Enabling insights into the maturation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system in children—Development of a low-volume LC–MS assay for the simultaneous determination of aldosterone, its precursor, and main metabolite
ConclusionA simultaneous bioanalytical LC-HRMS assay for the determination of the biomarker aldosterone, its precursor, and main metabolite, utilizing 50 µL serum, was successfully established. This assay facilitates insight into the maturing RAAS from neonates up to adolescents. (Source: Steroids)
Source: Steroids - May 8, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Endothelial-Dependent and Independent Vascular Relaxation Effect of Tetrahydropalmatine on Rat Aorta
Zhong-Yan Zhou1,2†, Wai-Rong Zhao1†, Wen-Ting Shi1†, Ying Xiao1, Zi-Lin Ma1, Jin-Gui Xue3, Lun-Qing Zhang4, Qing Ye1, Xin-Lin Chen1* and Jing-Yi Tang1,5* 1Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China 2State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, China 3Shuguang Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China 4Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, China 5Cardiac Rehabilitation Center of Longhua Hospital, Shanghai Univers...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - April 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Sacubitril/valsartan in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients: Real world experience on advanced chronic kidney disease, hypotension, and dose escalation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated the effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan on HFrEF patients in real world practice, including those with advanced renal impairment. PMID: 30982680 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Cardiology)
Source: Journal of Cardiology - April 11, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Chang HY, Feng AN, Fong MC, Hsueh CW, Lai WT, Huang KC, Chong E, Chen CN, Chang HC, Yin WH Tags: J Cardiol Source Type: research

Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Randomly Assigned to Sacubitril/Valsartan or Enalapril in the PIONEER-HF Trial.
PMID: 30955360 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Circulation)
Source: Circulation - April 8, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Morrow DA, Velazquez EJ, DeVore AD, Desai AS, Duffy CI, Ambrosy AP, Gurmu Y, McCague K, Rocha R, Braunwald E Tags: Circulation Source Type: research

A rare disease with a rare presentation: hemi-atrophy caused by fibromuscular dysplasia in a 27 month old girl.
Abstract We discuss the case of a 27-month-old girl afflicted with fibromuscular dysplasia. She presented with hemiatrophy of left upper and lower limbs, nail dystrophy, ulcers on the tips of her toes, cold and painful limbs, foot drop, and hypertension. The initial appearance started at 2 months of age and other diagnoses such as complex regional pain syndrome, reflex sympathetic syndrome, vasculitis and coagulation disorders had been considered. Angiography revealed that all the arterial branches of the left lower and upper limbs, from brachial to ulnar and radial, and from iliac and femoral to tibialis arteries...
Source: Reumatismo - April 1, 2019 Category: Rheumatology Authors: Gharib B, Ghareh Zadeh Shirazi A, Moradi E, Yaghmaei B, Ziaee V Tags: Reumatismo Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness of Switching Patients With Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction to Sacubitril/Valsartan: The Australian Perspective
The cost-effectiveness, from the Australian health care perspective, of switching patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) stable on angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors / angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) to sacubitril/valsartan is unclear. We sought to assess the cost-effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril in patients with HFREF in the contemporary Australian setting. (Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation)
Source: Heart, Lung and Circulation - March 28, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ken Lee Chin, Ella Zomer, Bing H. Wang, Danny Liew Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

“Real World” Eligibility for Sacubitril/Valsartan in Unselected Heart Failure Patients: Data from the Swedish Heart Failure Registry
ConclusionsBetween 34 and 76% of symptomatic patients with HF-REF in a ‘real world’ population are eligible for treatment with sacubitril/valsartan, depending on background ACEI/ARB dose. The most common reason for ineligibility is a low natriuretic peptide level. (Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy)
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - March 23, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Real-world prevalence of adverse events after initiating sacubitril/valsartan compared to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers in systolic heart failure
Sacubitril/valsartan is a novel medication that acts as a neprilysin and angiotensin receptor blocker.1 Its overwhelming benefit seen in its main clinical trial, PARADIGM-HF, led to its incorporation into the American College of Cardiology(ACC)/American Heart Association(AHA)/Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) guidelines.2-4 In the PARADIGM-HF trial, sacubitril/valsartan demonstrated a reduction in the composite endpoint of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening heart failure when compared to enalapril. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - March 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sarah Adie, Abbas Bitar, Sarah Hanigan, Kristen Pogue, Todd Koelling, Michael Dorsch Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

