Use of Different types of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Mortality in Systolic Heart Failure
Angiotensin converting enzyme-inhibitors (ACEIs) are the first-line treatment for patients with heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (EF). The benefit of ACEIs in HF is regarded as a class effect and different types of agents are used interchangeably. However, evidence on the comparable effectiveness of different ACEIs is scarce. We conducted a registry-based cohort study to assess all-cause mortality associated with the use of enalapril, perindopril, and trandolapril, as compared with ramipril, in patients with systolic HF. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - December 27, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Henrik Svanström, Björn Pasternak, Mads Melbye, Anders Hviid Source Type: research

Efficacy of angiotensin–neprilysin inhibition versus enalapril in patient with heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction
(Source: Internal and Emergency Medicine)
Source: Internal and Emergency Medicine - December 24, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

Comparative proteomic analysis of rat left ventricle in a subtotal nephrectomy model
Conclusion Our studies provide a repertoire of potential biomarkers related to cardiac hypertrophy in CKD. There are still residual disturbed molecules/pathways despite ACEi intervention. Further studies are warranted to investigate these potential novel targets to alleviate CKD-related cardiomyopathy. (Source: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association)
Source: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association - December 21, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Source Type: research

Combination of ACE inhibitor with nicorandil provides further protection in chronic kidney disease
In conclusion, nicorandil may synergize with enalapril to provide superior protection in chronic kidney disease. (Source: AJP: Renal Physiology)
Source: AJP: Renal Physiology - December 15, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shiraishi, T., Tamura, Y., Taniguchi, K., Higaki, M., Ueda, S., Shima, T., Nagura, M., Nakagawa, T., Johnson, R. J., Uchida, S. Tags: TRANSLATIONAL PHYSIOLOGY Source Type: research

Single-pill combination therapy in the initial treatment of marked hypertension: a propensity-matched analysis.
Conclusions: Single-pill fixed-dose combination therapies are highly effective and safe in the study settings. Best clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were noted among patients receiving E/L, R/H and P/A. PMID: 25496379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension - December 12, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Angeloni E, Vitaterna A, Lombardo P, Pirelli M, Refice S Tags: Clin Exp Hypertens Source Type: research

Effect of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibition on Arterial Blood Pressure is Context Dependent [Dipeptidyl Peptidase Inhibition]
In conclusion: (1) The effects of DPP4 inhibitors on blood pressure are context dependent; (2) The context-dependent effects of DPP4 inhibitors are due in part to differential renovascular responses to its most important substrates (NPY1–36 and GLP-1(7–36)NH2); (3) Y1 receptor antagonists may prevent the prohypertensive and possibly augment the antihypertensive effects of DPP4 inhibitors. (Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - December 10, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jackson, E. K., Mi, Z., Tofovic, S. P., Gillespie, D. G. Tags: Animal models of human disease, Other hypertension, Other Vascular biology Dipeptidyl Peptidase Inhibition Source Type: research

Different Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and the Associations With Overall and Cause-Specific Mortalities in Patients With Hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS: There are differences in the mortality risk associated with different ACE inhibitors. However, potential residual confounding effects might still exist. PMID: 25498540 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal of Hypertension)
Source: American Journal of Hypertension - December 10, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chang CH, Lin JW, Caffrey JL, Wu LC, Lai MS Tags: Am J Hypertens Source Type: research

Vitamin D Receptor Agonist VS-105 Improves Cardiac Function in the Presence of Enalapril in 5/6 Nephrectomized Rats.
Abstract Vitamin D receptor (VDR) agonists (VDRAs) are commonly used to manage hyperparathyroidism secondary to chronic kidney disease (CKD). CKD patients experience extremely high risks of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Clinical observations show that VDRA therapy may be associated with cardio-renal protective and survival benefits in CKD patients. The 5/6 nephrectomized (NX) Sprague Dawley rat with established uremia exhibits elevated serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), hypertension and abnormal cardiac function. Treatment of 5/6 NX rats with VS-105, a novel VDRA, (0.05 and 0.5 µg/kg, p.o. by gavage)...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - December 10, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Wu-Wong JR, Chen YW, Wessale JL Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

