Risk factors for post-tooth extraction complications in HIV-infected patients: A retrospective study
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2019.273. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTo assess the rate and risk factors of postoperative complications following tooth extraction in HIV-infected patients by CD4 count. The study subjects were 231 HIV-infected patients who underwent tooth extraction at our institution between January 2007 and December 2011. Results of blood test, underlying diseases, surgical site, extraction method, and postoperative complications were obtained from the medical records. The risk factors potentially involved in postoperative complications were analyzed by multivariate logistic regr...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yumiko Nakagawa Yasuyuki Shimada Yohei Kawasaki Haruhito Honda Takahiro Aoki Yusuke Takanabe Ritsuo Takagi Yutaka Maruoka Shinichi Oka Source Type: research

Detection of Bartonella quintana infection among the Homeless Population in Tokyo, Japan, from 2013-2015
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.505. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSeveral outbreaks of trench fever caused by Bartonella quintana, occurred in soldiers during World Wars I and II. Although the number of trench fever cases has been decreasing worldwide, the disease has been reported among the homeless population in both developing and developed countries. The current prevalence of B. quintana infection in Japan is unclear. We collected blood and body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) samples from homeless inpatients who had body lice at the time of emergency hospitalization in Tokyo from January...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Toshinori Sasaki Tomohide Adachi Kazuto Itoh Mayumi Kubota Takuya Yamagishi Maki Hirao Haruhiko Isawa Kazunori Oishi Keigo Shibayama Kyoko Sawabe Source Type: research

A Case Report of Pediatric Subcutaneous Abscess with Mycobacterium mageritense Infection
We present the case of a 5-year-old girl who developed soft-tissue infection with M. mageritense in a subcutaneous abscess in her right ankle. She had a history of acute encephalopathy and adrenal insufficiency and was hospitalized for acute pancreatitis. During hospitalization, she developed fever and tachycardia. A blood culture was positive for gram-positive bacilli. Initially, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reported a different organism, but a repeat test identified M. mageritense. One month after the positive blood culture, redness and swelling appeared in h...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yuuka Yamaguchi Taito Kitano Tomoko Onishi Masahiro Takeyama Yuki Suzuki Keij Nogami Source Type: research

How frequently do ordinary citizens practice hand hygiene at appropriate moments during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.631. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe aimed to clarify the status of hand hygiene practices among ordinary citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, in conjunction with the total frequency of daily hand hygiene as an indicator of education and evaluation. This cross-sectional study was based on an Internet survey completed by 2,149 participants (age range: 20-79 years, 51.0% men, response rate: 89.5%), selected during June 23-28, 2020. The participants responded regarding the frequency of implementing hand hygiene at 5 moments (after returning from a public ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Masaki Machida Itaru Nakamura Reiko Saito Tomoki Nakaya Tomoya Hanibuchi Tomoko Takamiya Yuko Odagiri Noritoshi Fukushima Hiroyuki Kikuchi Shiho Amagasa Takako Kojima Hidehiro Watanabe Shigeru Inoue Source Type: research

Panton-Valentine leukocidin induces cytokine release and cytotoxicity mediated by the C5a receptor on rabbit alveolar macrophages
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.657. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNecrotizing pneumonia caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has high mortality, and is currently a serious clinical issue. PVL is a two-component toxin consisting of LukS-PV and LukF-PV. PVL was shown to cause necrosis in target cells by forming pores consisting of an octamer comprised of LukS-PV and LukF-PV. However, because of the specificity of PVL toward several target cells and species, the detailed action of PVL remains controversial. Th...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shinya Harada Hayato Kawada Shotaro Maehana Hidehito Matsui Makoto Kubo Fumiaki Kojima Hidero Kitasato Masato Katagiri Source Type: research

High Stillbirth among HIV-infected pregnancy in West Bengal, India; A retrospective cohort study
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.811. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in pregnancy may result in adverse obstetric outcomes such as still birth. The present study aimed at comparing Stillbirth Rate (SBR) for HIV-infected pregnancy with that in general population, observing year-wise trends of HIV exposed SBR and identifying possible associated exposures. A retrospective cohort study was conducted through analysis of secondary data from 314 Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres across the state of West Bengal, India from 2012 to 2020. 3478 HIV-infect...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suman Ganguly Debjit Chakraborty Dipendra Narayan Goswami Subrata Biswas Falguni Debnath Malay Kumar Saha Source Type: research

Nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load Response among COVID-19 Patients Receiving Favipiravir
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.827. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe retrospectively studied nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized between 13 January and 1 April 2020. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR were conducted with primers and probes targeting the ORF1ab and N genes. All patients were classified as Group 1: Received favipiravir + chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir for 5-10 days, Group 2: Received chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir for 5-10 d...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Weerawat Manosuthi Somlerk Jeungsmarn Pilailuk Okada Pawita Suwanvattana Warawan Wongboot Unchana Thawornwan Lantharita Charoenpong Surasak Wiboonchutikul Sumonmal Uttayamakul Wannarat A Pongpirul Apichat Wachirapan Paijit Warachit Source Type: research

A Case Report of Bacterial Meningitis Caused by an Emerging Strain of Penicillin-Resistant Non-vaccine Serotype 10A
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.841. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe pneumococcal conjugate vaccines successfully decreased the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance. However, it has also led to serotype replacement. According to the report from the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) in 2017, 96% of pneumococcal isolates obtained from IPD children aged
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sonoko Minato Michiko Yoshida Kensuke Shoji Nobuyuki Yotani Kenichi Takeshita Noriko Takeuchi Naruhiko Ishiwada Mitsuru Kubota Akira Ishiguro Isao Miyairi Source Type: research

Analysis of the prevalence and species of Anisakis nematode in Sekisaba, Scomber japonicus caught in coastal waters off Saganoseki, Oita in Japan
In this study, we compared the infection states of Anisakis in Sekisaba with those in S. japonicus caught in South Oita area and Nagasaki Prefecture. All of Anisakis from Nagasaki Prefecture were A. pegreffii, while most of them found in Sekisaba and fish from South Oita area were A. simplex s.s.. Interestingly, the prevalence of Anisakis in Sekisaba was significantly lower than those of two other areas. This may be reflected that Sekisaba might belong to a distinct stock of S. japonicus varying from other stocks.PMID:33518625 | DOI:10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.859 (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shinya Hidano Kazuhiro Mizukami Takaaki Yahiro Kohei Shirakami Hideyuki Ito Sotaro Ozaka Shimpei Ariki Benjawan Saechue Astri Dewayani Thanyakorn Chalalai Yasuhiro Soga Mizuki Goto Akira Sonoda Takashi Ozaki Nozomi Sachi Naganori Kamiyama Akira Nishizono Source Type: research

Immunogenicity and Safety of KM-248, a Combined Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine, and the Noninferiority to a Measles Vaccine in Healthy Japanese Children; Phase 3 Randomized Multicenter Single-Blind Clinical Trial
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.876. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn Japan, domestic combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines were withdrawn in 1993 due to serious aseptic meningitis attributed to the mumps component. KM-248 is an MMR vaccine (M-M-R® II), manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc. (Kenilworth, NJ, USA), registered and approved in 74 countries, but not approved in Japan. In this multicenter, randomized, single-blind study, the primary endpoints were; noninferiority of KM-248 measles component immunogenicity compared to control measles vaccine already approved in Japan ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Heather Platt Shinji Tochihara Yoshiaki Oda Kohji Ueda Source Type: research

Carriage Rate and Characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis Among Dormitory Students
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.890. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn Japan, several meningococcal disease outbreaks have recently been reported among adolescent dormitory residents of schools. However, little is known about meningococcal carriage dynamics among healthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the carriage rate over time and characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis strains among dormitory students. The survey was conducted twice between November 2018 and January 2019 for first to third year students (N=376) in a medical school dormitory. The two surveys yielded...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Atsuhiro Kanayama Teppei Sasahara Hideyuki Takahashi Hajime Kamiya Yuji Morisawa Koki Kaku Source Type: research

Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by Catechins from Green Tea
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.902. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGreen tea extracts effectively inactivated SARS-CoV-2 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Serially 10-fold diluted solutions of catechin mixture reagent from green tea were mixed with the viral culture fluid at a volume ratio of nine to one, respectively, and kept at room temperature for 5 min. The solution of 10 mg/mL catechin reagent reduced the viral titer by 4.2 log and 1.0 mg/mL solution reduced only by one log. Pre-infection treatment of the cells with the reagent alone did not affect the viral growth. In addition, cells t...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hidekazu Nishimura Michiko Okamoto Isolde Dapat Masanori Katumi Hitoshi Oshitani Source Type: research

