The Combination of Valsartan and Sacubitril in the Treatment of Hypertension and Heart Failure – an Update
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology - September 25, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Peter Munch Nielsen, Daniela Grimm, Markus Wehland, Ulf Simonsen, Marcus Kr üger Tags: Mini ‐Review Source Type: research

Aliskiren alone or in combination with enalapril vs. enalapril among patients with chronic heart failure with and without diabetes: a subgroup analysis from the ATMOSPHERE trial
ConclusionIn patients with HFrEF and diabetes, there was no signal of harm and a trend towards benefit when direct renin inhibition monotherapy was compared with an angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitor, whereas combined aliskiren and enalapril treatment led to more adverse events with no improvement in outcomes. Treatment effects did not differ in patients with diabetes compared with those without. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00853658. (Source: European Journal of Heart Failure)
Source: European Journal of Heart Failure - September 25, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: S øren L. Kristensen, Ulrik M. Mogensen, Georgia Tarnesby, Claudio R. Gimpelewicz, Mohammed A. Ali, Qing Shao, YannTong Chiang, Pardeep S. Jhund, William T. Abraham, Kenneth Dickstein, John J.V. McMurray, Lars Køber Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Abstract P474: Comparison of the Effect of Different Calcium Channel Antagonists on Arterial Stiffness and Central Pressures in Moderate Hypertensive Patients Receiving Enalapril as First Line Treatment [Session Title: Antihypertensive Drugs and Pharmacology, Patient-Provider-Healthcare System Issues, and Pediatric and Adolescent Hypertension]
CONCLUSIONS: according to our data, it is preferable to use AML as a CCA,because it not only reduces BP better but also the central BP, improving AS in small and large vessels. The BND would be the other choice, since it does not present significant differences with respect to the first group. NFD , in addition to, not demonstrating superiority, also does not reduce DBPc in these Phta. Therefore, we consider that the presented data have sufficient clinical relevance to choose CCA associated with an ACE inhibitor. (Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - September 14, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ricardo Cabrera–Sole, Caridad Turpin Lucas, Liliana Rivera Urrera, Santiago Garcia Ruiz, Manuel Aguilera Saldana Tags: Poster Abstract Presentations Source Type: research

Sacubitril/valsartan: An important piece in the therapeutic puzzle of heart failure
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017 Source:Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia (English Edition) Author(s): Pedro Marques da Silva, Carlos Aguiar Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696), a supramolecular sodium salt complex of the neprilysin inhibitor prodrug sacubitril and the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) valsartan, was recently approved in the EU and the USA for the treatment of chronic heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) (NYHA class II-IV). Inhibition of chronically activated neurohormonal pathways (the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system [RAAS] and sympathetic nervous system [SNS]) is...
Source: Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia - September 12, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Case report: Severe hematological, muscle and liver toxicity caused by drugs and artichoke infusion interaction in an elderly polymedicated patient.
Abstract Case report, in a patient with a history of diabetes and hypertension, treated with metformin, gliclazide, enalapril + hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, aspirin and diazepam, recently medicated for a gouty crisis with colchicine and clonixin without improvement. Believing it could help in the treatment of gouty crisis symptoms he took about 1.5 L of artichoke infusion (Cynara cardunculus). He felt better and did agriculture work but developed a distal muscle pain, severe anemia, standard biochemical liver cholestasis, increase of alkaline phosphatase and marked increase of inflammatory parameters (hyperleu...
Source: Current Drug Safety - September 12, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Campos MG, Machado J, Costa ML, Lino S, Correia F, Maltez F Tags: Curr Drug Saf Source Type: research

Diverging effects of enalapril or eplerenone in primary prevention against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity
ConclusionEnalapril and eplerenone disparately impact on cellular signalling in DIC. Eplerenone, on top of Dox treatment was not protective and associated with increased levels of plasma aldosterone and of cardiac CTGF. In contrast, we show that primary prevention with enalapril preserves LV morphology and function in a clinically relevant model of chronic DIC, with increased stimulation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis and normal CTGF levels suggesting potential therapeutic implications. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - September 7, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Tangeretin ameliorates renal failure via regulating oxidative stress, NF- κB–TNF-α/iNOS signalling and improves memory and cognitive deficits in 5/6 nephrectomized rats
AbstractChronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant global health concern with limited treatment options. Oxidative stress and inflammatory responses have been implicated in the pathology of CKD. Patients with CKD are frequently affected with neurological complications that affect both the central and peripheral nervous system. Identification of effective treatment strategies are of much clinical value in the therapy of CKD. Tangeretin, a plant-derived flavonoid has been described to retain extensive pharmacological properties. In the present study, we explored whether tangeretin exerted protective effects in 5/6 nephrec...
Source: Inflammopharmacology - September 4, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Angiotensin ‐converting enzyme inhibitor–induced angioedema: A review of the literature
According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012, one third of antihypertensive prescriptions in the United States in the past decade were for angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). An important and serious side effect of ACEIs is angioedema caused by a reduction in bradykinin degradation. In a national medical chart abstraction study conducted at the US Veterans Affairs Health Care System in 2008, 0.20% of ACEI initiators developed angioedema while on the medication. The angiotensin‐converting enzyme is a part of the renin‐angiotensin system that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin...
Source: The Journal of Clinical Hypertension - September 1, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Teresa Brown, Jimmy Gonzalez, Catherine Monteleone Tags: REVIEW PAPER Source Type: research