The influence of enalapril and spironolactone on electrolyte concentrations in Doberman pinschers with dilated cardiomyopathy
The objective of this study was to retrospectively determine whether an ACEI and spironolactone can be co-administered to Doberman pinschers with occult dilated cardiomyopathy without serious adverse influences on serum electrolyte concentrations. Between 2001 and 2007, 26 client-owned Doberman pinschers were given enalapril, spironolactone, and carvedilol and followed for at least 6 months. Most dogs had been prescribed mexiletine for ventricular tachyarrhythmia suppression. Dogs were treated with pimobendan when congestive heart failure was imminent. Baseline and follow-up (3–10 visits) color-flow Doppler echocardi...
Source: The Veterinary Journal - December 7, 2014 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Combined Neprilysin and Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibition for the Treatment of Heart Failure
Publication date: December 2014 Source:JACC: Heart Failure, Volume 2, Issue 6 Author(s): Orly Vardeny , Ryan Miller , Scott D. Solomon Neprilysin is an enzyme that contributes to the breakdown of the biologically active natriuretic peptides and several other vasoactive compounds. Inhibiting neprilysin has been a therapeutic target for several compounds that have been tested in cardiovascular disease, including ecadotril, candoxatril, omapatrilat, and LCZ696. Although ecadotril, candoxatril, and omapatrilat were initially tested in hypertension and/or heart failure, lack of efficacy and side effects led to discontinuation...
Source: JACC: Heart Failure - December 2, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Heart failure: Another new PARADIGM in treatment for heart failure?
Nature Reviews Cardiology 12, 4 (2015). doi:10.1038/nrcardio.2014.195 Author: Tim Geach The investigators conducting the PARADIGM-HF trial previously reported that LCZ696, an angiotensin–neprilysin receptor inhibitor, significantly reduced mortality in patients with heart failure compared with the current standard treatment with enalapril, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor. Now, presenting additional data at the AHA Scientific Sessions 2014 in Chicago, (Source: Nature Reviews Cardiology)
Source: Nature Reviews Cardiology - December 2, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tim Geach Tags: Research Highlight Source Type: research

The water channel aquaporin-1 contributes to renin cell recruitment during chronic stimulation of renin production
Both the processing and release of secretory granules involve water movement across granule membranes. It was hypothesized that the water channel aquaporin (AQP)1 directly contributes to the recruitment of renin-positive cells in the afferent arteriole. AQP1–/– and AQP1+/+ mice were fed a low-salt (LS) diet [0.004% (wt/wt) NaCl] for 7 days and given enalapril [angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), 0.1 mg/ml] in drinking water for 3 days. There were no differences in plasma renin concentration at baseline. After LS-ACEI, plasma renin concentrations increased markedly in both genotypes but was significa...
Source: AJP: Renal Physiology - December 1, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tinning, A. R., Jensen, B. L., Schweda, F., Machura, K., Hansen, P. B. L., Stubbe, J., Gramsbergen, J. B., Madsen, K. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Clopidogrel bioactivation and risk of bleeding in patients cotreated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors after myocardial infarction: a proof-of-concept study.
We examined the effects of ACEIs on clopidogrel bioactivation in vitro and linked the results with a pharmacoepidemiological study. In vitro, ACEIs inhibited CES1-mediated hydrolysis of a model substrate, and trandolapril and enalapril increased formation of clopidogrel active metabolite. In 70,934 patients with myocardial infarction, hazard ratios for clinically significant bleeding in ACEI-treated patients cotreated with or without clopidogrel were 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-1.25, P = 0.124) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.81-0.99, P = 0.025), respectively, as compared with patients who did not receive ACEIs. This diff...
Source: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics - December 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kristensen KE, Zhu HJ, Wang X, Gislason GH, Torp-Pedersen C, Rasmussen HB, Markowitz JS, Hansen PR Tags: Clin Pharmacol Ther Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of lercanidipine/enalapril fixed combination in Lebanon: a prospective observational study
Current Medical Research and Opinion, Ahead of Print. (Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion)
Source: Current Medical Research and Opinion - November 26, 2014 Category: Research Tags: article Source Type: research

