Clopidogrel bioactivation and risk of bleeding in patients co-treated with ACE inhibitors after myocardial infarction: A proof of concept study.
We examined effects of ACEIs on clopidogrel bioactivation in vitro and linked the results with a pharmaco-epidemiological study. In vitro, ACEIs inhibited CES1-mediated hydrolysis of a model substrate, and trandolapril and enalapril increased formation of clopidogrel active metabolite. In 70 934 patients with myocardial infarction, hazard ratios for clinically significant bleeding in ACEI-treated patients co-treated with or without clopidogrel were 1.10 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-1.25, P=0.124) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.81-0.99, P=0.025) compared to patients that did not receive ACEIs. This difference was statistically si...
Source: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics - September 15, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kristensen KE, Zhu HJ, Wang X, Gislason GH, Torp-Pedersen C, Rasmussen HB, Markowitz JS, Hansen PR Tags: Clin Pharmacol Ther Source Type: research

Effects on office and home blood pressure of the lercanidipine-enalapril combination in patients with Stage 2 hypertension: a European randomized, controlled clinical trial: Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - September 10, 2014 Category: Cardiology Tags: Erratum Source Type: research

Critical Blood Pressure Threshold Dependence of Hypertensive Injury and Repair in a Malignant Nephrosclerosis Model [Kidney]
Most patients with essential hypertension do not exhibit substantial renal damage. Renal autoregulation by preventing glomerular transmission of systemic pressures has been postulated to mediate this resistance. Conversely, malignant nephrosclerosis (MN) has been postulated to develop when severe hypertension exceeds a critical ceiling. If the concept is valid, even modest blood pressure (BP) reductions to below this threshold regardless of antihypertensive class (1) should prevent MN and (2) lead to the healing of the already developed MN lesions. Both predicates were tested using BP radiotelemetry in the stroke-prone spo...
Source: Hypertension - September 10, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Griffin, K. A., Polichnowski, A., Litbarg, N., Picken, M., Venkatachalam, M. A., Bidani, A. K. Tags: Animal models of human disease Kidney Source Type: research

Drug effects on the CVS in conscious rats: separating cardiac output into heart rate and stroke volume using PKPD modelling
Conclusions and ImplicationsA systems pharmacology model characterizing the interrelationship between MAP, CO, HR, SV and TPR was obtained in hypertensive and normotensive rats. This extended model can quantify dynamic changes in the CVS and elucidate the MoA for novel compounds, with one site of action, using only HR and MAP measurements. Whether the model can be applied for compounds with a more complex MoA remains to be established. (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: British Journal of Pharmacology - September 5, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: N Snelder, B A Ploeger, O Luttringer, D F Rigel, F Fu, M Beil, D R Stanski, M Danhof Tags: RESEARCH PAPER Source Type: research

Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy in Association with Generalized Inflammatory Peeling Skin Syndrome
We describe an 8‐year‐old girl born to second‐degree consanguineous parents with complaints of recurrent episodes of hematuria for 6 months. She had generalized peeling of the skin since birth and recurrent purulent cutaneous infections. The clinical presentation and histopathology of the skin biopsy specimen were consistent with the inflammatory variant of peeling skin syndrome (PSS). She also had a single ventricle with pulmonary stenosis, for which a bidirectional Glenn shunt had been placed. The renal biopsy specimen showed immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. She responded well to enalapril and steroids, wit...
Source: Pediatric Dermatology - September 1, 2014 Category: Dermatology Authors: Rangan Srinivasaraghavan, Sriram Krishnamurthy, Rumesh Chandar, Subramanian Mahadevan, Laxmisha Chandrashekar, Nachiappa Ganesh Rajesh Tags: Case Report Source Type: research

Angiotensin–Neprilysin Inhibition versus Enalapril in Heart Failure
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 0, Issue 0, Ahead of Print. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)
Source: New England Journal of Medicine - August 30, 2014 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: article Source Type: research

