Age distribution of people dying of HIV/AIDS that shifted towards older ages by ten years in the past twenty odd years.
Abstract The frequency of the ages of the HIV/AIDS deaths and that of the patients detected before or after the development of AIDS followed normal distribution. The median of HIV/AIDS deaths was 40-44 years in 1995-1998 and 50-54 years in 2014-2016, while the median of detection of the infection as "HIV" or as "AIDS" was constantly 25-29 years; it implied that the survival time of the HIV/AIDS patients became longer by 10 years in the past twenty odd years. The lengthening of the survival time could have been attributable to introduction of HIV/AIDS therapy, such as HAART. Importantly, however...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A case of hepatitis A infection presumed to be related to asari clams and investigation on spread of viral contamination from asari clams.
Abstract In a case of hepatitis A infection that occurred in 2017 in Nagano Prefecture, hepatitis A virus (HAV) was detected in asari clams (reference food) and the patients' fecal samples. Initially, the asari clams were suspected to be the infection source. However, as a patient who had not consumed a asari clam dish also developed the disease, the exact infection route remained unknown. Suspecting a secondary infection originating from the asari clams, we investigated the presence of HAV genomes in water used for washing and soaking the frozen asari clams and detected HAV in the "Soaking Water." These...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tsukada R, Ono S, Kobayashi H, Wada Y, Nishizawa K, Fujii M, Takeuchi M, Kuroiwa K, Kobayashi Y, Ishii K, Nakazawa H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Streptococcus mitis/oralis Causing Blood Stream Infections in Pediatric Patients.
Abstract Viridans streptococci are still under investigation concerning epidemiology, pathogenesis and clinical presentations. We aimed to investigate the clinical presentations and outcomes of the pediatric patients infected with Streptococcus mitis/oralis. Based on accumulation of blood stream infections (BSI) caused by S. mitis /oralis in four patients in Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Department in a particular time, review of medical and microbiological records of pediatric patients with positive blood cultures for S. mitis/oralis in whole hospital was performed. In addition, a retrospective case ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Basaranoglu ST, Ozsurekci Y, Aykac K, Aycan AE, Bıcakcigil A, Altun B, Sancak B, Cengiz AB, Kara A, Ceyhan M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Detection of Subgenotype IA and IIIA Hepatitis A Viruses   in Rivers Flowing through Metro Manila, the Philippines.
Detection of Subgenotype IA and IIIA Hepatitis A Viruses  in Rivers Flowing through Metro Manila, the Philippines. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 31;: Authors: Bai H, Shiota T, Yoshizaki S, Saito-Obata M, Malbas FF, Lupisan SP, Oshitani H, Takeda N, Muramatsu M, Wakita T, Ishii K, Li TC Abstract Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a common infectious etiology of acute hepatitis worldwide. The Philippines remains highly endemic for hepatitis A, but there is still lack of information about HAV in the Philippines. To understand the contamination of environment water with HAV in the Philippines, we performed dete...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Bai H, Shiota T, Yoshizaki S, Saito-Obata M, Malbas FF, Lupisan SP, Oshitani H, Takeda N, Muramatsu M, Wakita T, Ishii K, Li TC Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The research of the tetanus seropositivity levels in registered family physicians in Ankara province, Turkey, 2017.
Abstract The aim of this research is to determine the seropositivity levels of tetanus vaccine according to age groups in Ankara province, to identify possible factors that could affect the immune status, and to make recommendations especially in people aged 50 years and older. This cross-sectional epidemiological study covers people over three years of age registered in the Family Medicine Information System. We received blood samples from 992 people and 968 of them were surveyed. Protective tetanus antibody levels were 80.5% in the age group of 3-5 years; 92.0% in the age group of 6-12 years; 94.3% in the age gr...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sahan S, Demirbilek Y, Sonmez C, Temel F, Sencan I Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Nasopharyngeal Carriage Prevalence, Serotype Distribution and Antimicrobial Resistance of Streptococcus Pneumoniae Among Children with Chronic Diseases.
akır M Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the nasopharyngeal (NP) carriage prevalence, serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) in children with chronic diseases that predispose them to invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in comparison with healthy children.A cross sectional prevalence study was performed between February 2015 and February 2016 in Istanbul, Turkey. We enrolled 1024 children with chronic diseases and 394 healthy children aged 0-18 years.Overall prevalence of SPNP carriage was 9.8%. The prevalence of SPNP carriage among the healthy children was ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pekuz S, Soysal A, Akkoc G, Atıcı S, Yakut N, Gelmez GA, Kadayifci EK, Güneser D, Demir SO, Söyletir G, Bakır M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular Epidemiological Analysis of the Spreading Conditions of Trichophyton   in the Long-term Care Facilities in Japan.