Drug utilization among hypertensive patients in the outpatient department of medicine in a tertiary care hospital: A cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSION: The adherence to the guideline was good. Polypharmacy can be reduced by avoiding the prescription of unnecessary medications and promoting the use of fixed-dose combinations. PMID: 28816547 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension)
Source: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension - August 17, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Paradkar SG, Sinha SR Tags: Clin Exp Hypertens Source Type: research

Homocysteine-lowering interventions for preventing cardiovascular events.
CONCLUSIONS: In this third update of the Cochrane review, there were no differences in effects of homocysteine-lowering interventions in the form of supplements of vitamins B6, B9 or B12 given alone or in combination comparing with placebo on myocardial infarction, death from any cause or adverse events. In terms of stroke, this review found a small difference in effect favouring to homocysteine-lowering interventions in the form of supplements of vitamins B6, B9 or B12 given alone or in combination comparing with placebo.There were uncertain effects of enalapril plus folic acid compared with enalapril on stroke; approxima...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - August 17, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Martí-Carvajal AJ, Solà I, Lathyris D, Dayer M Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research

Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes in PARADIGM-HF [Original Articles]
Background Patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction have impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL) with variable responses to therapies that target mortality and heart failure hospitalizations. In PARADIGM-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of ARNI [Angiotensin Receptor–Neprilysin Inhibitor] With ACEI [Angiotensin-Converting–Enzyme Inhibitor] to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure), sacubitril/valsartan reduced morbidity and mortality compared with enalapril. Another major treatment goal is to improve HRQL. Given improvements in mortality with sacubitril/valsa...
Source: Circulation: Heart Failure - August 7, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Lewis, E. F., Claggett, B. L., McMurray, J. J. V., Packer, M., Lefkowitz, M. P., Rouleau, J. L., Liu, J., Shi, V. C., Zile, M. R., Desai, A. S., Solomon, S. D., Swedberg, K. Tags: Heart Failure Original Articles Source Type: research

Sacubitril/Valsartan Uptake among Veterans with Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: Characteristics of Initiators and Prescribing Patterns
Introduction: The PARADIGM-HF trial showed a reduction in cardiovascular mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalizations with sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) vs. enalapril in patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Data on S/V use in an integrated health system immediately post FDA approval and incorporation into US HF treatment guidelines is limited and may identify opportunities to optimize HFrEF pharmacotherapy. Hypothesis: S/V use will be low and patient and healthcare facility characteristics will be associated with switching from an ACEI/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) to S/V in a large, integrated he...
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - August 1, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: April F. Mohanty, Emily B. Levitan, John A. Dodson, Patricia A. Russo, Adam P. Bress Source Type: research

AWAKE-HF: Rationale and Design of a Study Using a Wearable Biosensor to Objectively Evaluate the Effect of Sacubitril/Valsartan Initiation on Measures of Physical Activity, Symptoms, and Sleep, as Health-Related Quality of Life Functions in Subjects with Heart Failure
This study explores early changes in objective HRQoL measures (physical activity, sleep) in HFrEF subjects initiating S/V versus enalapril. Methods: AWAKE-HF is a prospective, multicenter, double-blind, randomized trial assessing physical activity during waking and sleeping hours, subjective sleep quality, and HRQoL of approximately 140 HFrEF subjects (LVEF ≤40%, NYHA functional class II-III) in their unrestricted home environment. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - August 1, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Raj M. Khandwalla, Kade T. Birkeland, James Thomas Heywood, Robert L. Owens, Steven R. Steinhubl, Daniel Grant, Kevin McCague, Emmanuel Fombu, Jerome B. Riebman Source Type: research

