Low-dose doxorubicin with carotenoids selectively alters redox status and upregulates oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
Abstract The combination of carotenoids and doxorubicin (DOX) selectively alters oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in breast cancer cells. Primarily, cytotoxic efficiency of carotenoids (β-carotene, BC; lutein, LUT; astaxanthin, AST; or fucoxanthin, FUCO) either with or without a minimal cytotoxic dose of DOX was evaluated in MCF-7 (0.12 μM) and MDA-MB-231 cells (0.28 μM). The higher cell growth inhibition of BC and/or LUT with DOX was selected for testing in further cell-based assays. Low-dose DOX significantly enhanced cytotoxicity in carotenoid (1 μM) or carotenoid (20 &...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 16, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Vijay K, Sowmya PR, Arathi BP, Shilpa S, Shwetha HJ, Raju M, Baskaran V, Lakshminarayana R Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

The role of apoptosis in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity.
Abstract Although necrosis is recognized as the main mode of cell death induced by acetaminophen (APAP) overdose in animals and humans, more recently an increasing number of publications, especially in the herbal medicine and dietary supplement field, claim an important contribution of apoptotic cell death in the pathophysiology. However, most of these conclusions are based on parameters that are not specific for apoptosis. Therefore, the objective of this review was to re-visit the key signaling events of receptor-mediated apoptosis and APAP-induced programmed necrosis and critically analyze the parameters that a...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 16, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Jaeschke H, Duan L, Akakpo JY, Farhood A, Ramachandran A Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

A systematic review and meta-analysis of metal concentrations in canned tuna fish in Iran and human health risk assessment.
und G Abstract Human consumption of fish protein, including canned tuna fish, is increasing steadily worldwide. However, there are some concerns about the potential exposure to elevated concentrations of metals in canned tuna fish. Several studies have been conducted in Iran regarding the concentration of metals in seafood, including copper (Cu), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), tin (Sn), and cadmium (Cd) in canned tuna fish. The main aim of this study was to gather data from existing papers and to perform a meta-analysis of the pooled concentr...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 15, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Rahmani J, Fakhri Y, Miri A, Shahsavani A, Bahmani Z, Urbina MA, Chirumbolo S, Keramati H, Moradi B, Bay A, Bjørklund G Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Genotoxic alkenylbenzene flavourings, a contribution to risk assessment.
Abstract Alkenylbenzenes, such as estragole, myristicin and eugenol, are present is several flavourings, functional foods, plant food supplements (PFS) and in complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) including herbal medicines. The increase in consumption in functional foods observed worldwide requires a strict analysis of the scientific validity of their benefits and risk-benefit ratio associated with their intake. Some instances of acute toxicity have been reported associated with the use of herbal medicines and PFS, in particular because quality control is poor, and this poses a risk especially in internet...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 15, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Martins C, Rueff J, Rodrigues AS Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Toxicological assessment of epinephrine and norepinephrine by analog approach.
Abstract Epinephrine and norepinephrine have been used in the management of anaphylactic reactions and cardiac resuscitation, along with treatment of asthma and glaucoma extensively, but their toxicological profiles are not yet completed. Based on this circumstance, various toxicological endpoints of epinephrine and norepinephrine were explored. Since there is a paucity of some endpoints' data, readacross was applied to fill the data gaps using analog approach. Along with structural similarity, biological and mechanistic plausibility were also considered in analog selection. The similarity justification and suppor...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 15, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Aydın A, Tugcu G Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

The ameliorative effects of boron against acrylamide-induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and metabolic changes in rats.
Abstract Acrylamide (ACR) is a hazardous substance associated with the accumulation of excessive reactive oxygen species and causes oxidative stress. Presence of ACR in foods leads to public health concerns due to its known neurotoxic, genotoxic, and carcinogenic effects. The present study investigated the ameliorative effects of boron (B) against ACR exposed rats. Forty Wistar albino male rats, fed with low-boron diet, were randomly and equally allocated into 5 groups. The control group was orally treated with physiological saline as placebo, the second group was orally given 15 mg/kg ACR. The other groups were...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 15, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Acaroz U, Ince S, Arslan-Acaroz D, Gurler Z, Kucukkurt I, Demirel HH, Arslan HO, Varol N, Zhu K Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Micronucleus induction and cell cycle alterations produced by deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives in individual and combined exposure on HepG2 cells.
iz MJ PMID: 29908960 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 14, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Juan-García A, Taroncher M, Font G, Ruiz MJ Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Investigation of patulin and citrinin in grape must and wine from grapes naturally contaminated by strains of Penicillium expansum.