This study proved that T. mentagrophytes strain of the same type had spread in the long-term care facilities. We suggested the importance of cleaning in the long-term care facility as a countermeasure for the spread of Trichophyton. PMID: 30175735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suzuki S, Mano Y, Furuya N, Fujitani K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Low incidence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma  pneumoniae between April 2016 and March 2017 in Akita Prefecture, Japan.
Low incidence of macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae between April 2016 and March 2017 in Akita Prefecture, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2018 Aug 31;: Authors: Suzuki S, Konno T, Shibata C, Saito H PMID: 30175736 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suzuki S, Konno T, Shibata C, Saito H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Fatal amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in a sarcoidosis patient.
PMID: 30175737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tarai B, Agarwal P, Krishnamoorthi S, Mewara A, Khurana S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

First Practical Major Step toward Appropriate Antimicrobial Use by the Government of Japan.
Abstract Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the top public health agendas in Japan. Since Japan published the national action plan (NAP) on AMR in 2016, the NAP implementation has been a major focus in Japan Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW). Japan MHLW recently published the 1st edition of "Manual of Antimicrobial Stewardship" (including English version), a narrative review with particular focus on outpatient setting of primary care and two common infectious disease conditions. This is one of very few occasions where MHLW proactively set a clinical guidance for health care delivery at ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - August 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Saito H, Noda H, Takakura S, Jindai K, Takahashi McLellan R, Asanuma K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Poliovirus detection and genetic characteristic from sewage in Heilongjiang province from 2013 to 2016.
In this study, we collected 139 sewage samples from eight regions in Heilongjiang Province. Poliovirus was identified from 72 samples and the positive rate was 51%. 263 strains of poliovirus were isolated, including 22 type1, 104 type2 and 137 type3 polioviruses. As results of intratypic differentiation (ITD), using real time PCR and nucleotide sequencing, three type 1 pre-VDPV, one type 2 VDPV and two type 3 pre-VDPV strains were isolated, respectively. Interestingly, one type 1 strain with 5 nucleotide deletion and one type 3 recombinant on VP1 were isolated. By monitoring the poliovirus in the environment continually, w...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ma Y, Wang X, Zhou X, Lv P, Wang H, Song J, Song C, Sun Z Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

An outbreak of enterohemorrhagic   Escherichia coli  O157:H7 infection associated with minced meat cutlets in Kanagawa, Japan.
An outbreak of enterohemorrhagic  Escherichia coli  O157:H7 infection associated with minced meat cutlets in Kanagawa, Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2018 Jul 31;: Authors: Furukawa I, Suzuki M, Masaoka T, Nakajima N, Mitani E, Tasaka M, Teranishi H, Matsumoto Y, Koizumi M, Ogawa A, Oota Y, Homma S, Sasaki K, Satoh H, Sato K, Muto S, Anan Y, Kuroki T Abstract An outbreak of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 infection occurred in October 2016 in Kanagawa, Japan. A total of 61 patients and 17 asymptomatic cases were confirmed to be infected with EHEC O157:H7 by laboratory testing. Am...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Furukawa I, Suzuki M, Masaoka T, Nakajima N, Mitani E, Tasaka M, Teranishi H, Matsumoto Y, Koizumi M, Ogawa A, Oota Y, Homma S, Sasaki K, Satoh H, Sato K, Muto S, Anan Y, Kuroki T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Genetic characterization of rarely reported GI.Pc_GI.5 norovirus strain detected from a foodborne suspected outbreak in Japan.
PMID: 30068887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kobayashi T, Yoshitomi H, Nakamura A, Ashizuka Y, Kajiwara J, Noda M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Single amino acid mutation in dengue virus NS4B protein has opposing effects on viral proliferation in mammalian and mosquito cells.