A Retrospective Review of Sacubitril-Valsartan Combination Use in a Diverse Advanced Heart Failure Patient Population in a Community Hospital
Introduction: Sacubitril/valsartan combination (SVC) is a new member of the armamentarium for the treatment of heart failure (HF). In the PARADIGM-HF trial, when compared to enalapril, SVC showed a 21% reduction in the composite endpoint of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for HF in mostly NYHA function class (FC) II to III HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). After its FDA approval in 2015, SVC received a Class I recommendation from the 2016 focused ACC/AHA/HFSA guidelines for patients with chronic HFrEF to reduce morbidity and mortality. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - August 1, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Tamra Ward Source Type: research

Optimal dosing of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients with chronic heart failure: a cross-sectional study in Palestine
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Because high-dose angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy is desirable in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), we sought to determine the usage and dosing patterns of ACE inhibitors in CHF patients at a governmental hospital in Palestine.METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2006 and August 2007. All patients admitted with a confirmed diagnosis of CHF and an ejection fraction
Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine - July 30, 2017 Category: General Medicine Tags: ISSUE 2 Source Type: research

Vasodilator effect of Angiotensin- (1-7) on vascular coronary bed of rats: Role of Mas, ACE and ACE2.
Abstract Angiotensin(Ang)-(1-7) is a biologically active member of the renin-angiotensin system that participates of the regulation of blood pressure. Although Ang-(1-7) is able to potentiate the vasodilator effect of bradykinin in coronary bed of rats, a direct vasodilator effect of Ang-(1-7) in this vascular bed has not been characterized. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms involved in the vasodilator effect of Ang-(1-7) in the vasculature of isolated rat hearts perfused according to the Langendorff technique at constant flow. After approximately 30 minutes of stabilization, hearts were p...
Source: Protein and Peptide Letters - July 28, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Moraes PL, Kangussu LM, Castro CH, Santos RA, Ferreira AJ, Almeida AP Tags: Protein Pept Lett Source Type: research

Effects of Resveratrol and Ace Inhibitor Enalapril on Glucose and Lipid Profiles in Mice.
In conclusion, it could be observed that the association between resveratrol and enalapril improved the glucose and lipid mice profiles by modulating the expression of some lipogenesis genes, which are critical regulators of metabolic homeostasis. PMID: 28758594 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Protein and Peptide Letters)
Source: Protein and Peptide Letters - July 28, 2017 Category: Biochemistry Authors: de Almeida Pinheiro T, de Almeida Pinheiro T, Feltenberger JD, Andrade JMO, Ferreira EC, De Farias Lelis D, Guimarães ALS, de Paula AMB, Caldeira AP, Santos SS Tags: Protein Pept Lett Source Type: research

Angioedema Spotlight: A Closer Examination of Sacubitril/Valsartan Safety Results
Incorporation of neprilysin inhibition into heart failure pharmacotherapy regimens has recently been recommended by U.S. guidelines, based on results from the PARADIGM-HF trial comparing sacubitril/valsartan to enalapril. While most of the discussion has focused on efficacy, a closer examination of the safety results, particularly the incidence of angioedema during the run-in and double-blind periods, is also warranted. Although no major safety concerns were identified, an angioedema risk comparable to enalapril was found, primarily in the black population. Therefore, despite combination with an angiotensin receptor blocke...
Source: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine - July 18, 2017 Category: Primary Care Authors: Owens, R. E., Oliphant, C. S. Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

Blood pressure –lowering efficacy of indapamide SR/amlodipine combination in older patients with hypertension: A post hoc analysis of the NESTOR trial (Natrilix SR vs Enalapril in Hypertensive Type 2 Diabetics With Microalbuminuria)
To examine the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of indapamide sustained‐release (SR)/amlodipine compared with enalapril/amlodipine in patients 65 years and older with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP) on monotherapy, a post hoc analysis of the NESTOR trial (Natrilix SR vs Enalapril in Hypertensive Type 2 Diabetics With Microalbuminuria) was conducted. NESTOR randomized 570 patients (n=197, aged ≥65 years) with hypertension (systolic BP 140–180/diastolic BP
Source: The Journal of Clinical Hypertension - July 18, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Olivier Hanon, Laure Caillard, Edouard Chaussade, Intza Hernandorena, Clemence Boully Tags: ORIGINAL PAPER Source Type: research