Abstract Twenty three strains of Penicillium expansum, as a predominant species, were isolated from 23 (92%) out of 25 grape samples of 17 different grape varieties. The results of the identification of P. expansum strains were confirmed by a PCR method. Most of the isolates of P. expansum (21/23, 91%), when tested for toxigenicity, were bi-toxigenic: they produced citrinin (CIT) and particularly high amounts of patulin (PAT). A validated UPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of PAT and CIT was applied. The limits of quantification (LOQ) for PAT and CIT in grape must and toxigenicity testing samples were 100 and...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 13, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Ostry V, Malir F, Cumova M, Kyrova V, Toman J, Grosse Y, Pospichalova M, Ruprich J Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Chitosan extracted from marine biowaste mitigates staphyloxanthin production and biofilms of Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Abstract Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of biofilm-associated and indwelling device related infections. The present study explores the anti-virulent and antibiofilm potency of chitosan extracted from the shells of the marine crab Portunus sanguinolentus against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The chemical characterization results revealed that the extracted chitosan (EC) has structural analogy to that of a commercial chitosan (CC). The extracted chitosan was found to be effective in reducing the staphyloxanthin pigment, a characteristic virulence feature of MRS...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 13, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Rubini D, Banu SF, Vedahari BN, Ramyadevi D, Gowrishankar S, Karutha Pandian S, Nithyanand P Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential oil on the growth and citrinin production of Penicillium citrinum in culture media and cheese.
Abstract The effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss Essential oil (EO) on the growth, spore production, and citrinin production of Penicellium citrinum PTCC 5304 in the culture media as well as Iranian ultra-filtered white cheese in brine was investigated. Radial growth and spore production on the potato dextrose agar (PDA) were effectively inhibited by EO in a dose-dependent manner. At 200 ppm, the radial growth and sporulation declined by 92% and 100%, respectively. The growth was completely prevented at 400 ppm of EO on PDA and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the oil was estimated at 400 ppm. Fu...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 13, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Mohajeri FA, Misaghi A, Gheisari H, Basti AA, Amiri A, Ghalebi SR, Derakhshan Z, Tafti RD Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Cytotoxic effects induced by patulin, deoxynivalenol and toxin T2 individually and in combination in hepatic cells (HepG2).
iz MJ Abstract Patulin (PAT), deoxynivalenol (DON) and toxin T-2 (T-2) are mycotoxins distributed worldwide in food and feed. Cytotoxicity of the three mycotoxins individually or in combination in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells was evaluated by MTT assay over 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure. The concentration ranges used were 0.625-15 μM for DON, 1.25-50 nM for T-2 and 0.45-7.5 μM for PAT. The IC50 values obtained ranged from 9.30 to 2.53 μM, from 33.69 to 44.37 nM and from 2.66 to 1.17 μM for DON, T-2 and PAT, respectively. The most cytotoxic mycotoxin to HepG2 cells w...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 12, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Fernández-Blanco C, Elmo L, Waldner T, Ruiz MJ Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Acteoside protects against 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic neuron damage via Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway.
This study demonstrated that acteoside could penetrate BBB and have potential therapeutic value for Parkinson's disease by activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway and attenuating the oxidative stress. PMID: 29906474 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 12, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Li M, Zhou F, Xu T, Song H, Lu B Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

The prevalence of aflatoxin M1 in milk of Middle East region: A systematic review, meta-analysis and probabilistic health risk assessment.
