Acute, genetic and sub-chronic toxicities of flaxseed derived Maillard reaction products.
Abstract In present study, the acute, genetic, and sub-chronic toxicities of flaxseed derived Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were investigated. Acute toxicity results showed that the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of MRPs in rats was>15.0 g/kg body weight (BW); whereas, the 50% effective dose (ED50) of MRPs was 12.3 g/kg BW. Ames test demonstrated that the back-mutation colonies for MRPs addition of 5,000 μg/dish was positive, which displayed certain mutagenicity. There were no significant differences in micronucleus rate and sperm deformity rate among different dose groups. The sub-chronic toxicity confirmed...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 13, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Wei CK, Ni ZJ, Thakur K, Liao AM, Hu F, Huang JH, Wei ZJ Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Systemic exposure to Ginkgo biloba extract in male F344/NCrl rats: Relevance to humans.
Abstract Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a popular botanical dietary supplement used worldwide and the safety of use is a public health concern. While GBE is a complex mixture, the terpene trilactones and flavonol glycosides are believed to elicit the pharmacological and/or toxicological effects of GBE. In a National Toxicology Program (NTP) 2-year rodent bioassay with GBE, hepatotoxicity was observed in rodents (≥100 mg/kg in rats, ≥ 200 mg/kg in mice). Subsequently, questions arose about whether or not the GBE used in NTP studies was representative of other GBE products and how rodent doses are related ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 13, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Waidyanatha S, Mutlu E, Gibbs S, Stiffler B, Andre J, Burback B, Rider CV Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Hydrolyzed wheat gluten alleviates deoxynivalenol-induced intestinal injury by promoting intestinal stem cell proliferation and differentiation via upregulation of Wnt/ β-catenin signaling in mice.
In conclusion, HWG alleviates DON-induced intestinal injury by enhancing ISC proliferation and differentiation in a Wnt/β-catenin-dependent manner. PMID: 31202940 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 13, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Zhou JY, Zhang SW, Lin HL, Gao CQ, Yan HC, Wang XQ Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD): A case study applying tiered testing for human health risk assessment.
Abstract Current global efforts are aiming to increase use of mechanistic information in regulatory testing. In tiered testing paradigms, in vitro, in silico, and in vivo studies are employed progressively to identify and classify health hazards, which are then compared against human equivalent doses. We used data from three companion papers on the brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) to conduct a case study on tiered testing. We included ToxCast™ and in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (Tier 1), rat liver transcriptomic (Tier 2), and conventional rat (Tier 3) data. Bioactivity-exposure ratios...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 13, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Gannon AM, Moreau M, Farmahin R, Thomas RS, Barton-Maclaren TS, Nong A, Curran I, Yauk CL Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Targeting pro-senescence mitogen activated protein kinase (Mapk) enzymes with bioactive natural compounds.
s S Abstract Aging is a multifactorial universal process characterized by a gradual decrease in physiological and biochemical functions. Given that life expectancy is on the rise, a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of the aging process is necessary in order to develop anti-aging interventions. Uncontrolled cellular senescence promotes persistent inflammation and accelerates the aging process by decreasing tissue renewal, repair and regeneration. Senescence of immune cells, immunesenescence, is another hallmark of aging. Targeting pro-senescent enzymes increases survival and therefore the lifespan. Alth...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 12, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Cano M, Guerrero-Castilla A, Nabavi SM, Ayala A, Argüelles S Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Occurrence of Bisphenol A and its analogues in some foodstuff marketed in Europe.
Abstract Bisphenol A and its analogues belong to the class of endocrine disrupting chemicals, massively employed by industries to produce polycarbonate and epoxy resins, designed to be in direct contact with foodstuffs. Their leaching from the canned packaging into its content results in food contamination. This review aims at offering a country-specific overview of the occurrence of bisphenols in six main categories of foodstuff marketed in the EU, based on monitoring studies performed in the 27 EU countries for which data are available and prevalently published in the last five years. The general overview of the...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 12, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Russo G, Barbato F, Mita DG, Grumetto L Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Preclinical safety of ginsenoside compound K: Acute, and 26-week oral toxicity studies in mice and rats.
