Report of relapse typhoid fever cases from Kolkata, India: Recrudescence or Reinfection?
Abstract Three relapse cases out of 107 hospital attending typhoid cases within a period of 2 years (2014-2016) from Apollo Geneagles hospital, Kolkata, India were reported. Of three cases, two were treated with ceftriaxone for 7 days and one was for 14 days in the first episode of typhoid fever. Six Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) isolates, obtained from three patients in both the episodes, were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST), detection of QRDR mutation and molecular subtyping by PFGE, MLVA, MLST, CRISPR and H58 haplotyping. Pairs of the S. Typhi strains isolated from each of the two patients du...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Samajpati S, Das S, Ray U, Dutta S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis cases resulting from adenovirus type 8 and 54 detected at Fukuoka University Hospital between 2014 and 2015.
PMID: 29709978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tsukahara-Kawamura T, Fujimoto T, Gonzalez G, Hanaoka N, Konagaya M, Arashiro T, Saeki Y, Uchio E Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular evidence of Chandipura virus from sandflies   Sergentomyia spp  in Gujarat, India.
Molecular evidence of Chandipura virus from sandflies  Sergentomyia spp  in Gujarat, India. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 27;: Authors: Damle RG, Sankararaman V, Bhide VS, Jadhav VK, Walimbe AM, Gokhale MD Abstract The spread and establishment of Chandipura virus (CHPV) infection in India has raised serious epidemiological concerns. Virus interface with the vertebrate hosts, humans and vector competence are the important parameters of disease prevalence. Interestingly, in the present study a highly zoophilic species of sandfly Sergentomyia is emerging as a potential vector of CHPV in Gujarat. I...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Damle RG, Sankararaman V, Bhide VS, Jadhav VK, Walimbe AM, Gokhale MD Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

On case-fatality rate: H7N9 influenza resurgence in China in 2017.
PMID: 29709980 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase and underestimation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase in cefepime-susceptible, elevated-ceftazidime-MIC Enterobacteriaceae isolates.
Plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamase and underestimation of extended-spectrum β-lactamase in cefepime-susceptible, elevated-ceftazidime-MIC Enterobacteriaceae isolates. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2018 Apr 27;: Authors: Nishimura F, Morinaga Y, Akamatsu N, Matsuda J, Kaku N, Takeda K, Uno N, Kosai K, Hasegawa H, Yanagihara K Abstract Phenotypic detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) is important for public health and infection control; however, plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (pAmpCs) can interfere with the ESBL-phenotyping. We focused on Enterobacteriaceae strains which were susc...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nishimura F, Morinaga Y, Akamatsu N, Matsuda J, Kaku N, Takeda K, Uno N, Kosai K, Hasegawa H, Yanagihara K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Performance of Genotypic Tropism Determination on HIV-1 CRF01_AE Isolates in Japan.
PMID: 29709982 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matsuda M, Louvel S, Sugiura W, Haas A, Pfeifer N, Yokomaku Y, Iwatani Y, Kaiser R, Klimkait T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Low seroprevalence of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus antibodies in individuals living in an endemic area of Japan.
Abstract Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a tick-borne infectious disease with a high rate of mortality. It is caused by the SFTS virus (SFTSV). SFTS is endemic to western Japan, including the Kagoshima prefecture. Here, healthy persons living in Kagoshima prefecture were examined to assess the anti-SFTSV seroprevalence. An initial study was performed using serum samples collected from a total of 646 persons living in Kagoshima. At the same time, a questionnaire was used to collect information (occupation and history of being bitten by tick). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an indirec...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gokuden M, Fukushi S, Saijo M, Nakadouzono F, Iwamoto Y, Yamamoto M, Hozumi N, Nakayama K, Ishitani K, Nishi N, Ootsubo M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Protobothrops flavoviridis   hemorrhagic metalloproteinase HR2 is inhibited by human alpha 2-macroglobulin.