Abstract The current investigation was undertaken to take a review of the performed studies regarding the concentration and prevalence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) of the consumed cow milk in the Middle East. In this context, all available studies published in databases include Science Direct, PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science among 1995 to December 2017; were screened accordingly. Also, the carcinogenic risk was estimated by calculating hazard index (HI) using the Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The result of conducted meta-analysis for 49 articles containing 7484 data indicated that the rank order of type of milk based...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 11, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Rahmani J, Alipour S, Miri A, Fakhri Y, Riahi SM, Keramati H, Moradi M, Amanidaz N, Pouya RH, Bahmani Z, Khaneghah AM Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rg3 disrupts actin-cytoskeletal integrity leading to contractile dysfunction and apoptotic cell death in vascular smooth muscle.
Abstract Ginseng and its major active ingredients, ginsenosides are widely consumed for various health benefits including the prevention or treatment of cancer without any special precaution. Previously, we demonstrated that Rg3, one of ginsenosides with a potent anti-cancer activity, may cause contractile dysfunction, and structural damage against normal vascular smooth muscle through apoptotic cell death. However, mechanism underlying the vascular toxicity of Rg3 was not fully elucidated. Here we demonstrated that the vascular toxicity of Rg3 occurs through actin disruption and Bmf-initiated mitochondrial apopto...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 8, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Jung Y, Kim K, Bian Y, Ngo T, Bae ON, Lim KM, Chung JH Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Glyphosate induces growth of estrogen receptor alpha positive cholangiocarcinoma cells via non-genomic estrogen receptor/ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
Abstract Previous studies showed that glyphosate stimulates breast cancer cell growth via estrogen receptors. The present study investigated the effect of glyphosate on the estrogen signaling pathway involved in the induction of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell growth. HuCCA-1, RMCCA-1 and MMNK-1 were chosen for comparison. The effects of glyphosate on cell growth, cell cycle and molecular signaling pathways were measured. The results showed that HuCCA-1 cells expressed estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), while ERα was not detected in RMCCA-1 and MMNK-1 cells. ERα was mostly expressed in cytoplasmic ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 8, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Sritana N, Suriyo T, Kanitwithayanun J, Somgvasin BH, Thiantanawat A, Satayavivad J Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

In vivo antitumor activity of by-products of Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. Rich in medium and long chain fatty acids evaluated through oxidative stress markers, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction.
Abstract Antiinflammatory and antitumor activity has been reported in Passiflora edulis (yellow passion fruit) nevertheless the intrinsic mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. The present study aimeds to perform a comparison between the antitumor activity involving the crude extract (HCE) and the supercritical fluid extract with ethanol as co-solvent (SFEtOH) from P. edulis f. flavicarpa Deg. The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated in MCF-7 cells, while the in vivo antitumor activity was assessed in male Balb/c mice inoculated with Ehrlich carcinoma cells. SFEtOH exhibited higher antitumor activity comp...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 7, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Mota NSRS, Kviecinski MR, Zeferino RC, de Oliveira DA, Bretanha LC, Ferreira SRS, Micke GA, Filho DW, Pedrosa RC, Ourique F Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Safety assessment of the Cistanche tubulosa health food product Memoregain ®: Genotoxicity and 28-day repeated dose toxicity test.
In this study, we aimed to assess the genotoxic and oral toxic effects of the Cistanche tubulosa health food product Memoregain® using in vitro and in vivo tests. Ames tests using five strains of Salmonella typhimurium showed no signs of increased reverse mutation upon exposure to Memoregain® up to a concentration of 5 mg/plate. Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells to Memoregain® did not increase the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in vitro. Moreover, Memoregain® treatment did not affect the proportions of immature to total erythrocytes or the number of micronuclei in the immature erythrocy...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 7, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Liao PL, Li CH, Tse LS, Kang JJ, Cheng YW Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Acute and subchronic toxicities of the ethanol and hot-water extracts from Chinese sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill.) fruits by oral administration in rats.
