β-Glucuronidase-Negative Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26 Infections Associated with a Calf.
β-Glucuronidase-Negative Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O26 Infections Associated with a Calf. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2013;66(5):458-9 Authors: Kameyama M, Yabata J, Nomura Y, Tominaga K PMID: 24047752 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kameyama M, Yabata J, Nomura Y, Tominaga K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Which age group is spreading measles in Japan?
PMID: 24047753 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - September 21, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in ethiopia.
Abstract Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most serious public health challenges in Ethiopia. Indeed, Ethiopia ranks 7th among 22 countries with a high burden of TB worldwide. Both pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) are issues of concern. Ethiopia ranks 3rd in terms of the number of EPTB patients worldwide, with TB lymphadenitis (TBL) being the most common. According to the World Health Organization's Global TB Report 2009, the estimated number of TB patients in Ethiopia was 314,267 in 2007, with an estimated incidence rate of 378 patients per 100,000 population. Furthermore, 36% patients suffered from EPTB, ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Biadglegne F, Tesfaye W, Anagaw B, Tessema B, Debebe T, Anagaw B, Mulu A, Sack U, Rodloff AC Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

The Burden of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis among Japanese Children during Its Peak Months: an Internet Survey.
Abstract Rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) is one of the most common early childhood diseases; however, little information exists on the frequency of RVGE attacks during peak epidemic months and the subsequent clinical consequences in Japanese children. Therefore, we conducted a nationwide internet survey that targeted mothers whose children recently experienced an episode of RVGE or influenza from January 2011 to April 2011. Data concerning the incidence and clinical consequences of RVGE and influenza among 15,137 children aged
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nakagomi T, Kato K, Tsutsumi H, Nakagomi O Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Cyclosporin a inhibits the propagation of influenza virus by interfering with a late event in the virus life cycle.
Abstract Influenza is a global public health problem that causes a serious respiratory disease. Influenza virus frequently undergoes amino acid substitutions, which result in the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. To control influenza viruses that are resistant to currently available drugs, it is essential to develop new antiviral drugs with a novel molecular target. Here, we report that cyclosporin A (CsA) inhibits the propagation of influenza virus in A549 cells by interfering with a late event in the virus life cycle. CsA did not affect adsorption, internalization, viral RNA replication, or synthesis of viral...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hamamoto I, Harazaki K, Inase N, Takaku H, Tashiro M, Yamamoto N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Serotyping and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Salmonella spp.: Nationwide Multicenter Study in Korea.
Abstract The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of various serotypes and extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing features of Salmonella strains and to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 256 Salmonella strains other than Salmonella serotype Typhi, which were isolated at 12 university hospitals in Korea. We identified 46 serotypes of Salmonella spp. Serogroup D was the most common (39.5%), followed by B (32.4%), C (22.7%), E (2.7%), A (2.3%), and G (0.4%). The three most common Salmonella serotypes were Enteritidis (36.3%), Typhimurium (16.8%), and Infantis (7.8%). Six strains that belonged to...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lee JY, Kim JA, Jeong HS, Shin JH, Chang CL, Jeong J, Cho JH, Kim MN, Kim S, Kim YR, Lee CH, Lee K, Lee MA, Lee WG, Shin JH, Lee JN Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Epidemiological features and surveillance performance of measles in the republic of Korea, 2002-2011.
Abstract Measles was declared eliminated from the Republic of Korea in 2006; however, recently the number of reported cases has been gradually increasing. To address this issue, we summarized the measles surveillance data collected during 2002-2011, and aimed to evaluate the performance of the current surveillance system in Korea. We analyzed data from the national surveillance system to describe the occurrence of measles. Surveillance indicators proposed by the World Health Organization were used to evaluate the performance of the current measles surveillance system. Between 2002 and 2005, a gradual decrease in c...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Choe YJ, Park YJ, Eom HS, Kim ES, Bae GR, Lee JK Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence of salmonella in wild snakes in Japan.
