Characterization of human anti-dengue NS1 monoclonal antibodies derived from Thai DENV2 patients
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.1071. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMouse antibodies specific to dengue NS1 have been widely studied for their cross-reactivity with several human molecules. This is the first cross-reactivity study of dengue NS1 specific human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), isolated from DENV2 infected patients. Nine anti-NS1 HuMAbs derived mainly from convalescent-phase patients with secondary DENV-2 infections were characterized. Their cross-reactivity with plasminogen, thrombin, and endothelial cells was investigated, and then plasmin-formation assays were performed. All anti...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Siriporn Kowaboot Wilarat Puangmanee Surachet Benjathummarak Khwanchit Boonha Urai Chaisri Pongrama Ramasoota Pannamthip Pitaksajjakul Source Type: research

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Two School Children and a Neonate
We report the test results of three children with COVID-19 in a family cluster and assess the results of LAMP tests. The LAMP results of these children showed a sensitivity and specificity of 63.6% and 100%, respectively, that was relative to the RT-PCR results. LAMP tests using nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and RT-PCR were almost consistent throughout hospitalization in the school children, except in the very early stage of infection. The preliminary results suggest that salivary samples would be less sensitive than NPS for LAMP testing in the late stage of infection, and that LAMP would not provide accurate results in neonat...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kei Kubota Ken-Ichi Nagakura Motohiro Ebisawa Goro Kaneda Noriyuki Yanagida Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of Nocardia Species from Pulmonary Nocardiosis in a tertiary hospital in China
In conclusion, N. farcinica was the most frequently isolated Nocardia species in the First Hospital of Changsha. All isolated clinical Nocardia strains showed susceptible to amikacin, trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid, suggesting that these drugs can be primary therapeutic choices for treating Nocardia infections.PMID:34053953 | DOI:10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.1096 (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jun Li Hui Shen Ting Yu Xiao-Yan Tao Yong-Mei Hu Hai-Chen Wang Ming-Xiang Zou Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV for detection of Influenza and Respiratory syncytial virus
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.987. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTXpert Xpress Flu/RSV is a fast and automated real-time nucleic acid amplification tool for detecting influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV in detecting influenza virus and RSV. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched up to October 2020. The quality of original research was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 guidelines. Meta-DiSc 1.4 software was used to analyze the sensitivity, s...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ye-Ling Liu Tian-Ao Xie Geng-Ling Lin Wei Deng Qin-Rong Lin Zhi-Yong Pan Shu-Jin Fan Zhen-Xing Li Shi Ouyang Guo-Dong Zhu Tian-Xing Ji Li-Juan Wu Yong Xia Xu-Guang Guo Source Type: research

Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the west of Iran
This study was performed on 417 women who consisted of 109 spontaneous abortions, 109 normal deliveries, 100 fertilities and 99 infertile women. Specific primers were used and DNA was extracted by endocervical swabs; then a Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was done for detection of N. gonorrhoeae. Data analysis was carried out using Chi-Square Test and t-Test. In all of the above-said steps, a level of 5% was considered significant.The average age in women with normal delivery (27.8±4.87) in women with spontaneous abortion (29.6±5.9) in fertile women (32.1±5.1) and in infertile women were (29.1&plu...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amjad Ahmadi Atefeh Mousavi Himen Salimizand Manouchehr Ahmadi Hedayati Rashid Ramazanzadeh Fariba Farhadifar Mazaher Khodabandehloo Daem Roshani Arezou Taherpour Source Type: research

A pilot study of viral load in stools of patients with COVID-19 and diarrhea
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2021.018. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIt is known that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be detected in the stools of patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and that the virus can be transmitted by oral-fecal route. However, there are few reports on the viral load in stools. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in the stools of 13 patients with confirmed COVID-19 using as control the pepper mild mottle virus, which was proposed as a potential indicator of human fecal...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yutaro Akiyama Noriko Kinoshita Kenji Sadamasu Mami Nagashima Isao Yoshida Yusaku Kusaba Tetsuya Suzuki Maki Nagashima Masahiro Ishikane Jin Takasaki Kazuhisa Yoshimura Norio Ohmagari Source Type: research