Abstract In the present work, acute and subchronic toxicities of the ethanol and hot-water extracts from Rhus chinensis Mill. fruits were performed by oral administration in pathogen-free SD rats. Acute toxicity study was performed at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days. And subchronic toxicity test was conducted by daily oral administration of those two extracts at doses of 312, 625, 1250 and 2500 mg/kg for 30 days. Acute toxicity study showed that the LD50 of the ethanol and hot-water extracts were over 5000 mg /kg. The results of subchronic toxicity showed that no significant adverse effect of t...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 7, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Wu Z, Ma Y, Zhao L, Cai S, Cheng G Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Can nonalcoholic beer, silicon and hops reduce the brain damage and behavioral changes induced by aluminum nitrate in young male Wistar rats?
J, González-Muñoz MJ Abstract Aluminum consumption has been associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that regular beer intake reverses the pro-oxidant and inflammatory statuses induced by aluminum nitrate intoxication. This paper aims to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of non-alcoholic beer (NABeer), silicon or hops, as well as their effect on animal behavior (e.g. curiosity, immobilization, rearing, grooming, swimming) and brain antioxidant enzyme (activity and gene expression) and anti-inflammatory status i...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 7, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Merino P, Santos-López JA, Mateos CJ, Meseguer I, Garcimartín A, Bastida S, Sánchez-Muniz FJ, Benedí J, González-Muñoz MJ Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Implication of dietary phthalates in breast cancer. A systematic review.
Abstract Phthalates are endocrine-disrupting for their ability to change the normal function of human endocrine system. Their action on the reproductive system, both on male and female, is the most one investigated by international scientific community. The aim of this systematic review was to gather the available information regarding the role of phthalates on breast carcinogenesis focusing our research in their intake through the diet. Research was performed according the PRISMA methodology and 25 scientific articles published between 2000 and 2018 were selected. The main source of exposure to phthalates is diet...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 7, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Zuccarello P, Conti GO, Cavallaro F, Copat C, Cristaldi A, Fiore M, Ferrante M Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Highly sensitive SERS immunosensor for the detection of amantadine in chicken based on flower-like gold nanoparticles and magnetic bead separation.
Abstract Here we report a novel ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) immunosensor based on the flower-like gold nanoparticles (AuNFs) and magnetic bead separation for homogeneous detection of amantadine (AMD) in chicken just by one-step. The 5, 5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoicacid) (DTNB) modified AuNFs and N-(1-adamantyl) ethylenediamine (AEDA) conjugated denatured BSA (AEDA-dBSA) was used as the SERS nanoprobe. And the capture probe was anti-AMD monoclonal antibody (mAbs)-functionalized magnetic beads (MNBs-mAbs). An immunoreaction occurred between free AMD and SERS nanoprobe for competing limited...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 6, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Ma M, Sun J, Chen Y, Wen K, Wang Z, Shen J, Zhang S, Ke Y, Wang Z Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Multiple mycotoxin exposure of infants and young children via breastfeeding and complementary/weaning foods consumption in Ecuadorian highlands.
Abstract The dietary exposure to mycotoxins in Ecuadorian children aged 0-23 months (320 rural and 603 urban) was evaluated based on the intake of breast milk and staple cereals used as complementary/weaning foods. A probabilistic distribution approach by first order Monte Carlo simulation was adopted to assess the locally occurring mycotoxins (aflatoxins M1 and B1 in breast milk, ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in wheat noodles and oat flakes, and HT-2 toxin in polished rice). Overall, exposure was modest but higher for rural children due to their monotonous diet. Aflatoxin exposure by breast milk intake were of ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 5, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Ortiz J, Jacxsens L, Astudillo G, Ballesteros A, Donoso S, Huybregts L, De Meulenaer B Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Subchronic dietary exposure to ethoxyquin dimer induces microvesicular steatosis in male BALB/c mice.
lash;rnsrud R, Madsen L Abstract The use of the synthetic antioxidant ethoxyquin (6-Ethoxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline; EQ) in animal feed results in the presence of EQ residues and metabolites, including the EQ dimer (1,8'-Bi(6-ethoxy-2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline); EQDM) in animal food products. To investigate the toxicity and dose-response of dietary exposure to EQDM, male BALB/c mice were exposed to one of six dietary doses of EQDM, ranging from 0.015 to 518 mg/kg body weight/day for 90 days. Doses above 10 mg/kg body weight/day affected whole body lipid metabolism resulting in increased li...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 5, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Bernhard A, Rasinger JD, Wisløff H, Kolbjørnsen Ø, Myrmel LS, Berntssen MHG, Lundebye AK, Ørnsrud R, Madsen L Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Achillea millefolium L. hydroethanolic extract inhibits growth of human tumor cell lines by interfering with cell cycle and inducing apoptosis.