Abstract A total of 87 wild snakes of 6 species in 2 families collected in Japan were examined for the presence of Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella was 58.6%, and that of Salmonella enterica subspecies I, which includes most human pathogenic serotypes, accounted for 12.6%. S. enterica subspecies I was isolated from Japanese grass snakes and Japanese four-striped snakes, and the isolates belonged to 6 serotypes: S. enterica subspecies enterica serotypes Eastbourne, Mikawashima, Narashino, Newport, Saintpaul, and Thompson. The prevalence of S. enterica subspecies IIIb was higher (41.4%) than that of S. enter...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kuroki T, Ishihara T, Furukawa I, Okatani AT, Kato Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Monitoring Genetic Diversity of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Virus Circulating during the Post-Pandemic Period in Turkey.
Abstract The aimes of the present study were to monitor genetic alterations in the hemagglutin (HA) gene and oseltamivir resistance-related alterations in the neuraminidase (NA) gene of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viral isolates detected during the post-pandemic period in Turkey. A total of 2601 clinical specimens obtained from suspected cases of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viral infections were analyzed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Viral RNA was detected in 233 (9%) clinical specimens. Sequence analysis of the HA gene in 16 random isolates showed>98.7% homology among each other and with ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guldemir D, Kalaycioglu AT, Altas AB, Korukluoglu G, Durmaz R Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

HIV-1 Subtypes and Primary Antiretroviral Resistance Mutations in Antiretroviral Therapy Naive HIV-1 Infected Individuals in Turkey.
In this study, we determined the subtype distribution and the primary drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1 strains isolated from antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive patients in Turkey. The study included 117 newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive Turkish patients. HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) were identified by phylogenetic analysis (neighbor-joining method), and drug-resistant mutations were analyzed according to the 2009 World Health Organization list of surveillance drug-resistant mutations. Subtype CRFs (CRF 02_AG, CRF 01_AE, CRF 12_BF and CRF 03_AB; 47%, 55/117) and B (33.3%, 39/117) were identified as ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sayan M, Willke A, Ozgunes N, Sargın F Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A case series of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis and a new proposal.
We present 4 cases of proven CNPA, diagnosed by histological demonstration of tissue invasion by the fungus, and present its clinical features. These 4 patients were male, and the mean age was 62 years (range, 51-75 years). Their underlying conditions were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 3), sequelae of pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 2), and diabetes mellitus (n = 1). Aspergillus precipitation tests were positive for 3; and Aspergillus antigen tests were positive for 2 on admission, and subsequently, for all 4. The isolated pathogens were Aspergillus niger for 1 and A. fumigatus for 1. Initial radiographic findings...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tashiro T, Izumikawa K, Tashiro M, Morinaga Y, Nakamura S, Imamura Y, Miyazaki T, Kakeya H, Yamamoto Y, Yanagihara K, Hayashi T, Nagayasu T, Kohno S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Clinical Experience of Raltegravir with Abacavir/Lamivudine or Zidovudine/Lamivudine in HIV-Infected Korean Adults.
Abstract The efficacy and safety of raltegravir (RAL) with tenofovir (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC) have been well studied in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. However, limited clinical data are available on the use of RAL with abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC) or zidovudine (ZDV)/3TC. We investigated HIV-1-infected Korean adults, including 13 antiretroviral-naïve patients and 15 antiretroviral-experienced patients, treated with RAL plus ABC/3TC or ZDV/3TC. Virological suppression was achieved in 12 of the 13 (92%) antiretroviral-naïve patients within 24 weeks and in all (100%) patients with...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kang SJ, An JH, Kim J, Jang MO, Kim SE, Park KH, Jung SI, Jang HC Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Optic neuritis following aseptic meningitis associated with modified measles: a case report.