Design for the sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) compared with enalapril study of pediatric patients with heart failure due to systemic left ventricle systolic dysfunction (PANORAMA-HF study)
Conclusion The PANORAMA-HF study, which will be the largest prospective pediatric HF trial conducted to date and the first to use a global rank primary endpoint, will determine whether sacubitril/valsartan is superior to enalapril for treatment of pediatric HF patients with reduced systemic left ventricular systolic function. Graphical abstract (Source: American Heart Journal)
Source: American Heart Journal - July 17, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Solid-phase extraction of multi-class pharmaceuticals from environmental water samples onto modified multi-walled carbon nanotubes followed by LC-MS/MS.
ron;ević M Abstract In this paper, pristine and chemically treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were employed as solid-phase extraction sorbents for the isolation and enrichment of multi-class pharmaceuticals from the surface water and groundwater, prior to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Thirteen pharmaceuticals that belong to different therapeutical classes (erythromycin, azithromycin, sulfamethoxazole, diazepam, lorazepam, carbamazepine, metoprolol, bisoprolol, enalapril, cilazapril, simvastatin, clopidogrel, diclofenac) and two metabolites of metamizole (4-acetylaminoantipyr...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - July 17, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Authors: Lalović B, Đurkić T, Vukčević M, Janković-Častvan I, Kalijadis A, Laušević Z, Laušević M Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research

The immunomodulatory effects of the Enalapril in combination with Benznidazole during acute and chronic phases of the experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.
In conclusion, we assume that the CT administrated in the initial stage of infection, presents a minor immunomodulatory effect when the VL-10 strain of T. cruzi is used. In contrast, Bz and Enalapril in monotherapies persist suggesting a potential protection against cardiac damages during experimental T. cruzi infection. PMID: 28720491 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)
Source: Acta Tropica - July 15, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Leite ALJ, de Paula Costa G, Lopes LR, Dos Reis Mota LW, de Abreu Vieira PM, Talvani A Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research

Benefits and Harms of Sacubitril in Adults with Heart Failure and Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction
The quality of evidence regarding patient-centered outcomes in adults with heart failure (HF) after sacubitril combined with valsartan has not been systematically appraised. We searched 4 databases in February 2017 and graded the quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group approach. We reviewed 1 meta-analysis and multiple publications of 2 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 unpublished RCT. In adults with HF and reduced ejection fraction, low-quality evidence from one RCT of 8432 patients suggests that sacubitril combined with valsartan...
Source: The American Journal of Cardiology - July 14, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Wilbert S. Aronow, Tatyana A. Shamliyan Source Type: research

Effects of Folic Acid Therapy on the New-Onset Proteinuria in Chinese Hypertensive PatientsNovelty and Significance [Clinical Trials]
In conclusion, enalapril–folic acid therapy, compared with enalapril alone, significantly reduced the development of proteinuria in diabetic patients with hypertension.Clinical Trial Registration—URL: http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. (Source: Hypertension)
Source: Hypertension - July 12, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Youbao Li, Min Liang, Guobao Wang, Binyan Wang, Mingli He, Genfu Tang, Delu Yin, Xin Xu, Yong Huo, Yimin Cui, Fan Fan Hou, Xianhui Qin Tags: Clinical Studies, Diabetes, Type 1, Diet and Nutrition, Hypertension Original Articles Source Type: research

Increased drug load and polymer compatibility of bilayered orodispersible films.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that enalapril concentration dependently reduced the pH, thereby negatively influencing the gel formation and the viscosity of SCS. An increased casting height did not result in a proportionally increased enalapril load. The enalapril load could be doubled when a bilayered ODF containing two layers of SCS was produced. Finally, not all combinations of film forming agents could be used for the preparation of bilayered ODFs. Besides, the sequence in which the different polymer layers were casted affected the appearance of the ODFs. In conclusion, the best formulations were produced with the polymer comb...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - July 11, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Carolina Visser J, Weggemans OAF, Boosman RJ, Loos KU, Frijlink HW, Woerdenbag HJ Tags: Eur J Pharm Sci Source Type: research

Chronic treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor increases cardiac fibrosis in young rats submitted to early ovarian failure
We investigated whether the treatment with enalapril maleate, combined with aerobic physical training, promotes positive effects on the autonomic balance, the morphology and the cardiac function in female rats submitted to early ovarian failure. (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical - July 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sabrina Graziani Veloso Dutra, Ana Carolina Sanches Felix, Ada Clarice Gastaldi, T ábata De Paula Facioli, Suenimeire Vieira, Hugo Celso Dutra De Souza Source Type: research