Sensitivities and specificities of Anti-SARS CoV2 detection kits - comparison and agreement between fifteen assays
This study aimed to assess the validation of the serological assays based on different techniques. We evaluated fifteen assays based on four different immunoassay techniques on 235 patients. The most sensitive kit employing different techniques were as follows: immunochromatography (Zybio SARS CoV-2 IgM/IgG Antibody Assay Kit: 83%), ELISA (Aeskulisa SARS-CoV-2 NP IgG -88.1%), chemiluminescence (Alinity SARS-CoV-2 IgG - 82.2%) and immunofluorescence (Lifotronic FA160 [Shenzhen SARS-CoV-2 Assay Kit (IgG)] -88.9%). 100% specificity was seen in kits by Uniper (Singuway Biotec COVID-19 IgM/IgG Presumptive Kit), Genrui 2019-nCoV...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fatima Kanani Saba Jamal Saira Khowaja Bushra Kaleem Sabiha Anis Sundus Iftikhar Nazia Khursheed Naila Baig Ansari Source Type: research

Will Proton Pump Inhibitors Lead to a Higher Risk of COVID-19 Infection and Progression to Severe Disease? A Meta-analysis
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2021.074. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPrevious researches on the association between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) use and the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 has generated inconsistent findings. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the outcome in patients who take PPIs. Eight articles with more than 268,683 subjects were included. PPI use was not associated with increased or decreased risk of COVID-19 infection (OR:3.16, 95% CI=0.74-13.43, P=0.12) or mortality risk of COVID-19 patients (OR=1.91, 95% CI=0.86-4.24, P=0.11). While it can add risk...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cunye Yan Yue Chen Chenyu Sun Mubashir Ayaz Ahmed Chandur Bhan Zhichun Guo Hongru Yang Yijing Zuo Yue Yan Lei Hu Yiceng Sun Yao Li Qin Zhou Source Type: research

Blocking the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis in premature infants by combined disinfection method
This study aimed to determine the cause behind the outbreak of nosocomial adenoviral conjunctivitis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and the impact of infection control measures. The objectives of the present study include investigation of the hospital-borne infection associated with adenoviral conjunctivitis, analysis of the possible risk factors, setting bundle infection control measures, which were adjusted according to the control effect. The present study also aims to observe the effect of different intervention measures on controlling adenoviral conjunctivitis. During the first and second intervention perio...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xiaohua Wang Lu Lu Jin Miao Jian Ma Nana Wu Yun Cao Chuanqing Wang Source Type: research

Characterization of human anti-dengue NS1 monoclonal antibodies derived from Thai DENV2 patients
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.1071. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMouse antibodies specific to dengue NS1 have been widely studied for their cross-reactivity with several human molecules. This is the first cross-reactivity study of dengue NS1 specific human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), isolated from DENV2 infected patients. Nine anti-NS1 HuMAbs derived mainly from convalescent-phase patients with secondary DENV-2 infections were characterized. Their cross-reactivity with plasminogen, thrombin, and endothelial cells was investigated, and then plasmin-formation assays were performed. All anti...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Siriporn Kowaboot Wilarat Puangmanee Surachet Benjathummarak Khwanchit Boonha Urai Chaisri Pongrama Ramasoota Pannamthip Pitaksajjakul Source Type: research

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Two School Children and a Neonate
We report the test results of three children with COVID-19 in a family cluster and assess the results of LAMP tests. The LAMP results of these children showed a sensitivity and specificity of 63.6% and 100%, respectively, that was relative to the RT-PCR results. LAMP tests using nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and RT-PCR were almost consistent throughout hospitalization in the school children, except in the very early stage of infection. The preliminary results suggest that salivary samples would be less sensitive than NPS for LAMP testing in the late stage of infection, and that LAMP would not provide accurate results in neonat...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kei Kubota Ken-Ichi Nagakura Motohiro Ebisawa Goro Kaneda Noriyuki Yanagida Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of Nocardia Species from Pulmonary Nocardiosis in a tertiary hospital in China
In conclusion, N. farcinica was the most frequently isolated Nocardia species in the First Hospital of Changsha. All isolated clinical Nocardia strains showed susceptible to amikacin, trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid, suggesting that these drugs can be primary therapeutic choices for treating Nocardia infections.PMID:34053953 | DOI:10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.1096 (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jun Li Hui Shen Ting Yu Xiao-Yan Tao Yong-Mei Hu Hai-Chen Wang Ming-Xiang Zou Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV for detection of Influenza and Respiratory syncytial virus
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.987. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTXpert Xpress Flu/RSV is a fast and automated real-time nucleic acid amplification tool for detecting influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV in detecting influenza virus and RSV. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched up to October 2020. The quality of original research was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 guidelines. Meta-DiSc 1.4 software was used to analyze the sensitivity, s...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ye-Ling Liu Tian-Ao Xie Geng-Ling Lin Wei Deng Qin-Rong Lin Zhi-Yong Pan Shu-Jin Fan Zhen-Xing Li Shi Ouyang Guo-Dong Zhu Tian-Xing Ji Li-Juan Wu Yong Xia Xu-Guang Guo Source Type: research

Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the west of Iran
This study was performed on 417 women who consisted of 109 spontaneous abortions, 109 normal deliveries, 100 fertilities and 99 infertile women. Specific primers were used and DNA was extracted by endocervical swabs; then a Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was done for detection of N. gonorrhoeae. Data analysis was carried out using Chi-Square Test and t-Test. In all of the above-said steps, a level of 5% was considered significant.The average age in women with normal delivery (27.8±4.87) in women with spontaneous abortion (29.6±5.9) in fertile women (32.1±5.1) and in infertile women were (29.1&plu...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amjad Ahmadi Atefeh Mousavi Himen Salimizand Manouchehr Ahmadi Hedayati Rashid Ramazanzadeh Fariba Farhadifar Mazaher Khodabandehloo Daem Roshani Arezou Taherpour Source Type: research

A pilot study of viral load in stools of patients with COVID-19 and diarrhea
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2021.018. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIt is known that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be detected in the stools of patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and that the virus can be transmitted by oral-fecal route. However, there are few reports on the viral load in stools. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in the stools of 13 patients with confirmed COVID-19 using as control the pepper mild mottle virus, which was proposed as a potential indicator of human fecal...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yutaro Akiyama Noriko Kinoshita Kenji Sadamasu Mami Nagashima Isao Yoshida Yusaku Kusaba Tetsuya Suzuki Maki Nagashima Masahiro Ishikane Jin Takasaki Kazuhisa Yoshimura Norio Ohmagari Source Type: research

Sensitivities and specificities of Anti-SARS CoV2 detection kits - comparison and agreement between fifteen assays
This study aimed to assess the validation of the serological assays based on different techniques. We evaluated fifteen assays based on four different immunoassay techniques on 235 patients. The most sensitive kit employing different techniques were as follows: immunochromatography (Zybio SARS CoV-2 IgM/IgG Antibody Assay Kit: 83%), ELISA (Aeskulisa SARS-CoV-2 NP IgG -88.1%), chemiluminescence (Alinity SARS-CoV-2 IgG - 82.2%) and immunofluorescence (Lifotronic FA160 [Shenzhen SARS-CoV-2 Assay Kit (IgG)] -88.9%). 100% specificity was seen in kits by Uniper (Singuway Biotec COVID-19 IgM/IgG Presumptive Kit), Genrui 2019-nCoV...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fatima Kanani Saba Jamal Saira Khowaja Bushra Kaleem Sabiha Anis Sundus Iftikhar Nazia Khursheed Naila Baig Ansari Source Type: research

Will Proton Pump Inhibitors Lead to a Higher Risk of COVID-19 Infection and Progression to Severe Disease? A Meta-analysis
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2021.074. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPrevious researches on the association between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) use and the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 has generated inconsistent findings. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the outcome in patients who take PPIs. Eight articles with more than 268,683 subjects were included. PPI use was not associated with increased or decreased risk of COVID-19 infection (OR:3.16, 95% CI=0.74-13.43, P=0.12) or mortality risk of COVID-19 patients (OR=1.91, 95% CI=0.86-4.24, P=0.11). While it can add risk...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cunye Yan Yue Chen Chenyu Sun Mubashir Ayaz Ahmed Chandur Bhan Zhichun Guo Hongru Yang Yijing Zuo Yue Yan Lei Hu Yiceng Sun Yao Li Qin Zhou Source Type: research

Blocking the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis in premature infants by combined disinfection method
This study aimed to determine the cause behind the outbreak of nosocomial adenoviral conjunctivitis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and the impact of infection control measures. The objectives of the present study include investigation of the hospital-borne infection associated with adenoviral conjunctivitis, analysis of the possible risk factors, setting bundle infection control measures, which were adjusted according to the control effect. The present study also aims to observe the effect of different intervention measures on controlling adenoviral conjunctivitis. During the first and second intervention perio...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xiaohua Wang Lu Lu Jin Miao Jian Ma Nana Wu Yun Cao Chuanqing Wang Source Type: research

Characterization of human anti-dengue NS1 monoclonal antibodies derived from Thai DENV2 patients
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.1071. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMouse antibodies specific to dengue NS1 have been widely studied for their cross-reactivity with several human molecules. This is the first cross-reactivity study of dengue NS1 specific human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), isolated from DENV2 infected patients. Nine anti-NS1 HuMAbs derived mainly from convalescent-phase patients with secondary DENV-2 infections were characterized. Their cross-reactivity with plasminogen, thrombin, and endothelial cells was investigated, and then plasmin-formation assays were performed. All anti...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Siriporn Kowaboot Wilarat Puangmanee Surachet Benjathummarak Khwanchit Boonha Urai Chaisri Pongrama Ramasoota Pannamthip Pitaksajjakul Source Type: research