In this study, we investigated the interaction between the hemorrhagic metalloproteinases HR1 and HR2 from habu venom and human α2-macroglobulin. Hemorrhagic activity of HR2 was completely inhibited by human α2-macroglobulin. However, the hemorrhagic activity of the large molecule HR1a was not inhibited. Size exclusion chromatography revealed that human α2-macroglobulin captured the HR2 molecule and formed a complex with it, thus inhibiting hemorrhagic activity. These results suggest that human α2-macroglobulin plays an important role in the inhibition of hemorrhage induced by HR2 from habu venom. ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Morine N, Matsuda S, Izumi Y, Oshiro A, Kudaka J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Use of Electric Toilet Seats with Water Spray Is Efficacious in Maintaining Hand Hygiene in Experimental Model.
Abstract A simulatory experiment was conducted to examine the hand contamination from wiping the buttocks after using or not using an electric toilet seat with water spray. A model of the buttocks was smeared with diarrheal feces artificially made containing Serratia marcescens, and wiped by the participants wearing plastic gloves with 4 sheets of toilet paper using the water spray of electric seat or not. Subsequently, the presence of S. marcescens on the surfaces of the gloves were quantitated. The mean count ± standard deviation of S. marcescens when using the water spray and not using were 0.067±...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oie S, Aoshika H, Arita E, Kamiya A Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Emergence of new recombinant noroviruses GII.P16-GII.2 and GII.P16-GII.4 in Aichi, Japan, during the 2016/17 season.
PMID: 29709986 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hata M, Nakamura N, Kobayashi S, Onouchi A, Saito T, Hirose E, Adachi H, Saito N, Ito M, Yasui Y, Matsumoto M, Minagawa H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Administrative Laboratory Findings for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus A (H5N6) in Individuals Engaged in a Mass Culling of Poultry, Hokkaido, Japan, 2016.
PMID: 29709987 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Miyoshi M, Komagome R, Yamaguchi H, Ishida S, Nagano H, Ohnishi A, Kikuchi M, Hamaya K, Shimada K, Fukami M, Shimada H, Ohara T, Okano M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

First molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of   Anaplasma  phagocytophilum  from a clinical case of canine granulocytic anaplasmosis in Japan.
This report is the first phylogenetic study on A. phagocytophilum from a CGA case in Japan. PMID: 29709988 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fukui Y, Ohkawa S, Inokuma H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Congenital cytomegalovirus pneumonitis and treatment response evaluation using viral load during ganciclovir therapy: a case report.
We report a female case of congenital CMV infectionpresenting with pneumonitis, meningoencephalitis, and chorioretinitis. She was treated with intravenous ganciclovir for 6 weeks, and clinical featuresimproved. Measurement of the CMV genome load by real-time PCR assay was performedduring treatment. After administration of ganciclovir, CMV genome was notdetected in blood and decreased gradually in urine. Physicians should consider the possibility of congenital CMV infection in neonates who present with respiratory distress. Furthermore, measurement of the CMV genome load in blood and urine may be useful for evaluating treat...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lee M, Goishi K, Torii Y, Ito Y, Ono H, Mori T, Kashiwa N, Hosokawa S, Shichino H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Human parechovirus infection in children in Taiwan: a retrospective, single-hospital study.
Abstract To understand human parechovirus (HPeV) infections in Taiwanese children, we analyzed data for 112 children (age ≤ 10 years) with HPeV infection diagnosed from July 2007 to June 2016 in a medical centre in Kaohsiung, southern Taiwan. Infection was with HPeV1 (n=94), HPeV3 (n=3), HPeV4 (n=3), HPeV6 (n=1) and non-typeable HPeV (n=11). We compared the clinical implication for children younger than 3 months (n=56) and 3 months and older (n=31), excluding the 25 children with concomitant infection. Fever was noted in almost half of the children younger than 3 months but was more frequent in older than young...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chang JT, Chen YS, Chen BC, Huang TS, Chang TH Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Population size dependency of measles epidemic that was scalable from Japanese prefectures to European countries.