Chronic treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor increases cardiac fibrosis in young rats submitted to early ovarian failure.
CONCLUSION: Enalapril maleate exacerbated cardiac fibrosis and increased sympathetic participation in the basal heart rate determination, without significantly affecting the cardiac function. Aerobic physical training did not change the cardiac autonomic control, but reduced cardiac fibrosis and had little effect on the cardiac function. PMID: 28712539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Autonomic Neuroscience)
Source: Autonomic Neuroscience - July 10, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dutra SGV, Felix ACS, Gastaldi AC, De Paula Facioli T, Vieira S, De Souza HCD Tags: Auton Neurosci Source Type: research

Gingival bleeding, a possible "serious" adverse drug reaction: an observational study in the French Pharmacovigilance Database.
CONCLUSION: Gingival bleeding can be an adverse drug reaction, often "serious" and rarely fatal. Patients older than 50 years and women are particularly at risk. Among drugs known to increase the risk of gingival bleeding, the most frequently involved were fluindione, furosemide, paracetamol, amiodarone, amoxicillin, paroxetine or ketoprofen. We also identified signal for drugs not usually known to be involved in bleeding, like zolpidem, enalapril or ramipril. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 28667742 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Clinical Periodontology)
Source: Journal of Clinical Periodontology - July 1, 2017 Category: Dentistry Authors: Bondon-Guitton E, Mourgues T, Rousseau V, Cousty S, Cottin J, Drablier G, Micallef J, Montastruc JL Tags: J Clin Periodontol Source Type: research

Establishment of a mouse model of enalapril-induced liver injury and investigation of the pathogenesis
hi Yokoi (Source: Laboratory Investigation)
Source: Laboratory Investigation - June 30, 2017 Category: Laboratory Medicine Authors: Yuji Shirai Shingo Oda Sayaka Makino Koichi Tsuneyama Tsuyoshi Yokoi Source Type: research

Chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy caused by Pemetrexed
We describe the case of a patient with advanced lung cancer and cardiomyopathy due to pemetrexed. A 59-year-old woman visited our hospital, and we found abnormal findings on a chest radiograph. She was diagnosed as having stage IV lung adenocarcinoma. Chemotherapy with cisplatin and pemetrexed every 3  weeks was initiated. After four cycles of chemotherapy, maintenance chemotherapy with pemetrexed was administered every 3 weeks. During the seventeenth cycle of pemetrexed, she had shortness of breath in her daily life. A chest radiograph showed an enlarged cardiothoracic ratio (66%), and the tra nsthoracic echocar...
Source: Investigational New Drugs - June 28, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Allele ‐specific polymerase chain reaction for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism in amlodipine‐induced gingival enlargement
Summary What is known and objectiveStudies indicate that there is an increased serum concentration of amlodipine (a calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension and angina) in patients having mutant multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene. Hence, genetic factors may play a very significant role in amlodipine‐induced complications including gingival enlargement. Case descriptionThree patients with amlodipine‐induced gingival enlargement showed improvement following drug substitution of amlodipine with enalapril (an angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitor) and non‐invasive periodontal therapy. Using allele‐sp...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics - June 27, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: N. Kala, S. P. K. K. Babu, J. Manjeu, A. Aadivalavan, R. Khan Tags: CASE REPORT Source Type: research

Shenqiwan Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis in Rats by Inhibiting TGF- β1/Smads Signaling Pathway.
Shenqiwan Ameliorates Renal Fibrosis in Rats by Inhibiting TGF-β1/Smads Signaling Pathway. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2017;2017:7187038 Authors: Chen H, Xu Y, Yang Y, Zhou X, Dai S, Li C Abstract Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) refers to the transition of epithelial cells into mesenchymal cells. Emerging evidence suggests that EMT is a key point in renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF). Traditional Chinese Medicine Shenqiwan (SQW) is widely used in clinical treatment of chronic kidney disease, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate th...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - June 24, 2017 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research

Comparison of lercanidipine plus hydrochlorothiazide vs. lercanidipine plus enalapril on micro and macrocirculation in patients with mild essential hypertension
In conclusion, lercanidipine both in monotherapy and in combination with enalapril but not with hydrochlorothiazide is able to improve microvascular structure; on the other hand, a decrease in central blood pressure is observed with both therapeutic combinations. (Source: Internal and Emergency Medicine)
Source: Internal and Emergency Medicine - June 24, 2017 Category: Emergency Medicine Source Type: research