In this study, we report the case of a 35-year-old woman with modified measles complicated by aseptic meningitis and subsequent optic neuritis. Although her initial manifestations were only flu-like symptoms without any Koplik's spots or skin rashes, virological testing confirmed an acute measles infection. Subsequently, right optic neuritis appeared after aseptic meningitis and was completely resolved following steroid pulse therapy. In general, modified measles is believed to be associated with mild symptoms and few neurological complications; however, our present observations demonstrated that modified measles can cause...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nakajima N, Ueda M, Yamazaki M, Takahashi T, Katayama Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Outbreak of Multiresistant OXA-24- and OXA-51-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii in an Internal Medicine Ward.
;nchez R, Otero I, Bisquert J Abstract Here we describe the clinical, microbiological, epidemiological, and molecular characterization of an outbreak of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MRAB) involving 5 patients admitted to the internal medicine ward of our hospital. Over a 6-week period, 5 MRAB isolates were recovered from 5 patients, including 1 with fatal meningitis, 3 with skin and soft tissue infections, and 1 with respiratory colonization. One sample obtained during environmental monitoring in the ward was A. baumannii-positive. According to the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing results, t...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tena D, Martínez NM, Oteo J, Sáez D, Vindel A, Azañedo ML, Sánchez L, Espinosa A, Cobos J, Sánchez R, Otero I, Bisquert J Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Congenital Tuberculosis because of Misdiagnosed Maternal Pulmonary Tuberculosis during Pregnancy.
We report the death of an infant due to severe sepsis caused by congenital tuberculosis following treatment with antituberculous drugs and antibiotics, who was born to a mother with misdiagnosed symptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis during pregnancy. Therefore, pregnant women with chronic cough and constitutional symptoms must be examined for pulmonary tuberculosis, particularly in tuberculosis endemic areas. PMID: 23883846 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nakbanpot S, Rattanawong P Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Retrospective Analysis of Epidemiological Aspects of Vibrio vulnificus Infections in Korea in 2001-2010.
In this study, we performed a retrospective, quantitative analysis of the epidemiological aspects and risk factors of Vibrio vulnificus infections in Korea from 2001 to 2010. In a total of 588 V. vulnificus infection cases (prevalence rate, 0.12 cases/100,000 persons), 285 were fatal (case-fatality rate [CFR], 48.5%). Males were more significantly infected by V. vulnificus than females (86.1% versus 13.9%; P
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lee SH, Chung BH, Lee WC Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Streptococcus gallolyticus Isolated from Humans and Animals.
Abstract Susceptibilities to some antimicrobial agents and distribution of genes associated with resistance were examined in a total of 66 Streptococcus gallolyticus isolates and reference strains from various sources. All the tested bacteria were susceptible to vancomycin, penicillin G, and ampicillin. Most of the erythromycin-resistant isolates were observed in human clinical samples. Tetracycline and doxycycline resistance was prevalent in the isolates from human patients, diseased animals, and healthy broiler chickens, while the prevalence was significantly lower in the isolates from healthy mammals. All the i...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nomoto R, Tien le HT, Sekizaki T, Osawa R Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Antimicrobial Resistance of Human Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium U302 Strains: Prevalence of R-Type ASSuT in Slovakia, 2006-2011.
te;n J, Majtán V Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a common cause of non-typhoid salmonellosis in humans. Since 2006, an increase in the human infections caused by U302 phage type in Slovakia has been documented and, from 2006 to 2011, a total of 291 U302 human strains were isolated. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing demonstrated that these strains had a high overall antimicrobial resistance and 244 (83.8%) of the tested strains were multidrug-resistant (MDR). The most prevalent resistance was to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and tetracycline (R-type ASSuT), which was verifie...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Majtánová L, Majtán J, Majtán V Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Efficacy of Various Larvicides against Aedes aegypti Immatures in the Laboratory.
Abstract We conducted a laboratory study to evaluate the efficacy of control agents against small larvae, large larvae, and pupae of Aedes aegypti to determine an appropriate larvicide regime to employ in emergency dengue control programs. The control agents included Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti), pyriproxyfen (an insect growth regulator), a larvicidal oil, Aquatain AMF (polydimethylsiloxane, a monomolecular film), and temephos at the recommend application dosages and rates. Our results showed that Bti, pyriproxyfen, and temephos were efficacious (100% mortality) against larvae, irrespective of the...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wang CY, Teng HJ, Lee SJ, Lin C, Wu JW, Wu HS Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Renal abscess involving mucormycosis by immunohistochemical detection in a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia: a case report and literature review.