Abstract Dengue virus (DENV) has a considerable impact on global health and causes morbidity and mortality each year. Through the passages of a DENV2 in BHK-21 cells, we have isolated a mutant clone of DENV2 which reveals cytopathic effects (CPE) rapidly compared to the parent strain in BHK-21 cells. To investigate the relationship between amino acid mutations and proliferation activity of the isolated DENV2 clone, we performed full genome sequencing and identified three amino acid mutations in its coding region, the Envelope (Env) T120K, NS4A M85T and NS4B G124A, compared to that of the parent strain. Genetically...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fujiki J, Nobori H, Sato A, Sasaki M, Carr M, Hall WW, Orba Y, Sawa H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular typing of   Escherichia coli O157 isolates from Romanian human cases.
This study should be a catalyst for improved laboratory-based surveillance of autochthonous VTEC. PMID: 30068889 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oprea M, Ciontea AS, Militaru M, Dinu S, Cristea D, Usein CR Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Cocirculation of Influenza C Viruses with Distinct Internal Genome Constellations in Iwate Prefecture, Japan, in 2016.
PMID: 30068890 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Takahashi M, Obara T, Matsuzaki Y, Maisawa SI, Sasaki Y, Yoshino N, Shirasawa A, Iwabuchi K, Takahashi T, Kajita H, Ono Y, Ryo A, Kimura H, Muraki Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

SAFETY AND IMMUNOGENICITY STUDY OF A SINGLE DOSE OF A MENINGOCOCCAL (GROUPS A, C, W, and Y) POLYSACCHARIDE DIPHTHERIA TOXOID CONJUGATE VACCINE (MEN-ACWY-D) IN HEALTHY JAPANESE PARTICIPANTS.
Abstract Meningococcal disease can cause significant disability and mortality. The quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide diphtheria toxoid conjugate vaccine (Men-ACWY-D) protects against invasive meningococcal disease caused by serogroups A, C, W, and Y. This phase III, open-label, single-arm, multicenter study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a single vaccine dose in healthy Japanese adults. The study enrolled 200 participants 2-55 years of age. Immunogenicity was assessed by quantifying seroprotection rates (the proportion of participants with antibody titers ≥1:128 against capsular polysacchari...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fukushima S, Kikuchi H, Miyazu M, Hamada A, Ouchi K, Takagi H, Mihara H, Sasaki T, Oka H, Bosch-Castells V, Oster P Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A case of conjunctival ulcer and uveitis caused by   Acrophialophora  sp. in an immunocompromised patient; a case report and literature review.
We report the first case of invasive ophthalmologic infection by Acrophialophora sp. that was successfully treated using voriconazole (VRCZ). Acrophialophora spp., which has been reported to be an opportunistic pathogen, is rare thermotolerant soil fungus, but its pathogenicity remains unclear. A 77-year-old man had neutropenia and prostate carcinoma, and was receiving hemodialysis. His right eye had been infected for 2 days. His conjunctiva was congested and partially formed an abscess. Liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) was administered following systemic itraconazole. However, treatment was changed from L-AMB to systemic ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Watanabe Y, Kobayashi T, Nakamura I, Fujita H, Shimoinaba M, Fukushima S, Miyazaki Y, Matsumoto T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Bartonella henselae   neuroretinitis in patients without cat scratch.
In conclusion, even though there may be a lack of systemic signs and symptoms of CSD in a patient with neuroretinitis, B henselae infection should be considered. PMID: 29962482 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Celiker H, Kazokoglu H, Eraslan M, Cerman E, Karabas L Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Implication of three distinct groups of Anopheles lindesayi in Japan by morphological and genetic analyses.
In this study, we re-evaluated the taxonomic status of An. l. japonicus in Japan and another subspecies, An. l. pleccau distributed in Taiwan, by comparative morphological and molecular analyses based on gene sequences of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2). Nucleotide sequence divergence was calculated using the Kimura-two-parameter (K2P) distance model. Phylogenetic trees based on the COI and ITS2 sequences showed three distinct clades: Eastern Japan, Western Japan and, Ryukyus. The sequences of Ryukyus were located the same clade as the sequences of Taiwan....
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Imanishi N, Higa Y, Teng HJ, Sunahara T, Minakawa N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

International travel and exotic dengue fever of South Korea in the last decade.