The Pharmacokinetics of Enalapril in Relation to CES1 Genotype in Healthy Danish Volunteers
In conclusion, none of the selected variations of CES1 had a clinically relevant impact on the metabolism of enalapril. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology - June 21, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Claus Stage, Gesche J ürgens, Louise Schow Guski, Ragnar Thomsen, Ditte Bjerre, Laura Ferrero‐Miliani, Yassine Kamal Lyauk, Henrik Berg Rasmussen, Kim Dalhoff, Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness of the Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor Sacubitril/Valsartan for Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction in the Netherlands: A Country Adaptation Analysis Under the Former and Current Dutch Pharmacoeconomic Guidelines
To describe the adaptation of a global health economic model to determine whether treatment with the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696 is cost-effective compared with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril in adult patients with chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in the Netherlands; and to explore the effect of performing the cost-effectiveness analyses according to the new pharmacoeconomic Dutch guidelines (updated during the submission process of LCZ696), which require a value-of-information analysis and the inclusion of indirect medical costs of life-years...
Source: Value in Health - June 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Isaac Corro Ramos, Matthijs M. Versteegh, Rudolf A. de Boer, Jolanda M.A. Koenders, Gerard C.M. Linssen, Joan G. Meeder, Maureen P.M.H. Rutten-van M ölken Source Type: research

Cost Effectiveness of the Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor Sacubitril/Valsartan for Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction in the Netherlands: A Country Adaptation Analysis Under the Former and Current Dutch Pharmacoeconomic Guidelines
To describe the adaptation of a global health economic model to determine whether treatment with the angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696 is cost effective compared with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril in adult patients with chronic heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction in the Netherlands; and to explore the effect of performing the cost-effectiveness analyses according to the new pharmacoeconomic Dutch guidelines (updated during the submission process of LCZ696), which require a value-of-information analysis and the inclusion of indirect medical costs of life-years...
Source: Value in Health - June 20, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Isaac Corro Ramos, Matthijs M. Versteegh, Rudolf A. de Boer, Jolanda M.A. Koenders, Gerard C.M. Linssen, Joan G. Meeder, Maureen P.M.H. Rutten-van M ölken Source Type: research

Antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of methanolic extract of Inula viscosa: Biological evaluation and POM analysis of cynarin, chlorogenic acid as potential hypertensive
Publication date: September 2017 Source:Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 93 Author(s): Zineb Hakkou, Alexandre Maciuk, Veronique Leblais, Nour Elhouda Bouanani, Hassane Mekhfi, Mohammed Bnouham, Mohammed Aziz, Abderrahime Ziyyat, Abdur Rauf, Taibi Ben Hadda, Usama Shaheen, Seema Patel, Rodolphe Fischmeister, Abdelkhaleq Legssyer Background: Inula viscosa L. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant widely used as a folk medicine in oriental Morocco, to treat hypertension. The antihypertensive effect of the methanolic extract obtained from I. viscosa leaves was evaluated in hypertensive L-NAME rats. Systolic blood pre...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - June 16, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of Antihypertensive Drug Treatment on Oxidative Stress Markers in Heart of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Models.
Authors: Yusoff NSN, Mustapha Z, Sharif SET, Govindasamy C, Sirajudeen KNS Abstract Oxidative stress has been suggested to play a role in hypertension- and hypertension-induced organ damage. The effect of antihypertensive drug treatments on oxidative stress markers has not been well assessed. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effect of enalapril on oxidative stress markers in hearts of hypertensive rat models such as spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and SHRs administered N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (SHR+L-NAME rats). Male rats were divided into four groups: SHRs, SHR+enalapril (SHR-E) rats, SHR+...
Source: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology - June 14, 2017 Category: Environmental Health Tags: J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol Source Type: research

Antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of methanolic extract of Inula viscosa: Biological evaluation and POM analysis of cynarin, chlorogenic acid as potential hypertensive.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Inula viscosa L. (Asteraceae) is a medicinal plant widely used as a folk medicine in oriental Morocco, to treat hypertension. The antihypertensive effect of the methanolic extract obtained from I. viscosa leaves was evaluated in hypertensive L-NAME rats. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured using a non-invasive indirect tail-cuff plethysmographic method. Four groups of rats were used: a control group; a hypertensive group treated with L-NAME (32mg/kg/day); a positive control group treated with L-NAME plus enalapril (15mg/kg/day) as a reference antihypertensive agent; and a group treated ...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - June 14, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Hakkou Z, Maciuk A, Leblais V, Bouanani NE, Mekhfi H, Bnouham M, Aziz M, Ziyyat A, Rauf A, Hadda TB, Shaheen U, Patel S, Fischmeister R, Legssyer A Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research