Abstract Relation between number of measles patients (y) and population size (x) was expressed by an equation y = axs, where a is a constant and s the slope of the plot; s was 2.04-2.17 for prefectures in Japan, i.e., the number of patients was proportional to square of the prefecture population size. For European countries that joined European Union no later than 2009, the slope was 1.43-1.87. The measles' population dependency found among prefectures in Japan was thus scalable up to European countries. It was surprising because, unlike Japan, population density in EU countries was not uniform and not proportiona...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Characterization of Virucidal Activities of Chlorous Acid.
Abstract Virucidal effects of chlorous acid on enveloped and non-enveloped viruses were characterized. The virucidal activity was prominent against the enveloped viruses. However, some viruses among non-enveloped viruses, such as human rhinovirus and feline calicivirus, showed significant sensitivity to the reagent while the other, poliovirus and coxsackievirus, showed weak sensitivity, suggesting the presence of two classes of sensitivity among non-enveloped viruses against the reagent. In addition, characterization of the mode of inactivation by the reagent revealed that this inactivation of virus is strongly de...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - April 27, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Goda H, Ikeda K, Nishide M, Nagao T, Koyama AH Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A 47-year-old Filipina with Taenia Asiatica as the Imported Infection in Japan: A case report.
PMID: 29491231 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Namikawa H, Takemoto Y, Shimazaki I, Makuuchi A, Kobayashi M, Kinuhata S, Yamada K, Fujimoto H, Toyoda H, Kamata N, Tochino Y, Teramoto I, Abe N, Morimura M, Kakeya H, Shuto T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of Trichophyton tonsurans, the causative dermatophyte of the epidemic of tinea gladiatorum in Japan between 2011 and 2015.
Abstract Trichophyton tonsurans, a major pathogen of tinea capitis and tinea corporis, has been isolated from players of contact sports in Japan. To understand the contemporary epidemic in Japan, the molecular types of 208 strains isolated between 2011 and 2015 were determined. Of these, 142 were isolated from practitioners of judo, 28 from wrestlers, seven from sumo wrestlers, and 31 from individuals with unknown backgrounds. Based on length polymorphisms of the non-transcribed spacer (NTS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene, these 208 strains could be divided into three subtypes, NTS I(204; 98.1%), II (three; 1.4%...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sakata Y, Ushigami T, Anzawa K, Mochizuki T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Characterization of in vitro expanded virus-specific T cells toward adoptive immunotherapy against virus infection.
In this study, we developed a T cell epitope mapping system for 718 overlapping peptides spanning 6 viral proteins from three viruses (pp65 and IE1 from CMV; LMP1, EBNA1 and BZLF1 from EBV; Penton from AdV). PBMCs from 33 healthy Japanese donors were stimulated with these peptides and virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell were expanded in vitro in the presence of IL4 and IL7. A median of 13 (min-max, 2-46) peptides was recognized in the cohort. Both fresh and cryopreserved PBMCs were used for in vitro expansion, and the expansion and the breadth of T cell responses were not significantly different between them. We assessed v...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ono T, Fujita Y, Matano T, Takahashi S, Morio T, Kawana-Tachikawa A Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clinical evaluation of hepatocarcinogenesis and outcome using a novel glycobiomarker Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein (WFA+-M2BP) in chronic hepatitis C with advanced fibrosis.
This study aimed to assess the association between the serum glycobiomarker Wisteria floribunda agglutinin-positive Mac-2 binding protein (WFA+-M2BP) for liver fibrosis and outcomes and carcinogenesis (HCC) in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with advanced fibrosis. Serum WFA+-M2BP levels were measured in 128 consecutive CHC patients including 49 HCC histopathologically diagnosed with advanced fibrosis (F3; 44, F4; 84) in our hospital. The median WFA+-M2BP level was significantly higher in F4 than F3 patients (6.9 vs 2.3 C.O.I., respectively; p
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Inoue T, Tsuzuki Y, Iio E, Shinkai N, Matsunami K, Fujiwara K, Matsuura K, Nojiri S, Tanaka Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Infection control following an outbreak of extended-spectrum broad-spectrum lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from catheter-associated urinary tract infection.