Abstract The cell growth inhibitory activity of the hydroethanolic extract of Achillea millefolium was studied in human tumor cell lines (NCI-H460 and HCT-15) and its mechanism of action was investigated. The GI50 concentration was determined with the sulforhodamine B assay and cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry following incubation with PI or Annexin V FITC/PI, respectively. The expression levels of proteins involved in cell cycle and apoptosis were analyzed by Western blot. The extracts were characterized regarding their phenolic composition by LC-DAD-ESI/MS. 3,5-O-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, fo...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 5, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Pereira JM, Peixoto V, Teixeira A, Sousa D, Barros L, Ferreira ICFR, Vasconcelos MH Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Indole alkaloids and anti-nociceptive mechanisms of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. flower methanolic extract.
Abstract Flowers of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br., (Apocynaceae) are used in traditional medicine for analgesic property. The present study was performed to isolate the active principles and investigate the mechanisms involved in the anti-nociception caused by T. divaricata flower methanolic extract (TDFME). The extract in the doses of 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o was subjected to various assays in acetic acid induced abdominal writhing and formalin induced paw licking test models. Naloxone, L-Arginine, Glibenclamide and Glutamate were used as inducers while Morphine, L-NAME, Methylene blue and Aspirin ser...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 5, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Ali Khan MS, Misbah, Ahmed N, Arifuddin M, Rehman A, Ling MP Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Evaluation of flavourings potentially used in a heated tobacco product: Chemical analysis, in vitro mutagenicity, genotoxicity, cytotoxicity and in vitro tumour promoting activity.
This study was conducted to determine whether the inclusion of potential flavourings in the THP would add to the levels of toxicants in the emissions or alter in vitro responses. Levels of measured toxicants were similar in the flavoured and unflavoured Neostik emissions and significantly less than emissions from the reference cigarette, 3R4F. No mutagenicity was observed with the Neostiks in the Ames test or in the mouse lymphoma assay. There was evidence of a weak genotoxic response in the in vitro micronucleus test using V79 cells from both Neostiks and these responses were less than 3R4F. They did not show tumour-promo...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 4, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Crooks I, Neilson L, Scott K, Reynolds L, Oke T, Forster M, Meredith C, McAdam K, Proctor C Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Genotoxicity evaluation of the naturally-derived food colorant, gardenia blue, and its precursor, genipin.
Abstract Gardenia blue is widely used in Eastern Asia as a natural food colorant. To evaluate the genotoxic potential of gardenia blue, as well as genipin, the natural starting material from which it is produced, a GLP-compliant test battery was conducted according to OECD guidelines. No evidence of mutagenicity of gardenia blue was detected in a 5-strain bacterial reverse mutation assay, with or without metabolic activation; an equivocal response for genipin occurred in S. typhimurium TA97a without metabolic activation. In in vitro micronucleus and chromosome aberration assays, genipin tested positive under some ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 4, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Hobbs CA, Koyanagi M, Swartz C, Davis J, Maronpot R, Recio L, Hayashi SM Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Toxic effects of zearalenone on gametogenesis and embryonic development: A molecular point of review.
In this study, we systematically introduced the toxic effects of zearalenone on gametogenesis and embryonic development in animals, and focused on the molecular pathways, which providing a basis for further prevention of zearalenone-induced injury. PMID: 29864477 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 1, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Yang D, Jiang X, Sun J, Li X, Li X, Jiao R, Peng Z, Li Y, Bai W Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Review of animal studies on the cardiovascular effects of caffeine.