This study evaluated the toxicity of CK as acute and the 26-week repeated-dose. The results of acute toxicity show that CK administered orally to rats and mice did not cause mortality or toxicity at the maximum dosage of 8 g/kg and 10 g/kg, respectively. In the toxicity study for 26-week, rats were administered with CK at doses of 13, 40, or 120 mg/kg, and were observed for 26 weeks and recovery periods of four weeks. Under the conditions, asthenia, hypoactivity, loss of fur and body weight reduction were transiently noticed in males of 120 mg/kg group. Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity also were evident including ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 12, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Gao Y, Wang T, Wang G, Li G, Sun C, Jiang Z, Yang J, Li Y, You Y, Wu X, Sun L, Wang H, Li C, Tian J, Zhu J, Wang K, Cho S Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2-methylbutyric acid, CAS Registry Number 116-53-0.
r N, Salvito D, Schultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 31199989 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 11, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belmonte F, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Fryer AD, Gadhia S, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Lavelle M, Liebler DC, Na M, O'Brien D, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadek Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Ivermectin decreases triglyceride accumulation by inhibiting differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
In conclusion, ivermectin inhibits adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes partially via PPARγ & GlyR-dependent, but not FXR-dependent, pathway. PMID: 31199990 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 11, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Qi W, Clark JM, Suvorov A, Park Y Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2,2,3-trimethylcyclopent-3-enylacetonitrile, CAS Registry Number 15373-31-6.
r N, Salvito D, Schultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 31199991 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 11, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belmonte F, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Fryer AD, Gadhia S, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Lavelle M, Liebler DC, Na M, O'Brien D, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadek Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Exploitation of apple pomace towards extraction of triterpenic acids, antioxidant potential, cytotoxic effects, and inhibition of clinically important enzymes.
Abstract Apple pomace (AP) utilised for analysis of triterpenic acids (TTAs) using HPLC-MS/MS. The methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed high phenolic content with significant antioxidant activity compared to chloroform and n-hexane. AP TTAs; ursolic acid, betulinic acid and maslinic acid showed potent antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory effects. The IC50 values were 13.2-30.8 μg/mL (tyrosinase), 19.6-42.5 μg/mL (xanthine oxidase) and 16.6-38.6 μg/mL (urease) for AP extracts and 8.4-25.8 μg/mL (tyrosinase), 12.6-30.2 μg/mL (xanthine oxidase) and 10.1-28.6 μg/mL (urease) fo...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 11, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Nile SH, Nile A, Liu J, Kim DH, Kai G Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM FRAGRANCE INGREDIENT SAFETY ASSESSMENT, 2-Isobutyl-4-methyltetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ol, CAS registry number 63500-71-0.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 31199993 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 11, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, p-isopropylacetophenone, CAS Registry Number 645-13-6.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 31195069 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 10, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Oxidative stress in testes of rats exposed to n-butylparaben.
This study was aimed at determining if oxidative stress imbalance in testes of rats occurs after n-butylparaben (n-ButP) exposure. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats were subcutaneously treated with n-ButP during one spermatogenic cycle (57 days) at 0 (control-oil), 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg/d with peanut oil as vehicle. A non-vehicle control group was also included. Antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase) and levels of reduced and oxidized glutathione were measured in testes. Lipid peroxidation and H2O2 concentrations were also assessed. Results showed a...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 10, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Schreiber E, Garcia T, Sharma RP, Torrente M, Domingo JL, Gómez M Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, isovaleric acid, CAS Registry Number 503-74-2.