Brugada phenocopy in the context of intracranial hemorrhage
An 85-year-old man was admitted to the ICU with syncope preceded by prodromal symptoms and complicated by head trauma. He had a history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, mild chronic renal failure, and an aortic valve replacement seven years prior. His medications included enalapril 10mg, amlodipine 5mg, atorvastatin 10mg, aspirin 100mg, and amiodarone 200mg. Physical examination revealed a blood pressure of 150/60mmHg, and a right lid hematoma. A 12-lead ECG at admission demonstrated sinus rhythm, first degree AV block (PR interval 220ms) (Fig. 1A). (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - August 30, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Carlos Labadet, Byron H. Gottschalk, Mirza Rivero, Claudio Hadid, Juan Fuselli, Daniel D. Anselm, Adrian Baranchuk Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research

Enalapril inhibits tubulointerstitial inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome expression in BSA-overload nephropathy of rats.
Conclusion:Enalapril exerts protective effects against BSA-overload nephropathy in rats via suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome expression and tubulointerstitial inflammation. PMID: 25152022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica)
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - August 25, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ding LH, Liu D, Xu M, Liu H, Wu M, Tang RN, Lv LL, Ma KL, Liu BC Tags: Acta Pharmacol Sin Source Type: research

Inhibition of Angiotensin‐Converting Enzyme Increases Oestradiol Production in Ewes Submitted to Oestrous Synchronization Protocol
This study aimed at evaluating the effects of angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril) and angiotensin II antagonist (valsartan) on the oestradiol and progesterone production in ewes submitted to oestrous synchronization protocol. The animals were weighed and randomly divided into three groups (n = 7). A pre‐experiment conducted to verify the effectiveness and toxicity of enalapril (0.5 mg/kg LW) and valsartan (2.2 mg/kg LW) showed that, in the doses used, these drugs were effective in reducing blood pressure without producing toxic effects. In the experiment, all animals were subjected t...
Source: Reproduction in Domestic Animals - August 16, 2014 Category: Reproduction Medicine Authors: AS Costa, AS Junior, GEN Viana, MCS Muratori, AM Reis, APR Costa Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research

Mineralocorticoid Receptor Blockade Improves Coronary Microvascular Function in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Abstract Reduced coronary flow reserve (CFR), an indicator of coronary microvascular dysfunction, is seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and predicts cardiac mortality. Since aldosterone plays a key role in vascular injury, the aim of this study was to determine whether mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade improves CFR in individuals with T2DM. Sixty-four men and women with well-controlled diabetes on chronic angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition (enalapril 20 mg/day) were randomized to add-on therapy of spironolactone 25mg, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5mg, or placebo for 6 months. CFR was assessed by...
Source: Diabetes - August 14, 2014 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Garg R, Rao AD, Baimas-George M, Hurwitz S, Foster C, Shah RV, Jerosch-Herold M, Kwong RY, Di Carli MF, Adler GK Tags: Diabetes Source Type: research

Inhibition of neutrophil dependent cytotoxicity for human endothelial cells by ACE inhibitors
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology)
Source: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology - August 1, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Patrik Andersson, Johan Bratt, Mikael Heimbürger, Tommy Cederholm, Jan Palmblad Tags: Regular Article Source Type: research

Interference of angiotensin ii and enalapril with hepatic blood flow regulation.
INTERFERENCE OF ANGIOTENSIN II AND ENALAPRIL WITH HEPATIC BLOOD FLOW REGULATION. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014 Jul 24; Authors: Pereira AJ, Jeger V, Fahrner R, Djafarzadeh S, Lensch M, Takala J, Jakob SM Abstract Acute reduction of portal vein blood flow (Qpv) increases hepatic arterial perfusion (Qha) [the hepatic arterial buffer response (HABR)]. Angiotensin II (AT-II) reduces Qpv but its effect on HABR is not known. We explored interactions of AT-II and enalapril with hepatic blood flow regulation. 20 healthy anesthetized pigs were randomized to receive AT-II (n=8) from 5 to 61 ng/k...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology - July 24, 2014 Category: Physiology Authors: Pereira AJ, Jeger V, Fahrner R, Djafarzadeh S, Lensch M, Takala J, Jakob SM Tags: Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol Source Type: research