Abstract A 14-year-old girl with acute lymphocytic leukemia complained of right flank pain and fever. As her fever was prolonged, she underwent renal biopsy and was diagnosed with mucormycosis. We performed right nephrectomy, and subsequent pathological examination of her tissue specimen also detected mucormycosis. Here, we report a rare case of renal mucormycotic abscess. PMID: 23883851 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sunagawa K, Ishige T, Kusumi Y, Asano M, Nisihikawa E, Kato M, Yagasaki H, Nemoto N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Electron Microscopic Study of Kudoa septempunctata Infecting Paralichthys olivaceus (Olive Flounder).
Abstract Kudoa septempunctata is a myxosporean parasite of Paralichthys olivaceus (olive flounder) that causes more than 50 cases of foodborne illness in Japan each year. For quantitatively assessing the presence of K. septempunctata spores in the causative fish at food poisoning outbreaks, both a direct observation method using microscopy and a quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) method are officially accepted in Japan. However, lower correlations have been often noticed between the number of spores counted using the direct observation method and the DNA amount determined using the qRT-PCR method. To elucidate t...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ohnishi T, Furusawa H, Yoshinari T, Yamazaki A, Horikawa K, Kamata Y, Sugita-Konishi Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Predicting the Evolution of the 2013 H7N9 Epidemic in China.
PMID: 23883853 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

An outbreak of foodborne botulism in surat thani province, Thailand, 2012.
PMID: 23883854 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Wangroongsarb P, Jittaprasartsin C, Suthivarakom K, Kamthalang T, Yeesoonsang S, Sangkitporn S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Investigation of a diffused outbreak in yamaguchi prefecture in 2012 using multiple molecular typing methods.
PMID: 23883855 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kameyama M, Yabata J, Nomura Y, Tominaga K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

First Isolation of Carbon Dioxide-Dependent Proteus mirabilis from an Uncomplicated Cystitis Patient with Sjögren's Syndrome.
First Isolation of Carbon Dioxide-Dependent Proteus mirabilis from an Uncomplicated Cystitis Patient with Sjögren's Syndrome. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2013;66(4):358 Authors: Oana K, Yamaguchi M, Nagata M, Washino K, Akahane T, Takamatsu YU, Tsutsui C, Matsumoto T, Kawakami Y Abstract Volume 66, no. 3, p. 241-244, 2013. Page 242, Table 2 should appear as shown below. PMID: 23883856 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - July 29, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oana K, Yamaguchi M, Nagata M, Washino K, Akahane T, Takamatsu YU, Tsutsui C, Matsumoto T, Kawakami Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Buruli ulcer and mycolactone-producing mycobacteria.
Abstract Buruli ulcer (BU) is an emerging human disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, which mainly affects the extremities. It is most endemic in sub-Saharan Africa; however, it has been reported worldwide, including in some non-tropical areas. "M. ulcerans subsp. shinshuense" is proposed as a subspecies of M. ulcerans, which have been reported from Japan and China. A total of 35 BU cases have been reported as of November 2012. Although M. ulcerans is categorized as nontuberculous mycobacteria, it has some unique characteristics that could only be observed in this bacterium. It possesses a giant viru...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Nakanaga K, Yotsu RR, Hoshino Y, Suzuki K, Makino M, Ishii N Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A reduction in anti-tuberculosis drug resistance after the implementation of the national "STOP TB" program in central Taiwan, 2003-2007.