Safety of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine in adults in Japan
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.947. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is generally used for booster vaccination in Europe and the United States to avoid increased reactogenicity after diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination in infants. However, Japan has extended the use of additional DTaP vaccination without reducing the antigen dose for diphtheria and pertussis to adolescents and adults despite limited reports on its safety in adults. This prospective observational questionnaire-bas...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mugen Ujiie Shinya Tsuzuki Michiyo Suzuki Masayuki Ota Tetsuya Suzuki Hidetoshi Nomoto Kei Yamamoto Sho Saito Akatsuki Kokaze Noriko Kinoshita Source Type: research

Risk factors of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by Coxsackievirus A6 in children under 6 years of age in Tianjin, China: a case-control study
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.983. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) infected with Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) have demonstrated an increasing trend in China. Our study aimed to explore the risk factors of HFMD cases infected with CV-A6 in children under 6 years of age in Tianjin, China. A non-matching case-control study was conducted in Tianjin, China. Cases were HFMD patients infected with CV-A6 while controls were HFMD patients infected with other enteroviruses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors of HFMD cases infect...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zichao Wang Tao Liu Jiameng Li Qing Gu Source Type: research

Risk factors for post-tooth extraction complications in HIV-infected patients: A retrospective study
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2019.273. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTo assess the rate and risk factors of postoperative complications following tooth extraction in HIV-infected patients by CD4 count. The study subjects were 231 HIV-infected patients who underwent tooth extraction at our institution between January 2007 and December 2011. Results of blood test, underlying diseases, surgical site, extraction method, and postoperative complications were obtained from the medical records. The risk factors potentially involved in postoperative complications were analyzed by multivariate logistic regr...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yumiko Nakagawa Yasuyuki Shimada Yohei Kawasaki Haruhito Honda Takahiro Aoki Yusuke Takanabe Ritsuo Takagi Yutaka Maruoka Shinichi Oka Source Type: research

Detection of Bartonella quintana infection among the Homeless Population in Tokyo, Japan, from 2013-2015
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.505. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSeveral outbreaks of trench fever caused by Bartonella quintana, occurred in soldiers during World Wars I and II. Although the number of trench fever cases has been decreasing worldwide, the disease has been reported among the homeless population in both developing and developed countries. The current prevalence of B. quintana infection in Japan is unclear. We collected blood and body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) samples from homeless inpatients who had body lice at the time of emergency hospitalization in Tokyo from January...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Toshinori Sasaki Tomohide Adachi Kazuto Itoh Mayumi Kubota Takuya Yamagishi Maki Hirao Haruhiko Isawa Kazunori Oishi Keigo Shibayama Kyoko Sawabe Source Type: research

A Case Report of Pediatric Subcutaneous Abscess with Mycobacterium mageritense Infection
We present the case of a 5-year-old girl who developed soft-tissue infection with M. mageritense in a subcutaneous abscess in her right ankle. She had a history of acute encephalopathy and adrenal insufficiency and was hospitalized for acute pancreatitis. During hospitalization, she developed fever and tachycardia. A blood culture was positive for gram-positive bacilli. Initially, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reported a different organism, but a repeat test identified M. mageritense. One month after the positive blood culture, redness and swelling appeared in h...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yuuka Yamaguchi Taito Kitano Tomoko Onishi Masahiro Takeyama Yuki Suzuki Keij Nogami Source Type: research

How frequently do ordinary citizens practice hand hygiene at appropriate moments during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.631. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe aimed to clarify the status of hand hygiene practices among ordinary citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, in conjunction with the total frequency of daily hand hygiene as an indicator of education and evaluation. This cross-sectional study was based on an Internet survey completed by 2,149 participants (age range: 20-79 years, 51.0% men, response rate: 89.5%), selected during June 23-28, 2020. The participants responded regarding the frequency of implementing hand hygiene at 5 moments (after returning from a public ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Masaki Machida Itaru Nakamura Reiko Saito Tomoki Nakaya Tomoya Hanibuchi Tomoko Takamiya Yuko Odagiri Noritoshi Fukushima Hiroyuki Kikuchi Shiho Amagasa Takako Kojima Hidehiro Watanabe Shigeru Inoue Source Type: research

