Association between prehospital field to emergency department delta shock index and in-hospital mortality in patients with torso and extremity trauma: A multinational, observational study
by Dae Kon Kim, Joo Jeong, Sang Do Shin, Kyoung Jun Song, Ki Jeong Hong, Young Sun Ro, Tae Han Kim, Sabariah Faizah Jamaluddin, for the PATOS Clinical Research Network Hemorrhage, a main cause of mortality in patients with trauma, affects vital signs such as blood pressure and heart rate. Shock index (SI), calculated as heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure, is widely used to estimate the shock status of patients with hemorrhage. The difference in SI bet ween the emergency department and prehospital field can indirectly reflect urgency after trauma. We aimed to determine the association between delta SI (DSI) and ...
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dae Kon Kim Source Type: research

Socio-economic and demographic patterns of mental health complaints among the employed adults in Estonia
ConclusionHigh prevalence of mental health complaints and their socio-economic and demographic patterning refer to considerable inequalities in mental health among employed adults. Policy actions targeting especially younger adults and those with financial difficulties are needed to address these early manifestations of mental health problems. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rainer Reile Source Type: research

Does ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy) induce subjective feelings of social connection in humans? A multilevel meta-analysis
by Annie Regan, Seth Margolis, Harriet de Wit, Sonja Lyubomirsky 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is a psychostimulant known for producing positive subjective effects and for enhancing social functioning and social connection in both clinical and recreational settings. Over the past two decades, scientists have begun to study the psychological effects o f MDMA through rigorous placebo-controlled experimental work. However, most existing studies have smallNs, and the average sizes of the reported effects are unknown, creating uncertainty about the impact of these findings. The goal of the present study was to quant...
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Annie Regan Source Type: research

Region-aggregated attention CNN for disease detection in fruit images
ConclusionsThe experimental results suggest that the proposed network could identify and localize the symptom of the disease with high accuracy, leading to an early diagnosis and treatment of the disease, and thus holding the potential for improving crop yield and quality. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chang Hee Han Source Type: research

Accuracy of Kinovea software in estimating body segment movements during falls captured on standard video: Effects of fall direction, camera perspective and video calibration technique
We examined the validity of this approach by conducting laboratory falling experiments, and comparing linear and angular positions and velocities measured from 3D motion capture to estimates from Kinovea 2D digitization software based on standard surveillance video (30 Hz, 640x480 pixels). We also examined how Kinovea accuracy depended on fall direction, camera angle, filtering cut-off frequency, and calibration technique. For a camera oriented perpendicular to the plane o f the fall (90 degrees), Kinovea position data filtered at 10 Hz, and video calibration using a 2D grid, mean root mean square errors were 0.050 m or 9%...
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nataliya Shishov Source Type: research

Long-term stability of physiological signals within fluctuations of brain state under urethane anesthesia
by Nicholas R. G. Silver, Rachel Ward-Flanagan, Clayton T. Dickson Urethane, an acute laboratory anesthetic, produces distinct neurophysiological and physiological effects creating an effective model of the dynamics of natural sleep. As a model of both sleep-like neurophysiological activity and the downstream peripheral function urethane is used to model a variet y of physiological and pathophysiological processes. As urethane is typically administered as a single-bolus dose, it is unclear the stability of peripheral physiological functions both within and between brain-states under urethane anesthesia. In this present st...
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nicholas R. G. Silver Source Type: research

Characterizations of the viability and gene expression of dispersal cells from < i > Pseudomonas aeruginosa < /i > biofilms released by alginate lyase and tobramycin
by Said M. Daboor, Renee Raudonis, Zhenyu Cheng Biofilm infections are hard to manage using conventional antibiotic treatment regimens because biofilm structures discourage antibiotics from reaching the entire bacterial community and allow pathogen cells to persistently colonize and develop a plethora of tolerance mechanisms towards antibiotics . Moreover, the dispersed cells from biofilms can cause further complications by colonizing different sites and establishing new cycles of biofilms. Previously, we showed that alginate lyase enzyme (AlyP1400), purified from a marinePseudoalteromonas bacterium, reducedPseudomonas ae...
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Said M. Daboor Source Type: research

Adults with higher social anxiety show avoidant gaze behaviour in a real-world social setting: A mobile eye tracking study
by Irma Konovalova, Jastine V. Antolin, Helen Bolderston, Nicola J. Gregory Attentional biases are a core characteristic of social anxiety (SA). However, research has yielded conflicting findings and failed to investigate these biases in real, face-to-face social situations. Therefore, this study examined attentional biases in SA by measuring participants’ eye gaze with in a novel eye-tracking paradigm during a real-life social situation. Student participants (N = 30) took part in what they thought was a visual search study, when a confederate posing as another participant entered the room. Whilst all participants a...
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Irma Konovalova Source Type: research

The prevalence of suicidal behavior and its associated factors among wives with polygamy marriage living in Gedeo zone, southern Ethiopia, 2020
by Chalachew Kassaw, Seid Shumye IntroductionPolygamy is a trend of marriage characterized by having two and more wives or husbands at the same time. In low and middle-income countries including Ethiopia, polygamy has a significant negative effect on the social, economic, physical, and mental well-being of women. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated factors of suicidal behavior among wives with polygamy marriage living in the Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2020. MethodsA community-based study employing cross-sectional design and systematic sampling technique was used to select wives with poly...
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chalachew Kassaw Source Type: research