Real-World Prevalence of Adverse Events After Initiating Sacubitril/Valsartan Compared With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in Systolic Heart Failure
Sacubitril/valsartan is a novel medication that acts as a neprilysin and angiotensin receptor blocker.1 Its overwhelming benefit as seen in its main clinical trial, PARADIGM-HF, led to its incorporation into the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Failure Society of America guidelines.2 –4 In the PARADIGM-HF trial, sacubitril/valsartan demonstrated a reduction in the composite end point of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening heart failure compared with enalapril. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - March 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sarah Adie, Abbas Bitar, Sarah Hanigan, Kristen Pogue, Todd Koelling, Michael Dorsch Tags: Research Letter Source Type: research

Other Preventive Anti-Migraine Treatments: ACE Inhibitors, ARBs, Calcium Channel Blockers, Serotonin Antagonists, and NMDA Receptor Antagonists
This article examines several of the classes of medications that are used for migraine preventive treatment, specifically, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, serotonin antagonists, alpha-adrenergic agonists, and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor antagonists.Recent findingsThere have been randomized control trials investigating medications in these drug classes since the most recent guidelines for migraine prevention in adults were published by the American Academy of Neurology, American Headache Society, and the Canadian Headache Society. In these investigatio...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Neurology - March 18, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Sacubitril/Valsartan and Mexiletine: A Proarrhythmic Combination?
We report two cases that raise the possibility of an interaction between sacubitril/valsartan and the class Ib anti-arrhythmic mexiletine resulting in proarrhythmic effects. We discuss the pharmacokinetics of both agents and posit potential mechanistic interactions that suggest caution should be used and careful monitoring for (ventricular) arrhythmias applied in patients receiving sacubitril/valsartan and mexiletine.Cardiology 2019;142:4 –6 (Source: Cardiology)
Source: Cardiology - March 9, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Extent of extemporaneous compounding and pattern of prescribing and use of extemporaneous medicines in a developing setting
ConclusionsThe extent of compounding and use of extemporaneous products is considerable and remain an importance source of critical access to essential medicines for children with cardiovascular and neurological disorders, and electrolyte imbalance and nutritional deficiencies in both the inpatient and ambulatory settings. However, the limited access to information on the stability, efficacy and safety of extemporaneous products may potentially expose patients to harm. (Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research)
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research - March 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kazeem B. Yusuff Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Could cardioprotective effect of ACE2 activator "diminazene aceturate" is more potent than ACE inhibitor "Enalapril" on acute myocardial infarction in rats?
Could cardioprotective effect of ACE2 activator "diminazene aceturate" is more potent than ACE inhibitor "Enalapril" on acute myocardial infarction in rats? Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2019 Mar 06;: Authors: Badae NM, El Naggar AS, El Sayed SM Abstract Myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of cardiac dysfunction. All components of the cardiac renin angiotensin system (RAS) are upregulated in MI. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 are key enzymes involved in synthesis of components of RAS and provide a counter-regulatory mechanism within RAS. We compared the cardioprote...
Source: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology - March 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Badae NM, El Naggar AS, El Sayed SM Tags: Can J Physiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

The Combination of Lithium and ACE Inhibitors: Hazardous, Critical, Possible?
We describe three cases in which enalapril, lisinopril or ramipril was combined with lithium. Either additional co-medication with hydrochlorothiazide or dehydration rather than co-medication with ACE inhibitors could be identified as necessary factors for lithium intoxication. These cases suggest that a combination of lithium with ACE inhibitors is possible when sufficient hydration is ensured and a combination with hydrochlorothiazide is avoided. Lithium concentration should be controlled on a regular level. (Source: Clinical Drug Investigation)
Source: Clinical Drug Investigation - February 25, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