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Two School Children and a Neonate
We report the test results of three children with COVID-19 in a family cluster and assess the results of LAMP tests. The LAMP results of these children showed a sensitivity and specificity of 63.6% and 100%, respectively, that was relative to the RT-PCR results. LAMP tests using nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and RT-PCR were almost consistent throughout hospitalization in the school children, except in the very early stage of infection. The preliminary results suggest that salivary samples would be less sensitive than NPS for LAMP testing in the late stage of infection, and that LAMP would not provide accurate results in neonat...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kei Kubota Ken-Ichi Nagakura Motohiro Ebisawa Goro Kaneda Noriyuki Yanagida Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of Nocardia Species from Pulmonary Nocardiosis in a tertiary hospital in China
In conclusion, N. farcinica was the most frequently isolated Nocardia species in the First Hospital of Changsha. All isolated clinical Nocardia strains showed susceptible to amikacin, trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid, suggesting that these drugs can be primary therapeutic choices for treating Nocardia infections.PMID:34053953 | DOI:10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.1096 (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jun Li Hui Shen Ting Yu Xiao-Yan Tao Yong-Mei Hu Hai-Chen Wang Ming-Xiang Zou Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV for detection of Influenza and Respiratory syncytial virus
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.987. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTXpert Xpress Flu/RSV is a fast and automated real-time nucleic acid amplification tool for detecting influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV in detecting influenza virus and RSV. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched up to October 2020. The quality of original research was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 guidelines. Meta-DiSc 1.4 software was used to analyze the sensitivity, s...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ye-Ling Liu Tian-Ao Xie Geng-Ling Lin Wei Deng Qin-Rong Lin Zhi-Yong Pan Shu-Jin Fan Zhen-Xing Li Shi Ouyang Guo-Dong Zhu Tian-Xing Ji Li-Juan Wu Yong Xia Xu-Guang Guo Source Type: research

Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the west of Iran
This study was performed on 417 women who consisted of 109 spontaneous abortions, 109 normal deliveries, 100 fertilities and 99 infertile women. Specific primers were used and DNA was extracted by endocervical swabs; then a Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was done for detection of N. gonorrhoeae. Data analysis was carried out using Chi-Square Test and t-Test. In all of the above-said steps, a level of 5% was considered significant.The average age in women with normal delivery (27.8±4.87) in women with spontaneous abortion (29.6±5.9) in fertile women (32.1±5.1) and in infertile women were (29.1&plu...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amjad Ahmadi Atefeh Mousavi Himen Salimizand Manouchehr Ahmadi Hedayati Rashid Ramazanzadeh Fariba Farhadifar Mazaher Khodabandehloo Daem Roshani Arezou Taherpour Source Type: research

A pilot study of viral load in stools of patients with COVID-19 and diarrhea
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2021.018. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIt is known that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be detected in the stools of patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and that the virus can be transmitted by oral-fecal route. However, there are few reports on the viral load in stools. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in the stools of 13 patients with confirmed COVID-19 using as control the pepper mild mottle virus, which was proposed as a potential indicator of human fecal...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yutaro Akiyama Noriko Kinoshita Kenji Sadamasu Mami Nagashima Isao Yoshida Yusaku Kusaba Tetsuya Suzuki Maki Nagashima Masahiro Ishikane Jin Takasaki Kazuhisa Yoshimura Norio Ohmagari Source Type: research

Sensitivities and specificities of Anti-SARS CoV2 detection kits - comparison and agreement between fifteen assays
This study aimed to assess the validation of the serological assays based on different techniques. We evaluated fifteen assays based on four different immunoassay techniques on 235 patients. The most sensitive kit employing different techniques were as follows: immunochromatography (Zybio SARS CoV-2 IgM/IgG Antibody Assay Kit: 83%), ELISA (Aeskulisa SARS-CoV-2 NP IgG -88.1%), chemiluminescence (Alinity SARS-CoV-2 IgG - 82.2%) and immunofluorescence (Lifotronic FA160 [Shenzhen SARS-CoV-2 Assay Kit (IgG)] -88.9%). 100% specificity was seen in kits by Uniper (Singuway Biotec COVID-19 IgM/IgG Presumptive Kit), Genrui 2019-nCoV...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fatima Kanani Saba Jamal Saira Khowaja Bushra Kaleem Sabiha Anis Sundus Iftikhar Nazia Khursheed Naila Baig Ansari Source Type: research