Panton-Valentine leukocidin induces cytokine release and cytotoxicity mediated by the C5a receptor on rabbit alveolar macrophages
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.657. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNecrotizing pneumonia caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has high mortality, and is currently a serious clinical issue. PVL is a two-component toxin consisting of LukS-PV and LukF-PV. PVL was shown to cause necrosis in target cells by forming pores consisting of an octamer comprised of LukS-PV and LukF-PV. However, because of the specificity of PVL toward several target cells and species, the detailed action of PVL remains controversial. Th...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shinya Harada Hayato Kawada Shotaro Maehana Hidehito Matsui Makoto Kubo Fumiaki Kojima Hidero Kitasato Masato Katagiri Source Type: research

High Stillbirth among HIV-infected pregnancy in West Bengal, India; A retrospective cohort study
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.811. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in pregnancy may result in adverse obstetric outcomes such as still birth. The present study aimed at comparing Stillbirth Rate (SBR) for HIV-infected pregnancy with that in general population, observing year-wise trends of HIV exposed SBR and identifying possible associated exposures. A retrospective cohort study was conducted through analysis of secondary data from 314 Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres across the state of West Bengal, India from 2012 to 2020. 3478 HIV-infect...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suman Ganguly Debjit Chakraborty Dipendra Narayan Goswami Subrata Biswas Falguni Debnath Malay Kumar Saha Source Type: research

Nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load Response among COVID-19 Patients Receiving Favipiravir
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.827. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe retrospectively studied nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized between 13 January and 1 April 2020. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR were conducted with primers and probes targeting the ORF1ab and N genes. All patients were classified as Group 1: Received favipiravir + chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir for 5-10 days, Group 2: Received chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir for 5-10 d...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Weerawat Manosuthi Somlerk Jeungsmarn Pilailuk Okada Pawita Suwanvattana Warawan Wongboot Unchana Thawornwan Lantharita Charoenpong Surasak Wiboonchutikul Sumonmal Uttayamakul Wannarat A Pongpirul Apichat Wachirapan Paijit Warachit Source Type: research

A Case Report of Bacterial Meningitis Caused by an Emerging Strain of Penicillin-Resistant Non-vaccine Serotype 10A
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.841. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe pneumococcal conjugate vaccines successfully decreased the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance. However, it has also led to serotype replacement. According to the report from the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) in 2017, 96% of pneumococcal isolates obtained from IPD children aged
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sonoko Minato Michiko Yoshida Kensuke Shoji Nobuyuki Yotani Kenichi Takeshita Noriko Takeuchi Naruhiko Ishiwada Mitsuru Kubota Akira Ishiguro Isao Miyairi Source Type: research

Analysis of the prevalence and species of Anisakis nematode in Sekisaba, Scomber japonicus caught in coastal waters off Saganoseki, Oita in Japan
In this study, we compared the infection states of Anisakis in Sekisaba with those in S. japonicus caught in South Oita area and Nagasaki Prefecture. All of Anisakis from Nagasaki Prefecture were A. pegreffii, while most of them found in Sekisaba and fish from South Oita area were A. simplex s.s.. Interestingly, the prevalence of Anisakis in Sekisaba was significantly lower than those of two other areas. This may be reflected that Sekisaba might belong to a distinct stock of S. japonicus varying from other stocks.PMID:33518625 | DOI:10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.859 (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shinya Hidano Kazuhiro Mizukami Takaaki Yahiro Kohei Shirakami Hideyuki Ito Sotaro Ozaka Shimpei Ariki Benjawan Saechue Astri Dewayani Thanyakorn Chalalai Yasuhiro Soga Mizuki Goto Akira Sonoda Takashi Ozaki Nozomi Sachi Naganori Kamiyama Akira Nishizono Source Type: research

Immunogenicity and Safety of KM-248, a Combined Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine, and the Noninferiority to a Measles Vaccine in Healthy Japanese Children; Phase 3 Randomized Multicenter Single-Blind Clinical Trial
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.876. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn Japan, domestic combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines were withdrawn in 1993 due to serious aseptic meningitis attributed to the mumps component. KM-248 is an MMR vaccine (M-M-R® II), manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc. (Kenilworth, NJ, USA), registered and approved in 74 countries, but not approved in Japan. In this multicenter, randomized, single-blind study, the primary endpoints were; noninferiority of KM-248 measles component immunogenicity compared to control measles vaccine already approved in Japan ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Heather Platt Shinji Tochihara Yoshiaki Oda Kohji Ueda Source Type: research