r N, Salvito D, Schultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 31189079 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 9, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belmonte F, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Fryer AD, Gadhia S, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Lavelle M, Liebler DC, Na M, O'Brien D, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadek Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, cyclohexyl butyrate, CAS Registry Number 1551-44-6.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 31189080 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 9, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 4-methyloctanoic acid, CAS Registry Number 54947-74-9.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 31189081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 9, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, p-tolyl 3-methylcrotonate, CAS Registry Number 24700-20-7.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 31185268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 8, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, 2,4-dimethyl-4,4a,5,9b-tetrahydroindeno[1,2-d]-1,3-dioxin, CAS Registry Number 27606-09-3.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 31185269 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 8, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Role of toxicokinetics and alternative testing strategies in pyrrolizidine alkaloid toxicity and risk assessment; state-of-the-art and future perspectives.
Abstract Toxicokinetics influences the toxicity of chemicals. This also holds for 1,2-unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), which need bioactivation to become toxic. Given that only for a limited number of 1,2-unsaturated PAs in vivo toxicity data are available, alternative testing strategies including read-across and quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (QIVIVE) are important. This paper presents how physiologically-based kinetic (PBK) models for the PAs lasiocarpine and riddelliine were developed for rat and human, and used for conversion of in vitro data for toxicity in primary hepatocytes to qua...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 8, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Ning J, Chen L, Rietjens IMCM Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Dietary exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids, brominated flame retardants and health risk assessment in the French infant total diet study.
This study also highlighted that for other PFAAs, toxicological studies are needed to set dietary health-based guidance values, to assess their related health risk. Conversely, dietary exposures to BRFs were much lower than the respective health based guidance values or margins of safety were high enough, and consequently not considered at-risk due to very low contamination of the infant specific foods. PMID: 31185271 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 8, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Rivière G, Jean J, Gorecki S, Hulin M, Kolf-Clauw M, Feidt C, Picard-Hagen N, Vasseur P, Le Bizec B, Sirot V Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Anti-diabetic effect of oligosaccharides from seaweed Sargassum confusum via JNK-IRS1/PI3K signalling pathways and regulation of gut microbiota.
Abstract Brown seaweed Sargassum confusum (C. Agardh) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of oligosaccharides from brown seaweed S. confusum (SCO). The anti-diabetic effect of SCO was evaluated in vivo using high-fat/high-sucrose fed hamsters. Molecular mechanisms of modulating gene expression of specific members of insulin signaling pathways were determined. The components of the intestinal microflora in diabetic animals were also analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing. And it was found th...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 7, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Yang CF, Lai SS, Chen YH, Liu D, Liu B, Ai C, Wan XZ, Gao LY, Chen XH, Zhao C Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Mutagenicity and recombinogenicity evaluation of bupropion hydrochloride and trazodone hydrochloride in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster.
CONCLUSIONS: and recommendations: BHc and THc at high concentrations were toxic, even though their mutagenicity was not dose-related. THc significantly increased the frequency of mutant spots when metabolized, probably as a result of the production of 1-(3'-chlorophenyl) piperazine. BHc was essentially recombinogenic and when metabolized, it became mutagenic. THc was recombinogenic in both crossings. Further studies are needed to clarify the action mechanisms from BHc and THc. PMID: 31176925 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 6, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Naves MPC, de Morais CR, Spanó MA, de Rezende AAA Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

In silico study of the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties of some N-methylanthranilates and their analogs.
Abstract The in silico evaluation for the three previously synthesized compounds (Methyl (MMA), propyl (PMA) and isopropyl (IMA) N-methylanthranilate), MMA and IMA originally found in the leaf essential oil of Choisya ternata, provided a very good confirmation for the in vivo pharmacological results obtained with such compounds for a number of pharmacological targets. This manuscript dealt with their assessment in six pharmacological targets to understanding anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-allergic activities using docking molecular as well as their pharmacokinetics and toxi...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 6, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Izabel da Silva Hage-Melim L, Curtolo Poiani JG, Tomich de Paula da Silva CH, Boylan F Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Chemical identification and antimicrobial potential of essential oil of Piper rivinoides kunth (BETIS-WHITE).