Clinical trials update from the European Society of Cardiology meeting 2014: PARADIGM‐HF, CONFIRM‐HF, SIGNIFY, atrial fibrillation, beta‐blockers and heart failure, and vagal stimulation in heart failure
This article provides an overview of trials relevant to the pathophysiology, prevention, and treatment of heart failure, presented at the European Society of Cardiology meeting held in Barcelona in autumn 2014. Trials reported here include PARADIGM‐HF (LCZ696 versus enalapril in heart failure), CONFIRM‐HF (treatment of iron deficiency in heart failure), and SIGNIFY (ivabradine in patients with stable coronary artery disease). In addition, we discuss recent developments in the treatment of atrial fibrillation and the lack of benefit with the use of beta‐blockers in these patients. Finally, the article describes recent...
Source: ESC Heart Failure - November 24, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Andrew L. Clark, Pierpaolo Pellicori Tags: Review Source Type: research

Orodispersible films in individualized pharmacotherapy: The development of a formulation for pharmacy preparations
In conclusion, ODFs of good pharmaceutical quality can be prepared on small scale. Hereby opening the perspective of using ODFs for individualized pharmacotherapy. Graphical abstract (Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics)
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - November 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Post‐renal transplant erythrocytosis: A case report
We report the case of a 14‐yr‐old female kidney transplant patient, with triple therapy immunosuppression and stable graft function who developed PTE at 12 months post‐transplant with hemoglobin 17.3 g/dL, hematocrit 54.2%, stable graft function, and normotensive with normal cardiac echocardiogram and erythropoietin levels. The only risk factor found was tobacco use. As she had no spontaneous improvement, enalapril treatment was started at 19 months post‐transplant with a hemoglobin level of 17.5 g/dL and hematocrit 53%; by 23 months post‐transplant, hemoglobin lowered to 15 g/dL and...
Source: Pediatric Transplantation - November 22, 2014 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Mavel Almonte, Luis Velásquez‐Jones, Saúl Valverde, Bruce Carleton, Mara Medeiros Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Toxic epidermal necrolysis associated with deflazacort therapy with nephrotic syndrome
This report describes two cases of TEN, associated with deflazacort (DFZ), in two boys, aged 4 years and 14 years, with nephrotic syndrome (NS). The 14-year-old male teenager received DFZ following NS relapse. After 17 days, pruritic papules appeared on the lower extremities. Another case involved a 4-year-old boy receiving DFZ and enalapril. After a 41-day DFZ treatment period, erythematous papules appeared on the palms and soles. Within 3 days, both boys developed widespread skin lesions (>50%) and were admitted to the intensive care unit for resuscitative and supportive treatment. The patients showed improvement ...
Source: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice - November 20, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Penile Histomorphometrical Evaluation in Hypertensive Rats Treated with Sildenafil or Enalapril Alone or in Combination: A Comparison with Normotensive and Untreated Hypertensive Rats
ConclusionsHypertension promoted structural alterations in the corpus cavernosum that may be related to ED. Enalapril‐ and sildenafil‐treated animals had preservation of normal corpus cavernosum structure and an increase in penile and cavernosal cross‐sectional area. The combination of these drugs showed less benefit than individual use. Felix‐Patrício B, Medeiros JL, Jr, De Souza DB, Costa WS, and Sampaio FJB. Penile histomorphometrical evaluation in hypertensive rats treated with sildenafil or enalapril alone or in combination: A comparison with normotensive and untreated hypertensive rats. J Sex Med **;**...
Source: The Journal of Sexual Medicine - November 18, 2014 Category: Sexual Medicine Authors: Bruno Felix‐Patrício, Jorge L. Medeiros, Diogo B. De Souza, Waldemar S. Costa, Francisco J.B. Sampaio Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibition Compared With Enalapril on the Risk of Clinical Progression in Surviving Patients With Heart Failure.
is A, Fu M, Gomez EA, Gonzàlez-Medina A, Hagege AA, Huang J, Katova TM, Kiatchoosakun S, Kim KS, Kozan O, Llamas EA, Martinez F, Merkely B, Mendoza I, Mosterd A, Negrusz-Kawecka M, Peuhkurinen K, Ramires F, Refsgaard J, Rosenthal A, Senni M, Sibulo AS, Cardoso JS, Squire IB, Starling RC, Teerlink JR, Vanhaecke J, Vinereanu D, Wong RC Abstract BACKGROUND: -Clinical trials in heart failure have focused on the improvement in symptoms or decreases in the risk of death and other cardiovascular events. Little is known about the effect of drugs on the risk of clinical deterioration in surviving patients. METH...
Source: Circulation - November 17, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Packer M, McMurray JJ, Desai AS, Gong J, Lefkowitz MP, Rizkala AR, Rouleau JL, Shi V, Solomon SD, Swedberg K, Zile MR, Andersen K, Arango JL, Arnold M, Belohlavek J, Böhm M, Boytsov SA, Burgess LJ, Cabrera W, Calvo C, Chen CH, Dukat A, Duarte YC, Erglis Tags: Circulation Source Type: research