Serelaxin Is a More Efficacious Antifibrotic Than Enalapril in an Experimental Model of Heart Disease [Heart]
Relaxin is a naturally occurring peptide hormone that mediates systemic hemodynamic and renal adaptive changes during pregnancy and abrogates aberrant scar tissue formation (fibrosis) in diverse pathogeneses. However, its efficacy relative to renin–angiotensin system blockade, the most effective antifibrotic strategy currently available, is not known. We compared the individual versus combined antifibrotic effects of serelaxin (a recombinant form of human gene-2 relaxin) and the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril, in preventative (started before injury) and therapeutic (treatment of established fibrosi...
Source: Hypertension - July 9, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Samuel, C. S., Bodaragama, H., Chew, J. Y., Widdop, R. E., Royce, S. G., Hewitson, T. D. Tags: Cardio-renal physiology/pathophysiology, Cardiovascular Pharmacology, ACE/Angiotension receptors, Animal models of human disease Heart Source Type: research

The Case Files: One in a Million: A Rare Cause of Altered Mental Status
By Ringhauser, Holly DO; Glantz, Sanford MD; Havasy, Stephen P. MD A 74-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with altered mental status for one week. The patient's husband said the patient had been in her usual state of health until seven days earlier, when she got lost on the way home from a restaurant that she had frequented for several decades. She had become increasingly confused and unable to care for herself, and was now unable to finish a sentence or ambulate without assistance. The patient had been seen by her primary physician and a neurologist. She had blood work, a CT scan, and an MRI performed, ...
Source: The Case Files - July 8, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research

The Case Files: One in a Million: A Rare Cause of Altered Mental Status
By Ringhauser, Holly DO; Glantz, Sanford MD; Havasy, Stephen P. MD A 74-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with altered mental status for one week. The patient's husband said the patient had been in her usual state of health until seven days earlier, when she got lost on the way home from a restaurant that she had frequented for several decades. She had become increasingly confused and unable to care for herself, and was now unable to finish a sentence or ambulate without assistance. The patient had been seen by her primary physician and a neurologist. She had blood work, a CT scan, and an MRI performed,...
Source: The Case Files - July 8, 2014 Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research

Effects on office and home blood pressure of the lercanidipine-enalapril combination in patients with Stage 2 hypertension: a European randomized, controlled clinical trial
Conclusion:In Stage 2 hypertension, a fixed-dose combination of L and E ensures a control of both office and out-of-office BP, with a favourable tolerability profile. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - July 8, 2014 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Therapeutic aspects Source Type: research

Modulation of kallikrein-kinin system by the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
The objectives of this study were to determine whether bradykinin is involved in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, and whether bradykinin control by the ACE inhibitor could be a therapeutic target in MS. The ACE inhibitor enalapril (1.0 or 0.2 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to EAE mice and the serum levels of bradykinin and cytokines in EAE mice were analyzed. As a result, the administration of enalapril increased serum bradykinin levels, decreased the clinical and pathological severity of EAE, and attenuated interleukin-17-positive cell invasion into CNS. Addit...
Source: Clinical and Developmental Immunology - July 3, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Uzawa A, Mori M, Taniguchi J, Kuwabara S Tags: Clin Exp Immunol Source Type: research