We present our experience controlling outbreaks of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria in catheter-associated urinary tract infection and our measures for preventing recurrence of outbreaks. In June 2015, 9 out of 44 hospitalized patients in the same ward had positive urine culture with antibiotic-resistant bacteria, including ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae belonging to the same cluster, indicating a localized outbreak. The environmental tests detected resistant strains at 1,000 colony forming units/cm2 or more in 8 out of 10 tests. After an outbreak, we undertook periodic monitoring by active ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ikeda Y, Shigemura K, Nomi M, Tabata C, Kitagawa K, Arakawa S, Fujisawa M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Human Infection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Inner Mongolia, China.
Abstract Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an obligate intracellular bacterium and causes febrile illness in humans and livestock. A 49-year-old woman was suffering from feverish symptom, fatigue, arthralgia, general body pain, and anorexia for 2 weeks. Later, she visited Bayan Nur Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Hospital in Inner Mongolia, China. Molecular-based diagnostic analysis of the patient's blood revealed that A. phagocytophilum p44 DNA was positive, but Brucella omp31, spotted fever group Rickettsia gltA, Orientia tsutsugamushi 16S rDNA, and Ehrlichia p28 were negative. The amino acid sequences of ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gaowa, Wulantuya, Yin X, Cao M, Guo S, Ding C, Yuhua L, Jianchang L, Kawabata H, Ando S, Su H, Shimada M, Takamoto N, Shimamura Y, Masuda S, Ohashi N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Venom and antivenom of redback spider (Latrodectus hasseltii) in Japan.
Abstract In September 1995 it was reported that the redback spider (Latrodectus hasseltii Thorell) had invaded Japan. To date 84 redback spider bite cases have been reported, and of these, seven employed the antivenom. In the past, antivenom have been imported from Australia, but because of restrictions on exportation thereof it was evident that nearly all of the antivenom present in Japan would expire during 2014. In 2014 a plan was proposed to experimentally manufacture and stockpile a horse antiserum for ourselves, employing redback spiders indigenous to Japan. A total of 11,403 female spiders were captured ali...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matsumura T, Mashiko R, Sato T, Itokawa K, Maekawa Y, Ogawa K, Isawa H, Yamamoto A, Mori S, Horita A, Ginnaga A, Miyatsu Y, Takahashi M, Taki H, Hifumi T, Sawabe K, Ato M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Isolation rate of Neisseria meningitidis in Japanese children with respiratory tract infections.
In this study, we detected a low meningococcal isolation rate in paediatric patients. Due to increasing globalisation, the risk of invasive meningococcal disease is likely increasing in Japan. Accordingly, invasive meningococcal diseases should be continuously monitored in Japan. Future large scale studies should assess meningococcal isolation rates and corresponding serogroups. PMID: 29491238 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Takei H, Ishiwada N, Takeuchi N, Ohkusu M, Hoshino T, Murata S, Sato H, Abe K, Shizuno K, Hishiki H, Shimojo N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The trends of human coronaviruses in Yamagata, Japan, in 2015 to 2016: Occurrence of OC43 outbreak in June 2016.
PMID: 29491239 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matoba Y, Aoki Y, Tanaka S, Unno M, Komabayashi K, Ikeda T, Shimotai Y, Matsuzaki Y, Itagaki T, Mizuta K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A food poisoning outbreak due to food handler-associated contamination with the human norovirus GII.P16-GII.2 variant strain in Italian cuisine in Tokyo during the 2016/17 winter season.
PMID: 29491240 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Somura Y, Mizukoshi F, Nagasawa K, Kimoto K, Oda M, Shinkai T, Murakami K, Sadamasu K, Katayama K, Kimura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Surgically treated community-acquired brain abscess.