Abstract To address the safety of caffeine levels in energy drinks, we previously conducted a detailed evaluation of epidemiology studies in humans consuming coffee/caffeine, in which we assessed multiple health effects (unpublished). To further evaluate the effects of caffeine on the cardiovascular system, we turned to animal studies, which often use pure caffeine (not coffee), frequently at higher doses than those typical of human exposure. We identified key scientific studies and reviews in which effects of coffee or caffeine were evaluated in animals by conducting a comprehensive PubMed literature search and a...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 1, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Beyera LA, Hixona ML Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-decahydro-5,9-methanobenzocycloocten-11-one, CAS Registry Number 22690-27-3.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 29864479 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 1, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Assessing exposure factors in the smartphone generation: Design and evaluation of a smartphone app that collects use patterns of cosmetics and household chemicals.
Abstract Exposure factors form the basis of reliable exposure estimates. The growing demand for population-specific exposure factors for complex exposure models is challenged by continuously declining response rates in surveys: Current survey methods clearly need a boost by user-friendly and efficient technologies. We compared the performance of a smartphone app to a paper-based questionnaire based on a survey on exposure factors that offered the choice between both methods and based on an observational study that investigated the performance of both methods. The development costs for smartphone app and paper-base...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 31, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Natalie VG, Elena GH, Charles B, Klaus F, Remo F, Alexander I Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Regulation of redox status in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells by blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) juice, cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon A.) juice and cyanidin.
cute;mez-Serranillos MP Abstract Blueberry and cranberry are fruits with high polyphenol content, particularly anthocyanins. As cyanidin derivatives have been identified as one of the most representative polyphenols in berry juices, cyanidin has been designated for a better comparison and understanding of the potential neuroprotection of juices obtained from two Vaccinium species. Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were previously treated with different concentrations of lyophilized blueberry juice, cranberry juice or cyanidin for 24 h and oxidative stress was then generated with hydrogen peroxide (100 μM) for 30...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 31, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Cásedas G, González-Burgos E, Smith C, López V, Gómez-Serranillos MP Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, nonane, 1,1-diethoxy-, CAS Registry Number 54815-13-3.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 29860018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 31, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

The effects of Mucuna pruriens on the renal oxidative stress and transcription factors in high-fructose-fed rats.
This study showed that the adverse effects of high fructose were alleviated by M. pruriens supplementation via modulation of the expression of kidney nuclear transcription factors in rats fed high fructose diet. PMID: 29860019 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 31, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Ulu R, Gozel N, Tuzcu M, Orhan C, Yiğit İP, Dogukan A, Telceken H, Üçer Ö, Kemeç Z, Kaman D, Juturu V, Sahin K Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Erratum to "Altered cytokine profile under control of the serotonergic system determines the regulation of CYP2C11 and CYP3A isoforms" [Food Chem. Toxicol. 116 Part B (2018) 369-378].
Erratum to "Altered cytokine profile under control of the serotonergic system determines the regulation of CYP2C11 and CYP3A isoforms" [Food Chem. Toxicol. 116 Part B (2018) 369-378]. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 May 30;118:471-472 Authors: Kot M, Daujat-Chavanieu M PMID: 29859425 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 30, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Kot M, Daujat-Chavanieu M Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content of edible vegetable oils in Iran: A risk assessment study.
Abstract Totally forty samples (23 brands) of different types of edible oils including frying oil (n = 14), blended oil (n = 13), sunflower oil (n = 6), corn oil (n = 5) and canola oil (n = 2) from Iran's market were analyzed for PAHs content by a High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. Also, the Health risk assessment in the adults and children consumers were estimated by the calculating margin of exposure (MOE) and the incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) in the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method. Approximately all of the sa...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 29, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Yousefi M, Shemshadi G, Khorshidian N, Ghasemzadeh-Mohammadi V, Fakhri Y, Hosseini H, Khaneghah AM Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Silymarin recovers 6-hydroxydopamine-induced motor deficits in mice.