A mouse model of heart failure exhibiting pulmonary edema and pleural effusion: Useful for testing new drugs
In this study, we developed a robust mouse model of HF in the BALB/c mouse strain, exhibiting pulmonary edema and pleural effusion, and we validated the model using the standard pharmacological therapies in patients with chronic HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or acute decompensated HF.Methods: After induction of myocardial infarction (MI) by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery in BALB/c mice, the cardiac function, pulmonary congestion, disease biomarkers, and survival were evaluated using the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril or the loop diuretic furosemide. Enalapril was administered 4...
Source: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods - February 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Reduced loop diuretic use in patients taking sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril: the PARADIGM ‐HF trial
AimsTo assess differences in diuretic dose requirements in patients treated with sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril in the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM ‐HF) trial.Methods and resultsOverall, 8399 patients with New York Heart Association class II –IV heart failure and reduced LVEF were randomized to sacubitril/valsartan 200 mg bid or enalapril 10 mg twice daily. Loop diuretic doses were assessed at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months, and furosemide dose equivalents were calculated via multiplicatio...
Source: European Journal of Heart Failure - February 11, 2019 Category: Cardiology Authors: Orly Vardeny, Brian Claggett, Jessica Kachadourian, Akshay S. Desai, Milton Packer, Jean Rouleau, Michael R. Zile, Karl Swedberg, Martin Lefkowitz, Victor Shi, John J.V. McMurray, Scott D. Solomon Tags: Short Report Source Type: research

Research article - A mouse model of heart failure exhibiting pulmonary edema and pleural effusion: Useful for testing new drugs
In this study, we developed a robust mouse model of HF in the BALB/c mouse strain, exhibiting pulmonary edema and pleural effusion, and we validated the model using the standard pharmacological therapies in patients with chronic HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) or acute decompensated HF.Methods: After induction of myocardial infarction (MI) by permanent ligation of the left coronary artery in BALB/c mice, the cardiac function, pulmonary congestion, disease biomarkers, and survival were evaluated using the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril or the loop diuretic furosemide. Enalapril was administered 4...
Source: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods - February 6, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Patient's lack of understanding producing insulin drug-interactions in Southeast Brazilian primary care clinics
ConclusionsDiabetes patients without practical knowledge about insulin interacting with other pharmaceutical drugs that can produce DDIs with other medicines illustrates a need to develop education programs for diabetics. (Source: Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews)
Source: Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews - January 25, 2019 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effects of enalapril and losartan alone and in combination with sodium valproate on seizures, memory, and cardiac changes in rats
ConclusionThe use of losartan with sodium valproate in epilepsy may prevent the cognitive and cardiac sequelae of seizures. The BDNF levels as a marker for cardiovascular risk in persons with epilepsy (PWE) needs to be explored further. (Source: Epilepsy and Behavior)
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - January 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Effects of enalapril and losartan alone and in combination with sodium valproate on seizures, memory, and cardiac changes in rats.
CONCLUSION: The use of losartan with sodium valproate in epilepsy may prevent the cognitive and cardiac sequelae of seizures. The BDNF levels as a marker for cardiovascular risk in persons with epilepsy (PWE) needs to be explored further. PMID: 30658894 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour)
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - January 16, 2019 Category: Neurology Authors: Joshi D, Katyal J, Arava S, Gupta YK Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research