Modulation of kallikrein‐kinin system by the angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitor alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
The objectives of this study were to determine whether bradykinin is involved in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, and whether bradykinin control by the ACE inhibitor could be a therapeutic target in MS. The ACE inhibitor enalapril (1.0 or 0.2 mg/kg/day) was orally administered to EAE mice and the serum levels of bradykinin and cytokines in EAE mice were analyzed. As a result, the administration of enalapril increased serum bradykinin levels, decreased the clinical and pathological severity of EAE, and attenuated interleukin‐17–positive cell invasion into CN...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Immunology - July 1, 2014 Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Akiyuki Uzawa, Masahiro Mori, Junko Taniguchi, Satoshi Kuwabara Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Bioequivalence of enalapril oral solution for treatment of pediatric hypertension and enalapril tablets
Abstract Treating children with compounded liquid formulations of tablets intended for adults, where quality‐control and compliance issues exist, was previously the only antihypertensive therapy option. A 1‐mg/mL oral solution of enalapril maleate (enalapril), Epaned™, recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is the first angiotensin‐converting enzyme inhibitor treatment for pediatric hypertension. The pharmacokinetic comparability of enalapril oral solution to the reference listed drug (RLD) tablet was assessed under fasted conditions. The effect of food on the bioavailability of enalapril ...
Source: Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development - June 27, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Brady S. Moffett, Anthony R. DiSanto, Orlando Espinosa, Jingguo Hou, Peter Colabuono Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Drug effects on the cardiovascular system in conscious rats – separating cardiac output into heart rate and stroke volume using PKPD modeling
Conclusions and ImplicationsA systems pharmacology model characterizing the interrelationship between MAP, CO, HR, SV and TPR has been obtained in hypertensive and normotensive rats. The extended model can be used to quantify the dynamic changes in the CVS and elucidate the MoA for novel compounds, with one site of action, using HR and MAP measurements only. The question whether the model can also be applied for compounds with a more complex mechanism of action remains to be established. (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: British Journal of Pharmacology - June 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: N. Snelder, B.A. Ploeger, O. Luttringer, D.F. Rigel, F. Fu, M. Beil, D.R. Stanski, M. Danhof Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Imidapril and Enalapril Similarly Inhibit Plasma Matrix Metalloproteinase Activities and Attenuate Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction
Abstract:Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) plays a critical role in the development of ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Imidapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, has been shown to inhibit MMP activity. We investigated whether imidapril inhibits plasma MMP activities and attenuates ventricular remodeling in patients with AMI in comparison with enalapril. We enrolled 70 patients with AMI. All patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention and were randomly assigned either to imidapril (n = 35) or to enalapril (n = 35) treatment. Left ventriculography was performed in ac...
Source: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology - June 1, 2014 Category: Cardiology Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Efficacy and Safety of a Lercanidipine/Enalapril Fixed-Dose Combination in Hypertensive Patients in Portugal
Abstract Background Fixed-dose combinations of hypertensive drugs have been advocated as a suitable option for hypertensive patients who require two or more drugs to achieve blood pressure (BP) targets. Objectives Our objective was to assess the efficacy and safety of lercanidipine/enalapril in clinical practice. Methods This observational study collected data for patients with hypertension treated by 46 specialists at clinics across Portugal with lercanidipine/enalapril (10/20 mg). The primary outc...
Source: Drugs in R&D - June 1, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Treatment of Bartter syndrome. Unsolved issue.
CONCLUSION: the authors suggest starting the treatment with celecoxib, and replacing by ACEi if necessary, monitoring the renal function. The safety and efficacy of celecoxib need to be assessed in larger controlled studies. PMID: 24878005 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Jornal de Pediatria)
Source: Jornal de Pediatria - May 27, 2014 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Nascimento CL, Garcia CL, Schwartsman BG, Vaisbich MH Tags: J Pediatr (Rio J) Source Type: research

Silencing of hypoxia-inducible factor-1{alpha} gene attenuates chronic ischemic renal injury in two-kidney, one-clip rats
In conclusion, long-term overactivation of HIF-1α is a pathogenic factor in chronic renal injury associated with ischemia/hypoxia. (Source: AJP: Renal Physiology)
Source: AJP: Renal Physiology - May 15, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wang, Z., Zhu, Q., Li, P.-L., Dhaduk, R., Zhang, F., Gehr, T. W., Li, N. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of aliskiren, enalapril and its active metabolite enalaprilat in undiluted human urine utilizing LC-ESI-MS/MS.
Abstract The benefit-risk ratio of combined blocking by the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (e.g. enalapril) on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is discussed. No method was available for simultaneous determination of both drugs in urine. A novel sensitive method for simultaneous quantification in undiluted human urine was developed which enables systematic pharmacokinetic investigations, especially in poorly investigated populations like children. Matrix effects were clearly reduced by applying solid-phase extraction followed by a chromatographic separation o...
Source: Biomedical Chromatography : BMC - May 2, 2014 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Burckhardt BB, Tins J, Laeer S Tags: Biomed Chromatogr Source Type: research