PMID: 29852213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 28, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: de Freitas CM, Krum BN, Chiappinotto Ceretta AP, Schaffer LF, de Moraes Reis E, Schwerz JP, Barbosa CP, Soares FA, Fachinetto R Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Sterigmatocystin: A mycotoxin to be seriously considered.
cute;ndez H Abstract Sterigmatocystin is a carcinogenic compound that affects several species of crops and several species of experimental animals. The sterigmatocystin biosynthetic pathway is the best known and most studied. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies sterigmatocystin in the Group 2B. Three groups of analytical methods to determine sterigmatocystin in food can be found: chromatographic, ELISA immunoassays and chemical sensors. In addition, sterigmatocystin is a precursor of aflatoxin B1 in those cases where cereals and/or food are contaminated with fungi capable of producing aflato...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 26, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Díaz Nieto CH, Granero AM, Zon MA, Fernández H Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Parameters affecting the exposure to furfuryl alcohol from coffee.
Abstract Recently, furfuryl alcohol (FFA) was labelled a human potential carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Its alimentary exposure is mostly from coffee since in any other foods the concentrations are significantly lower. The various storage conditions of roasted coffee, the different brewing techniques applied and the bioaccessibility after ingestion are potential parameters that might alter the exposure to FFA from coffee. An 8 weeks stability study at varying temperatures showed that FFA is stable in the ground coffee matrix. Moreover, different brewing techniques extract...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 26, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Albouchi A, Russ J, Murkovic M Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Editorial: Alternative tobacco products: Toxicology and health issues.
PMID: 29842909 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 26, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Kouretas D, Poulas K Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Activation of the p53 pathway with digiferrol isolated from Rubia philippinensis induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy in colon cancer cells.
PMID: 29842910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 26, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: An Y, Quan KT, Gwak J, Ju BG, Na M, Oh S Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Urinary levels of enniatin B and its phase I metabolites: First human pilot biomonitoring study.
, Ritieni A Abstract Enniatins (Enns) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. and are widely distributed contaminants of cereals and derivate products. Among the different identified enniatins, Enn B is the most relevant analogue in cereals in Europe. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the occurrence of Enn B and Enn B phase I metabolites in 300 human urine samples throughout an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) methodology. Three different sample preparation procedures were evaluated and salting-out liquid-liq...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 24, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Rodríguez-Carrasco Y, Izzo L, Gaspari A, Graziani G, Mañes J, Ritieni A Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Cyanidin ameliorates endotoxin-induced myocardial toxicity by modulating inflammation and oxidative stress through mitochondria and other factors.
Abstract Cyanidin, an anthocyanin pigment, demonstrates anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we examined the mechanistic role of cyanidin in endotoxin induced myocardial injury in inflammation and oxidative stress. In lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced myocardial injury model, cyanidin ameliorated cardiac injury (Lactate dehydrogenase or LDH, Creatine Kinase or CK, cardiac troponin I or cTnI and cardiac myosin light chains 1 or cMLC1), cell death (caspase 3 activity and PARP activity), and improved cardiac function (ejection fraction or EF and end diastolic left ventricular inner dimension or LVID). ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 24, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Li F, Lang F, Wang Y, Zhai C, Zhang C, Zhang L, Hao E Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Phytochemicals of herbs and spices: Health versus toxicological effects.
panoglu E Abstract Phytochemicals are bioactive plant compounds that can be used as antimicrobial, antibacterial, anticancer agents and are reported to prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Herbs and spices are rich in phytochemicals and can be consumed or used traditionally for medical or dietary purposes since the ancient times. However, there may be serious health risks for some population groups such as pregnant women and infants in the case of their unconscious and uncontrolled consumption. Several in vivo and in vitro studies related with the toxicological effects of phytochemicals in her...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 23, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Guldiken B, Özkan G, Catalkaya G, Ceylan FD, Yalçınkaya İE, Capanoglu E Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Phytochemicals, pharmacology, clinical application, patents, and products of Amomi fructus.
Abstract Amomi fructus (A. fructus) (Sharen) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine widely used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. It has high medical and economic values, which have been confirmed both in vitro and in vivo studies. This review highlights the phytochemicals, pharmacology, clinical application, patents, and products of A. fructus. More than 100 phytochemicals have been isolated and identified from A. fructus, mainly including volatile oils, saponins, flavonoids, organic acids, inorganic ingredients, and polysaccharides. The main pharmacology of gastrointestinal protection, anti-inflammatory ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 23, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Suo S, Lai Y, Li M, Song Q, Cai J, Zhao J, Yang Q, Lam Ung CO, Hu H Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Comparative study of the effects of cigarette smoke and electronic cigarettes on human gingival fibroblast proliferation, migration and apoptosis.