Potential drug –drug interactions in older adults: A population‐based study
ConclusionsMost PDDI were related to routinely used drugs (enalapril, hydrochlorothiazide, calcium, captopril, levothyroxine and simvastatin), and more than one‐third of the older adults were exposed to PDDI with the possible risk of serious health consequences. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic index were involved in several PDDI, with increased risk of toxicity. The clinical management procedures most recommended are dose adjustment and dosing changes, control of the drugs’ serum levels, and monitoring of the clinical conditions. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; ••: ••–••. (Source: Ger...
Source: Geriatrics and Gerontology International - June 1, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Thalyta Renata Ara újo Santos, Erika Aparecida Silveira, Lílian Varanda Pereira, Mércia Pandolfo Provin, Dione Marçal Lima, Rita Goreti Amaral Tags: Original Article: Epidemiology, Clinical Practice and Health Source Type: research

The PPAR-gamma-binding sequence Pal3 is necessary for basal but dispensable for high-fat diet regulated human renin expression in the kidney.
We reported earlier that PPAR-gamma regulates renin transcription through a human-specific atypical binding sequence termed hRen-Pal3. Here we developed a mouse model to investigate the functional relevance of the hRen-Pal3 sequence in vivo since it might be responsible for the increased renin production in obesity and thus for the development of accompanying arterial hypertension. We used bacterial artificial chromosome construct and co-placement strategy to generate two transgenic mouse lines expressing the human renin gene from identical genomic locus without affecting the intrinsic mouse renin expression. One line carr...
Source: Pflugers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology - May 22, 2017 Category: Physiology Authors: Lachmann P, Selbmann J, Hickmann L, Hohenstein B, Hugo C, Todorov VT Tags: Pflugers Arch Source Type: research

Impaired Corneal Sensation and Nerve Loss in a Type 2 Rat Model of Chronic Diabetes Is Reversible With Combination Therapy of Menhaden Oil, α-Lipoic Acid, and Enalapril
This study investigated the efficacy of monotherapy versus combination of menhaden oil, α-lipoic acid, and enalapril on corneal sensation and morphometry and other neuropathy-related endpoints in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 12 weeks) were fed a high-fat diet for 8 weeks followed by 30 mg/kg streptozotocin. After 16 weeks of hyperglycemia, 12-week treatments consisting of menhaden oil, α-lipoic acid, enalapril, or their combination were initiated. Before and after treatments, we performed analyses of multiple neural and vascular endpoints including corneal sensitivity...
Source: Cornea - May 9, 2017 Category: Opthalmology Tags: Basic Investigation Source Type: research

Screening approach for identifying candidate drugs and drug ‐drug interactions related to hip fracture risk in persons with Alzheimer disease
ConclusionsCase‐crossover analysis is a potential approach for identifying candidate drugs and drug‐drug interactions associated with adverse events as it implicitly controls for fixed confounders. The results are highly dependent on applied hazard and control periods, but the choice of periods can help in targeting the analyses to different phases of drug use. (Source: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety)
Source: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety - May 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Anna ‐Maija Tolppanen, Heidi Taipale, Marjaana Koponen, Antti Tanskanen, Piia Lavikainen, Jussi Paananen, Jari Tiihonen, Sirpa Hartikainen Tags: ORIGINAL REPORT Source Type: research

Folic acid therapy reduces the risk of mortality associated with heavy proteinuria among hypertensive patients
Objective: We aimed to evaluate whether proteinuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels can modify the efficacy of folic acid therapy on the risk of all-cause mortality among hypertensive patients in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, a randomized, double-blind, and controlled trial. Methods: A total of 20 702 hypertensive patients without a history of major cardiovascular diseases were randomly assigned to a double-blind daily treatment of a single tablet containing 10-mg enalapril and 0.8-mg folic acid (n = 10 348), or 10-mg enalapril alone (n = 10 354). All-cause mortality, a pr...
Source: Journal of Hypertension - April 26, 2017 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Kidney Source Type: research