This study aimed to identify potential risk factors pertaining to predisposing infections and microorganisms to facilitate effective treatment of the brain abscess.Of 121 surgically treated patients with brain abscess the most frequent predisposing condition was odontogenic infections (49/121 patients, 40.5%) followed by sinusitis (14/121, 11.6%). Of 121 patients, 51 (42.1%) had no identifiable predisposing infection. Viridans group streptococcus (VGS) was the most frequently identified (47%) bacteria in all patients, and anaerobes were more frequently isolated in patients with odontogenic infections (36.7%, p=0.001) than ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lee HS, Kim JH, Kim YH, Lee S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

First molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in rodent population of Nanchang, China.
In this study, systematic surveillance of rodent population in Nanchang of China and determination of Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in rodents were performed. Between 2011 and 2015, 110,084 rodent snap traps were set in 4 Counties and the city center of Nanchang, China. Finally, 942 rodents were captured with the relative densities of 0.86%. The densities varied considerably by geographical difference and Anyi was the most rodent-infested County. Frequently captured rodents were sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus), house mice (Mus musculus) and Rattus flavipectus. Anaplasma genera were investigated by polymerase chain rea...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zheng W, Liu Y, Tao H, Li Z, Xuan X, Liu X, Adjou Moumouni PF, Wu Y, Liu W, Chen H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

An Outbreak of Foodborne infection caused by Shigella sonnei in West Bengal, India.
Abstract A foodborne acute gastroenteritis outbreak due to Shigella sonnei infection occurred in a household after having food in a housewarming party of Pakapol Village, South 24 Parganas District of West Bengal, an Indian state in November 2016. Here we report, the epidemiological and microbiological findings of this outbreak. Thirty-four people attended the party on 23rd November 2016 and had lunch together. Median incubation period for development of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases from time of food consumption was 18.5 hours {interquartile range (IQR), 16.5-22 hours}. Overall attack rate was 73% (25/34), of...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Debnath F, Mukhopadhyay AK, Choudhury G, Saha RN, Dutta S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Geographic spread of influenza under the influence of community population size, which was different from that of measles and rubella.
Abstract The influenza season was defined as the period from week 36 of the year to week 20 of the next year in this report. The population size of prefectures (x) and number of the patients per prefecture (y) were initially uncorrelated but became correlated as the season advanced. The correlation with correlation coefficient>0.7 emerged earlier and earlier over time; it was week 5 of the next year in 2001/2002 but it was week 47 of the same year in 2014/2015. Once x and y became correlated, plots of y in the vertical axis against x in the horizontal axis fell on a straight line, y=Cxs, where s was the slope o...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Detection of Viruses and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Hospitalized Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Infection in Northern China, 2015-2016.
Abstract Severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) occupies a huge disease and economic burden in the world. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and types of different infectious etiologies among hospitalized patients with SARI in Tianjin, China, from 2015-2016. SARI patients' basic information was collected, along with a throat or serum sample. Nine viruses were detected by RT-PCR, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected by the serodia Myco II gelatin particle agglutination test. 585 specimens from 2290 SARI cases were collected. The most common infection (19.66%, 115/585) was M. pneumoniae, follow...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xu W, Guo L, Dong X, Li X, Zhou P, Ni Q, Zhou X, Wagner AL, Li L Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The second Candida auris isolate from aural discharge in Japan.
PMID: 29491246 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - February 28, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Iguchi S, Mizushima R, Kamada K, Itakura Y, Yoshida A, Uzawa Y, Arai Y, Takaoka M, Sato S, Goto A, Karasawa T, Tsuruoka N, Totsuka D, Ono E, Nonaka M, Makimura K, Kikuchi K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Ventriculitis unexpectedly complicating neonatal meningitis caused by Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus: a case report.
