Resveratrol promotes apoptosis through the induction of dual specificity phosphatase 1 and sensitizes prostate cancer cells to cisplatin.
s A, Lasa M Abstract Resveratrol is a polyphenol with chemopreventive properties against prostate cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying its actions are not completely understood. Previously, we demonstrated that DUSP1 induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells; therefore in the present study we investigated the role of this phosphatase on resveratrol effects. Moreover, we analysed the efficiency of combined treatment of resveratrol and the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin on cellular viability and apoptosis and its relation with DUSP1 in prostate cancer cells. We found that resveratrol up-regulates DUSP1 expre...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 12, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Martínez-Martínez D, Soto A, Gil-Araujo B, Gallego B, Chiloeches A, Lasa M Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Grass root approaches to control levels of carcinogenic nitrosamines, NNN and NNK in smokeless tobacco products.
Abstract Due to the extensive ban on public smoking, tobacco companies focused their business on new smokeless tobacco (SLT) products promoting them as a harm reduction strategy and a safer alternative to cigarettes. Two nitrosamines, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), present in SLT, listed as group 1 human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, are found to be the prime agents for most of cancers in SLT users. This review illustrates the mechanism of cancer induction by NNN and NNK in humans along with factors influencing the formation of NNN and N...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 10, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Gupta AK, Tulsyan S, Bharadwaj M, Mehrotra R Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Dietary fish oil supplementation during early pregnancy in rats on a cafeteria-diet prevents fatty liver in adult male offspring.
era E Abstract We studied in rats the effects of cafeteria diet (CD) supplemented (or not) with fish oil (FO) during just the first 12 days of pregnancy, or during the whole of pregnancy and lactation in 14-month old offspring. Female rats were given standard diet (STD) or CD and after mating some animals remained on STD or CD; for some CD rats the diet was supplemented with 8.78% FO. After 12 days, half of the CD-FO group returned to CD (CD-FO12) and the others remained on CD-FO. From weaning all offspring were given STD. The adiposity index of male offspring of CD dams increased but was normal in CD-FO males. Pl...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 10, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Sánchez-Blanco C, Amusquivar E, Bispo K, Herrera E Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Relative potency ranking of azoles altering craniofacial morphogenesis in rats: An in vitro data modelling approach.
Abstract Facial malformations represent one of the most frequent abnormality in humans. The adverse outcome pathway involved in facial defects seems to be related to retinoic acid (RA) pathway imbalance. Environmental agents inducing craniofacial malformations in experimental models include pesticides (especially azole fungicides). By using the in vitro alternative method postimplantation rat whole embryo culture (WEC), we evaluated the intrinsic embryotoxic activity of some azole antifungals (cyproconazole, CYPRO; triadimefon, FON; flusilazole, FLUSI; and prochloraz, PCZ), in comparison to RA. All the tested mole...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 10, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Di Renzo F, Metruccio F, Battistoni M, Moretto A, Menegola E Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Pterostilbene protects against acetaminophen-induced liver injury by restoring impaired autophagic flux.
In this study, we investigated the protective mechanisms of PTE against APAP-induced liver injury, focusing on autophagy. ICR mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated with 400 mg/kg of APAP. PTE (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, i.p.) and chloroquine (CQ, 60 mg/kg, i.p.) were injected 1 h after APAP treatment. Blood and liver tissues were isolated 6 h after APAP treatment. PTE decreased serum aminotransferase activities and hepatic oxidative stress; this protective effect was abolished by CQ. APAP impaired autophagic flux, as evidenced by increased microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3-II and p62 protein expressi...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 10, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Kang KY, Shin JK, Lee SM Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Di-2-ethylhexylphthalate promotes thyroid cell proliferation and DNA damage through activating thyrotropin-receptor-mediated pathways in vitro and in vivo.