Plasma retinol and the risk of first stroke in hypertensive adults: a nested case-control study.
Abstract Background: Identification of novel risk factors is needed to further lower stroke risk. Data concerning the association between plasma retinol concentrations and the risk of stroke are limited. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of plasma retinol on the risk of first stroke and to examine any possible effect modifiers in hypertensive patients. Methods: The study sample population was drawn from the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial (CSPPT), using a nested case-control design, including 620 cases with first stroke and 620 matched controls. In the CSPPT, a total of 20,702 hypertensiv...
Source: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition - January 9, 2019 Category: Nutrition Authors: Yu Y, Zhang H, Song Y, Lin T, Zhou Z, Guo H, Liu L, Wang B, Liu C, Li J, Zhang Y, Huo Y, Wang C, Wang X, Hou FF, Qin X, Xu X Tags: Am J Clin Nutr Source Type: research

The intervention of enalapril maleate and folic acid tablet on the expressions of the GRP78 and CHOP and vascular remodeling in the vascular smooth muscle cells of H-hypertensive rats with homocysteine.
CONCLUSIONS: Down-regulating lncRNA ROR inhibited growth, migration and angiogenesis of microvascular endothelial cells possibly through up-regulation of miR-26. During this process, the activations of NF-κB and JAK1/STAT3 pathways were inhibited after interaction of ROR and miR-26. PMID: 30536347 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences)
Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences - December 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Functional study of Carboxylesterase 1 protein isoforms
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Proteomics)
Source: Proteomics - December 5, 2018 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Xinwen Wang, Jian Shi, Hao ‐Jie Zhu Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

The modifying effect of the MTHFR genotype on the association between folic acid supplementation and pulse wave velocity: Findings from the CSPPT
SummaryObjectiveIn a subgroup analysis of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial, we aimed to explore the impact of folic acid supplementation on arterial stiffness and assess the modifying effect of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in Chinese patients with hypertension.MethodsThis prospective study enrolled 2529 hypertensive Chinese patients. Participants were randomized to receive treatment with either a combination of enalapril and folic acid or enalapril. Brachial ‐ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured by trained medical staff using PWV instruments at both baseline and exit visits, appro...
Source: Cardiovascular Therapeutics - November 20, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Xin Yang, Minghua Zhang, Rensheng Song, Changfu Liu, Yong Huo, Geng Qian Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

Beneficial anti-inflammatory effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker in the treatment of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.
In this study, we compared the benefits of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalapril, an angiotensin receptor blocker, losartan and their combination in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice by assessing the histopathological and macroscopic changes in the colon, and by measuring the expression of the pro-inflammatory interleukin 1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf-α) genes. We also examined the consequences of these interventions on colonic angiotensin-converting enzyme protein and its ectodomain shedding as well as gene expression of RAS components, Agt and Ace, ...
Source: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology - November 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: J Physiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Activation of local bone RAS by maternal excessive glucocorticoid participated in the fetal programing of adult osteopenia induced by prenatal caffeine exposure.
This study was aimed to investigate whether and how prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) could induce osteopenia in the adult offspring. Pregnant rats were treated with prenatal caffeine 12 mg/100 g body weight per day from pregnant day 9 to 20, while rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were treated with exogenous corticosterone during osteogenic induction. Shorter femur and primary ossification center was observed in the PCE offspring, as well as less bone trabecular and poor biomechanical intensity. Local gene expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), as well as angiot...
Source: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology - November 10, 2018 Category: Toxicology Authors: Wen Y, Shangguan Y, Pan Z, Hu H, Magdalou J, Chen L, Wang H Tags: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol Source Type: research

Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system ameliorates clinical and pathological aspects of experimentally induced nephrotoxic serum nephritis.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study showing a comprehensive pathological description of the chronic features of the murine NTN model and that inhibiting the RAS pathway show a significant effect on functional and morphological parameters. PMID: 30403908 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Renal Failure)
Source: Renal Failure - November 9, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: Ren Fail Source Type: research