A reduction in anti-tuberculosis drug resistance after the implementation of the national "STOP TB" program in central Taiwan, 2003-2007. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2013;66(2):89-95 Authors: Huang WC, Chen CH, Huang CC, Wu KM, Chiou CS, Lin CF, Chen JH, Shen GH Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the performance of the national "STOP TB" program in central Taiwan during 2003-2007 by examining trends in the combined drug resistance to first-line anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs among clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. Using 4,819 clinical M. tuberculosis isolates obtained from ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Huang WC, Chen CH, Huang CC, Wu KM, Chiou CS, Lin CF, Chen JH, Shen GH Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Phenotypic and molecular characteristics of carbapenem-non-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae from a teaching hospital in Wenzhou, southern China.
This study suggests that KPC-2-type carbapenemase is the main contributor to carbapenems resistance in carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, and that ESBL, AmpC β-lactamase overproduction, and porin loss contribute to the resistance level among these isolates; in carbapenemase-non-producing Enterobacteriaceae, ESBL, AmpC enzyme, and porin loss contribute to the carbapenems resistance of Enterobacteriaceae, especially the ertapenem resistance of Enterobacter cloacae. PMID: 23514904 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhou T, Zhang X, Guo M, Ye J, Lu Y, Bao Q, Chi W Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a specific anti-PBP2a chicken IgY antibody.
In this study, a new PBP2a-specific chicken IgY antibody was developed in inbred and conventional chickens, and used for the detection of MRSA using whole cell lysate samples. Our results showed that this chicken IgY antibody minimized the side effects of protein A. Moreover, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunochromatography systems were used with a monoclonal and polyclonal anti-PBP2a IgY antibody, clearly differentiating MRSA from methicillin-sensitive S. aureus and other methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus spp. The detection limit of the immunochromatography was 10(8) colony-forming units; therefore, 1 colony ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yamada K, Wanchun J, Ohkura T, Murai A, Hayakawa R, Kinoshita K, Mizutani M, Okamoto A, Namikawa T, Ohta M Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Nested culture method improves detection of Fusobacterium from stool in patients with ulcerative colitis.
This study suggests that the recovery of F. varium is related to UC, which aligns with results from previous studies that used mucosal culture, immunostaining, real-time PCR, and serological studies. PMID: 23514906 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yukawa T, Ohkusa T, Shibuya T, Tsukinaga S, Mitobe J, Takakura K, Takahara A, Odahara S, Matsudaira H, Nagatsuma K, Kitahara T, Kajihara M, Uchiyama K, Arakawa H, Koido S, Tajiri H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

A registry-based cohort study of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Istanbul, Turkey.
Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the treatment outcomes and identify factors associated with adverse tuberculosis treatment outcomes for bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis. Treatment outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis were evaluated retrospectively among 11,186 smear- and/or culture-positive patients treated between 2006 and 2009 in Istanbul, Turkey. Adverse treatment outcomes were identified in 1,010 (9.0%) patients including death (1.8%), treatment default (6.1%), and treatment failure (1.1%). Factors associated with adverse treatment outcomes included being born abroad (odds ratios ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Babalik A, Kilicaslan Z, Caner SS, Gungor G, Ortakoylu MG, Gencer S, McCurdy SA Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids among healthcare workers in a teaching hospital: an experience from northern Thailand.
Abstract This retrospective study was conducted among healthcare workers (HCWs) in a tertiary care hospital to (i) determine the incidence of exposure to blood and/or body fluids, (ii) describe the characteristics of such exposures, and (iii) describe management after exposure. There were 1,611 episodes of occupational exposure between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010. Of those affected, 1,086 (67.4%) were women. The mean age was 27.6 ± 7.2 years. Nurses (483, 29.9%) were the HCWs most frequently exposed to blood and/or body fluids. The incidence was highest among physicians (11%/year). Percutaneous in...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chaiwarith R, Ngamsrikam T, Fupinwong S, Sirisanthana T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Relationship between methyl CpG binding protein 2 and JC viral proteins.