Perindopril increases the swallowing reflex by inhibiting substance P degradation and tyrosine hydroxylase activation in a rat model of dysphagia.
Abstract Patients with hypertension have a high risk of ischemic stroke and subsequent stroke-associated pneumonia. Stroke-associated pneumonia is most likely to develop in patients with dysphagia. The present study was designed to compare the ameliorative effects of different treatments in rat model of dysphagia. Spontaneously hypertensive rats were treated with bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion causing disorders of the swallowing reflex. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (perindopril, imidapril and enalapril), an angiotensin II type 1-receptor ...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - November 12, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ikeda JI, Kojima N, Saeki K, Ishihara M, Takayama M Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research

Adiponectin expression and the cardioprotective role of the vitamin D receptor activator paricalcitol and the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril in ApoE-deficient mice
Conclusion: Together, our data presented a novel role for VDRA and ACEI in reducing factors associated with CHD that may lead to the discovery of new therapeutic venues. (Source: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease)
Source: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease - November 11, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Suarez-Martinez, E., Husain, K., Ferder, L. Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Blockade of the renin–angiotensin system improves cerebral microcirculatory perfusion in diabetic hypertensive rats
We examined the functional and structural microcirculatory alterations in the brain, skeletal muscle and myocardium of non-diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and diabetic SHR (D-SHR), as well as the effects of long-term treatment with the angiotensin AT1-receptor antagonist olmesartan and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril. Diabetes was experimentally induced by a combination of a high-fat diet with a single low dose of streptozotocin (35mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection). D-SHR were orally administered with olmesartan (5mg/kg/day), enalapril (10mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 28days, and compared w...
Source: Microvascular Research - November 10, 2014 Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research

Circulating Toll-like receptor 4-responsive microRNA panel in patients with coronary artery disease: Results from prospective and randomized study of treatment with renin-angiotensin system blockades
This study included 41 patients with CAD and 20 subjects without CAD (non-CAD).Plasma TLR4-responsive miRNA samples were analyzed using a microarray assay for 1,700 human miRNA. The candidate miRNAs were verified with real-time RT-PCR. Patients with CAD were randomized to 12 months of combined treatment with either telmisartan and atorvastatin (ARB) or enalapril and atorvastatin (ACEI). Plasma samples were obtained from peripheral blood at baseline and after 12 months. The microarray assay showed significant differences in 7 TLR4-responsive miRNAsbetween the CAD and non-CAD groups (P
Source: Clinical Science - November 10, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: M Satoh, Y Takahashi, T Tabuchi, M Tamada, K Takahashi, T Itoh, Y Morino, M Nakamura Source Type: research