Use of Isosorbide Dinitrate and Hydralazine in African-Americans With Heart Failure 9 Years After the African-American Heart Failure Trial
The 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association guidelines recommend combined isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and hydralazine to reduce mortality and morbidity for African-Americans with symptomatic heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction, currently receiving optimal medical therapy (class I, level A). Nitrates can alleviate HF symptoms, but continuous use is limited by tolerance. Hydralazine may mitigate nitrate tolerance, and the ISDN–hydralazine combination in the Vasodilators in Heart Failure Trial (V-HeFT) I improved survival and exercise tolerance in men with dilated cardiomyo...
Source: The American Journal of Cardiology - April 21, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Keith Copelin Ferdinand, Uri Elkayam, Donna Mancini, Elizabeth Ofili, Ileana Piña, Inder Anand, Arthur Michael Feldman, Dennis McNamara, Christopher Leggett Tags: Review Source Type: research

Lack of effect of colesevelam HCl on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of aspirin, atenolol, enalapril, phenytoin, rosiglitazone, and sitagliptin
Conclusions: Aspirin, atenolol, enalapril, rosiglitazone, and sitagliptin may be taken with colesevelam. Although the phenytoin study indicated no pharmacokinetic interaction, phenytoin should continue to be taken ≥4h before colesevelam in accordance with current prescribing information. (Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice)
Source: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice - April 10, 2014 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Ling He, Prachi Wickremasingha, James Lee, Ben Tao, Jeanne Mendell-Harary, Joseph Walker, Douglas Wight Tags: Basic Research Source Type: research

Enalapril/lercanidipine combination on markers of cardiovascular risk: a randomized study
Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate enalapril/lercanidipine combination effects on markers of cardiovascular risk stratification in hypertensive patients. A total of 359 patients were randomized to enalapril 20 mg, lercanidipine 10 mg, or enalapril/lercanidipine 20/10 mg fixed combination. We evaluated blood pressure (BP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), lipid profile, lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40 L), serum myeloperoxidase (MPO), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP), and tumor necrosis factor-α (T...
Source: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension - April 7, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Giuseppe Derosa, Aldo Bonaventura, Davide Romano, Lucio Bianchi, Elena Fogari, Angela D'Angelo, Pamela Maffioli Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Enalapril/lercanidipine combination on markers of cardiovascular risk: a randomized study
(Source: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension - April 4, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Giuseppe Derosa, Aldo Bonaventura, Davide Romano, Lucio Bianchi, Elena Fogari, Angela D'Angelo, Pamela Maffioli Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

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We present the case of an 18-month-old female patient with PB following pneumonia. At 6 months of age, the patient underwent the Glenn procedure due to functionally univentricular heart. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete blockage of the left bronchus by mucoid casts. Pharmacotherapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids, azithromycin, and enalapril maleate. The child also received nebulized 3% NaCl solution, which proved to be beneficial. In children submitted to Fontan-type procedures, physicians must be alert for PB, which can be triggered by respiratory tract infection.A bronquite plástica (BP), embora uma ca...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - March 26, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

A study of potential drug-drug interactions among hospitalized cardiac patients in a teaching hospital in Western Nepal
Conclusions: This study highlighted the need of intense monitoring of patients who have identified risk factors to help detect and prevent them from serious health hazards associated with drug interactions. (Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology)
Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology - March 24, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sushmita SharmaHimal Paudel ChhetriKadir Alam Source Type: research

Transdermal delivery of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors.
Abstract The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitor class of drugs has been in clinical use since the 1970's for the management of all grades of heart failure, hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and prophylaxis of cardiovascular events. Because of the advantages associated with transdermal delivery compared with oral delivery many researchers have investigated the skin as a portal for administration of ACE inhibitors. This review summarises the various studies reported in the literature describing the development and evaluation of transdermal formulations of ACE inhibitors. Captopril, enalapril maleate, lis...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics - March 20, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Helal F, Lane ME Tags: Eur J Pharm Biopharm Source Type: research