Abstract JC virus (JCV) is a causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is a transcriptional control nuclear protein that is abundantly expressed in neurons. We previously observed that the MeCP2 protein is expressed in JCV large T antigen (TAg)-expressing glial cells in PML brains. To investigate the relationship between MeCP2 and JCV TAg, we examined the promoter activity and mRNA and protein expression levels of MeCP2 in JCV TAg-expressing cells. We found that JCV TAg enhances the promoter activity of MeCP2, but does not enhance the mRNA and protein...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Takahashi K, Orba Y, Kimura T, Wang L, Kohsaka S, Tsuda M, Tanino M, Nishihara H, Nagashima K, Sawa H, Tanaka S Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Histopathological evaluation of the efficacy of antifungals for experimental Trichosporon bloodstream infection.
Abstract The efficacy of polyene macrolides to treat experimental Trichosporon bloodstream infection was evaluated by histopathological examination and viable cell counts in the kidneys of infected mice. Viable cell counts on the 5th day after infection confirmed that liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) is a more effective treatment than fluconazole (FLC) for mice infected with an azole-resistant strain of Trichosporon. Histological examination revealed that the administration of L-AMB induced a transformation from acute purulent inflammation caused by both azole-susceptible and -resistant strain infections to a chro...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sasai D, Okubo Y, Ishiwatari T, Sugita T, Kaneko T, Murayama SY, Shimamura T, Shinozaki M, Hasegawa C, Mitsuda A, Tochigi N, Wakayama M, Nemoto T, Shibuya K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Seasonal patterns of respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A virus, human metapneumovirus, and parainfluenza virus type 3 infections on the basis of virus isolation data between 2004 and 2011 in Yamagata, Japan.
Abstract Most acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are thought to be associated with respiratory viruses that cause similar symptoms. Therefore, assessment of clinical and epidemiologic features of these viruses is important for diagnosing a viral infection. We collected 13,325 nasopharyngeal specimens from patients with ARIs and isolated the virus using a microplate method involving 7 cell lines between 2004 and 2011 in Yamagata, Japan. We isolated a total of 5,483 viruses. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A virus (FluA), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hPIV3) showed...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mizuta K, Abiko C, Aoki Y, Ikeda T, Matsuzaki Y, Itagaki T, Katsushima F, Katsushima Y, Noda M, Kimura H, Ahiko T Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence of blaPER-1 and integrons in ceftazidime-resistant Gram-negative bacteria at a university hospital in Turkey.
In this study, we examined the prevalence of the PER-1 enzyme and the presence of clinically important integron classes in ceftazidime-resistant Gram-negative bacteria isolated at a university hospital. The blaPER-1 gene was detected by PCR in 33 (19.5%) of the total 169 Gram-negative bacteria, including 17 (23.3%) of the 73 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates and 16 (25%) of the 64 Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates. Molecular fingerprinting revealed that blaPER-1 prevalence was mostly due to the dissemination of clonally related P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii complex strains. Class 1 integron (intI1) was detected in 52...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eraç B, Hoşgör-Limoncu M, Ermertcan Ş, Taşlı H, Aydemir Ş Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 strains in the Nanchang region of China in 2011.
This study shows that the C4 subgenotype strain of EV71 was prevalent in the HFMD cases of Nanchang in 2011, and it reports the first incidence of adults being infected by EV71 in the Nanchang region. Thus, the surveillance of HFMD epidemiology and monitoring of HFMD severity should be continued. PMID: 23514913 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhou X, Fan G, Xia W, He F, Hu M, Ni X, Zhang Y, Chen H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and ciprofloxacin resistance in pediatric bloodstream isolates of Enterobacteriaceae over a 9-year period.
Abstract A total of 279 isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 128) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 151) were obtained from blood samples from children at the Seoul National University Children's Hospital, Seoul, Korea from 1999 to 2007. Five plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA, and aac(6')-Ib-cr, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for ciprofloxacin were tested for all the strains. Mutations in both gyrA and parC were analyzed in 57 representative strains. Twenty-seven strains (9.7%) had at least 1 of the 5 PMQR genes: qnrB in 20 isolates, qnrS in 1, aac(6')-Ib-c...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kim NH, Choi EH, Sung JY, Oh CE, Kim HB, Kim EC, Lee HJ Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Dynamics of clinical symptoms in patients with scrub typhus.