Abstract We undertook analysis of reported dengue fever (DF) cases and DF-relevant characteristics in South Korea from 2006 to 2015. A total of 1,260 DF notifications occurred in the study period were presumedly introduced from endemic foreign countries. The nationwide cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of DF was 0.25 per 100,000 populations; the cumulative incidence rate of DF among overseas travelers was 0.93. CIRs of overseas male and female travelers were 1.13 and 0.87, respectively. CIR of overseas travelers of 20 to 39 years old was highest. Men (61.9%) were more infected with DF than women were (38.1%, P
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cho KH, Park SY, Lee WC, Lee MJ, Lee JB Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiological outbreaks of measles virus in Kazakhstan during 2015.
This study was addressed to epidemiological surveillance of measles virus (MV) in the territory of Republic of Kazakhstan during 2015 - 2016 years. In our study we have detected D8 genotype of MV occurred in outbreak season of measles disease. Totally 2341 cases were registered and 19 of them were identified by genotyping. As a result, 16 samples attributed to subgroup A of D8 genotype, and 3 import cases were represented by B3 and H1 genotype of MV. Vaccination coverage analysis showed that large group of infected people were not vaccinated and did not have a reliable report on vaccination status. This issue might increas...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abeev A, Zhylkibayev A, Kamalova D, Kusheva N, Nusupbaeva G, Tleumbetova N, Smagul M, Beissenova S, Aubakirova S, Kassenova Z, Demessinova B, Amanbayev A, Ramankulov Y, Shevtsov A Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Cutaneous Findings of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever: A Study of 269 Cases.
Abstract Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease. We aimed here in this study to investigate the cutaneous manifestations of CCHF and reveal their associations with fatality. Two hundred and sixty-nine patients diagnosed with CCHF were recorded. Skin findings were seen in 170 (63.1%) patients. A facial rash was most common cutaneous finding (82 (30.4%)). In the severe cases, haemorrhagic cutaneous manifestations (petechiae and ecchymoses) were recognised. A statistically significant correlation was obtained between the cutaneous manifestations and fatality, and it was determined that th...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Duygu F, Sari T, Gunal O, Barut S, Atay A, Aytekin F Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiology characteristics of human coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 circulating from 2009 to 2017 in Linyi, China.
Abstract In China, a rapid expansion of Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks has occurred since 2004 and HFMD has become an important issue for China. There are more than 20 types of enterovirus causing HFMD, of which Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71) are the most common. To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of HFMD caused by EV71 and CA16 in Linyi, Shandong province, China from 2009 to 2017. 5324 stool specimens or throat samples were collected from 5324 HFMD cases for nucleic acid detection of enterovirus. 4040 HFMD cases caused by viral pathogens contained 1706 EV71 positiv...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yin DQ, Wang CB, Xiao-Zhou, Ji SX Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The largest measles outbreak, including 38 modified measles and 22 typical measles cases, Yamagata, Japan, 2017 in its elimination era.
Abstract Modified measles (M-Me), characterized by milder symptoms than typical measles (T-Me), has been increasing in Japan, but M-Me dominated outbreak has not been investigated sufficiently worldwide. During March-April 2017, there was the largest importation-related outbreak of measles with genotype D8 in Yamagata, Japan, after Japan had achieved measles elimination in 2015. We confirmed 60 cases by detecting measles virus (MeV) genome, among whom 38 M-Me and 22 T-Me cases were identified. Thirty-nine cases (65.0%) were between 20-39 years of age. Three out of seven primary cases produced 50 transmissions, in ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Komabayashi K, Seto J, Tanaka S, Suzuki Y, Ikeda T, Onuki N, Yamada K, Ahiko T, Ishikawa H, Mizuta K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Comparison of neutralizing antibody titers against Japanese encephalitis virus genotype V strain with those against genotype I and III strains in the sera of Japanese encephalitis patients in Japan in 2016.
o M Abstract Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an acute viral disease caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). JEV strains are classified into five genotypes (I-V). JEV genotype V strains have never been detected in Japan to date, but they have been recently detected in South Korea. In the present analysis, we tried to determine if a JEV genotype V strain caused any JE case in Japan in 2016. The serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from 10 JE patients reported in Japan in 2016. JEV RNA was not detected in any of the samples. Although JEV is a single serotype virus, it can be expected that the n...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Maeki T, Tajima S, Kyaw AK, Matsumoto F, Miura K, Yamashita A, Yoshikawa A, Negishi K, Noguchi Y, Tadokoro K, Abe K, Taruya J, Koh J, Ito H, Ikegaya A, Abe F, Wada M, Nishigata T, Ikeda M, Kato F, Taniguchi S, Nakayama E, Takasaki T, Morita K, Lim CK, Sai Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Human papillomavirus genotypes and HPV16 E6/ E7 variants among patients with genital cancers in Vietnam.