Abstract Phthalates are being suggested to be associated with altered thyroid function and proliferative changes, but detailed mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on DNA damage and proliferation in thyroid using thyroid carcinoma cell line, 8505C, in vitro and the rats orally treated with DEHP at 0, 0.3, 3, 30 and 150 mg/kg for 90 days from post-natal day 9 in vivo. Exposure to DHEP (1-50 μM) induced cellular proliferation, as evidenced by increased cell viability and DNA synthesis. Activation of γH2AX, a sensitive biomarker for DNA damage was...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 10, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Kim S, Park GY, Yoo YJ, Jeong JS, Nam KT, Jee SH, Lim KM, Lee YS Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2-ethylbutyl acetate, CAS Registry Number 10031-87-5.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30537526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 8, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

The cytotoxicity activity of Hohenbuehelia serotina polyphenols on HeLa cells via induction of cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest.
This study might provide a theoretical basis for the application of H. serotina polyphenols as tumor preventive agent. PMID: 30529121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 7, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Wang L, Li X, Wang B Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna protects against cadmium-induced hepatic and cardiac injuries in male Wistar rats through antioxidative mechanisms.
Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most ubiquitous toxic heavy metal in the environment. The present study was conducted to evaluate the protective role of aqueous bark extract of Terminalia arjuna (TA) against Cd induced oxidative damage in hepatic and cardiac tissues as the TA bark extract has folkloric medicinal use in the treatment of various hepatic and cardiac disorders. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. The control group was treated with normal saline as the vehicle; the second group orally administered with TA (20 mg/kg bw) daily for 15 days; the third group injected with Cd-acetate (0.44 m...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 7, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Bhattacharjee B, Pal PK, Ghosh AK, Mishra S, Chattopadhyay A, Bandyopadhyay D Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Antrodia salmonea suppresses invasion and metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer cells by reversing EMT through the NF- κB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Antrodia salmonea suppresses invasion and metastasis in triple-negative breast cancer cells by reversing EMT through the NF-κB and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Dec 07;: Authors: Hseu YC, Lin YC, Rajendran P, Thigarajan V, Mathew DC, Lin KY, Way TD, Liao JW, Yang HL Abstract Antrodia salmonea (AS), a fungus that is indigenous to Taiwan has been well known for its anti-cancer properties. We investigated the anti-metastatic and anti-epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) properties of AS in TNBC cells. To determine their EMT and metastasis levels, in vitro wound he...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 7, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Hseu YC, Lin YC, Rajendran P, Thigarajan V, Mathew DC, Lin KY, Way TD, Liao JW, Yang HL Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Apios americana Medik flowers extract protects PC12  cells against H2O2 induced neurotoxicity via regulating autophagy.
In this study, we firstly isolated and identified fourteen compounds from the flowers of Apios americana Medik. Then, we tested whether Apios americana Medik flowers water extract (AFWE) exerts a protective effect on H2O2 induced PC12 cells injure. As expected, pretreatment with AFWE inhibited cytotoxicity and DNA condensation in H2O2induced PC12 cells. Exposure of PC12 cells to H2O2 resulted in reactive oxygen species accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction, while AFWE alleviated these damages. AFWE obviously reversed the alternations as H2O2 increased Caspase-3 and decreased the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax expressions. F...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 7, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Chu Q, Yu L, Zheng Z, Chen M, Hua Z, Hang M, Li Y, Li X, Liu Y, Yang Y, Zheng X Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Mechanistic insights of hepatoprotective effects of curcumin: Therapeutic updates and future prospects.
This report reviews the hepatoprotective effects of curcumin with a focus on its mechanistic insights in various hepatotoxic protocols. PMID: 30529260 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 5, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Khan H, Ullah H, Nabavi SM Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Consumption and exposure to finished cosmetic products: A systematic review.
Abstract According to the European Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009, cosmetic products should be safe for human health when used under normal or foreseeable conditions of use. To perform a safety evaluation, consumption data of finished cosmetic product are necessary to assess the corresponding consumer's exposure. The aim of this review was to highlight consumption (percentage of users, frequency of use, amount used, number of products daily used, types of products co-used …) and exposure data to cosmetic products available in the literature. A systematic approach was used following the PRISMA (Preferred Repo...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 5, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Ficheux AS, Gomez-Berrada MP, Roudot AC, Ferret PJ Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Anticancer activity modulation of an innovative solid formulation of extra virgin olive oil by cultured zeolite scaffolds.