Will Proton Pump Inhibitors Lead to a Higher Risk of COVID-19 Infection and Progression to Severe Disease? A Meta-analysis
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2021.074. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPrevious researches on the association between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) use and the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 has generated inconsistent findings. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the outcome in patients who take PPIs. Eight articles with more than 268,683 subjects were included. PPI use was not associated with increased or decreased risk of COVID-19 infection (OR:3.16, 95% CI=0.74-13.43, P=0.12) or mortality risk of COVID-19 patients (OR=1.91, 95% CI=0.86-4.24, P=0.11). While it can add risk...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cunye Yan Yue Chen Chenyu Sun Mubashir Ayaz Ahmed Chandur Bhan Zhichun Guo Hongru Yang Yijing Zuo Yue Yan Lei Hu Yiceng Sun Yao Li Qin Zhou Source Type: research

Blocking the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis in premature infants by combined disinfection method
This study aimed to determine the cause behind the outbreak of nosocomial adenoviral conjunctivitis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and the impact of infection control measures. The objectives of the present study include investigation of the hospital-borne infection associated with adenoviral conjunctivitis, analysis of the possible risk factors, setting bundle infection control measures, which were adjusted according to the control effect. The present study also aims to observe the effect of different intervention measures on controlling adenoviral conjunctivitis. During the first and second intervention perio...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xiaohua Wang Lu Lu Jin Miao Jian Ma Nana Wu Yun Cao Chuanqing Wang Source Type: research

Characterization of human anti-dengue NS1 monoclonal antibodies derived from Thai DENV2 patients
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.1071. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMouse antibodies specific to dengue NS1 have been widely studied for their cross-reactivity with several human molecules. This is the first cross-reactivity study of dengue NS1 specific human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), isolated from DENV2 infected patients. Nine anti-NS1 HuMAbs derived mainly from convalescent-phase patients with secondary DENV-2 infections were characterized. Their cross-reactivity with plasminogen, thrombin, and endothelial cells was investigated, and then plasmin-formation assays were performed. All anti...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Siriporn Kowaboot Wilarat Puangmanee Surachet Benjathummarak Khwanchit Boonha Urai Chaisri Pongrama Ramasoota Pannamthip Pitaksajjakul Source Type: research

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Two School Children and a Neonate
We report the test results of three children with COVID-19 in a family cluster and assess the results of LAMP tests. The LAMP results of these children showed a sensitivity and specificity of 63.6% and 100%, respectively, that was relative to the RT-PCR results. LAMP tests using nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and RT-PCR were almost consistent throughout hospitalization in the school children, except in the very early stage of infection. The preliminary results suggest that salivary samples would be less sensitive than NPS for LAMP testing in the late stage of infection, and that LAMP would not provide accurate results in neonat...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kei Kubota Ken-Ichi Nagakura Motohiro Ebisawa Goro Kaneda Noriyuki Yanagida Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of Nocardia Species from Pulmonary Nocardiosis in a tertiary hospital in China
In conclusion, N. farcinica was the most frequently isolated Nocardia species in the First Hospital of Changsha. All isolated clinical Nocardia strains showed susceptible to amikacin, trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid, suggesting that these drugs can be primary therapeutic choices for treating Nocardia infections.PMID:34053953 | DOI:10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.1096 (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jun Li Hui Shen Ting Yu Xiao-Yan Tao Yong-Mei Hu Hai-Chen Wang Ming-Xiang Zou Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV for detection of Influenza and Respiratory syncytial virus
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.987. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTXpert Xpress Flu/RSV is a fast and automated real-time nucleic acid amplification tool for detecting influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV in detecting influenza virus and RSV. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched up to October 2020. The quality of original research was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 guidelines. Meta-DiSc 1.4 software was used to analyze the sensitivity, s...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ye-Ling Liu Tian-Ao Xie Geng-Ling Lin Wei Deng Qin-Rong Lin Zhi-Yong Pan Shu-Jin Fan Zhen-Xing Li Shi Ouyang Guo-Dong Zhu Tian-Xing Ji Li-Juan Wu Yong Xia Xu-Guang Guo Source Type: research

Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the west of Iran
This study was performed on 417 women who consisted of 109 spontaneous abortions, 109 normal deliveries, 100 fertilities and 99 infertile women. Specific primers were used and DNA was extracted by endocervical swabs; then a Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was done for detection of N. gonorrhoeae. Data analysis was carried out using Chi-Square Test and t-Test. In all of the above-said steps, a level of 5% was considered significant.The average age in women with normal delivery (27.8±4.87) in women with spontaneous abortion (29.6±5.9) in fertile women (32.1±5.1) and in infertile women were (29.1&plu...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amjad Ahmadi Atefeh Mousavi Himen Salimizand Manouchehr Ahmadi Hedayati Rashid Ramazanzadeh Fariba Farhadifar Mazaher Khodabandehloo Daem Roshani Arezou Taherpour Source Type: research