Carriage Rate and Characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis Among Dormitory Students
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.890. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn Japan, several meningococcal disease outbreaks have recently been reported among adolescent dormitory residents of schools. However, little is known about meningococcal carriage dynamics among healthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the carriage rate over time and characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis strains among dormitory students. The survey was conducted twice between November 2018 and January 2019 for first to third year students (N=376) in a medical school dormitory. The two surveys yielded...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Atsuhiro Kanayama Teppei Sasahara Hideyuki Takahashi Hajime Kamiya Yuji Morisawa Koki Kaku Source Type: research

Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by Catechins from Green Tea
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.902. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGreen tea extracts effectively inactivated SARS-CoV-2 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Serially 10-fold diluted solutions of catechin mixture reagent from green tea were mixed with the viral culture fluid at a volume ratio of nine to one, respectively, and kept at room temperature for 5 min. The solution of 10 mg/mL catechin reagent reduced the viral titer by 4.2 log and 1.0 mg/mL solution reduced only by one log. Pre-infection treatment of the cells with the reagent alone did not affect the viral growth. In addition, cells t...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hidekazu Nishimura Michiko Okamoto Isolde Dapat Masanori Katumi Hitoshi Oshitani Source Type: research

Safety of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine in adults in Japan
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.947. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is generally used for booster vaccination in Europe and the United States to avoid increased reactogenicity after diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination in infants. However, Japan has extended the use of additional DTaP vaccination without reducing the antigen dose for diphtheria and pertussis to adolescents and adults despite limited reports on its safety in adults. This prospective observational questionnaire-bas...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mugen Ujiie Shinya Tsuzuki Michiyo Suzuki Masayuki Ota Tetsuya Suzuki Hidetoshi Nomoto Kei Yamamoto Sho Saito Akatsuki Kokaze Noriko Kinoshita Source Type: research

Risk factors of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by Coxsackievirus A6 in children under 6 years of age in Tianjin, China: a case-control study
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.983. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) infected with Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) have demonstrated an increasing trend in China. Our study aimed to explore the risk factors of HFMD cases infected with CV-A6 in children under 6 years of age in Tianjin, China. A non-matching case-control study was conducted in Tianjin, China. Cases were HFMD patients infected with CV-A6 while controls were HFMD patients infected with other enteroviruses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors of HFMD cases infect...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zichao Wang Tao Liu Jiameng Li Qing Gu Source Type: research

Risk factors for post-tooth extraction complications in HIV-infected patients: A retrospective study
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2019.273. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTo assess the rate and risk factors of postoperative complications following tooth extraction in HIV-infected patients by CD4 count. The study subjects were 231 HIV-infected patients who underwent tooth extraction at our institution between January 2007 and December 2011. Results of blood test, underlying diseases, surgical site, extraction method, and postoperative complications were obtained from the medical records. The risk factors potentially involved in postoperative complications were analyzed by multivariate logistic regr...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yumiko Nakagawa Yasuyuki Shimada Yohei Kawasaki Haruhito Honda Takahiro Aoki Yusuke Takanabe Ritsuo Takagi Yutaka Maruoka Shinichi Oka Source Type: research

Detection of Bartonella quintana infection among the Homeless Population in Tokyo, Japan, from 2013-2015
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.505. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTSeveral outbreaks of trench fever caused by Bartonella quintana, occurred in soldiers during World Wars I and II. Although the number of trench fever cases has been decreasing worldwide, the disease has been reported among the homeless population in both developing and developed countries. The current prevalence of B. quintana infection in Japan is unclear. We collected blood and body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) samples from homeless inpatients who had body lice at the time of emergency hospitalization in Tokyo from January...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Toshinori Sasaki Tomohide Adachi Kazuto Itoh Mayumi Kubota Takuya Yamagishi Maki Hirao Haruhiko Isawa Kazunori Oishi Keigo Shibayama Kyoko Sawabe Source Type: research

A Case Report of Pediatric Subcutaneous Abscess with Mycobacterium mageritense Infection
We present the case of a 5-year-old girl who developed soft-tissue infection with M. mageritense in a subcutaneous abscess in her right ankle. She had a history of acute encephalopathy and adrenal insufficiency and was hospitalized for acute pancreatitis. During hospitalization, she developed fever and tachycardia. A blood culture was positive for gram-positive bacilli. Initially, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reported a different organism, but a repeat test identified M. mageritense. One month after the positive blood culture, redness and swelling appeared in h...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yuuka Yamaguchi Taito Kitano Tomoko Onishi Masahiro Takeyama Yuki Suzuki Keij Nogami Source Type: research

