak and Bartin provinces in Turkey. The aim of the study was to investigate the presence of Hantavirus infections in patients with laboratory findings associated with Hantavirus infection in Bartin prior to the epidemics. After screening a total of 314,577 records between 2007 and 2009, clinical and laboratory data from 442 patients meeting the criteria of coexistent thrombocytopenia, and elevated urea and creatinin levels were transferred to the statistical programme. Home visits were paid to 170 pati...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sevencan F, Gözalan A, Uyar Y, Kavakli I, Türkyilmaz B, Ertek M, Lundkvist A Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori and Hepatitis A Virus among Children in Rural Central Taiwan.
This study investigated the seroprevalence of these two pathogens among children in rural, central Taiwan. Serum samples were collected from 856 children between 2010 and 2012 and levels of anti-HAV and anti-H. pylori antibodies were measured by ELISA. Questionnaires were used to investigate possible risk factors. The overall rates of H. pylori and HAV infections were 6% and 0.8%, respectively. There was a significant difference in the rates of H. pylori infection (P - value = 0.008), but not in the rates of HAV infection between the different age groups. H. pylori infection rates were significantly higher in children whos...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wu MC, Sung CH, Chang YC, Ho CL, Wu CC, Wu KH, Lee CY, Yang K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Virulence characteristics and antibiotic resistance patterns among different phylogenetic groups of uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates.
Abstract To determine the resistance patterns of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) isolates and to investigate the frequency of several virulence genes, fimH, papA, hlyD, cnf-1, sitA and tsh, among different phylogenetic groups of UPEC isolates. A total of 85 E. coli isolates were recovered from urine samples from outpatients with clinical diagnosis of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Molecular approach and antimicrobial resistance pattern were done by PCR and disc diffusion method. The frequency of virulence factor genes detected by PCR was: fimH (34.1%), papA (9.4%), hlyD (21.2%), cnf-1 (3.5%), sitA (...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Derakhshandeh A, Firouzi R, Motamedifar M, Arabshahi S, Novinrooz A, Boroojeni AM, Bahadori M, Heidari S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Attack Rate in Food Poisoning: Order in Chaos.
Abstract The frequency distribution of number of patients and number of eaters was near lognormal for almost all the food poisonings. The median and range remained almost unchanged over time though number of incidents per year varied. The number of patients and number of eaters were mutually uncorrelated for many of the food poisonings, however.A regular pattern relating number of patients and eaters emerged for food poisonings occurring seasonally at a high incidence, such as, those caused by norovirus or Campylobacter; comb teeth-like pattern in the plot that relates ranking number of patients and ranking number...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 10, 2015 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research