Abstract The clinical manifestations and complications of scrub typhus are variable. Few studies have examined the timeline of clinical symptoms after the appropriate antimicrobial agents have been administered. The most prevalent clinical manifestations are fever and cough, followed by headache, myalgia, eschar, skin rash, and nausea. Systemic symptoms are most severe during the early stages of illness (i.e., the first 5 days), but resolve slowly within 2 weeks. The associated skin rash is most severe during the first 8 days of infection, but it resolves slowly within 21 days. PMID: 23514915 [PubMed - in pro...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Lee JH, Lee JH, Chung KM, Kim ES, Kwak YG, Moon C, Lee CS Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Active screening of group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility and altered serotype distribution isolated from pregnant women in Kobe, Japan.
Abstract Group B streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) is a leading cause of neonatal invasive infections and was believed to be fully susceptible to penicillin. However, we recently identified several clinical GBS isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS), which were mainly isolated from respiratory specimens of elderly people. An investigation of both the isolation rate of PRGBS and the serotype distribution among pregnant women is crucial to decisions regarding optimal prevention and strategies for GBS treatment in neonates. We collected 141 GBS isolates from vaginal specimens of 122 pregn...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Kimura K, Matsubara K, Yamamoto G, Shibayama K, Arakawa Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and hepatitis E virus in swine livers collected at an abattoir.
Abstract We investigated the prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and hepatitis E virus (HEV) in swine liver. We collected swine livers from 110 pigs at an abattoir from September 2010 to March 2011. Pathogens were detected in the liver samples of 19 (17.3%) pigs. Campylobacter spp. were isolated from the liver samples of 14 (12.7%) pigs. In 10 of the 14 Campylobacter-positive pigs, bacteria were present in the internal regions of the liver. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were detected in the liver samples of 5 (4.5%) pigs and 1 (1%) pig, respectively. No HEV was detecte...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sasaki Y, Haruna M, Murakami M, Hayashida M, Ito K, Noda M, Yamada Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Population size/density dependency hypothesis for measles epidemic: application of the hypothesis to countries in five WHO regions.
PMID: 23514918 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yoshikura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Hepatitis E Virus in Swine Livers Collected at an Abattoir.
Abstract Volume 66, no. 2, p. 161-164, 2013. Page 161, SUMMARY, line 3 and page 161, column 2, line 18: "September 2010 to March 2011" should read "September 2011 to March 2012." PMID: 23698450 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sasaki Y, Haruna M, Murakami M, Hayashida M, Ito K, Noda M, Yamada Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Comparison between the Effectiveness of Polymerase Chain Reaction and In Situ Hybridization in Detecting the Presence of Pathogenic Fungi by Using the Preserved DNA in Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.
Abstract In situ hybridization (ISH) has been recognized as an important technique for identifying the causative fungi in the foci of infection observed in histopathological specimens which was processed from formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. However, few basic studies have conducted an evaluation of the DNA preservation for use in ISH in comparison to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The latter is a DNA amplification-based modality. In the present study, we analyzed 65 FFPE lung tissue specimens collected from autopsy cases for comparing the usefulness of ISH and PCR analysis. As a result, the ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Zhi Y, Sasai D, Okubo Y, Shinozaki M, Nakayama H, Yamagata Murayama S, Wakayama M, Ide T, Zhang Z, Shibuya K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Molecular Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Isolated from Human, Food, and Animal Sources in Malaysia.
In this study, we documented the genetic relationship, antimicrobial resistance characteristics, and flagellar-phase dominance among S. Typhimurium strains found in Malaysia. PMID: 23698477 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ngoi ST, Lindstedt BA, Watanabe H, Thong KL Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

First Report on Invasion of Yellow Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, at Narita International Airport, Japan in August 2012.