Abstract Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus, previously recognized as S. bovis biotype II/2, is an uncommon but important cause of invasive infection in young infants. Here, we report the first case of ventriculitis unexpectedly found in the course of neonatal meningitis due to S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and review the literature. A 28-day-old Japanese boy presented with fever, lethargy, and irritability. S. bovis was isolated from blood and the cerebrospinal fluid culture and then was identified as S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus. Intravenous antibiotic therapy was started, the clinical c...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yamamura Y, Mihara Y, Nakatani K, Nishiguchi T, Ikebe T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Detection of anisakid larvae in marinated mackerel sushi in Tokyo, Japan.
PMID: 29279440 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Toshihiro T, Kobayashi Y, Kazunori I, Morishima Y, Sugiyama H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Data mining machine learning algorithms using IL28B genotype and biochemical markers best predicted advanced liver fibrosis in chronic HCV.
Abstract   IL28 single nucleotide polymorphism (rs12979860) is an aetiology-independent predictor of hepatitis C virus (HCV) related hepatic fibrosis. Data mining is a method of predictive analysis which can explore tremendous volumes of information found in health records to discover hidden patterns and relationships. The study aims to evaluate and compare the prediction accuracy of APRI, FIB-4 versus data mining for prediction of HCV related advanced fibrosis. This retrospective study included 427 patients with chronic HCV. We used the data mining analysis to construct Reduced Error Pruning (REP) decis...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Shousha HI, Awad AH, Omran DA, Elnegouly MM, Mabrouk M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Surveillance of Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from 2013 to 2015 in Guangxi Province, China.
Abstract Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) is a sexually transmitted pathogen popular worldwide with increased trend of resistance to antimicrobial treatment. We conducted this study to trace the antimicrobial susceptibilities of N. gonorrhoeae to penicillin, spectinomycin, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefixime and ceftriaxone in Guangxi. Totally 303 NG isolates were sampled from patients infected with N. gonorrhoeae from five cities in Guangxi 2013-2015, and the antibiotic susceptibilities were tested by Agar dilution assay. The results showed that N. gonorrhoeae was susceptible to cephalosporins treatment i...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Li W, Zhu BY, Qin SQ, Yang MC, Liang M, He S, Chen HZ, Gan Q, Huang YJ, Wei JP, He JZ, Chen Z, Bu J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiology and antibiogram profile of Vibrio cholerae isolates between 2004-2013 from Odisha, India.
Abstract Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 serogroups which are known to cause epidemics of cholera in Odisha. The present study has been envisaged to document the antibiotic resistance pattern among clinical isolates of both serogroups of V.cholerae O1 and O139 isolated during 2004-2013. Nine hundred nine isolates of V.cholerae were included in this study which were identified by standard procedures. Antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by disc diffusion method. The seasonality of cholera in this region indicated that there was one peak observed in the rainy season ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pal BB, Nayak SR, Khuntia HK Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Detection of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-1-group extended-spectrum β-lactamases from pigs in Aichi prefecture, Japan, between 2015 and 2016.
Detection of Escherichia coli producing CTX-M-1-group extended-spectrum β-lactamases from pigs in Aichi prefecture, Japan, between 2015 and 2016. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2017 Dec 26;: Authors: Norizuki C, Kawamura K, Wachino JI, Suzuki M, Nagano N, Kondo T, Arakawa Y Abstract We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates from Japanese pigs. A total of 345 pig fecal specimens were collected from 30 farms in Aichi prefecture, Japan, between June 2015 and April 2016, and 22 unique ESBL-producing E. coli were isolated fro...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Norizuki C, Kawamura K, Wachino JI, Suzuki M, Nagano N, Kondo T, Arakawa Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus in pigs in Japan.
This study shows that there has been no change in the prevalence of HEV in pigs at slaughter age, the prevalence of HEV by age group on pig farms, or the phylogenetic classification of HEV isolates in the last decade. Therefore, factors downstream of the pork production stage may be contributing to the increase in human HEV infection cases. PMID: 29279445 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sasaki Y, Haruna M, Uema M, Noda M, Yamada Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Susceptibility status of Japanese Encephalitis vectors to insecticides in endemic areas of northern districts of West Bengal, India.