A pilot study of viral load in stools of patients with COVID-19 and diarrhea
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2021.018. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIt is known that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be detected in the stools of patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and that the virus can be transmitted by oral-fecal route. However, there are few reports on the viral load in stools. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in the stools of 13 patients with confirmed COVID-19 using as control the pepper mild mottle virus, which was proposed as a potential indicator of human fecal...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yutaro Akiyama Noriko Kinoshita Kenji Sadamasu Mami Nagashima Isao Yoshida Yusaku Kusaba Tetsuya Suzuki Maki Nagashima Masahiro Ishikane Jin Takasaki Kazuhisa Yoshimura Norio Ohmagari Source Type: research

Sensitivities and specificities of Anti-SARS CoV2 detection kits - comparison and agreement between fifteen assays
This study aimed to assess the validation of the serological assays based on different techniques. We evaluated fifteen assays based on four different immunoassay techniques on 235 patients. The most sensitive kit employing different techniques were as follows: immunochromatography (Zybio SARS CoV-2 IgM/IgG Antibody Assay Kit: 83%), ELISA (Aeskulisa SARS-CoV-2 NP IgG -88.1%), chemiluminescence (Alinity SARS-CoV-2 IgG - 82.2%) and immunofluorescence (Lifotronic FA160 [Shenzhen SARS-CoV-2 Assay Kit (IgG)] -88.9%). 100% specificity was seen in kits by Uniper (Singuway Biotec COVID-19 IgM/IgG Presumptive Kit), Genrui 2019-nCoV...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fatima Kanani Saba Jamal Saira Khowaja Bushra Kaleem Sabiha Anis Sundus Iftikhar Nazia Khursheed Naila Baig Ansari Source Type: research

Will Proton Pump Inhibitors Lead to a Higher Risk of COVID-19 Infection and Progression to Severe Disease? A Meta-analysis
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2021.074. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPrevious researches on the association between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) use and the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 has generated inconsistent findings. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the outcome in patients who take PPIs. Eight articles with more than 268,683 subjects were included. PPI use was not associated with increased or decreased risk of COVID-19 infection (OR:3.16, 95% CI=0.74-13.43, P=0.12) or mortality risk of COVID-19 patients (OR=1.91, 95% CI=0.86-4.24, P=0.11). While it can add risk...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cunye Yan Yue Chen Chenyu Sun Mubashir Ayaz Ahmed Chandur Bhan Zhichun Guo Hongru Yang Yijing Zuo Yue Yan Lei Hu Yiceng Sun Yao Li Qin Zhou Source Type: research

Blocking the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis in premature infants by combined disinfection method
This study aimed to determine the cause behind the outbreak of nosocomial adenoviral conjunctivitis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and the impact of infection control measures. The objectives of the present study include investigation of the hospital-borne infection associated with adenoviral conjunctivitis, analysis of the possible risk factors, setting bundle infection control measures, which were adjusted according to the control effect. The present study also aims to observe the effect of different intervention measures on controlling adenoviral conjunctivitis. During the first and second intervention perio...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xiaohua Wang Lu Lu Jin Miao Jian Ma Nana Wu Yun Cao Chuanqing Wang Source Type: research

Characterization of human anti-dengue NS1 monoclonal antibodies derived from Thai DENV2 patients
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.1071. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMouse antibodies specific to dengue NS1 have been widely studied for their cross-reactivity with several human molecules. This is the first cross-reactivity study of dengue NS1 specific human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), isolated from DENV2 infected patients. Nine anti-NS1 HuMAbs derived mainly from convalescent-phase patients with secondary DENV-2 infections were characterized. Their cross-reactivity with plasminogen, thrombin, and endothelial cells was investigated, and then plasmin-formation assays were performed. All anti...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Siriporn Kowaboot Wilarat Puangmanee Surachet Benjathummarak Khwanchit Boonha Urai Chaisri Pongrama Ramasoota Pannamthip Pitaksajjakul Source Type: research