How frequently do ordinary citizens practice hand hygiene at appropriate moments during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.631. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe aimed to clarify the status of hand hygiene practices among ordinary citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, in conjunction with the total frequency of daily hand hygiene as an indicator of education and evaluation. This cross-sectional study was based on an Internet survey completed by 2,149 participants (age range: 20-79 years, 51.0% men, response rate: 89.5%), selected during June 23-28, 2020. The participants responded regarding the frequency of implementing hand hygiene at 5 moments (after returning from a public ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Masaki Machida Itaru Nakamura Reiko Saito Tomoki Nakaya Tomoya Hanibuchi Tomoko Takamiya Yuko Odagiri Noritoshi Fukushima Hiroyuki Kikuchi Shiho Amagasa Takako Kojima Hidehiro Watanabe Shigeru Inoue Source Type: research

Panton-Valentine leukocidin induces cytokine release and cytotoxicity mediated by the C5a receptor on rabbit alveolar macrophages
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.657. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTNecrotizing pneumonia caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has high mortality, and is currently a serious clinical issue. PVL is a two-component toxin consisting of LukS-PV and LukF-PV. PVL was shown to cause necrosis in target cells by forming pores consisting of an octamer comprised of LukS-PV and LukF-PV. However, because of the specificity of PVL toward several target cells and species, the detailed action of PVL remains controversial. Th...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shinya Harada Hayato Kawada Shotaro Maehana Hidehito Matsui Makoto Kubo Fumiaki Kojima Hidero Kitasato Masato Katagiri Source Type: research

High Stillbirth among HIV-infected pregnancy in West Bengal, India; A retrospective cohort study
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.811. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in pregnancy may result in adverse obstetric outcomes such as still birth. The present study aimed at comparing Stillbirth Rate (SBR) for HIV-infected pregnancy with that in general population, observing year-wise trends of HIV exposed SBR and identifying possible associated exposures. A retrospective cohort study was conducted through analysis of secondary data from 314 Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres across the state of West Bengal, India from 2012 to 2020. 3478 HIV-infect...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Suman Ganguly Debjit Chakraborty Dipendra Narayan Goswami Subrata Biswas Falguni Debnath Malay Kumar Saha Source Type: research

Nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load Response among COVID-19 Patients Receiving Favipiravir
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.827. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTWe retrospectively studied nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized between 13 January and 1 April 2020. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR were conducted with primers and probes targeting the ORF1ab and N genes. All patients were classified as Group 1: Received favipiravir + chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir for 5-10 days, Group 2: Received chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir for 5-10 d...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Weerawat Manosuthi Somlerk Jeungsmarn Pilailuk Okada Pawita Suwanvattana Warawan Wongboot Unchana Thawornwan Lantharita Charoenpong Surasak Wiboonchutikul Sumonmal Uttayamakul Wannarat A Pongpirul Apichat Wachirapan Paijit Warachit Source Type: research

A Case Report of Bacterial Meningitis Caused by an Emerging Strain of Penicillin-Resistant Non-vaccine Serotype 10A
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.841. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe pneumococcal conjugate vaccines successfully decreased the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance. However, it has also led to serotype replacement. According to the report from the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) in 2017, 96% of pneumococcal isolates obtained from IPD children aged
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sonoko Minato Michiko Yoshida Kensuke Shoji Nobuyuki Yotani Kenichi Takeshita Noriko Takeuchi Naruhiko Ishiwada Mitsuru Kubota Akira Ishiguro Isao Miyairi Source Type: research

Analysis of the prevalence and species of Anisakis nematode in Sekisaba, Scomber japonicus caught in coastal waters off Saganoseki, Oita in Japan
In this study, we compared the infection states of Anisakis in Sekisaba with those in S. japonicus caught in South Oita area and Nagasaki Prefecture. All of Anisakis from Nagasaki Prefecture were A. pegreffii, while most of them found in Sekisaba and fish from South Oita area were A. simplex s.s.. Interestingly, the prevalence of Anisakis in Sekisaba was significantly lower than those of two other areas. This may be reflected that Sekisaba might belong to a distinct stock of S. japonicus varying from other stocks.PMID:33518625 | DOI:10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.859 (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shinya Hidano Kazuhiro Mizukami Takaaki Yahiro Kohei Shirakami Hideyuki Ito Sotaro Ozaka Shimpei Ariki Benjawan Saechue Astri Dewayani Thanyakorn Chalalai Yasuhiro Soga Mizuki Goto Akira Sonoda Takashi Ozaki Nozomi Sachi Naganori Kamiyama Akira Nishizono Source Type: research