Abstract Emergence and spread of resistance among vectors against different insecticides is a serious problem for Japanese encephalitis (JE) control programme. Regular monitoring of susceptibility status of vector species to insecticides is important for formulating proper vector control measures. We have studied the susceptibility status of major JE vectors from northern West Bengal, against 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin and 5% malathion. Two to three days old unfed female mosquitoes were subjected to susceptibility bioassay using WHO kit. Corrected mortality and knockdown times were estimated. Culex tritaeniorhynch...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Saha P, Ballav S, Chatterjee M, Ganguly S, Sarker M, Biswas AK, Pramanik T, Basu N, Maji AK Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Isolation and complete genome sequencing of Zika virus imported from the Dominican Republic to Japan.
Abstract   Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been documented within Central and South America, Asia, and Africa. Here we report the isolation of virus from a patient infected with ZIKV returning to Japan from the Dominican Republic. The ZIKV strain was imaged by electron microscopy and its complete genome sequence was analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis and molecular characterization revealed that the strain was of the Asian lineage, and carried two unique mutations in its NS5 region. These mutations are characteristic of strains that originated in the Dominican Republic and the USA in 2016. PMID: 2927944...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ozawa H, Tajima S, Nakayama E, Kato K, Yamashita A, Sekizuka T, Kuroda M, Usuku S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Comparison of three molecular subtyping methods among O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolates from Japanese cattle.
In this study, we compared three molecular subtyping methods, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), using O157 and non-O157 STEC isolated from Japanese beef cattle. A total of 73 STEC isolates belonging to 9 O-serogroups were used. By employing three molecular subtyping methods, the strains were divided into 9 MLST sequence types (STs), 23 PFGE types and 26 MLVA types. The STEC classification by O-serogrouping and MLST was almost identical. Furthermore, PFGE and MLVA could systematically classify STEC of same serotyp...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nakamura H, Iguchi A, Maehara T, Fujiwara K, Fujiwara A, Ogasawara J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A simulation study of effects of host availability on the bite rate of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) and the risk of dengue outbreaks in non-endemic areas.
Abstract Aedes albopictus is an important vector of dengue fever and tends to ambush blood host in a single place. Thus, host contact frequency may affect the bite rate and risk of disease outbreak, although no studies have examined these parameters. The present study used a simple model to clarify the fundamental relationship between host availability, bite rate, and risk of dengue outbreaks in non-endemic areas. A hypothetical isolated mosquito population was divided into "ambush" and "resting" subpopulations, and human hosts were modeled as visiting mosquito population at constant intervals....
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sunahara T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Ten-year surveillance of measles virus from 2007-2016 in Osaka City, Japan.
In this study, long-term surveillance was performed in order to survey MV prevalence. A total of 417 patients diagnosed with or suspected of having measles were tested for MV between January 2007 and December 2016 in Osaka City, Japan. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based testing of clinical specimens showed that 54 patients (12.9%) were MV-positive. An MV epidemic occurred in 2007, in which all detected MV strains were of genotype D5, an epidemic strain in Japan at that time. The detected wild-type MV strains in sporadic or outbreak-associated cases since 2011 included genotypes D4, D8, B3, and H...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kaida A, Iritani N, Kanbayashi D, Yamamoto SP, Hirai Y, Hakui N, Fujimori R, Mori H, Hirokawa H, Ogasawara J, Kubo H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiology of respiratory pathogens in children with lower respiratory tract infections in Shanghai, China, from 2013 to 2015.