Abstract The invasion of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti at Narita International Airport, Japan was detected for the first time. During the course of routine vector surveillance at Narita International Airport, 27 Ae. aegypti adults emerged from larvae and pupae collected from a single larvitrap placed near No. 88 spot at passenger terminal 2 on August 8, 2012. After the appearance of Ae. aegypti in the larvitrap, we defined a 400-m buffer zone and started an intensive vector survey using an additional 34 larvitraps and 15 CO2 traps. International aircraft and passenger terminal 2 were also inspected, and ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Sukehiro N, Kida N, Umezawa M, Murakami T, Arai N, Jinnai T, Inagaki S, Tsuchiya H, Maruyama H, Tsuda Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Characteristics of human metapneumovirus infection prevailing in hospital wards housing patients with severe disabilities.
Abstract Epidemics of infectious diseases often occur at long-term inpatient facilities for patients with severe motor and intellectual disabilities. However, the pathogens causing these infections remain unknown in approximately half of such epidemics. Two epidemics of respiratory tract infection occurred in 2 wards in the National Hospital Organization Ehime Hospital (prevalence 1, 34 infected out of 59 inpatients in the A ward in September 2011; prevalence 2, 8 infected out of 58 inpatients in the B ward in June 2012). Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was detected from the nasal (and some pharyngeal) swabs from 17 ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Matsuda S, Nakamura M, Hirano E, Kiyota N, Omura T, Suzuki Y, Noda M, Kimura H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Characterization of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 Outbreak Strain Whose Shiga Toxin 2 Gene Is Inactivated by IS1203v Insertion.
Abstract A total of 12 enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 strains were isolated during a recent outbreak in a nursery school in Ehime Prefecture, Japan. These isolates were considered to be derived from a common strain when analyzed using an IS-printing method and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. PCR analysis revealed that the isolates harbor stx1, stx2, eae, and hlyA. However, assessment of the production of the Stx proteins revealed that these isolates produced Stx1 but not Stx2. We determined their stx2 variants such as stx2c and found that the size of the PCR product was much larger than the ex...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Asano Y, Karasudani T, Tanaka H, Matsumoto J, Okada M, Nakamura K, Kondo H, Shinomiya H Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Multicolor Flow Cytometric Analyses of CD4(+) T Cell Responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Related Latent Antigens.
Abstract Although IFN-γ release assays (IGRAs) provide increased specificity over tuberculin skin tests, the early and sensitive detection of reactivation of latently infected Mycobacterium tuberculosis is required to control tuberculosis (TB). Recently, a multicolor flow cytometry has been developed to study CD4(+) T cell cytokine responses (IFN-γ/IL-2/TNF-α) to purified protein derivatives (PPD) and M. tuberculosis-specific antigens (ESAT-6/CFP-10) and provided useful information regarding anti-TB immunity. However, the diagnostic relevancy remains uncertain. Here, we analyzed three additional ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yamashita Y, Hoshino Y, Oka M, Matsumoto S, Ariga H, Nagai H, Makino M, Ariyoshi K, Tsunetsugu-Yokota Y Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research

Histopathological Study of Murine Pulmonary Cryptococcosis Induced by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans.
Abstract Although Cryptococcus gattii can cause life-threatening complications, putative virulence factors of C. gattii remain controversial. Therefore, we conducted the present study to elucidate the virulence factors of the yeast and found that the mortality rate of mice infected with C. gattii R265 was significantly higher than that of those infected with C. gattii 5815; however, no difference was found in the mortality rates between mice infected with C. gattii R265 and Cryptococcus neoformans H99. In contrast, we found a significant difference in histopathological findings of the lungs between mice infected w...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - May 25, 2013 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Okubo Y, Wakayama M, Ohno H, Yamamoto S, Tochigi N, Tanabe K, Kaneko Y, Yamagoe S, Umeyama T, Shinozaki M, Nemoto T, Nakayama H, Sasai D, Ishiwatari T, Shimodaira K, Yamamoto Y, Kamei K, Miyazaki Y, Shibuya K Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research