Immunogenicity and Safety of KM-248, a Combined Measles, Mumps, and Rubella vaccine, and the Noninferiority to a Measles Vaccine in Healthy Japanese Children; Phase 3 Randomized Multicenter Single-Blind Clinical Trial
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.876. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn Japan, domestic combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines were withdrawn in 1993 due to serious aseptic meningitis attributed to the mumps component. KM-248 is an MMR vaccine (M-M-R® II), manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc. (Kenilworth, NJ, USA), registered and approved in 74 countries, but not approved in Japan. In this multicenter, randomized, single-blind study, the primary endpoints were; noninferiority of KM-248 measles component immunogenicity compared to control measles vaccine already approved in Japan ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Heather Platt Shinji Tochihara Yoshiaki Oda Kohji Ueda Source Type: research

Carriage Rate and Characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis Among Dormitory Students
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.890. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn Japan, several meningococcal disease outbreaks have recently been reported among adolescent dormitory residents of schools. However, little is known about meningococcal carriage dynamics among healthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the carriage rate over time and characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis strains among dormitory students. The survey was conducted twice between November 2018 and January 2019 for first to third year students (N=376) in a medical school dormitory. The two surveys yielded...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Atsuhiro Kanayama Teppei Sasahara Hideyuki Takahashi Hajime Kamiya Yuji Morisawa Koki Kaku Source Type: research

Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 by Catechins from Green Tea
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.902. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTGreen tea extracts effectively inactivated SARS-CoV-2 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Serially 10-fold diluted solutions of catechin mixture reagent from green tea were mixed with the viral culture fluid at a volume ratio of nine to one, respectively, and kept at room temperature for 5 min. The solution of 10 mg/mL catechin reagent reduced the viral titer by 4.2 log and 1.0 mg/mL solution reduced only by one log. Pre-infection treatment of the cells with the reagent alone did not affect the viral growth. In addition, cells t...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hidekazu Nishimura Michiko Okamoto Isolde Dapat Masanori Katumi Hitoshi Oshitani Source Type: research

Safety of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine in adults in Japan
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.947. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is generally used for booster vaccination in Europe and the United States to avoid increased reactogenicity after diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination in infants. However, Japan has extended the use of additional DTaP vaccination without reducing the antigen dose for diphtheria and pertussis to adolescents and adults despite limited reports on its safety in adults. This prospective observational questionnaire-bas...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mugen Ujiie Shinya Tsuzuki Michiyo Suzuki Masayuki Ota Tetsuya Suzuki Hidetoshi Nomoto Kei Yamamoto Sho Saito Akatsuki Kokaze Noriko Kinoshita Source Type: research

Risk factors of hand, foot, and mouth disease caused by Coxsackievirus A6 in children under 6 years of age in Tianjin, China: a case-control study
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 Jan 29. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.983. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) infected with Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) have demonstrated an increasing trend in China. Our study aimed to explore the risk factors of HFMD cases infected with CV-A6 in children under 6 years of age in Tianjin, China. A non-matching case-control study was conducted in Tianjin, China. Cases were HFMD patients infected with CV-A6 while controls were HFMD patients infected with other enteroviruses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors of HFMD cases infect...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 1, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zichao Wang Tao Liu Jiameng Li Qing Gu Source Type: research