Enalapril treatment discloses an early role of angiotensin II in inflammation- and oxidative stress-related muscle damage in dystrophic mdx mice
Publication date: November 2011 Source:Pharmacological Research, Volume 64, Issue 5 Author(s): Anna Cozzoli , Beatrice Nico , Valeriana Teresa Sblendorio , Roberta Francesca Capogrosso , Maria Maddalena Dinardo , Vito Longo , Sara Gagliardi , Monica Montagnani , Annamaria De Luca Inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE) are clinically used to control cardiomyopathy in patients of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Various evidences suggest potential usefulness of long-term treatment with ACE inhibitors to reduce advanced fibrosis of dystrophic muscle in the mdx mouse model. However, angiotensin II is known to exert p...
Source: Pharmacological Research - November 9, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome After Renal Transplant: A Simple Solution for a Complicated Patient
Conclusions: While the outcome of PRES is typically benign, a delay in diagnosis may lead to permanent neurologic deficits, and misdiagnosis can be lethal. The cornerstone of treatment is removal of the offending agent or treatment of the underlying etiology. A clinical picture of headache, visual abnormalities, altered mentation and seizures is sufficient to prompt an empiric discontinuation of agents known to cause PRES. Calcineurin inhibitors such as tacrolimus are known to cause PRES, and in our patient, discontinuation led to a complete clinical resolution.Case Rep Nephrol Dial 2015;5:20-25 (Source: Case Reports in Ne...
Source: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis - November 7, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Cardiac and Renal Effects of Atrasentan in Combination with Enalapril and Paricalcitol in Uremic Rats
Conclusions: We found distinct cardiac and renal effects of atrasentan. Combination treatment with atrasentan, enalapril and paricalcitol provided positive effects on cardiac remodeling in uremic rats, whereas combination treatment did not offer further protective effects on blood pressure, proteinuria or renal histology.Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:340-352 (Source: Kidney and Blood Pressure Research)
Source: Kidney and Blood Pressure Research - November 7, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Neprilysin inhibitors preserve renal function in heart failure
Recently the superiority of the angiotensin receptor neprilysin (NEP) inhibitor (ARNi) LCZ696 over the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril, has been demonstrated [1]. Therapy for heart failure may be limited by deterioration of renal function secondary to pharmacological agents used in the management of the condition. NEP inhibition may have direct or indirect beneficial renal effects that contribute to this superiority. (See Fig. 1.) (See Table 1.) (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - November 6, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Fiona Bodey, Ingrid Hopper, Henry Krum Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Prolonged hyponatremia due to hypopituitarism in a patient with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction
Publication date: Available online 30 August 2014 Source:Journal of Cardiology Cases Author(s): Kyohei Marume , Yuichiro Arima , Motoyuki Igata , Takeshi Nishikawa , Eiichiro Yamamoto , Megumi Yamamuro , Kenichi Tsujita , Tomoko Tanaka , Koichi Kaikita , Seiji Hokimoto , Hisao Ogawa A 58-year-old man was admitted for non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. A medicated stent was used for severe coronary artery stenosis. However, consciousness level progressively deteriorated after angioplasty. Computed tomography showed no brain lesion but laboratory tests showed hyponatremia (serum sodium: 113meq./l) and urine analysis s...
Source: Journal of Cardiology Cases - November 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Model Development and Use of ACE Inhibitors for Preclinical Mitigation of Radiation-Induced Injury to Multiple Organs.
In this study we tested three ACE inhibitors at doses: captopril (88 and 176 mg/m(2)/day), enalapril (18, 24 and 36 mg/m(2)/day) and fosinopril (60 mg/m(2)/day) for mitigation. Our primary end point was survival or criteria for euthanization of morbid animals. Secondary end points included breathing intervals, other assays for lung structure and function and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) to assess renal damage. We found that captopril at 176 mg/m(2)/day increased survival after 11 or 11.5 Gy TBI. Enalapril at 18-36 mg/m(2)/day improved survival at all three doses (TBI). Fosinopril at 60 mg/m(2)/day enhanced survival at a dose ...
Source: Radiation Research - October 31, 2014 Category: Physics Authors: Medhora M, Gao F, Wu Q, Molthen RC, Jacobs ER, Moulder JE, Fish BL Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Systemic Ulcerative Lesions in a Patient With Ischemic Heart Disease
Question: An 84-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of general fatigue and anal pain. She had a history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, and had undergone intracoronary stenting for unstable angina. Aspirin, clopidogrel, carvedilol, enalapril, and nicorandil had been prescribed for 20 months. At the initial visit, she was in moderate distress, and her temperature was 37.5°C. Both eyes were congested, and multiple ulcers in both upper palpebral conjunctiva (FigureA) and perianal skin (FigureB) were observed. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Source: Gastroenterology - October 25, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Mitsuhiro Nikaido, Shin’ichi Miyamoto, Shoji Iinuma Tags: Electronic Clinical Challenges and Images in GI Source Type: research