The objective of the present study was: to study the chemical profile of the essential oil of Piper rivinoides (EOPR); to analyze its anti-bacterial and antifungal potential, as well as to evaluate the antifungal and antibiotic-modifying capacity. The chemical constituents were identified by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID), allowing the identification of 7 constituents of a total of 86.99%. E-Isoelemicin was identified as the main constituent of petroleum (40.81%). Clinically relevant MIC results were obtained against fungi in which the inhibitory concentration remained
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 6, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Alves Borges Leal AL, Machado AJT, Bezerra CF, Serra Inácio CE, Rocha JE, Sales DL, de Freitas TS, de Oliveira Almeida W, Amaral WD, Everson da Silva L, Ferriani AP, de Noronha Sales Maia BHL, Bezerra Morais-Braga MF, Barreto HM, Coutinho HDM Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Lay-people's knowledge about toxicology and its principles in eight European countries.
Abstract The procedures of risk assessment related to substances consumed or used by consumers (e.g., food additives, cleaning products) are highly complex and there exists some controversy between experts in regards to the uncertainty linked to it. This contributes to the well documented divergence in experts and lay-people's judgments, particularly for synthetic or man-made chemicals. By investigating lay-people's knowledge gaps and misconceptions related to toxicology, we hope to contribute to facilitating the communication between experts and the lay public. For this, a large-scale survey measuring knowledge o...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 5, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Bearth A, Saleh R, Siegrist M Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Polyunsaturated fatty acids from microalgae Spirulina platensis modulates lipid metabolism disorders and gut microbiota in high-fat diet rats.
Abstract Effects of Spirulina platensis 55% ethanol extract (SPL55) on lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidaemic rats were investigated. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry indicated that SPL55 was enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, serum and liver lipid levels, including total triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, were significantly decreased in hyperlipidaemic rats of SPL55. Analysis of tissue sections showed that SPL55 treatment could markedly inhibit hepatic lipid accumulation and steatosis. M...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 5, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Li TT, Tong AJ, Liu YY, Huang ZR, Wan XZ, Pan YY, Jia RB, Liu B, Chen XH, Zhao C Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

A comparatively study of menaquinone-7 isolated from Cheonggukjang with vitamin K1 and menaquinone-4 on osteoblastic cells differentiation and mineralization.
Abstract The effect of menaquinone-7 isolated from cheonggukjang was comparatively investigated with vitamin K1 and menaquinone-4 on cell differentiation and mineralization of the osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. Results indicated that all vitamin K species significantly increased MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation, cellular alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin synthesis, and calcium deposition in a dose-dependent manner. Menaquinone-4 and menaquinone-7 had more potent effects on calcium deposition than vitamin K1, and their effects were only partly reduced by warfarin (γ-carboxylation inhibitor) treatment, w...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 4, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Wu WJ, Gao H, Jin JS, Ahn BY Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Activation of the p38/MAPK pathway regulates autophagy in response to the CYPOR-dependent oxidative stress induced by zearalenone in porcine intestinal epithelial cells.
In this study, we aimed to find the potential protective mechanism against ZEA ingestion. We found that ZEA induced cell death in IPEC-J2 cells. Meanwhile, the cytoprotective autophagy was activated in ZEA-treated cells. Further studies demonstrated that a p38/MAPK inhibitor down-regulated autophagy and increased cell death compared to those of the controls. Furthermore, ZEA could induce the accumulation of ROS, and eliminating ROS with NAC resulted in a decline in cell death, p38/MAPK phosphorylation, and the expression of LC3-II compared to those of ZEA-group. In addition, cytochrome P450 reductase (CYPOR) was significan...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 4, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Shen T, Miao Y, Ding C, Fan W, Liu S, Lv Y, Gao X, De Boevre M, Yan L, Okoth S, De Saeger S, Song S Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Photoactivation of N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine compromises autophagy in retinal pigmented epithelial cells.