[ASAP] Experiment and Computation of Solubility and Dissolution Properties for Enalapril Maleate and Its Intermediate in Pure Solvents
Journal of Chemical& Engineering DataDOI: 10.1021/acs.jced.8b00333 (Source: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data)
Source: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data - November 9, 2018 Category: Chemistry Authors: Bin Qiao, Cunbin Du, Ruimei Dong, Zhudan Jin, Ying Zhang, Tingting Ye, Mingliang Wang Source Type: research

Effect of Course Structure on the Accuracy of Nonsterile Compounded Preparations.
Conclusion. The relative potency results suggested that equivalent competency in the two student groups was possible for preparations that involved simple solutions or filled fixed volume molds. However, the hydrocortisone medication stick data indicated that understanding the science of a preparation may require more knowledge or time. PMID: 30559500 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education)
Source: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education - November 1, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Yoo KY, Shrewsbury RP Tags: Am J Pharm Educ Source Type: research

Losartan, but not Enalapril and Valsartan, Inhibits the Expression of IFN- γ, IL-6, IL-17F and IL-22 in PBMCs from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.
Losartan, but not Enalapril and Valsartan, Inhibits the Expression of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17F and IL-22 in PBMCs from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients. Open Rheumatol J. 2018;12:160-170 Authors: Cardoso PRG, Matias KA, Dantas AT, Marques CDL, Pereira MC, Duarte ALBP, Rego MJBM, Pitta IDR, Pitta MGDR Abstract Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic and inflammatory disease that affects about 1% of the world's population. Almost 70% of RA patients have a cardiovascular disease such as Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH). Inflammatory cytokines are clearly involved in the pathogenesis of RA and...
Source: Open Rheumatology Journal - October 7, 2018 Category: Rheumatology Tags: Open Rheumatol J Source Type: research

Nephrotoxin exposure and acute kidney injury in critically ill children undergoing congenital cardiac surgery
ConclusionsNephrotoxin use is common following pediatric CHS. While we found no association between high nephrotoxin exposure and AKI, this may be related to the multifactorial nature of AKI in this population. For many common nephrotoxins, less injurious agents exist and nephrotoxin exposure may represent a modifiable risk factor for AKI. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - October 5, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Sacubitril-Valsartan Compared with Enalapril in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction in Thailand
ConclusionsAt its current price in Thailand, sacubitril-valsartan may not represent good value for the nations ’s limited healthcare resources. The cost of sacubitril-valsartan needs to reduce by approximately 2% to yield an ICER below the threshold. (Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs)
Source: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs - October 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Sacubitril/Valsartan (LCZ696): A Novel Treatment for Heart Failure and its Estimated Cost Effectiveness, Budget Impact, and Disease Burden Reduction in Germany
ConclusionsThe ICER of sacubitril/valsartan is projected to be at or below the level of other accepted interventions for the treatment of asymptomatic to severe heart failure in Germany. Projected budget impact leads to an increase in SHI expenditures by  
Source: PharmacoEconomics - October 1, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

Reply: RE: Cost-effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.
Authors: Lin L, Bin-Chia Wu D, Aziz MIA, Wong R, Sim D, Leong KTG, Wei YQ, Tan D, Ng K PMID: 30255725 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Economics)
Source: Journal of Medical Economics - September 27, 2018 Category: Health Management Tags: J Med Econ Source Type: research

The effect of sodium nitrite infusion on renal function, brachial and central blood pressure during enzyme inhibition by allopurinol, enalapril or acetazolamide in healthy subjects: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study
Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) causes vasodilation, presumably by enzymatic conversion to nitric oxide (NO). Several enzymes with nitrite reducing capabilities have been discovered in vitro, but their relative importance... (Source: BMC Nephrology)
Source: BMC Nephrology - September 21, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Jeppe B. Rosenbaek, Erling B. Pedersen and Jesper N. Bech Tags: Research article Source Type: research