The water channel aquaporin-1 contributes to renin cell recruitment during chronic stimulation of renin production.
Abstract Processing and release of secretory granules involve water movement across granule membranes. It was hypothesized that the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP-1) contributes directly to recruitment of renin-positive cells in the afferent arteriole. AQP1(-/-) and (+/+) mice were fed a low NaCl diet (LS, 0.004% w/w) for 7 days and given enalapril (ACEI, 0.1 mg/ml) in the drinking water for 3 days. There were no differences in plasma renin concentration at baseline. After LS-ACEI, plasma renin concentration increased markedly in both genotypes but was significantly lower in AQP1(-/-) compared to (+/+) mice. Tissu...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - October 22, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Tinning AR, Jensen BL, Schweda F, Machura K, Hansen PB, Stubbe J, Gramsbergen JB, Madsen K Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Inhibition of Neutrophil‐Dependent Cytotoxicity for Human Endothelial Cells by ACE Inhibitors
Abstract Angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) have immunomodulating properties and have been suggested to protect against endothelial injury, for example myocardial infarction and reperfusion injury. We tested whether two ACEi (captopril and enalapril), differing in a thiol group, protected human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from cytotoxicity induced by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in vitro, when cells were activated by tumour necrosis factor‐α (TNFα) or the arachidonate derivative lipoxin‐A4 (LXA4), using separate cytotoxicity pathways. When 51Cr labelled HUVEC were treated ...
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology - October 16, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: P. Andersson, J. Bratt, M. Heimbürger, T. Cederholm, J. Palmblad Tags: Experimental Immunology Source Type: research

Combination of ACE inhibitor with nicorandil provides further protection in chronic kidney disease.
In conclusion, nicorandil may synergize with enalapril to provide superior protection in chronic kidney disease. PMID: 25320353 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - October 15, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Shiraishi T, Tamura Y, Taniguchi K, Higaki M, Ueda S, Shima T, Nagura M, Nakagawa T, Johnson RJ, Uchida S Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats
Background: Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. Objective: To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Methods: Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these com...
Source: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia - October 14, 2014 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Differential modification of enalapril in the kidneys of lean and ‘programmed’ obese male young rats
Conclusion Enalapril can differentially modulate renal molecular alterations in lean and postnatally overfed rats and may be not beneficial in obese young male rats. (Source: Obesity Research and Clinical Practice)
Source: Obesity Research and Clinical Practice - October 12, 2014 Category: Eating Disorders and Weight Management Source Type: research

Antihypertensive Effect of Carica papaya Via a Reduction in ACE Activity and Improved Baroreflex
Planta MedDOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1383122The aims of this study were to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of the standardised methanolic extract of Carica papaya, its angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effects in vivo, its effect on the baroreflex and serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity, and its chemical composition. The chemical composition of the methanolic extract of C. papaya was evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass/mass and mass/mass spectrometry. The angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitory effect was evaluated in vivo by Ang I administration. The antihypertensive assay was performed in spontaneousl...
Source: Planta Medica - October 8, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Brasil, Girlandia AlexandreRonchi, Silas Nascimentodo Nascimento, Andrews Marquesde Lima, Ewelyne MirandaRomão, Wandersonda Costa, Helber BarcellosScherer, RodrigoVentura, José AiresLenz, DominikBissoli, Nazaré SouzaEndringer, Denise Coutinhode Andrade Tags: Original Papers Source Type: research

Nocturnal antihypertensive treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes with autonomic neuropathy and non-dipping of blood pressure during night time: protocol for a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, two-way crossover study
Introduction Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and elevated nocturnal blood pressure are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Previously, associations between CAN, non-dipping of nocturnal blood pressure and coronary artery calcification have been demonstrated. The present protocol describes a trial to test the efficacy of bedtime dosing of the ACE inhibitor enalapril on night time blood pressure and left ventricular mass in patients with type 1 diabetes. Materials and methods In a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over study, 24 normoalbuminuric patients with type 1 diabet...
Source: BMJ Open - October 7, 2014 Category: Journals (General) Authors: Hjortkaer, H., Jensen, T., Kofoed, K., Mogensen, U., Kober, L., Hilsted, K. L., Corinth, H., Theilade, S., Hilsted, J. Tags: Open access, Cardiovascular medicine, Pharmacology and therapeutics, Diabetes and Endocrinology Protocol Source Type: research

Blood pressure and glucose independent renoprotective effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition in a mouse model of type-2 diabetic nephropathy
Conclusion:Treatment with DPP-4 inhibitor linagliptin delays the progression of diabetic nephropathy damage in a glucose-independent and blood-pressure-independent manner. The observed effects may be because of the attenuation of podocyte injury and inhibition of myofibroblast transformation. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - October 2, 2014 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Pathophysiological aspects Source Type: research