Abstract As a part of the aging process, N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E) accumulates in the retina to activate autophagy in retinal pigmented epithelial cells. However, the effect of A2E photoactivation on autophagy, which is more clinically relevant, still remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of blue light (BL)-activated A2E on autophagy in human retinal pigmented epithelial cells, ARPE-19. A significant increase in LC3-II protein was observed when BL was irradiated on ARPE-19 cells containing A2E. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was examined to verify whether autophagy ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 4, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Jeong SY, Gu X, Jeong KW Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Relationship between faecal microbiota and plasma metabolome in rats fed NK603 and MON810 GM maize from the GMO90+ study.
We report here a faecal microbiota compositional analysis in Wistar rats from the GMO90 + study, which fed glyphosate-tolerant NK603 (+/- Roundup application) and Bt toxin MON810 GM maize for 6 months in comparison to their closest non-GM isogenic lines. We first integrated the faecal microbiota compositional data with results from plasma metabolomics to understand which bacterial species can influence host metabolism. Coriobacteriaceae and Acetatifactor significantly predicted plasma metabolic profile in males, while Bifidobacterium and Ruminococcus were able to predict female plasma metabolites. We then investi...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 3, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Mesnage R, Le Roy CI, Biserni M, Salles B, Antoniou MN Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

White tea - A cost effective alternative to EGCG in fight against benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) induced lung toxicity in SD rats.
This study was designed to elucidate the comparative efficacy of white tea and pure EGCG in containing benzo (a) pyrene (BaP)-induced pulmonary stress. Rats were treated with white tea extract (WT) (1%) and pure EGCG at a dose of 80μg/ml in drinking water on alternate days for 12 weeks (4 weeks prior, during and after BaP treatment). BaP(50 mg/kg b. wt) was administered to rats orally in olive oil twice a week for four weeks. The indices such as stress biomarkers (LPO, PCC & ROS), antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GSH, GST, GR, GPx) activities and lung histoarchitecture were assessed. BaP administration enhanced the ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 1, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Dhatwalia SK, Kumar M, Bhardwaj P, Dhawan DK Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

S-equol glucuronidation in liver and intestinal microsomes of humans, monkeys, dogs, rats, and mice.
Abstract S-equol, an active metabolite of the soy isoflavone daidzein, is mainly metabolized into glucuronide(s) by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in mammals. In the present study, S-equol glucuronidation was examined in the liver and intestinal microsomes of humans, monkeys, dogs, rats, and mice using a kinetic analysis. CLint values for 7- and 4'-glucuronidation by liver microsomes were higher than those by intestinal microsomes in all species. CLint values for total glucuronidation (sum of 7- and 4'-glucuronidation) were rats (7.6) > monkeys (5.8) > mice (4.9) > dogs (2.8) >...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 1, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Isobe T, Ohkawara S, Ochi S, Tanaka-Kagawa T, Hanioka N Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Genotoxicity evaluation of tobacco and nicotine delivery products: Part Two. In vitro micronucleus assay.
In this study, a variety of test matrices from tobacco and nicotine delivery products were assessed against a 3R4F Kentucky reference cigarette using the in vitro micronucleus assay. Testing was conducted using two Chinese hamster cell lines (CHO and V79), and a human lymphoblastoid cell line (TK6), in accordance with established guidelines. Total particulate matter (TPM) from a 3R4F Reference cigarette was compared to an electronic cigarette e-liquid, electronic cigarette TPM and TPM from a commercial tobacco heating product using a standard and an extended treatment condition with recovery period. Cells were assessed wit...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 1, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Thorne D, Leverette R, Breheny D, Lloyd M, McEnaney S, Whitwell J, Clements J, Bombick B, Gaça M Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate induces apoptosis via the PPAR γ/PTEN/AKT pathway in differentiated human embryonic stem cells.