Hydrogen sulfide accounts for the peripheral vascular effects of zofenopril independently of ACE inhibition
Aims Therapeutic use of sulfhydrylated inhibitor S-zofenopril has raised different hypotheses regarding the role played by its thiol group in the beneficial clinical effects exerted compared with other angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Here, we investigated hydrogen sulfide (H2S) pathway as accountable for extra-beneficial effects in vascular function. Methods and results Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRs) and control Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with either S-zofenopril or enalapril in vivo. Aorta and carotid were harvested and ex vivo vascular reactivity to acetylcholine (Ach) and l-cysteine (l-...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - March 18, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Bucci, M., Vellecco, V., Cantalupo, A., Brancaleone, V., Zhou, Z., Evangelista, S., Calderone, V., Papapetropoulos, A., Cirino, G. Tags: Vascular biology Source Type: research

Effects of enalapril/lercanidipine combination on some emerging biomarkers in cardiovascular risk stratification in hypertensive patients
Summary What is known and objectiveThere is considerable interest in pharmacogenetic and molecular biomarkers. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of enalapril/lercanidipine combination on some emerging biomarkers for cardiovascular risk stratification of hypertensive patients, such as lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], soluble advanced glycation end products (sRAGE), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and serum myeloperoxidase (MPO). Research design and methodsThree hundred and forty‐five patients were enrolled in this randomized, double‐blind, clinical trial: 120 hypertensive patients were randomized to enalapril 20 mg, 110 to l...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics - March 17, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: G. Derosa, A. Bonaventura, D. Romano, L. Bianchi, E. Fogari, A. D'Angelo, P. Maffioli Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Silencing of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α Gene Attenuates Chronic Ischemic Renal Injury in Two-Kidney One-Clip Rats.
Conclusion: long-term over-activation of HIF-1α is a pathogenic factor in chronic renal injury associated with ischemia/hypoxia. PMID: 24623146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Physiol Renal P...)
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - March 12, 2014 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Wang Z, Zhu Q, Li PL, Dhaduk R, Zhang F, Gehr TW, Li N Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Add-on treatment with nebulized hypertonic saline in a child with plastic bronchitis after the Glenn procedure
We present the case of an 18-month-old female patient with PB following pneumonia. At 6 months of age, the patient underwent the Glenn procedure due to functionally univentricular heart. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete blockage of the left bronchus by mucoid casts. Pharmacotherapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids, azithromycin, and enalapril maleate. The child also received nebulized 3% NaCl solution, which proved to be beneficial. In children submitted to Fontan-type procedures, physicians must be alert for PB, which can be triggered by respiratory tract infection.A bronquite plástica (BP), embora uma ca...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - March 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Tiotropium use and pulmonary function in patients with constrictive bronchiolitis
We present the case of an 18-month-old female patient with PB following pneumonia. At 6 months of age, the patient underwent the Glenn procedure due to functionally univentricular heart. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete blockage of the left bronchus by mucoid casts. Pharmacotherapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids, azithromycin, and enalapril maleate. The child also received nebulized 3% NaCl solution, which proved to be beneficial. In children submitted to Fontan-type procedures, physicians must be alert for PB, which can be triggered by respiratory tract infection.A bronquite plástica (BP), embora uma ca...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - March 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Interstitial pneumonia following exposure to fluorocarbon polymers
We present the case of an 18-month-old female patient with PB following pneumonia. At 6 months of age, the patient underwent the Glenn procedure due to functionally univentricular heart. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete blockage of the left bronchus by mucoid casts. Pharmacotherapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids, azithromycin, and enalapril maleate. The child also received nebulized 3% NaCl solution, which proved to be beneficial. In children submitted to Fontan-type procedures, physicians must be alert for PB, which can be triggered by respiratory tract infection.A bronquite plástica (BP), embora uma ca...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - March 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Mixed pneumoconiosis due to silicates and hard metals associated with primary Sjögren's syndrome due to silica
We present the case of an 18-month-old female patient with PB following pneumonia. At 6 months of age, the patient underwent the Glenn procedure due to functionally univentricular heart. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete blockage of the left bronchus by mucoid casts. Pharmacotherapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids, azithromycin, and enalapril maleate. The child also received nebulized 3% NaCl solution, which proved to be beneficial. In children submitted to Fontan-type procedures, physicians must be alert for PB, which can be triggered by respiratory tract infection.A bronquite plástica (BP), embora uma ca...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - March 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