This study aimed to evaluate HPV genotypes and HPV16 E6 and E7 (E6/E7) gene variations in Vietnamese patients with genital cancers. Biopsy samples were collected from 124 Vietnamese patients with genital cancers (20 with vaginal, 50 with vulvar, and 54 with penile cancer). The HPV-DNA was amplified and genotyped, and HPV16 E6/E7 genes were compared with those previously reported for women with a normal cervical cytology (N=23). The HPV-DNA was detected in 80.6% (100/124) of the cancer patients (80.0% of vaginal, 82.0% of vulvar, and 79.6% of penile), with HPV16/18 in 86.0% (86/100) and HPV52 in 7.0% (7/100) of the HPV-posi...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - June 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pham TTT, Bi X, Hoang HTT, Ishizaki A, Nguyen MTP, Nguyen CH, Nguyen HP, Pham TV, Ichimura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Two neuropsychiatric cases seropositive for bornavirus improved by ribavirin.
Abstract While we had previously detected anti-bornavirus antibodies via radioligand assay in psychiatric patients, we had not examined the viral pathogenicity in these individuals. Herein, we present two psychiatric patients who were seropositive for bornavirus and whose treatment-resistant symptoms improved by oral administration of ribavirin, a broad-spectrum antiviral agent. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis indicated that the ribavirin affected the central nervous system of these patients. Ribavirin ameliorated intermittent involuntary head shaking, which is reminiscent of a symptom observed in bornavirus-infected...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matsunaga H, Fukumori A, Mori K, Honda T, Uema T, Tomonaga K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Fusobacterium necrophorum   subsp.  funduliforme in tonsils from various patient populations in Japan.
Fusobacterium necrophorum  subsp.  funduliforme in tonsils from various patient populations in Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2018 May 31;: Authors: Hayakawa K, Nagashima M, Ohta K, Ohmagari N, Tayama N Abstract Fusobacterium necrophorum has recently been suggested to be associated with tonsillopharyngitis, peritonsillar abscess, and recurrent tonsillitis. Among the 2 subspecies of F. necrophorum, subsp. funduliforme is known to be a major human pathogen. To better understand the epidemiology of F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme (FNSF), we studied the prevalence of FNSF in the tonsils of patients...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hayakawa K, Nagashima M, Ohta K, Ohmagari N, Tayama N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Cytomegalovirus pneumonitis in a patient with homozygous β-thalassemia and splenectomy.
We report the case of a multi-transfused, splenectomized young woman due to homozygous β-thalassemia that presented with prolonged fever and respiratory distress. Although broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy had initially been applied, the patient was clinically deteriorated. Serology and molecular blood testing established CMV infection and viremia. Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated pneumonitis and she was successfully treated with 3 weeks ganciclovir. In splenectomised β-thalassemic patients necessitating multiple blood transfusions, CMV-infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis. ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fragkiadakis K, Ioannou P, Papadakis JA, Hatzidakis A, Gikas A, Kofteridis DP Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Sequence-based characterization of   Listeria monocytogenes  strains isolated from domestic retail meat in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan.
Sequence-based characterization of  Listeria monocytogenes  strains isolated from domestic retail meat in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2018 May 31;: Authors: Yoshikawa Y, Ochiai Y, Mochizuki M, Takano T, Hondo R, Ueda F Abstract To assess the level of Listeria monocytogenes contamination of domestic retail meat in Tokyo, Japan, we compared isolates from 2004 to 2007 with those isolated before 2003. The overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes among these samples significantly diminished over time (1998-2003, 28.0%; 2004-2007, 17.6%) reflecting a significant decrease ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikawa Y, Ochiai Y, Mochizuki M, Takano T, Hondo R, Ueda F Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Application of non-fluorescent dyes to assess the antischistosomal effect of antimalarial drugs on   Schistosoma mansoni  adult worms.