CONCLUSION]: DEHP inhibited cell proliferation, promoted cell cycle arrest, and induced apoptosis through the PPARγ/PTEN/AKT signaling pathway in differentiated human embryonic stem cells. It suggested that DEHP exposure possibly cause reproductive or developmental toxicity in humans through the PPARγ signaling pathway. PMID: 31163220 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 1, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Fang H, Fang W, Cao H, Luo S, Cong J, Liu S, Pan F, Jia X Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rg3 can induce the procoagulant activity of erythrocytes through phosphatidylserine exposure via hemolysis.
Abstract Ginseng and its active gradient, ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), are widely used for a variety of health benefits, but concerns over their misuses are increasing. Previously, it has been reported that Rg3 can cause hemolysis, but its health outcome remains unknown. Here, we demonstrated that Rg3 could promote the procoagulant activity of erythrocytes through the process of hemolysis, ultimately leading to increased thrombosis. In freshly isolated human erythrocytes, Rg3 caused pore formation and fragmentation of the erythrocyte membrane. Confocal microscopy observation and flow cytometric analysis revealed that re...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 1, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Bian Y, Kim K, Ngo T, Shin S, Bae ON, Lim KM, Chung JH Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Dietary CCPS from bitter gourd attenuates sodium arsenite induced female reproductive ailments cum infertility in wistar rats: anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic role.
This study confirmed the up-regulation of uterine pro-apoptotic/ apoptotic proteins caspase-3, poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), phospho p53 and Bax, followed by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and protein Kinase B (AKT) signaling pathway along with uterine tissue regeneration in As3+ exposed rats. Oral CCPS attenuated the above apoptotic expressional changes significantly and dietary CCPS ensured successful fertility with the birth of healthy pups in lieu of infertile condition in As3+ fed rats. Moreover, this study also supports that CCPS treatment attenuated the As3+ toxicity by modu...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 1, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Perveen H, Dey A, Nilavar NM, Chandra GK, Islam SS, Chattopadhyay S Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Cytotoxic activity of broussochalcone a against colon and liver cancer cells by promoting destruction complex-independent β-catenin degradation.
Cytotoxic activity of broussochalcone a against colon and liver cancer cells by promoting destruction complex-independent β-catenin degradation. Food Chem Toxicol. 2019 Jun 01;: Authors: Shin S, Son Y, Liu KH, Kang W, Oh S Abstract Aberrant activation of β-catenin-response transcription (CRT) is a well-recognized characteristic of colorectal and liver cancers and thus a potential therapeutic target for these malignancies. Broussonetia papyrifera (paper mulberry) has been used as a herbal medicine to treat various diseases. Using a sensitive cell-based screening system, we identified broussoc...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - June 1, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Shin S, Son Y, Liu KH, Kang W, Oh S Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Aggregate exposure modelling of vitamin A from cosmetic products, diet and food supplements.
Abstract Realism is important in estimating consumer exposure to a substance, especially when accounting for exposure from multiple sources. Humans are exposed to vitamin A from food, dietary supplements and cosmetics products. A probabilistic aggregate exposure model was developed for estimating exposure distributions to vitamin A (as retinol equivalents) in pre-/post-menopausal, and menopausal women in European and US populations. Data from large dietary surveys were used, together with realistic and extreme case scenarios of cosmetics product use (including occurrence data for vitamin A presence in 17 cosmetic ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 31, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Tozer S, O'Mahony C, Hannah J, O'Brien J, Kelly S, Kosemund-Meynen K, Alexander-White C Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Chemical characterization and gastroprotective effect of an isolated polysaccharide fraction from Bletilla striata against ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer.