We report the fabrication and characterization of pure and hybrid (MMMs) zeolite membranes and evaluated the intensively cell adhesion, spreading and cell growth by adhesion test, MTT, optical microscopy analyses and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) microphotography analyses. Our results demonstrate that both cell lines adhered and grow on all zeolite surfaces and that both show better viability after Spread Bio-Oil treatments. All cell adhesions are a specific membrane-type and, in particular, MCF-7 cells interact and adhere preferentially on pure zeolite membranes. Cancer cells seem to recognize and prefer the char...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 3, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Tavolaro P, Catalano S, Tavolaro A Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, isopropyl butyrate CAS Registry Number 638-11-9.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30521876 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - December 3, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Resveratrol analog, N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dimethoxybenzamide induces G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HeLa human cervical cancer cells.
In this study, several resveratrol analogs were synthesized and evaluated in search of a more effective anti-proliferative resveratrol analog. Among the evaluated resveratrol analogs, we have identified N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,5-dimethoxybenamide (MPDB) as a potent anti-proliferative compound. Treatment with MPDB resulted in G2/M phase cell cycle arrest, which was accompanied by alteration of G2/M-related protein expression and phosphorylation. MPDB-induced G2/M arrest was blocked by transfection of ATM/ATR siRNAs, indicating the critical role of ATM/ATR in G2/M phase arrest. In addition, treatment with MPDB displayed the ac...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 30, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Lee KW, Chung KS, Lee JH, Choi JH, Choi SY, Kim S, Lee JY, Lee KT Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, methyl undec-10-enoate, CAS Registry Number 111-81-9.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30508563 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 30, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

ZnO nanoparticles affect nutrient transport in an in vitro model of the small intestine.
Abstract Nano-sized zinc oxide (ZnO) is present in food packaging, putting consumers at risk of ingestion. There is little information on the amount of ZnO nanoparticles (NP) present in food packaging and the effects of ZnO NP ingestion on intestinal function. To estimate physiologically relevant ZnO NP exposures from food that are commonly packaged with ZnO NP, food samples were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). An in vitro model of the small intestine was used to investigate the effects of ZnO NP exposure. Cells were exposed to pristine NP in culture medium and to NP subjected ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 29, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Moreno-Olivas F, Tako E, Mahler GJ Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, cyclohexanol,4-(3-methylbutyl)-, CAS Registry Number 830322-14-0.
r N, Salvito D, Schultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30500437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 27, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belmonte F, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Fryer AD, Gadhia S, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Lavelle M, Liebler DC, Na M, O'Brien D, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadek Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Taurine ameliorates oxidative stress induced inflammation and ER stress mediated testicular damage in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats.
The objective of the present study was to explore the beneficial role of taurine against streptozotocin induced testicular dysfunctions in diabetic male Wister rats and understanding the underlying intricate molecular mechanisms. Exposure to streptozotocin (50 mg kg-1 body weight, i.p., once) elevated blood glucose level, induced testicular histological alterations and reduced testis-to-body weight ratio, serum testosterone, testicular markers and activity of antioxidant enzymes. Generation of ER stress (increased expression of calpain-1, caspase-12 and upregulation of CHOP, GRP78 via eIF2α signaling), translocat...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 26, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Ghosh S, Chowdhury S, Das AK, Sil PC Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Suppressive effects of rare ginsenosides, Rk1 and Rg5, on HMGB1-mediated septic responses.
We examined the effects of SB1 and SB2 on HMGB1-mediated septic response and survival rate in a mouse model of sepsis. SB1 and SB2 were administered after challenge with HMGB1. SB1 and SB2 significantly reduced the release of HMGB1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECS) via the SIRT1-mediated deacetylation of HMGB1. Moreover, SB1 and SB2 suppressed the production of TNF-α and IL-6 and the activation of NF-κB and ERK 1/2 by HMGB1. SB1 and SB2 also inhibited HMGB1-mediated hyperpermeability and leukocyte migration in mice. In addition, treatment with SB1 and ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 26, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Kim JE, Lee W, Yang S, Cho SH, Baek MC, Song GY, Bae JS Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Clinopodium vulgare L. (wild basil) extract and its active constituents modulate cyclooxygenase-2 expression in neutrophils.