Application of non-fluorescent dyes to assess the antischistosomal effect of antimalarial drugs on  Schistosoma mansoni  adult worms. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2018 May 31;: Authors: Mitsui Y, Kato K Abstract The possible emergence of praziquantel (PZQ)-tolerant and/or resistant schistosomes urgently necessitates the study and development of new antischistosomal drugs as alternatives to PZQ. The aim of the present study was to investigate the capacity of three dyes, namely methylene blue (MB), neutral red (NR) and trypan blue (TB), for the assessment of the in vitro antischistosomal effect of antima...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mitsui Y, Kato K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) Encephalomyelitis in an immunocompromised child -A case report and brief review of the literature.
PMID: 29848846 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aswathyraj S, Sabeena S, Bhat KG, Bharani KC, Sanjay R, Arunkumar G Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Murine Typhus with Marked Thrombocytopenia in a Child in Northern Greece and Literature Review.
We report a case of murine typhus in a 4-year-old boy living in northern Greece. Although the illness started with mild symptoms, maculopapular rash was presented at the end of the first week of illness followed by marked thrombocytopenia. The detection of IgM antibodies against Rickettsia typhi and a positive PCR result in blood combined by sequencing confirmed the diagnosis of infection by Rickettsia typhi. Clinicians in northern Greece should be aware of the disease, even in cases presented with no specific initial symptoms. PMID: 29848847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sarikloglou E, Goula A, Sidiropoulos C, Tsolia M, Papa A Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Reclassification of Borrelia spp. isolated in South Korea using Multilocus Sequence Typing.
This study was first report of the identification of B. yangtzensis using the MLST in South Korea. PMID: 29848848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Park KH, Choi YJ, Kim J, Park HJ, Song D, Jang WJ Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Acyclovir Sensitivity and Neurovirulence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 with Amino Acid Substitutions in the Viral Thymidine Kinase Gene, Which Were Detected in the Patients with Intractable Herpes Simplex Encephalitis Previously Reported.
Abstract Several cases of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) caused by acyclovir (ACV)-resistant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) have been reported. Amino acid substitutions of R41H, Q125H, and A156V in the viral thymidine kinase (vTK) gene were reported to confer ACV-resistance. Recombinant HSV-1 clones with each amino acid substitution in the vTK were generated using the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system. A recombinant HSV-1 with the substitution of Q125H showed ACV-resistance, while those of R41H or A156V were sensitive to ACV. Furthermore, a recombinant HSV-1 with the substitution of Q125H was le...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Inagaki T, Satoh M, Fujii H, Yamada S, Shibamura M, Yoshikawa T, Harada S, Takeyama H, Saijo M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Evaluation of Diagnostic Assay for Rickettsioses Using Duplex Real-Time PCR in Multiple Laboratories in Japan.
Abstract Tsutsugamushi disease (TD) and Japanese spotted fever (JSF) are known as representative rickettsioses in Japan, and caused by infection with Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia japonica, respectively. For molecular-based diagnosis, conventional PCRs which independently amplify respective rickettsial DNAs are usually used, but it's time-consuming. Here, we describe a new duplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of O. tsutsugamushi and spotted fever group rickettsiae, and evaluated under several PCR conditions in 6 public health laboratories. The detection limit of the assay was estimated 102...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kawamori F, Shimazu Y, Sato H, Monma N, Ikegaya A, Yamamoto S, Fujita H, Morita H, Tamaki Y, Takamoto N, Su H, Shimada M, Shimamura Y, Masuda S, Ando S, Ohashi N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Bacterial culture-negative subclinical intra-amniotic infection can be detected by bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA-amplifying polymerase chain reaction.
We examined whether broad-range polymerase technique is useful for detection of culture-negative intra-amniotic infection (IAI). Pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for the management of preterm birth with or without the premature rupture of membranes. Bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA in the amniotic fluid was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers for a sequence shared by Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma, and other bacteria. Sixty-four women were enrolled, nine of whom were culture-positive. Of the 55 culture-negative women, 13 were PCR-positive and exhibited significantly higher interleukin-6 and -8 levels and...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Morimoto S, Usui H, Kobayashi T, Katou E, Goto S, Tanaka H, Shozu M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A multicenter study of clinical presentations and predictive factors for severe manifestation of dengue in adults.