In this study, human gingival fibroblasts were repeatedly exposed to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and to nicotine-rich (NR) or nicotine-free (NF) e-vapor condensates for 60 min once a day for various time periods. They were then used to perform different analyses. Results indicate that cells exposed to CSC or NR condensates showed an altered morphology and a reduced proliferation rate, as ascertained by MTT and BrdU assays. Fibroblast cultures exposed to either CSC or e-vapor condensates also showed increased levels of TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells, compared to that recorded in the control. Furthermore, the cell scrat...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 22, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Alanazi H, Park HJ, Chakir J, Semlali A, Rouabhia M Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Probabilistic non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risk assessments (Monte Carlo simulation method) of the measured acrylamide content in Tah-dig using QuEChERS extraction and UHPLC-MS/MS.
Abstract A modified "Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe" QuEChERS in combination with Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was optimized for the determination of acrylamide content in different types of tah-dig (rice, bread, and potato). Also, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks (target hazard quotient (THQ) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR)) due to ingestion of acrylamide via tah-dig in the adults and children were assessed by Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) method. The recoveries of acrylamide at five concentration levels...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 21, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Shahrbabki PE, Hajimohammadi B, Shoeibi S, Elmi M, Yousefzadeh A, Conti GO, Ferrante M, Amirahmadi M, Fakhri Y, Khaneghah AM Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Portuguese children dietary exposure to multiple mycotoxins - An overview of risk assessment under MYCOMIX project.
S, Alvito P Abstract Mycotoxins are secondary fungi metabolites that induce acute and chronic toxic effects in humans and animals. Simultaneous contamination of cereal-based products by multiple mycotoxins has been increasingly reported, including in food products usually consumed by children. Although some previous authors assessed the health risk of children exposed to multiple mycotoxins, scarce data are available on the risk associated with the ingestion of multiple mycotoxins through different food products. MYCOMIX, a national funded project, intended to contribute to fill this gap. The present study aimed t...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 21, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Assunção R, Martins C, Vasco E, Jager A, Oliveira C, Cunha S, Fernandes J, Nunes B, Loureiro S, Alvito P Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Chemical study, antioxidant, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective activities of Centaurea cyanus L. petals aqueous extract.
This study aimed to optimise the experimental conditions of extraction of the phytochemical compounds and functional properties of Centaurea cyanus petals. The following parameters were determined: the chemical composition (LC-ESI-MS/MS), the effects of pH on the stability and antioxidant activity of anthocyanins, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, antioxidant activity, anti-hemolytic activity, antimicrobial, anti-hypertensive, and cytotoxic/cytoprotective effect, and the measurements of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Results showed that the temperature and time influenced (p ≤ 0.05) the content of flavon...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 19, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Escher GB, Santos JS, Rosso ND, Marques MB, Azevedo L, do Carmo MAV, Daguer H, Molognoni L, Prado-Silva LD, Sant'Ana AS, da Silva MC, Granato D Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Leaves and stem bark from Allophylus africanus P. Beauv.: An approach to anti-inflammatory properties and characterization of their flavonoid profile.
Andrade PB Abstract The small tree Allophylus africanus, widespread in the African continent, has long been considered valuable, as noted by the number of reports on their multiple medicinal uses. With this work, we aimed to extend the current, and so far restricted, knowledge on the chemical composition of the plant, particularly as source of flavonoids, as well as to assess its potential anti-inflammatory properties. The chemical characterization of the aqueous extract obtained from the leaves allowed the identification and quantitation of 30 flavones, predominantly apigenin derivatives, but also four luteolin ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 19, 2018 Category: Food Science Authors: Ferreres F, Gomes NGM, Valentão P, Pereira DM, Gil-Izquierdo A, Araújo L, Silva TC, Andrade PB Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research