This study aimed to analyze the metabolic profile of C. vulgare and search for phenolic molecules with potential biological properties. By application of 1H and 2D-NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) profiling, caffeic, chlorogenic acids and catechin were identified along with a bunch of primary and secondary metabolites. Further, the biological effect of C. vulgare extract (CVE) and its constituents on zymosan-induced COX-2 expression and apoptosis of murine neutrophils have been studied. The CVE, caffeic and chlorogenic acids inhibited zymosan-induced COX-2 expression in bone marrow neutrophils, in vitro and in vivo activat...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 24, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Amirova KM, Dimitrova P, Marchev AS, Aneva IY, Georgiev MI Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, hexanoic acid, 4-methyl-, CAS Registry Number 1561-11-1.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30481571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 24, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, δ-3-carene, CAS Registry Number 13466-78-9.
RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, δ-3-carene, CAS Registry Number 13466-78-9. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Nov 24;: Authors: Api AM, Belmonte F, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Fryer AD, Gadhia S, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Lavelle M, Liebler DC, Na M, O'Brien D, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Schultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30481572 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 24, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belmonte F, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Fryer AD, Gadhia S, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Lavelle M, Liebler DC, Na M, O'Brien D, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadek Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

FEMA GRAS assessment of natural flavor complexes: Citrus-derived flavoring ingredients.
Abstract In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavoring ingredients. This publication is the first in a series and summarizes the evaluation of 54 Citrus-derived NFCs using the procedure outlined in Smith et al. (2005) and updated in Cohen et al. (2018) to evaluate the safety of naturally-occurring mixtures for their intended use as flavoring ingredients. The procedure relies on a complete chemical characterization of each NFC intended for commerce and organization of each NFC...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 24, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Cohen SM, Eisenbrand G, Fukushima S, Gooderham NJ, Guengerich FP, Hecht SS, Rietjens IMCM, Bastaki M, Davidsen JM, Harman CL, McGowen M, Taylor SV Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Eplingiella fruticosa leaf essential oil complexed with β-cyclodextrin produces a superior neuroprotective and behavioral profile in a mice model of Parkinson's disease.
Eplingiella fruticosa leaf essential oil complexed with β-cyclodextrin produces a superior neuroprotective and behavioral profile in a mice model of Parkinson's disease. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Nov 24;: Authors: Beserra Filho JIA, Maria de Macêdo A, Leão AHFF, Bispo JMM, Santos JR, John de Oliveira Melo A, Menezes PP, Cavalcante MD, Araújo AAS, Silva RH, Quintans-Júnior LJ, Ribeiro AM Abstract Evidence indicates that oxidative stress has an important role in the onset and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). Antioxidant agents from natural products have shown neurop...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 24, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Beserra Filho JIA, Maria de Macêdo A, Leão AHFF, Bispo JMM, Santos JR, John de Oliveira Melo A, Menezes PP, Cavalcante MD, Araújo AAS, Silva RH, Quintans-Júnior LJ, Ribeiro AM Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Adverse drug reactions of anticancer drugs derived from natural sources.
Abstract Cancer, a life threatening disease adversely affects huge population worldwide. Naturally derived drug discovery has emerged as a potential pathway in search of anticancers. Natural products-based drugs are generally considered safe, compared to their synthetic counterparts. A systematic review on adverse drugs reactions (ADRs) of the anticancer natural products has not been performed till date. We reviewed anticancer drugs, derived from plants, microbes and marine sources with their mechanistic action and reported ADRs. PubMed, ScienceDirect and Scopus were searched through Boolean information retrieval ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 21, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Tewari D, Rawat P, Singh PK Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Chemical-specific maximum allowable levels for pesticide residues in dietary supplements.