Insulin Receptor Substrate-2 (Irs2) in Endothelial Cells Plays a Crucial Role in Insulin Secretion.
Abstract Endothelial cells are considered to be essential for normal pancreatic β-cell function. The present study attempted to demonstrate the role of Irs2 in endothelial cells with regard to insulin secretion. Endothelial cell-specific insulin receptor substrate-2 knockout (ETIrs2KO) mice exhibited impaired glucose-induced, arginine-induced, and glucagon-induced insulin secretion and showed glucose intolerance. In batch incubation and perifusion experiments using isolated islets, glucose-induced insulin secretion was not significantly different between the control and the ETIrs2KO mice. In contrast, in perf...
Source: Diabetes - October 2, 2014 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Hashimoto S, Kubota N, Sato H, Sasaki M, Takamoto I, Kubota T, Nakaya K, Noda M, Ueki K, Kadowaki T Tags: Diabetes Source Type: research

Modulation of the kallikrein/kinin system by the angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitor alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
The objectives of this study were to determine whether bradykinin is involved in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, and whether bradykinin control by the ACE inhibitor could be a therapeutic target in MS. The ACE inhibitor enalapril (1·0 or 0·2 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to EAE mice and the serum levels of bradykinin and cytokines in EAE mice were analysed. As a result, the administration of enalapril increased serum bradykinin levels, decreased the clinical and pathological severity of EAE and attenuated interleukin‐17‐positive cell ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology - October 1, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: A. Uzawa, M. Mori, J. Taniguchi, S. Kuwabara Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Astragaloside IV inhibits renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis by blocking TGF-{beta}/Smad signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro
Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is a major active ingredient from Radix astragali, which has been considered as a renoprotective agent; however, its molecular mechanisms are unclear. Thus, we designed to investigate the renoprotective effects and mechanisms of AS-IV in rat model of renal fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) in vivo and TGF-β1-stimulated rat renal fibroblasts (NRK-49F) in vitro. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham operation, UUO, UUO/AS-IV (3.3, 10, 33 mg·kg–1·d–1), and UUO/enalapril (4 mg·kg–1·d–1)....
Source: Experimental Biology and Medicine - September 29, 2014 Category: Research Authors: Wang, L., Chi, Y.-F., Yuan, Z.-T., Zhou, W.-C., Yin, P.-H., Zhang, X.-M., Peng, W., Cai, H. Tags: Biochemistry & amp;amp; Molecular Biology Source Type: research

Neointimal thickening resulting in artery stenosis following renal sympathetic denervation
A 49-year-old woman with hypertension was referred to our university hypertension center for renal sympathetic denervation. Her daily treatment included nebivolol/hydrochlorothiazide 5/25mg, spironolactone 50mg, lercanidipine/enalapril 20/10mg and rilmenidine 1mg. Her mean daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was 165/105mmHg. The etiological assessment confirmed the diagnosis of essential hypertension. CT angiography prior to denervation showed no renal artery stenosis or vessel wall lesions. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - September 25, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Mihaela-Elena Cordeanu, Sébastien Gaertner, François Bronner, Christine Jahn, Eric Prinz, Thierry Hannedouche, Dominique Stephan Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Drugs in Patients with Heart Failure: An Update (Part 2, Drugs Administered Orally)
Abstract The purpose of the present review article is to update the information regarding pharmacokinetics of drugs in patients with heart failure that has accumulated since the last review article published in 1988 in Clinical Pharmacokinetics. Since this last review, our understanding of the pathophysiology of heart failure has changed from the cardio-renal model to the neuro-humoral model, and the pharmacologic approach to treatment of heart failure has been shifted from inotropic agents to those acting on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The pharmacologic agents now used for heart failure include many...
Source: Clinical Pharmacokinetics - September 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Chemical communication between cardiac cells is disrupted by High glucose. Implications for the diabetic heart.
Conclusions: high glucose (25mM) disrupts chemical communication between cardiac cells-an effect highly dependent on PKC activation. The possible role of enhanced intracellular Ang II levels induced by high glucose on the disruption of chemical communication was discussed as well as the possible implications of these findings for the diabetic heart. PMID: 25261156 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Cell Research)
Source: Experimental Cell Research - September 23, 2014 Category: Cytology Authors: De Mello WC Tags: Exp Cell Res Source Type: research