Abstract Severe dengue is more prevalent in adults than in children. Our objectives were to determine the clinical presentations of dengue in adults and to identify predictive factors for severe dengue. A retrospective cohort study was performed in adults with dengue, as confirmed by positive NS1 antigen. Patients were classified into non-severe and severe dengue. A total of 357 patients were enrolled; 45.4% were male, with median (interquartile range, IQR) age of 27.9 (21.8-43.5) years. In all, 28.3% of patients had warning signs and 10.6% of patients had severe dengue. Patients with severe dengue had significant...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Temprasertrudee S, Thanachartwet V, Desakorn V, Keatkla J, Chantratita W, Kiertiburanakul S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

PMQR prevalence among different serotypes of   Shigella flexneri  isolated from Jiangsu Province of China during 2001-2011.
PMQR prevalence among different serotypes of  Shigella flexneri  isolated from Jiangsu Province of China during 2001-2011. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 27;: Authors: Qin T, Gu B PMID: 29709966 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Qin T, Gu B Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The development of a novel diagnostic assay that uses a pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus for the detection of neutralising activity to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus.
Abstract Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus is a risk group 4 pathogen, which mandates the use of maximum containment facilities, often called biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) or containment level 4 (CL-4) laboratories when working with infectious materials. Diagnostic and research work involving live viruses in such laboratories is time-consuming and awkward resulting in delays. We herein show that the serum neutralising activity against the virus can be measured in low-containment laboratories using a pseudotyped virus. PMID: 29709967 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suda Y, Chamberlain J, Dowall S, Saijo M, Horimoto T, Hewson R, Shimojima M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A novel system for constructing a recombinant highly-attenuated vaccinia virus strain (LC16m8) expressing foreign genes and its application for the generation of LC16m8-based vaccines against herpes simplex virus 2.
Abstract A novel system was developed for generating a highly-attenuated vaccinia virus LC16m8 (m8, third generation smallpox vaccine) that expresses foreign genes. The innovations in this system are its excisable selection marker, specificity of the integration site of a gene of interest, and easy identification of clones with the fluorescent signal. Using this system, recombinant m8s, which expressed either herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein B (gB)-, gD-, or both gB and gD (gB+gD) were developed, and their efficacy was evaluated. First, the induction of a specific IgG against these HSV-2 glycoproteins i...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Omura N, Yoshikawa T, Fujii H, Shibamura M, Inagaki T, Kato H, Egawa K, Harada S, Yamada S, Takeyama H, Saijo M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The first identification of human adenovirus 57 (HAdV-57) in Japan.
Abstract Neutralization tests (NT) were routinely used for identification of human adenovirus C species (HAdV-C) in Japan until 2007. The aim of this study was to clarify serological cross-reactivity of antiserum used exclusively in Japan and describe the first identification of HAdV type 57 (HAdV-57) in Japan. Anti-HAdV serum to HAdV-1, 2, 5, and 6 was quantitatively evaluated for cross-reactivity to the HAdV-57 isolates. Anti-HAdV-6 serum neutralized HAdV-57 with 32 to 64 times higher the concentration necessary to neutralize homologous HAdV-6. HAdV-1, 2, and 5 strains were not neutralized by anti HAdV-6 serum. ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tatsumi C, Iizuka S, Mita T, Wada M, Hanaoka N, Fujimoto T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Analysis of HPeV genotype in Yokohama district from 2000-2016.
Abstract Human parechovirus (HPeV) infections in Yokohama City, Japan, were surveyed from 2000 to 2016. The sequence of the VP1 region of HPeV was used to construct a phylogenetic tree and to reveal the putative amino acid (aa) sequences. The phylogenetic analysis showed the presence of three genotypes in Yokohama City: HPeV1 (25 specimens), HPeV3 (86 specimens), and HPeV4 (2 specimens). HPeV1 was detected nearly every year, with the highest number detected in 2014. HPeV3 was not detected until 2005 but detected during a 3-year period thereafter. HPeV1 was most prevalent from July to November, whereas HPeV3 peaked...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Momoki TS Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence of fosfomycin resistance in methicillin-resistant   Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients in a university hospital in China, 2013-2015.