Abstract Dietary supplements are regulated by the U.S. FDA as a subset of foods. Most botanical dietary ingredients do not have pesticide tolerances, resulting in the enforcement of zero tolerance or general maximum residue limits (GMRL), rather than utilizing science-informed tolerances. In the current study, chemical-specific maximum allowable levels (MALs) were derived for 185 pesticides by converting existing, authoritative-body human health effects criteria. MALs were derived for 96% of pesticides using criteria established by the U.S. EPA. If multiple authoritative-bodies had established human health effects...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 20, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Adams RE, Brickel JA, Bhat VS Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Presence of unreported carcinogens, Aflatoxins and their hydroxylated metabolites, in industrialized Oaxaca cheese from Mexico City.
eja F Abstract Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. The fungi produce these AFs in cereals, oilseeds and spices. AFs have damaging effects on all organisms, including humans, and their symptoms can be classified as acute (vomiting, hemorrhage and death) or chronic (immunodepression, Reye syndrome, Kwashiorkor, teratogenesis, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and various cancers). Basic AFs (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2) are metabolized in the liver or by microbes that produce hydroxylated metabolites (AFM1, AFM2, and AFP1) and aflatoxicol (AFL), soluble ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 20, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Carvajal-Moreno M, Vargas-Ortiz M, Hernández-Camarillo E, Ruiz-Velasco S, Rojo-Calleja F Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Aflatoxin B1: A review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food, occupational exposure, and detoxification methods.
Abstract Aflatoxins are a class of carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus fungi and are known to contaminate a large portion of the world's food supply. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most potent of these compounds and has been well-characterized to lead to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans and animals. This review focuses on the metabolism of AFB1, including epoxidation and DNA adduction, as it concerns the initiation of cancer and the underlying mechanisms. The link between AFB1 consumption and HCC is also discussed including synergistic interactions with the hepatitis B virus. Tox...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 20, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Rushing BR, Selim MI Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Editorial: Mechanism of mycotoxins.
PMID: 30468842 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 20, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Font G Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2-methylbutyl butyrate, CAS Registry Number 51115-64-1.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30465896 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 19, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Ganoderma tsugae induced ROS-independent apoptosis and cytoprotective autophagy in human chronic myeloid leukemia cells.
This study used ethanol-extracted Ganoderma tsugae (GT) and examined its antitumor activities on human chronic myeloid leukemia cells as well as its molecular mechanism of action. Treatment with GT (200-400 μg/mL) significantly reduced cell viability and caused G2/M arrest in K562 cells. In addition, GT induced mitochondrial and death receptor mediated apoptosis, correlated with DNA fragmentation, followed by cytochrome c release, caspase-3/8/9 activation, PARP cleavage, Fas activation, Bid cleavage, and Bax/Bcl-2 dysregulation. Cytoprotective autophagy was found to be induced by GT, as was revealed by increased LC3...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 19, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Hseu YC, Shen YC, Kao MC, Mathew DC, Karuppaiya P, Li ML, Yang HL Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Preventive role of Pycnogenol ® against the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in diabetic rats.
Preventive role of Pycnogenol® against the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in diabetic rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 Nov 19;: Authors: Aydın S, Bacanlı M, Anlar HG, Çal T, Arı N, Bucurgat ÜÜ, Başaran AA, Başaran N Abstract Diabetes mellitus, a complex progressive metabolic disorder, leads to some oxidative stress related complications. Pycnogenol® (PYC), a plant extract obtained from Pinus pinaster, has been suggested to be effective in many diseases including diabetes, cancer, inflammatory and immune system disorders. The mechanisms underlying the e...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 19, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Aydın S, Bacanlı M, Anlar HG, Çal T, Arı N, Bucurgat ÜÜ, Başaran AA, Başaran N Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, linalyl phenylacetate, CAS Registry Number 7143-69-3.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30465899 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 19, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Safety assessment of EPA+DHA canola oil by fatty acid profile comparison to various edible oils and fat-containing foods and a 28-day repeated dose toxicity study in rats.
Abstract The omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are recognized for their health-promoting qualities. Marine fish and fish oil currently provide the main sources of EPA and DHA for human consumption. An alternative plant-based source of EPA and DHA is provided by EPA + DHA canola event LBFLFK (LBFLFK). A comparative analysis and a 28-day toxicity study assessed the safety of LBFLFK refined, bleached, and deodorized (RBD) oil. Thirty-one different commercially-obtained fat and oil samples were tested, and principal component ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 19, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Andre C, Buesen R, Riffle B, Wandelt C, Sottosanto JB, Marxfeld H, Strauss V, van Ravenzwaay B, Lipscomb EA Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

The azole fungicide tebuconazole affects human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 expression by an aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent pathway.