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Two School Children and a Neonate
We report the test results of three children with COVID-19 in a family cluster and assess the results of LAMP tests. The LAMP results of these children showed a sensitivity and specificity of 63.6% and 100%, respectively, that was relative to the RT-PCR results. LAMP tests using nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and RT-PCR were almost consistent throughout hospitalization in the school children, except in the very early stage of infection. The preliminary results suggest that salivary samples would be less sensitive than NPS for LAMP testing in the late stage of infection, and that LAMP would not provide accurate results in neonat...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kei Kubota Ken-Ichi Nagakura Motohiro Ebisawa Goro Kaneda Noriyuki Yanagida Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of Nocardia Species from Pulmonary Nocardiosis in a tertiary hospital in China
In conclusion, N. farcinica was the most frequently isolated Nocardia species in the First Hospital of Changsha. All isolated clinical Nocardia strains showed susceptible to amikacin, trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid, suggesting that these drugs can be primary therapeutic choices for treating Nocardia infections.PMID:34053953 | DOI:10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.1096 (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jun Li Hui Shen Ting Yu Xiao-Yan Tao Yong-Mei Hu Hai-Chen Wang Ming-Xiang Zou Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV for detection of Influenza and Respiratory syncytial virus
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.987. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTXpert Xpress Flu/RSV is a fast and automated real-time nucleic acid amplification tool for detecting influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV in detecting influenza virus and RSV. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched up to October 2020. The quality of original research was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 guidelines. Meta-DiSc 1.4 software was used to analyze the sensitivity, s...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ye-Ling Liu Tian-Ao Xie Geng-Ling Lin Wei Deng Qin-Rong Lin Zhi-Yong Pan Shu-Jin Fan Zhen-Xing Li Shi Ouyang Guo-Dong Zhu Tian-Xing Ji Li-Juan Wu Yong Xia Xu-Guang Guo Source Type: research

Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the west of Iran
This study was performed on 417 women who consisted of 109 spontaneous abortions, 109 normal deliveries, 100 fertilities and 99 infertile women. Specific primers were used and DNA was extracted by endocervical swabs; then a Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was done for detection of N. gonorrhoeae. Data analysis was carried out using Chi-Square Test and t-Test. In all of the above-said steps, a level of 5% was considered significant.The average age in women with normal delivery (27.8±4.87) in women with spontaneous abortion (29.6±5.9) in fertile women (32.1±5.1) and in infertile women were (29.1&plu...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amjad Ahmadi Atefeh Mousavi Himen Salimizand Manouchehr Ahmadi Hedayati Rashid Ramazanzadeh Fariba Farhadifar Mazaher Khodabandehloo Daem Roshani Arezou Taherpour Source Type: research

A pilot study of viral load in stools of patients with COVID-19 and diarrhea
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2021.018. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIt is known that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can be detected in the stools of patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and that the virus can be transmitted by oral-fecal route. However, there are few reports on the viral load in stools. This pilot study aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and viral load of SARS-CoV-2 in the stools of 13 patients with confirmed COVID-19 using as control the pepper mild mottle virus, which was proposed as a potential indicator of human fecal...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yutaro Akiyama Noriko Kinoshita Kenji Sadamasu Mami Nagashima Isao Yoshida Yusaku Kusaba Tetsuya Suzuki Maki Nagashima Masahiro Ishikane Jin Takasaki Kazuhisa Yoshimura Norio Ohmagari Source Type: research

Sensitivities and specificities of Anti-SARS CoV2 detection kits - comparison and agreement between fifteen assays
This study aimed to assess the validation of the serological assays based on different techniques. We evaluated fifteen assays based on four different immunoassay techniques on 235 patients. The most sensitive kit employing different techniques were as follows: immunochromatography (Zybio SARS CoV-2 IgM/IgG Antibody Assay Kit: 83%), ELISA (Aeskulisa SARS-CoV-2 NP IgG -88.1%), chemiluminescence (Alinity SARS-CoV-2 IgG - 82.2%) and immunofluorescence (Lifotronic FA160 [Shenzhen SARS-CoV-2 Assay Kit (IgG)] -88.9%). 100% specificity was seen in kits by Uniper (Singuway Biotec COVID-19 IgM/IgG Presumptive Kit), Genrui 2019-nCoV...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fatima Kanani Saba Jamal Saira Khowaja Bushra Kaleem Sabiha Anis Sundus Iftikhar Nazia Khursheed Naila Baig Ansari Source Type: research

Will Proton Pump Inhibitors Lead to a Higher Risk of COVID-19 Infection and Progression to Severe Disease? A Meta-analysis
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2021.074. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPrevious researches on the association between proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) use and the treatment and prevention of COVID-19 has generated inconsistent findings. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the outcome in patients who take PPIs. Eight articles with more than 268,683 subjects were included. PPI use was not associated with increased or decreased risk of COVID-19 infection (OR:3.16, 95% CI=0.74-13.43, P=0.12) or mortality risk of COVID-19 patients (OR=1.91, 95% CI=0.86-4.24, P=0.11). While it can add risk...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cunye Yan Yue Chen Chenyu Sun Mubashir Ayaz Ahmed Chandur Bhan Zhichun Guo Hongru Yang Yijing Zuo Yue Yan Lei Hu Yiceng Sun Yao Li Qin Zhou Source Type: research