Prevalence of fosfomycin resistance in methicillin-resistant  Staphylococcus aureus isolated from patients in a university hospital in China, 2013-2015. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 27;: Authors: Wu D, Chen Y, Sun L, Qu T, Wang H, Yu Y Abstract We aimed to investigate the fosfomycin susceptibility among different methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clones. Total 293 MRSA isolates obtained from Sir Run Run Shaw hospital during 2013~2015 were tested for fosfomycin susceptibility. The overall fosfomycin resistance rate among these MRSA isolates was 53.2%. For ST5 MRSA isolates (MIC50>...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wu D, Chen Y, Sun L, Qu T, Wang H, Yu Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Comparative analysis of immune responses by outer membrane antigens OMP10, OMP19 and OMP28 of   Brucella abortus.
Comparative analysis of immune responses by outer membrane antigens OMP10, OMP19 and OMP28 of  Brucella abortus. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 27;: Authors: Im YB, Park WB, Jung M, Kim S, Yoo HS Abstract Upon infection by Brucella, cytokine production is induced which becomes an important factor in evaluation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Several research groups have been investigating the mechanisms involved in Brucella infection within the host. Hence, we conducted an analytical study to define pathogenic pathways and immune mechanisms upon Brucella infection by investigating the effica...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Im YB, Park WB, Jung M, Kim S, Yoo HS Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Short-term efficacy and safety of adding ezetimibe to currently used lipid-lowering drugs in Thai HIV-infected patients receiving protease inhibitors.
The objective of this study was to determine short-term efficacy and safety of adding ezetimibe to currently used statins. Thirty-two patients received ezetimibe 10 mg daily added to their ongoing lipid-lowering therapy for 18 weeks. Serum LDL-C, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), TC/HDL-C ratio and HDL-C were measured at baseline, week 6, 12 and 18. Safety parameters were assessed by adverse event reports and laboratory assessments throughout the study. The mean percent change from baseline to endpoint in LDL-C, TC, TG and TC/HDL-C ratio were -23.3% (p
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Boonthos K, Puttilerpong C, Pengsuparp T, Manosuthi W Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Respiratory syncytial virus surveillance system in Japan: assessment of recent trends, 2008-2015.
Abstract Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory tract illness in infants and young children. In Japan, surveillance for RSV infection started in 2003 based on approximately 3,000 pediatric sentinel sites. In recent years, RSV notifications have increased, but interpretation of trends has been challenging due to suspected increase in testing and expansion of the insurance coverage for RSV testing to include certain outpatients in late 2011. Therefore, we evaluated RSV surveillance data during 2008-2015, considering the number of sites that reported at least one RSV case during a sur...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kanou K, Arima Y, Kinoshita H, Ito H, Okuno H, Saito N, Sunagawa T, Kimura H, Matsui T, Oishi K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Isolation of egg-adapted influenza A(H3N2) virus without amino acid substitutions in the antigenic sites of its hemagglutinin.
Abstract Antigenic changes in the hemagglutinin protein of recent A(H3N2) viruses are often induced when these viruses adapt to their egg hosts. We have successfully isolated an egg-adapted influenza A(H3N2) virus, A/Saitama/103/2014, without amino acid substitutions in the antigenic sites of its hemagglutinin protein but multiple substitutions in its neuraminidase protein by serial egg passages of a cell-propagated virus. Antigenic analysis of this egg-adapted A/Saitama/103/2014 virus indicated that its antigenicity did not change from the WHO prototype cell-propagated vaccine virus, A/Hong Kong/4801/2014. Our re...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kuwahara T, Takashita E, Fujisaki S, Shirakura M, Nakamura K, Kishida N, Takahashi H, Suzuki N, Kawaoka Y, Watanabe S, Odagiri T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Tuberculosis Disease among Healthcare Workers: Clinical, Microbiological Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes at Chiang Mai University Hospital, Thailand.
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) among healthcare workers (HCWs) highly impacts morbidity and TB transmission in hospital. A retrospective cohort study of TB among HCWs (HCW-TB) was conducted using a registered database from 2003 to 2016 at Chiang Mai University Hospital to determine clinical and microbiological characteristics and treatment outcomes of HCW-TB. Seventy-six cases of HCWs, 54 nurses (71.1%), 12 physicians (15.8%) and 10 paramedics (13.2%), were diagnosed with TB disease. Female to male ratio of 51:25, mean age of 37.0±11.6 years and median work duration of 12.0 years (5-20) and BMI of 19.4±2...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Inchai J, Liwsrisakun C, Bumroongkit C, Eauthrongchit J, Tajareunmuang P, Pothirat C Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research