Mounier-Kuhn syndrome: a rare and often overlooked cause of bronchial dilation and recurrent respiratory tract infections
We present the case of an 18-month-old female patient with PB following pneumonia. At 6 months of age, the patient underwent the Glenn procedure due to functionally univentricular heart. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed complete blockage of the left bronchus by mucoid casts. Pharmacotherapy consisted of glucocorticosteroids, azithromycin, and enalapril maleate. The child also received nebulized 3% NaCl solution, which proved to be beneficial. In children submitted to Fontan-type procedures, physicians must be alert for PB, which can be triggered by respiratory tract infection.A bronquite plástica (BP), embora uma ca...
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia - March 11, 2014 Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research

National Prescribing Trends for Heart Failure Medications in Children
ConclusionsThis is the first national evaluation of prescribing trends in pediatric ADHF medication. A large degree of variability in medication use for ADHF and low rates of beta‐blocker and ACE inhibitor use at discharge were identified. (Source: Congenital Heart Disease)
Source: Congenital Heart Disease - March 1, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Brady S. Moffett, Jack F. Price Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

A validation method development for simultaneous LC-ESI-TOF/MS analysis of some pharmaceuticals in Tangkas river-Malaysia
Pharmaceuticals are synthetic or natural chemicals that can be found in prescription medicines, over-the-counter therapeutic drugs and veterinary drugs. The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the environment and the water cycle at trace levels (in the range of nanograms to low micrograms per litre) has been widely discussed and published in literature in the past decade. The increase in detection is largely attributable to the advances in analytical techniques and instrumentation. This paper describes development, optimisation and validation of a method for the simultaneous analysis of 7 multi-class pharmaceuticals (caffeine...
Source: Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society - February 18, 2014 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

The effects of enalapril and losartan on mechanical ventilation–induced sympathoadrenal activation and oxidative stress in rats
Conclusions: These data demonstrate that the inhibition of the renin–angiotensin system by enalapril or losartan may reduce the MV-induced increase in sympathetic activity markers and oxidative stress, and thus, may have a beneficial effect as adjuvant therapy. (Source: Journal of Surgical Research)
Source: Journal of Surgical Research - February 7, 2014 Category: Surgery Authors: Hale Zerrin Toklu, Oh-Sung Kwon, Yasemin Sakarya, Scott K. Powers, Katherine Llinas, Nataliya Kirichenko, Kurt J. Sollanek, Michael P. Wiggs, Ashley J. Smuder, Erin E. Talbert, Philip J. Scarpace, Nihal Tümer Tags: Shock/Sepsis/Trauma/Critical Care Source Type: research

Effect of antihypertensive treatment on microvascular structure, central blood pressure and oxidative stress in patients with mild essential hypertension
Conclusion:Lercanidipine both in monotherapy and in combination with enalapril, was able to improve microvascular structure and to decrease central blood pressure, being thus a useful approach for both reducing blood pressure and improving vascular alterations in hypertension. (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - February 3, 2014 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Oxidative stress Source Type: research

Oxidative stress/reactive metabolite gene expression signature in rat liver detects idiosyncratic hepatotoxicants.
Abstract Previously we reported a gene expression signature in rat liver for detecting a specific type of oxidative stress (OS) related to reactive metabolites (RM). High doses of the drugs disulfiram, ethinyl estradiol and nimesulide were used with another dozen paradigm OS/RM compounds, and three other drugs flutamide, phenacetin and sulindac were identified by this signature. In a second study, antiepileptic drugs were compared for covalent binding and their effects on OS/RM; felbamate, carbamazepine, and phenobarbital produced robust OS/RM gene expression. In the present study, liver RNA samples from drug-trea...
Source: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology - January 29, 2014 Category: Toxicology Authors: Leone A, Nie A, Brandon Parker J, Sawant S, Piechta LA, Kelley MF, Mark Kao L, Jim Proctor S, Verheyen G, Johnson MD, Lord PG, McMillian MK Tags: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol Source Type: research