Risk factors for post-tooth extraction complications in HIV-infected patients: A retrospective study.
Abstract To assess the rate and risk factors of postoperative complications following tooth extraction in HIV-infected patients by CD4 count. The study subjects were 231 HIV-infected patients who underwent tooth extraction at our institution between January 2007 and December 2011. Results of blood test, underlying diseases, surgical site, extraction method, and postoperative complications were obtained from the medical records. The risk factors potentially involved in postoperative complications were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Patients were divided into two groups, 61 (26%) patients with CD4 count of
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nakagawa Y, Shimada Y, Kawasaki Y, Honda H, Aoki T, Takanabe Y, Takagi R, Maruoka Y, Oka S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Detection of Bartonella quintana infection among the Homeless Population in Tokyo, Japan, from 2013-2015.
Abstract Several outbreaks of trench fever caused by Bartonella quintana, occurred in soldiers during World Wars I and II. Although the number of trench fever cases has been decreasing worldwide, the disease has been reported among the homeless population in both developing and developed countries. The current prevalence of B. quintana infection in Japan is unclear. We collected blood and body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) samples from homeless inpatients who had body lice at the time of emergency hospitalization in Tokyo from January 2013 to March 2015. Patients were tested for B. quintana infections using cu...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sasaki T, Adachi T, Itoh K, Kubota M, Yamagishi T, Hirao M, Isawa H, Oishi K, Shibayama K, Sawabe K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Case Report of Pediatric Subcutaneous Abscess with Mycobacterium mageritense Infection.
We present the case of a 5-year-old girl who developed soft-tissue infection with M. mageritense in a subcutaneous abscess in her right ankle. She had a history of acute encephalopathy and adrenal insufficiency and was hospitalized for acute pancreatitis. During hospitalization, she developed fever and tachycardia. A blood culture was positive for gram-positive bacilli. Initially, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reported a different organism, but a repeat test identified M. mageritense. One month after the positive blood culture, redness and swelling appeared in h...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yamaguchi Y, Kitano T, Onishi T, Takeyama M, Suzuki Y, Nogami K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

How frequently do ordinary citizens practice hand hygiene at appropriate moments during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan.
Abstract We aimed to clarify the status of hand hygiene practices among ordinary citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, in conjunction with the total frequency of daily hand hygiene as an indicator of education and evaluation. This cross-sectional study was based on an Internet survey completed by 2,149 participants (age range: 20-79 years, 51.0% men, response rate: 89.5%), selected during June 23-28, 2020. The participants responded regarding the frequency of implementing hand hygiene at 5 moments (after returning from a public place; after using the toilet; after touching something outside; before eatin...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Machida M, Nakamura I, Saito R, Nakaya T, Hanibuchi T, Takamiya T, Odagiri Y, Fukushima N, Kikuchi H, Amagasa S, Kojima T, Watanabe H, Inoue S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Panton-Valentine leukocidin induces cytokine release and cytotoxicity mediated by the C5a receptor on rabbit alveolar macrophages.
Abstract Necrotizing pneumonia caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has high mortality, and is currently a serious clinical issue. PVL is a two-component toxin consisting of LukS-PV and LukF-PV. PVL was shown to cause necrosis in target cells by forming pores consisting of an octamer comprised of LukS-PV and LukF-PV. However, because of the specificity of PVL toward several target cells and species, the detailed action of PVL remains controversial. Therefore, we focused on necrotizing pneumonia caused by PVL-positive Staphyloc...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Harada S, Kawada H, Maehana S, Matsui H, Kubo M, Kojima F, Kitasato H, Katagiri M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

High Stillbirth among HIV-infected pregnancy in West Bengal, India; A retrospective cohort study.
Abstract Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in pregnancy may result in adverse obstetric outcomes such as still birth. The present study aimed at comparing Stillbirth Rate (SBR) for HIV-infected pregnancy with that in general population, observing year-wise trends of HIV exposed SBR and identifying possible associated exposures. A retrospective cohort study was conducted through analysis of secondary data from 314 Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres across the state of West Bengal, India from 2012 to 2020. 3478 HIV-infected pregnancies were followed up and year wise SBR was compared with that amon...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ganguly S, Chakraborty D, Goswami DN, Biswas S, Debnath F, Saha MK Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 Viral Load Response among COVID-19 Patients Receiving Favipiravir.
Abstract We retrospectively studied nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized between 13 January and 1 April 2020. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR were conducted with primers and probes targeting the ORF1ab and N genes. All patients were classified as Group 1: Received favipiravir + chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir for 5-10 days, Group 2: Received chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir for 5-10 days and Group 3: no anti-viral medication. Of 115 patients, 38 (33%), 54 (47%...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Manosuthi W, Jeungsmarn S, Okada P, Suwanvattana P, Wongboot W, Thawornwan U, Charoenpong L, Wiboonchutikul S, Uttayamakul S, Pongpirul WA, Wachirapan A, Warachit P Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A Case Report of Bacterial Meningitis Caused by an Emerging Strain of Penicillin-Resistant Non-vaccine Serotype 10A.
Abstract The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines successfully decreased the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance. However, it has also led to serotype replacement. According to the report from the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) in 2017, 96% of pneumococcal isolates obtained from IPD children aged
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - January 29, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Minato S, Yoshida M, Shoji K, Yotani N, Takeshita K, Takeuchi N, Ishiwada N, Kubota M, Ishiguro A, Miyairi I Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research