A Case of Dilated Cardiomyopathy with Functional Recovery along with the Disappearmnace of Electrical Dyssynchrony on Response to Pharmacotherapy
A 70-year-old male was diagnosed and treated as non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) with complete left bundle branch block (CLBBB). We observed him during 5 years after administration of anti-neurohumoral agents such as carvedilol and enalapril. There was no significant improvement in LVEF or changes in QRS formation during the first 3 years. He had stably mild heart failure (HF) complaints of NYHA class II and no re-hospitalization. However, CLBBB improved to normally narrow QRS at 3 years later and subsequent LVEF at 4 years later was improved to a normal rage of LVEF 66%. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yuichiro Iida, Takayuki Inomata, Teppei Fujita, Yuki Ikeda, Takeru Nabeta, Shunsuke Ishi, Takashi Naruke, Hisahito Shinagawa, Toshimi Koitabashi, Jyunya Ako Source Type: research

Editorial Comment
Arterial hypertension and hypercholesterolemia are considered risk factors for hormonal testicular function and spermatogenesis. The authors performed an experimental study to determine whether drugs that block RAS at different levels could affect steroidogenesis in hypertensive mice due to HED. Three drugs were used, including the renin inhibitor aliskiren, the ACE inhibitor enalapril and the AT1R blocker losartan. Study parameters were the serum concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides, testosterone, estradiol and LH, and the gene and protein expression of aromatase, StAR and LH-r. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Source: The Journal of Urology - September 18, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Fernando Lorenzini Tags: Investigative Urology Source Type: research

Characteristic molecular and proteomic signatures of drug‐induced liver injury in a rat model
In conclusion, the data of different DILI‐causing drug treatments from genomic analysis in a rat model suggest that DILI‐specific molecular signatures can discriminate different patterns of DILI at an early exposure time point, and that they provide useful information for mechanistic studies that may lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of DILI. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology)
Source: Journal of Applied Toxicology - September 18, 2014 Category: Toxicology Authors: Jung Woo Eun, Hyun Jin Bae, Qingyu Shen, Se Jin Park, Hyung Seok Kim, Woo Chan Shin, Hee Doo Yang, Chan Young Jin, Jueng Soo You, Hyun Joo Kang, Hoguen Kim, Young Min Ahn, Won Sang Park, Jung Young Lee, Suk Woo Nam Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Enalapril and ASS inhibit tumor growth in a transgenic mouse model of islet cell tumors
Accumulating evidence suggests a role for angiotensin-converting enzymes involving the angiotensin II-receptor 1 (AT1-R) and the cyclooxygenase pathway in carcinogenesis. The effects of ASS and enalapril were assessed in vitro and in a transgenic mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (pNENs). The effects of enalapril and ASS on proliferation and expression of the AGTR1A and its target gene vascular endothelial growth factor (Vegfa) were assessed in the neuroendocrine cell line BON1. Rip1-Tag2 mice were treated daily with either 0.6 mg/kg bodyweight of enalapril i.p., 20 mg/kg bodyweight of ASS i.p., or a vehic...
Source: Endocrine-Related Cancer - September 17, 2014 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Fendrich, V., Lopez, C. L., Manoharan, J., Maschuw, K., Wichmann, S., Baier, A., Holler, J. P., Ramaswamy, A., Bartsch, D. K., Waldmann, J. Tags: Research Source Type: research

Interference of angiotensin II and enalapril with hepatic blood flow regulation
Acute reduction of portal vein blood flow (Qpv) increases hepatic arterial perfusion (Qha) [the hepatic arterial buffer response (HABR)]. Angiotensin II (AT-II) reduces Qpv, but its effect on HABR is not known. We explored interactions of AT-II and enalapril with hepatic blood flow regulation. Twenty healthy anesthetized pigs were randomized to receive AT-II (n = 8) from 5 to 61 ng/kg per min, enalapril (n = 8) from 3 to 24 μg/kg per h, or saline (n = 4). HABR was assessed by occluding portal vein and expressed as 1) ratio between changes in Qha and Qpv, 2) hepatic arterial conductance (Cha). AT-II infusion increased me...
Source: AJP: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology - September 15, 2014 Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Pereira, A. J., Jeger, V., Fahrner, R., Djafarzadeh, S., Lensch, M., Takala, J., Jakob, S. M. Tags: LIVER AND BILIARY TRACT Source Type: research