‘Rich’ and ‘poor’ in mentalizing: Do expert mentalizers exist?
This study hypothesized that three groups would be distinguishable on the basis of their mentalizing capacities. In a cross-sectional design, Psychological Therapists (‘expert’ mentalizers;n = 51), individuals with a diagnosis of Borderline Personality Disorder ( ‘poor’ mentalizers;n = 43) and members of the general population ( ‘non-clinical controls’;n = 35) completed a battery of self-report measures. These assessed the mentalizing of self and of others (using an extended version of the Reflective Function Questionnaire (RFQ18)), alexithymia and cognitive empathy. As hypothesized, Psy...
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Simon Rogoff Source Type: research

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes immune reconstitution following radiation injury via activation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells
by Guru Prasad Sharma, Anne C. Frei, Jayashree Narayanan, Tracy Gasperetti, Dana Veley, Asma Amjad, Katherine Albano, Brian L. Fish, Heather A. Himburg Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the nerve growth factor family which has been extensively studied for its roles in neural development, long-term memory, brain injury, and neurodegenerative diseases. BDNF signaling through tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) stimulates neur onal cell survival. For this reason, small molecule TrkB agonists are under pre-clinical develoment for the treatment of a range of neurodegenerative diseases and injuries. Our l...
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Guru Prasad Sharma Source Type: research

Costs and cost-effectiveness of Gene Xpert compared to smear microscopy for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis using real-world data from Arsi zone, Ethiopia
ConclusionUsing Gene Xpert as a routine test instead of standard care (smear microscopy) can be potentially cost-effective. In the cost scenario analysis, the price of the cartridge, the number of tests performed per day, and the life span of the capital equipment were the drivers of the unit cost of the Gene Xpert method. Therefore, Gene Xpert can be a part of the routine TB diagnostic testing strategy in Ethiopia. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Abdene Weya Kaso Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 infection in central North Carolina: Protocol for a population-based longitudinal cohort study and preliminary participant results
by Elyse M. Miller, Elle A. Law, Rawan Ajeen, Jaclyn Karasik, Carmen Mendoza, Haley Abernathy, Haley Garrett, Elise King, John Wallace, Michael Zelek, Jessie K. Edwards, Khou Xiong, Cherese Beatty, Aaron T. Fleischauer, Emily J. Ciccone, Bonnie E. Shook-Sa, Allison E. Aiello, Ross M. Boyce Public health surveillance systems likely underestimate the true prevalence and incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection due to limited access to testing and the high proportion of subclinical infections in community-based settings. This ongoing prospective, observational study aimed to generate accurate estimates of the prevalence and inciden...
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Elyse M. Miller Source Type: research

Enabling access to molecular monitoring for chronic myeloid leukemia patients is cost effective in China
ConclusionsOverall, this analysis demonstrates that adherence to guideline recommendations of regular molecular monitoring of patients with CML-CP treated with TKIs provides significant clinical benefit that leads to substantial cost savings compared to no molecular monitoring from the perspective of a Chinese payer. In a time where healthcare systems have limited resources to allocate to optimal patient care, investment in molecular monitoring is an ideal choice for improving patient benefits at a reduced cost. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Vikalp Kumar Maheshwari Source Type: research

Disease-associated variants of Gap Junction Beta 2 protein ( < i > GJB2 < /i > ) in the deaf population of Southern Punjab of Pakistan
This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of GJB2 variations in severe-to-profound hearing impaired families of Southern Punjab of Pakistan. Ten families segregating ARNSHL were recruited from different areas of the region. Sange r sequencing of GJB2 coding region was carried out. In two out of ten families, NM_004004:c.*71G>A (p.(Trp24*)) and NM_004004:c.358_360del (p.(Glu120del)) homozygous variants were identified as the cause of hearing loss. Our study showed that GJB2-related hearing loss accounts for at least 20% of all cases with severe-to-profound hearing loss in the Southern Punjab population of ...
Source: PLoS One - October 25, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nabila Kausar Source Type: research

Electronic cigarette use among adolescents and young adults in Nigeria: Prevalence, associated factors and patterns of use
This study aims to assess the prevalence and factors associated with electronic cigarette use, as well as the relationship between their use and anxiety among adolescents and young adults in Lagos, Nigeria. MethodAn online cross-sectional study among participants aged between 15 –35 years. The survey had three sections: sociodemographic information, the pattern of e-cigarette use, and a 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with e-cigarette use. P-values (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Olufemi Erinoso Source Type: research

Healthcare worker stress, anxiety and burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore: A 6-month multi-centre prospective study
ConclusionsPerceived stress and job burnout showed a mild increase over six months, even after exiting the lockdown. Teamwork and feeling appreciated at work were protective and are targets for developing organizational interventions to mitigate expected poor outcomes among frontline HCWs. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Irene Teo Source Type: research