Mast cell population in the development of diabetic nephropathy: Effects of renin angiotensin system inhibition
Publication date: November 2018Source: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 107Author(s): Richarlisson Borges de Morais, Victor Pereira do Couto Muniz, Emerson Nunes Costa, Sebastião Rodrigues Ferreira Filho, Karen Renata Nakamura Hiraki, Luiz Borges Bispo-da-Silva, Ana Paula Coelho BalbiAbstractConsidering the importance of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in diabetic nephropathy (DN) and the link between mast cells (MC) and the RAS, this study evaluated the effects of RAS blockade on the MC cell population in the kidneys from rats with experimental diabetes. Wistar rats were divided into six groups: control...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - September 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Nephrotoxin exposure and acute kidney injury in critically ill children undergoing congenital cardiac surgery
ConclusionsNephrotoxin use is common following pediatric CHS. While we found no association between high nephrotoxin exposure and AKI, this may be related to the multifactorial nature of AKI in this population. For many common nephrotoxins, less injurious agents exist and nephrotoxin exposure may represent a modifiable risk factor for AKI. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)
Source: Pediatric Nephrology - September 18, 2018 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Entresto therapy effectively protects heart and lung against transverse aortic constriction induced cardiopulmonary syndrome injury in rat.
This study tested the hypothesis that entresto therapy effectively protected heart and lung against cardiopulmonary syndrome (CPS) caused by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in rat. Adult-Male SD rats (n = 36) were equally categorized into group 1 [sham-operated control (SC)], group 2 [SC + enalapril (7 mg/kg/day) since day-28 after TAC induction], group 3 [SC + entresto (30 mg/kg/day) since day-14 after TAC induction], group 4 (TAC only), group 5 (TAC + enalapril) and group 6 (TAC + entresto) and euthanized at day 60 after TAC induction. By day 60, the left-ventricular (LV) ejection fraction was significantly lower in...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - September 14, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research

Sacubitril/Valsartan (LCZ696): A Novel Treatment for Heart Failure and its Estimated Cost Effectiveness, Budget Impact, and Disease Burden Reduction in Germany
ConclusionsThe ICER of sacubitril/valsartan is projected to be at or below the level of other accepted interventions for the treatment of asymptomatic to severe heart failure in Germany. Projected budget impact leads to an increase in SHI expenditures by  
Source: PharmacoEconomics - September 8, 2018 Category: Health Management Source Type: research

ASK1 contributes to fibrosis and dysfunction in models of kidney disease
We describe the discovery and characterization of a potent and selective small-molecule inhibitor of ASK1, GS-444217, and demonstrate the therapeutic potential of ASK1 inhibition to reduce kidney injury and fibrosis. Activation of the ASK1 pathway in glomerular and tubular compartments was confirmed in renal biopsies from patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and was decreased by GS-444217 in several rodent models of kidney injury and fibrosis that collectively represented the hallmarks of DKD pathology. Treatment with GS-444217 reduced progressive inflammation and fibrosis in the kidney and halted glomerular filtrat...
Source: Journal of Clinical Investigation - September 5, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: John T. Liles, Britton K. Corkey, Gregory T. Notte, Grant R. Budas, Eric B. Lansdon, Ford Hinojosa-Kirschenbaum, Shawn S. Badal, Michael Lee, Brian E. Schultz, Sarah Wise, Swetha Pendem, Michael Graupe, Laurie Castonguay, Keith A. Koch, Melanie H. Wong, G Source Type: research

A novel dual PPAR- γ agonist/sEH inhibitor treats diabetic complications in a rat model of type 2 diabetes
Conclusions/interpretationThese findings demonstrate that a novel sHE inhibitor/PPAR- γ agonist molecule targets multiple risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and is a glucose-lowering agent with a strong ability to treat diabetic complications. (Source: Diabetologia)
Source: Diabetologia - August 31, 2018 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Usefulness of a titration algorithm for de novo users of sacubitril/valsartan in a tertiary centre heart failure clinic.
CONCLUSIONS: This algorithm is a safe and easy-to-use tool in daily clinical practice for the introduction and titration of sacubitril/valsartan. Almost half of the patients reached the maximal dose, with a tolerability profile in line with the original study. PMID: 30152839 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa)
Source: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa - August 28, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Laflamme É, Vachon A, Gilbert S, Boisvert J, Leclerc V, Bernier M, Voisine P, Sénéchal M, Bergeron S Tags: Cardiovasc J Afr Source Type: research