Blocking the prevalence of adenoviral conjunctivitis in premature infants by combined disinfection method
This study aimed to determine the cause behind the outbreak of nosocomial adenoviral conjunctivitis in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) and the impact of infection control measures. The objectives of the present study include investigation of the hospital-borne infection associated with adenoviral conjunctivitis, analysis of the possible risk factors, setting bundle infection control measures, which were adjusted according to the control effect. The present study also aims to observe the effect of different intervention measures on controlling adenoviral conjunctivitis. During the first and second intervention perio...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xiaohua Wang Lu Lu Jin Miao Jian Ma Nana Wu Yun Cao Chuanqing Wang Source Type: research

Characterization of human anti-dengue NS1 monoclonal antibodies derived from Thai DENV2 patients
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.1071. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTMouse antibodies specific to dengue NS1 have been widely studied for their cross-reactivity with several human molecules. This is the first cross-reactivity study of dengue NS1 specific human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), isolated from DENV2 infected patients. Nine anti-NS1 HuMAbs derived mainly from convalescent-phase patients with secondary DENV-2 infections were characterized. Their cross-reactivity with plasminogen, thrombin, and endothelial cells was investigated, and then plasmin-formation assays were performed. All anti...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Siriporn Kowaboot Wilarat Puangmanee Surachet Benjathummarak Khwanchit Boonha Urai Chaisri Pongrama Ramasoota Pannamthip Pitaksajjakul Source Type: research

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosing SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Two School Children and a Neonate
We report the test results of three children with COVID-19 in a family cluster and assess the results of LAMP tests. The LAMP results of these children showed a sensitivity and specificity of 63.6% and 100%, respectively, that was relative to the RT-PCR results. LAMP tests using nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) and RT-PCR were almost consistent throughout hospitalization in the school children, except in the very early stage of infection. The preliminary results suggest that salivary samples would be less sensitive than NPS for LAMP testing in the late stage of infection, and that LAMP would not provide accurate results in neonat...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kei Kubota Ken-Ichi Nagakura Motohiro Ebisawa Goro Kaneda Noriyuki Yanagida Source Type: research

Isolation and Characterization of Nocardia Species from Pulmonary Nocardiosis in a tertiary hospital in China
In conclusion, N. farcinica was the most frequently isolated Nocardia species in the First Hospital of Changsha. All isolated clinical Nocardia strains showed susceptible to amikacin, trimethoprim / sulfamethoxazole, and linezolid, suggesting that these drugs can be primary therapeutic choices for treating Nocardia infections.PMID:34053953 | DOI:10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.1096 (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jun Li Hui Shen Ting Yu Xiao-Yan Tao Yong-Mei Hu Hai-Chen Wang Ming-Xiang Zou Source Type: research

Diagnostic accuracy of Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV for detection of Influenza and Respiratory syncytial virus
Jpn J Infect Dis. 2021 May 31. doi: 10.7883/yoken.JJID.2020.987. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTXpert Xpress Flu/RSV is a fast and automated real-time nucleic acid amplification tool for detecting influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The aim of this study was to verify the accuracy of Xpert Xpress Flu/RSV in detecting influenza virus and RSV. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were searched up to October 2020. The quality of original research was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 guidelines. Meta-DiSc 1.4 software was used to analyze the sensitivity, s...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ye-Ling Liu Tian-Ao Xie Geng-Ling Lin Wei Deng Qin-Rong Lin Zhi-Yong Pan Shu-Jin Fan Zhen-Xing Li Shi Ouyang Guo-Dong Zhu Tian-Xing Ji Li-Juan Wu Yong Xia Xu-Guang Guo Source Type: research

Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the west of Iran
This study was performed on 417 women who consisted of 109 spontaneous abortions, 109 normal deliveries, 100 fertilities and 99 infertile women. Specific primers were used and DNA was extracted by endocervical swabs; then a Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test was done for detection of N. gonorrhoeae. Data analysis was carried out using Chi-Square Test and t-Test. In all of the above-said steps, a level of 5% was considered significant.The average age in women with normal delivery (27.8±4.87) in women with spontaneous abortion (29.6±5.9) in fertile women (32.1±5.1) and in infertile women were (29.1&plu...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 31, 2021 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Amjad Ahmadi Atefeh Mousavi Himen Salimizand Manouchehr Ahmadi Hedayati Rashid Ramazanzadeh Fariba Farhadifar Mazaher Khodabandehloo Daem Roshani Arezou Taherpour Source Type: research