Abstract The chemical characterization and protective role against ethanol-induced gastric ulcerated rats of a polysaccharide fraction from Bletilla striata (BSP) collected by ultrafiltration membrane approach were evaluated. This BSP faction was consisted of mannose and glucose at a molar ratio of 2.4:1 approximately, with a molecular weight of 146 KDa. FT-IR, NMR and XRD spectra indicated that BSP faction contained α-Man and β-Glc residues with low overall crystallinity. The polysaccharide exhibited significant scavenging activities of ABTS and FRAP, as well as non-toxicity against human gastric epi...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 31, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Zhang C, Gao F, Gan S, He Y, Chen Z, Liu X, Fu C, Qu Y, Zhang J Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

RIFM fragrance ingredient safety assessment, cyclopentanol, 2-(2-hexen-1-yl)-, CAS Registry Number 34686-67-4.
ultz TW, Sipes IG, Sullivan G, Thakkar Y, Tokura Y, Tsang S PMID: 31154082 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 30, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Api AM, Belsito D, Botelho D, Bruze M, Burton GA, Buschmann J, Dagli ML, Date M, Dekant W, Deodhar C, Francis M, Fryer AD, Jones L, Joshi K, La Cava S, Lapczynski A, Liebler DC, O'Brien D, Patel A, Penning TM, Ritacco G, Romine J, Sadekar N, Salvito D, Sc Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Pharmacological, phytochemical and in-vivo toxicological perspectives of a xero-halophyte medicinal plant: Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey.
This study endeavours to investigate the phytochemical composition, biological properties and in vivo toxicity of methanol and dichloromethane extracts of Zaleya pentandra (L.) Jeffrey. Total bioactive contents, antioxidant (phosphomolybdenum and metal chelating, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC) and enzyme inhibition (cholinesterases, tyrosinase α-amylase, and α-glucosidase) potential were assessed utilizing in vitro bioassays. UHPLC-MS phytochemical profiling was carried out to identify the essential compounds. The methanol extract was found to contain highest phenolic (22.60 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (31.49 mg ...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 30, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Saleem H, Zengin G, Locatelli M, Ahmad I, Khaliq S, Mahomoodally FM, Hussain R, Rengasamy KRR, Mollica A, Zainal Abidin SA, Ahemad N Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Hydrogen sulfide impacts on inflammation-induced adipocyte dysfunction.
avarrete JM Abstract A dual role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in inflammation is well-reported and recent studies demonstrated adipogenic effects of H2S in 3T3-L1 cells. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of H2S on adipocyte differentiation and inflammation. H2S concentration in 3T3-L1 culture media was increased during adipocyte differentiation in parallel to adipogenic and Cth gene expression, and its inhibition using DL-Propargyl Glycine (PPG) impaired 3T3-L1 differentiation. GYY4137 and Na2S administration only in the first or in the last stage of adipocyte differentiation resulted in a significant increas...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 30, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Comas F, Latorre J, Cussó O, Ortega F, Lluch A, Sabater M, Castells-Nobau A, Ricart W, Ribas X, Costas M, Fernández-Real JM, Moreno-Navarrete JM Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Determination of genotoxic potencies of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in HepaRG cells using the γH2AX assay.
This study reveals differences in in vitro genotoxic potencies of PAs, supporting that the assumption that all PAs have a similar potency as riddelliine is rather conservative. PMID: 31154085 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology)
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 30, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Louisse J, Rijkers D, Stoopen G, Holleboom WJ, Delagrange M, Molthof E, Mulder PPJ, Hoogenboom RLAP, Audebert M, Peijnenburg AACM Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

A study of D-allulose-associated reproductive toxicity in rats.
In this study, we assessed whether D-allulose was associated with reproductive toxicity in rats, assessing reproduction and offspring growth following gavage of parents with 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg of this compound. Specifically, female rats were continuously dose from 2 weeks prior to mating until day 21 of lactation, while males were dose for the 10 weeks before mating. We did not observe any direct toxicity or mortality upon D-allulose administration, with no changes in body weight or eating behavior between study and control groups. We also did not observe any significant alterations in precoital time, copulatio...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 30, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Kim H, Park C, Sa S, Case I, Li C, Gao Y, Wang H, Tian J Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Histopathological changes in placenta and liver of pregnant rats administered with aqueous extract of Dioscorea hispida var. daemona (Roxb) Prain & Burkill.