Transient enalapril attenuates the reduction in glomerular filtration rate in prenatally programmed rats
This study examined the effect of continuous administration of enalapril in the drinking water and transient administration of enalapril administered from 21 to 42 days of age on blood pressure and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in male rats whose mothers were fed a 20% protein diet (control) or a 6% protein diet (programmed) during the last half of pregnancy. After birth all rats were fed a 20% protein diet. Programmed rats (maternal 6% protein diet) were hypertensive at 15 months of age compared to control rats and both continuous and transient administration of enalapril had no effect on blood pressure on co...
Source: Physiological Reports - April 24, 2017 Category: Physiology Authors: Asifhusen Mansuri, Ayah Elmaghrabi, Issa Alhamoud, Susan K. Legan, Jyothsna Gattineni, Michel Baum Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Homocysteine and Stroke Risk [Clinical Sciences]
Conclusions—In Chinese hypertensive patients, the effect of homocysteine on the first stroke was significantly modified by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype and folic acid supplementation. Such information may help to more precisely predict stroke risk and develop folic acid interventions tailored to individual genetic background and nutritional status.Clinical Trial Registration—URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. (Source: Stroke)
Source: Stroke - April 24, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Min Zhao, Xiaobin Wang, Mingli He, Xianhui Qin, Genfu Tang, Yong Huo, Jianping Li, Jia Fu, Xiao Huang, Xiaoshu Cheng, Binyan Wang, Fan Fan Hou, Ningling Sun, Yefeng Cai Tags: Cerebrovascular Disease/Stroke, Ischemic Stroke Original Contributions Source Type: research

Candesartan Cilexetil is not Associated with Cough in Patients with Enalapril-induced Cough.
In this study, we compared the incidence and severity of cough during treatment with candesartan cilexetil, enalapril and placebo in patients with hypertension and enalapril-induced cough. Men and women, aged 20-80 years, with a history of medically treated primary hypertension and ACE-inhibitor-related cough were enrolled. The presence of cough was confirmed during a 4-week challenge period with enalapril, 10 mg, which abated during a subsequent 4-week washout period with placebo. Patients with confirmed ACE-inhibitor-related cough were then randomized to double-blind treatment with candesartan cilexetil, 8 mg once daily ...
Source: Blood Pressure - April 23, 2017 Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Press Source Type: research

Association of Serum Uric Acid with Increased Risk of Cancer among Hypertensive Chinese
This study included 20577 adult hypertensive patients with valid SUA measurements who participated in the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial where subjects were randomly assigned to receive a double‐blind treatment of either 10mg enalapril (n=10286) or 10.8mg enalapril‐folic acid (n=10291). Subjects were prospectively followed for a median of 4.5 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazards ratios (HR) of cancer risk associated with SUA. A total of 232 participants developed cancer. SUA was independently associated with increased cancer risk in the enalapril group [HR: 1.12, (95% CI: 1.03‐...
Source: International Journal of Cancer - April 10, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Juan Yang, Yupeng Wang, Qianqian Zhao, Xianglin Zhang, Xiaobin Wang, Xianhui Qin, Rong Zhang, Lin Shen, Xiaodong Jiang, Hua Jiang, Yu Lei, Binyan Wang, Jin Gu, Fan Fan Hou, Yong Huo, Wei Gao, Xiping Xu Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Physical training promotes similar effects to the blockade of angiotensin-converting enzyme on the cardiac morphology and function in old female rats subjected to premature ovarian failure.
Abstract We investigated the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition and aerobic physical training on the heart of old female rats (82-wk-old) submitted to premature ovarian failure (10-wk.-old). We used different approaches: morphology and function by echocardiography, reactivity of the coronary bed and left ventricular contractibility (Langendorff Technique). Female Wistar ovariectomized (OVX) rats (n=42) were assigned to one of four groups: OVX, vehicle treated only; OVX-EM, Enalapril Maleate only (EM, 10mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)); OVX-T, aerobic trained only; and OVX-EMT, treated with Ena...
Source: Experimental Gerontology - April 10, 2017 Category: Geriatrics Authors: Felix AC, Dutra SG, Gastaldi AC, Bonfim PC, Vieira S, de Souza HC Tags: Exp Gerontol Source Type: research

The renal and cardiovascular effects of natriuretic peptides.
Abstract The landmark report by de Bold et al. in 1981 signified the heart as one of the endocrine organs involved in fluid and salt balance (de Bold AJ, Borenstein HB, Veress AT, Sonnenberg H. Life Sci 28: 89-94, 1981). Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) are secreted from cardiomyocytes in response to cardiac stretch as in the case of heart failure, whereas C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is secreted from endothelial and renal cells in response to cytokines and endothelium-dependent agonists, such as acetylcholine. Binding ANP or BNP to natriuretic peptide receptor A induces cyc...
Source: Adv Physiol Educ - April 7, 2017 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Wong PC, Guo J, Zhang A Tags: Adv Physiol Educ Source Type: research