Enalapril attenuates ischaemic brain oedema and protects the blood-brain barrier in rats via an anti-oxidant action.
Abstract In the present study, we investigated the effects of post-ischaemic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition with enalapril on vasogenic oedema formation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity following transient focal cerebral ischaemia in rats.Cerebral ischaemia was induced by 60 min occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery, followed by 24 h reperfusion. Vehicle and non-hypotensive dose of enalapril (0.03 mg/kg) were administered at the beginning of the reperfusion period. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was determined for all rats at the end of the reperfusion period. Then, brain oedema ...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology - January 28, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Panahpour H, Dehghani GA, Bohlooli S Tags: Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Source Type: research

Subclinical systolic dysfunction in left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy unmasked by contrast echocardiography
An asymptomatic 28-year-old man, first-degree relative of a patient with left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC), underwent an echocardiographic screening. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated normal left ventricular (LV) dimensions (end-diastolic diameter of 49mm) with apparently normal systolic function. Characteristic, prominent numerous trabeculations in the LV apex and inferior, posterior, and lateral wall were noticed ( and ). The color Doppler imaging demonstrated communication between intertrabecular spaces and the LV cavity. Contrast echocardiography with intravenous administration of a contr...
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - January 27, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: José Alberto de Agustín, Jose Juan Gomez de Diego, Jose Luis Rodrigo, Pedro Marcos-Alberca, Carlos Almeria, Ivan Javier Nuñez-Gil, Maria Luaces, Miguel Angel Garcia-Fernandez, Carlos Macaya, Leopoldo Perez de Isla Tags: Online Letters to the Editor Source Type: research

Neutral endopeptidase inhibitor versus angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome
Abstract: The antihypertensive treatment in patients with metabolic syndrome is unclear. We therefore used a rat model of the metabolic syndrome and compared the effects of enalapril, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, with candoxatril, a neutral endopeptidase inhibitor that inhibits degradation of atrial natriuretic peptide and, in addition to lowering blood pressure, exerts metabolically beneficial activity. Ten male Sprague Dawley rats were fed regular rat chow for 5 weeks. Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high-fructose diet for 3 weeks, followed by addition of enalapril, 10 mg/Kg/d, or ...
Source: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension - January 27, 2014 Category: Cardiology Authors: Yoav Eizenberg, Ehud Grossman, Edna Peleg, Zehava Shabtai, Yehonatan Sharabi Tags: Research Articles Source Type: research

Acidosis and Hyperkalemia Caused By Losartan and Enalapril in Pediatric Kidney Transplant Recipients.
CONCLUSIONS: Losartan and enalapril may be beneficial in pediatric kidney transplant recipients by decreasing blood pressure and proteinuria, with maintenance of stable graft function, but may be associated with serious adverse events including hyperkalemia and life-threatening acidosis. PMID: 24447308 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation)
Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation - January 20, 2014 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Sakallı H, Baskın E, Bayrakcı US, Moray G, Haberal M Tags: Exp Clin Transplant Source Type: research

Enhanced intestinal permeability and oral bioavailability of enalapril maleate upon complexation with the cationic polymethacrylate Eudragit E100.
zo RH Abstract The low bioavailability of enalapril maleate associated to its instability in solid state motivated the development of a polyelectrolyte-drug complex between enalapril maleate and the cationic polymethacrylate Eudragit E100. The solid complexes were characterized by DSC-TG, FT-IR and X-ray diffraction. Their aqueous dispersions were evaluated for drug delivery in bicompartimental Franz cells and electrokinetic potentials. Stability in solid state was also evaluated using an HPLC-UV stability indicating method. Absorption of enalapril maleate was assessed thorough the rat everted gut sac model. In ad...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - January 20, 2014 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ramírez-Rigo MV, Olivera ME, Rubio M, Manzo RH Tags: Eur J Pharm Sci Source Type: research