This study aimed to explore the epidemiology of pathogens in children who were hospitalized with lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) at the Children's Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China. Children aged less than 18 years who were hospitalized with LRTIs were recruited from January 2013 to December 2015. Respiratory specimens were collected for the detection of common respiratory viruses, atypical bacteria and bacteria using current laboratory diagnostic tests. The epidemiological characteristics of the respiratory pathogens were analysed. Of the 10 123 specimens obtained from the patients, 5966 (58.7%) wer...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Liu P, Xu M, He L, Su L, Wang A, Fu P, Lu L, Wang C, Xu J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence and Genotype Distribution of Chlamydia trachomatis in Urine among Men Attending STD Clinics in Guangdong Province, China, 2016.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of CT infection by examining urine samples among MSCs from different geographic areas of Guangdong province, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSCs from ten HIV sentinel surveillance sites in Guangdong province. CT DNA in men urine samples were extracted and detected by using the Roche cobas® 4800 CT/NG. The ompA genes were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequenced. The leukocyte esterase test was performed by routine urine analysis at local clinics. Of the 1903 samples, 163(8.6%, 95%CI3.8- 16.3%) were fou...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Xue Y, Zheng H, Tang W, Mai Z, Huang J, Huang S, Qin X, Chen L, Zheng L Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Evaluation of the FilmArray Blood Culture Identification Panel in Detecting Pathogenic Microorganisms from Positive Blood Cultures: the First Clinical Report in Japan.
Abstract   The FilmArray (FA) is a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based desktop microbial detection system. The Blood Culture Identification (BCID) panel is an adaptable panel for the FA, which diagnoses sepsis or/and systemic infections by detecting 14 bacterial species, 4 bacterial genera, 1 bacterial family, 5 yeast species, and 3 antimicrobial resistance genes (mecA, KPC, and vanA/B) from positive blood cultures within 1 hour. We retrospectively evaluated the FA-BCID panel, using 54 positive blood cultures, from which 57 bacteria and 3 yeasts were identified through matrix-assisted laser d...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Saito K, Endo S, Katsumi M, Ishizawa C, Fujikawa Y, Inomata S, Toyokawa M, Kaku M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Human parainfluenza virus type 3 infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients: The mode of nosocomial infections and the prognosis.
Abstract   There have been few prospective and comprehensive surveillance studies on the respiratory viral infections (RVI) among patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A 2-year prospective cohort surveillance study of symptomatic and asymptomatic RVIs in hospitalized HSCT patients was performed. Oropharyngeal (OP) swab samples were serially collected each week from 1 week before and up to 100 days after HSCT and were tested for virus isolation with cell culture-based viral isolation (CC-based VI) and a multiplexed PCR (MPCR). 2,747 OP swab samples were collected from 250 HSC...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - December 26, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kakiuchi S, Tsuji M, Nishimura H, Wang L, Takayama-Ito M, Kinoshita H, Lim CK, Taniguchi S, Oka A, Mizuguchi M, Saijo M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Experiences of response measures against the 4 suspected cases of ebola virus disease from West Africa in the National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
Abstract In Japan, infectious diseases are classified into 4 types based on how contagious and severe the pathogens are, and Ebola virus disease (EVD) is categorized as a category 1 infectious disease. National Center for Global Health and Medicine in Tokyo, Japan, is designated as a specified hospital for category 1 infectious disease patients, and has experienced 4 probable cases of EVD from West Africa. Even after the end of the outbreak in West Africa, we should continue to pay attention for new EVD outbreaks. To increase the number of the infectious disease specialist with the proper knowledge of viral hemorr...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - October 31, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kutsuna S, Yamamoto K, Takeshita N, Hayakawa K, Kato Y, Kanagawa S, Sugiki Y, Ohmagari N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Seasonality and geographical distribution of Tsutsugamushi diseases in Japan: analysis of the trends since 1955 till 2014.
Abstract   Data concerning the seasonality and geographical location of tsutsugamushi disease (TD) in Japan from 1955 till 2014 were compiled. After disappearance of the "classical" TD in mid-1960, there was a long near vacuum. Then, in 1975, TD epidemic with October-December seasonality emerged in southern prefectures, and in 1979 that with May-June seasonality in northern prefectures. The current TD epidemic could be classified according to seasonality and geography into three types; a large October-December epidemic with negligibly small May-June epidemic in southern part of Japan, a large M...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - October 31, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research