Simultaneous Determination of Rivaroxaban and Enalapril in Rat Plasma by UPLC –MS/MS and Its Application to A Pharmacokinetic Interaction Study
AbstractBackground and ObjectivesThere have been no animal experiments and clinical studies on the pharmacokinetic interaction between rivaroxaban and enalapril. To investigate whether a potential pharmacokinetic interaction is present between rivaroxaban and enalapril, a rapid and sensitive Ultra performance liquid chromatography —tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) method was developed and validated to determine the concentration of rivaroxaban and enalapril in rat plasma and was then applied to a pharmacokinetic interaction study.MethodsThe analytes were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 chromatography ...
Source: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics - August 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of antihypertensives distributed in brazil by social programs: are they safe?
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Environmental Toxicology and PharmacologyAuthor(s): Maria Fernanda de Moura Leão, Jonathaline Apollo Duarte, Patrícia Dutra Sauzen, Jacqueline da Costa Escobar Piccoli, Luís Flávio Souza de Oliveira, E. Michel Mansur MachadoAbstractHypertension, a chronic non-transmissible multifactorial condition, it is highly frequent in Brazil, affecting about 32.5% of the population over 25 years of age. It is characterized by the sustained increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels above 140 mmHg and 90 mmHg, respectively. I...
Source: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology - August 10, 2018 Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research

Regulation of blood pressure is influenced by gender: A study in obese Zucker rats
Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Mohadetheh Moulana, Rodrigo O. MaranonAbstractAimThe present study determined the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), endothelin system, and eicosanoid system in the blood pressure (BP) regulation in male and female Zucker rats, and whether the pressor response change similarly in lean and obese animals.Material and methodsIn female (f) and male (m), lean (L) and obese (O) Zucker rats (ZR) at 22 weeks old, we evaluated the role of the 3 mentioned systems using the following treatments: 1) enalapril (angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibit...
Source: Life Sciences - August 9, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Subcorneal pustular dermatosis associated with gammopathy IgA of unknown significance, with good response to dapsone
Case report: An 85-year-old man, with hypertension treated with enalapril presented pruritic skin lesions of 4 years of evolution. On examination, he had erythematous plaques of annular morphology and centrifugal growth. In the margins they had scaling and occasional pustules. The lesions affected the abdomen, lumbar area, armpits and groin. He had been misdiagnosed as a tinea corporis and treated with antifugal therapy during this time without response and several mycologic cultures of scales were negative. (Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology)
Source: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology - August 2, 2018 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Impact of Medication Screening to Increase Prescribing Rates of Medications that Improve Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Heart Failure
The objective of this study was to develop screening criteria for inpatient initiation of sacubitril/valsartan or spironolactone, identify eligible candidates for these therapies, and assess the barriers to initiation during an admission for heart failure. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - August 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Charlotte Dunderdale, Sara Strout, Kim Cuomo, Nisha Gilotra, Jess Chasler Tags: 239 Source Type: research

Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor Therapy Improves Ejection Fraction in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure
The PARADIGM-HF study showed that angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) therapy with sacubitril/valsartan significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality, heart failure hospitalization, and all-cause mortality compared to ace inhibitor therapy with enalapril in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Since being fast tracked for HFrEF treatment in 2015, ARNI has been studied in various aspects related to efficacy and long-term effects. However, the effect of ARNI specifically on ejection fraction (EF) in patients with HFrEF on guideline directed medical therapy (GDMT) remains unknown. ...
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - August 1, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Sumon Roy, Harinder K. Singh, Patricia Oates, Katrina Wojciechowski, Scott C. Feitell Tags: 135 Source Type: research