This study was therefore designed to investigate into the effect of DH on liver and placenta of pregnant rat via histopathological examination. Thirty pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups consisting of a control (distilled water) and four DH aqueous extract groups (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight). The extracts were administered via oral gavage daily throughout the study and animals were sacrificed on day 21. Paraffin-embedded, hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of placenta and liver were examined. Significant changes (p 
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 29, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Muhammad H, Maslan SF, Md Saad WM, Thani NSIA, Ibnu Rasid EN, Mahomoodally FM, Awang N Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Acute and subacute toxicity evaluation of ethanol extract from aerial parts of Epigynum auritum in mice.
Abstract Acute and subacute toxicities of the ethanol extracts from Epigynum auritum (EAE) was performed by oral administration in pathogen-free mice. Acute toxicity study was performed at a single dose of 5000 mg/kg for 14 consecutive days while subacute toxicity test was conducted by daily oral administration of EAE at doses of 312, 625, 1250, and 2500 mg/kg for 28 days. Acute toxicity study showed that LD50 of EAE was over 5000 mg/kg. The results of subacute toxicity showed no significant adverse effect of EAE at 312 mg/kg. Moreover, EAE exhibited toxicities to liver, spleen and kidney in mice determine...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 28, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Yang M, Wu Z, Wang Y, Kai G, Singor Njateng GS, Cai S, Cao J, Cheng G Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Platycodin D triggers the extracellular release of programed death Ligand-1 in lung cancer cells.
In this study, we reported that platycodin D, a natural product isolated from an edible and medicinal plant Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A. DC., down-regulated the protein level of PD-L1 in lung cancer cells. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence assay showed a weaker surface PD-L1 signal in NCI-H1975 cells after the incubation with platycodin D (10 μM) for 15 min compared to the control group. Jurkat T cells showed enhancive interleukin-2 secretion when co-cultured with platycodin D-treated NCI-H1975 cells, suggesting that platycodin D-induced PD-L1 reduction increases the activation of Jurkat T cells. An au...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 28, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Huang MY, Jiang XM, Xu YL, Yuan LW, Chen YC, Cui G, Huang RY, Liu B, Wang Y, Chen X, Lu JJ Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

2',4'-Dihydroxy-6'-methoxy-3',5'-dimethylchalcone induced apoptosis and G1 cell cycle arrest through PI3K/AKT pathway in BEL-7402/5-FU cells.
In this study, the precise mechanisms of DMC-mediated growth inhibition in BEL-7402/5-FU cells were further investigated. DMC was found to trigger apoptosis predominantly via the mitochondria-dependent pathway and the enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Meanwhile, DMC induced G1 cell cycle arrest through downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4. Furthermore, DMC increased p53 level and inhibited NF-κB nuclear-localization via suppression of PI3K/AKT signaling axis, which might be the underlying mechanism of DMC-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in BEL-7402/5-FU cells. Collectively, the study el...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 28, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Ji X, Wei X, Qian J, Mo X, Kai G, An F, Lu Y Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research

Computational de-orphanization of the olive oil biophenol oleacein: Discovery of new metabolic and epigenetic targets.
arretero A, Menendez JA Abstract The health promoting effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) relate to its unique repertoire of phenolic compounds. Here, we used a chemoinformatics approach to computationally identify endogenous ligands and assign putative biomolecular targets to oleacein, one of the most abundant secoiridoids in EVOO. Using a structure-based virtual profiling software tool and reference databases containing more than 9000 binding sites protein cavities, we identified 996 putative oleacein targets involving more than 700 proteins. We subsequently identified the high-level functions of oleacein i...
Source: Food and Chemical Toxicology - May 28, 2019 Category: Food Science Authors: Cuyàs E, Castillo D, Llorach-Parés L, Lozano-Sánchez J, Verdura S, Nonell-Canals A, Brunet J, Bosch-Barrera J, Joven J, Valdés R, Sanchez-Martinez M, Segura-Carretero A, Menendez JA Tags: Food Chem Toxicol Source Type: research