This study aimed to characterize the ability of tebuconazole to activate gene expression via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Results demonstrate a statistically significant induction of the AHR target genes CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in HepG2 and HepaRG human liver cells in vitro at concentrations corresponding to tebuconazole tissue levels reached under subtoxic conditions in vivo. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 induction was abolished in the presence of an AHR antagonist or in AHR-knockout HepaRG cells, substantiating the importance of the AHR for the observed effects. Although the results indicate that tebuconazole is a weak inducer of ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 17, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Knebel C, Heise T, Zanger UM, Lampen A, Marx-Stoelting P, Braeuning A Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, octahydro-4,7-methano-1H-indenemethyl formate, CAS Registry Number 68039-78-1.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30458267 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 17, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Plumbagin from a tropical pitcher plant (Nepenthes alata Blanco) induces apoptotic cell death via a p53-dependent pathway in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.
This study thus identifies a new anticancer mechanism of plumbagin against p53-dependent breast cancer cells and suggests a novel strategy for overcoming of breast cancer therapy. PMID: 30458268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 17, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: De U, Son JY, Jeon Y, Ha SY, Park YJ, Yoon S, Ha KT, Choi WS, Lee BM, Kim IS, Kwak JH, Kim HS Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Uncertainty surrounding the mechanism and safety of the post-harvest fungicide fludioxonil.
Abstract Fludioxonil is a phenylpyrrole pesticide that is applied to fruit and vegetable crops post-harvest to minimize losses to mold, both during transport and at point of sale. Its effectiveness is reflected in the dramatic increase in its production/usage since its introduction in 1994, an increase that has peaked in recent years as it became licenced for use abroad. Recently, doubts as to the nature of its mechanism of action have been raised. Given that the pesticide has long been known to induce stress intermediates in target and non-target organisms alike, the lack of a firmly established mechanism might b...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 17, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Brandhorst TT, Klein BS Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, CAS Registry Number 7452-79-1.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30458270 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 17, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, methyl isobutyrate, CAS Registry Number 547-63-7.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30458271 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 17, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, citronellyl phenylacetate, CAS Registry Number 139-70-8.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30452997 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 16, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, pentyl phenylacetate, CAS Registry Number 5137-52-0.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30452998 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 16, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, methyl isovalerate, CAS Registry Number 556-24-1.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30452999 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 16, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, ethyl trans-2-butenoate, CAS registry number 623-70-1.
r N, Salvito D, Schultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30453000 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 16, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belmonte F, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Fryer AD, Gadhia S, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Lavelle M, Liebler DC, Na M, O'Brien D, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadek Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Citronellol, a monoterpene alcohol with promising pharmacological activities - A systematic review.
or LJ Abstract Many diseases, such as inflammatory and central nervous system disorders, currently have a limited number of effective side-effect free treatments. Citronellol (CT) is a monoterpene alcohol present in the essential oil of several plants used in cooking and traditional medicine, such as those of the genus Cymbopogon and Citrus, with pharmacological activities already described in the literature. The aim of this review was to summarize the pharmacological activities already attributed to CT that could be used in treatments for humans. The databases PubMed, MedLine, Scopus, Lilacs and Scielo were searc...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 16, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Santos PL, Matos JPSCF, Picot L, Almeida JRGS, Quintans JSS, Quintans-Júnior LJ Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, isononyl acetate (isomer unspecified), CAS Registry Number 40379-24-6.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30453002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 16, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

3-Monochloropropane-1, 2-diol causes irreversible damage to reproductive ability independent of hormone changes in adult male rats.
This study may provide a novel perspective for characterizing the ongoing risk of exposure to 3-MCPD. PMID: 30453003 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 16, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Xing HZ, Fang B, Pang GF, Ren FZ Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM Fragrance ingredient safety assessment, butyl benzoate, CAS registry number 136-60-7.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 30453004 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - November 16, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research