Impaired semen quality, an increase of sperm morphological defects and DNA fragmentation associated with environmental pollution in urban population of young men from Western Siberia, Russia
by Maxim Kleshchev, Alexander Osadchuk, Ludmila Osadchuk Poor sperm morphology and an elevated DNA fragmentation level are considered to be related to spermiogenesis malfunctions as a result of genetic mutations and effects of environmental factors, including industrial pollution. Standardized cross-sectional population studies of sperm morphology defec ts and sperm DNA fragmentation, especially in regions with increased environmental pollution may be helpful to investigate an influence of industrial pollution and other population-related factors on spermiogenesis process. The aim of present study was to estimate an influ...
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Maxim Kleshchev Source Type: research

Can we use the internet to study speech production? Yes we can! Evidence contrasting online versus laboratory naming latencies and errors
by Amie Fairs, Kristof Strijkers The closure of cognitive psychology labs around the world due to the COVID-19 pandemic has prevented in-person testing. This has caused a particular challenge for speech production researchers, as before the pandemic there were no studies demonstrating that reliable overt speech production data co uld be collected via the internet. Here, we present evidence that both accurate and reliable overt articulation data can be collected from internet-based speech production experiments. We tested 100 participants in a picture naming paradigm, where we manipulated the word and phonotactic frequency...
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Amie Fairs Source Type: research

A flipped classroom, same-level peer-assisted learning approach to clinical skill teaching for medical students
This study employed a flipped classroom, peer-assisted learning approach to deliver clinical skill teaching. It aimed to determine the influence of pre-class demonstration video watching and in-class student-student interactions on clinical skill acquisition. MethodsIn 2017, a cohort of 205 medical students in their penultimate year of undergraduate medical study were recruited, and they learned bag mask ventilation and intravenous cannulation during this study. The participants watched a demonstration video before class, and then underwent self-directed practice as triads. Afterwards, each participant video-recorded their...
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Enoch Chan Source Type: research

Investigating single amino acid substitutions in PIM1 kinase: A structural genomics approach
This study prov ides a significant insight into the PIM1 dysfunction upon single amino acid substitutions, which can be utilized to get insights into the molecular basis of PIM1-associated disease progression. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alaa Shafie Source Type: research

Determinants of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure among adult patients on treatment in Mettu Karl Specialized Hospital, South West Ethiopia; a case control study
by Sabit Zenu, Tariku Tesema, Mohammed Reshad, Endegena Abebe BackgroundAntiretroviral therapy has dramatically reduced Human Immunodeficiency Virus related morbidity and mortality. It has also transformed HIV infection into a manageable chronic condition. However, first-line antiretroviral treatment failure continues to grow especially in resource limited settings. Despite this, determinants of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure are not well studied in Ethiopia. ObjectiveTo identify determinants of first-line antiretroviral treatment failure among adult patients on antiretroviral therapy in Mettu Karl Specialized...
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sabit Zenu Source Type: research

Micronutrient intake status and associated factors among children aged 6 –23 months in the emerging regions of Ethiopia: A multilevel analysis of the 2016 Ethiopia demographic and health survey
by Tsegaye Gebremedhin, Andualem Yalew Aschalew, Chalie Tadie Tsehay, Endalkachew Dellie, Asmamaw Atnafu BackgroundMicronutrient (MN) deficiency among children is recognised as a major public health problem in Ethiopia. The scarcity of MNs in Ethiopia, particularly in pastoral communities, might be severe due to poor diets mitigated by poor healthcare access, drought, and poverty. To reduce MNs deficiency, foods rich in vitamin A (VA) and iron were promoted and programs like multiple micronutrient powder (MNP), iron and vitamin A supplements (VAS) and or deworming have been implemented. Nationally for children aged 6 &ndas...
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tsegaye Gebremedhin Source Type: research

The expanding movement of primary care physicians operating at the first line of healthcare delivery systems in sub-Saharan Africa: A scoping review
ConclusionsThis review sheds more light on the institutional, organisational and operational realities of PCPs in SSA. It also highlighted persisting gaps that remain in our understanding of the functioning and the potential of African PCPs. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: K éfilath Bello Source Type: research

Upregulation of a nuclear factor-kappa B-interacting immune gene network in mice cochleae with age-related hearing loss
by Kensuke Uraguchi, Yukihide Maeda, Junko Takahara, Ryotaro Omichi, Shohei Fujimoto, Shin Kariya, Kazunori Nishizaki, Mizuo Ando Epidemiological data suggest that inflammation and innate immunity play significant roles in the pathogenesis of age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in humans. In this mouse study, real-time RT-PCR array targeting 84 immune-related genes revealed that the expressions of 40 genes (47.6%) were different ially regulated with greater than a twofold change in 12-month-old cochleae with ARHL relative to young control mice, 33 (39.3%) of which were upregulated. These differentially regulated genes (DEGs) ...
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kensuke Uraguchi Source Type: research

Treatment failure to sodium stibogluconate in cutaneous leishmaniasis: A challenge to infection control and disease elimination
by Hermali Silva, Achala Liyanage, Theja Deerasinghe, Vasana Chandrasekara, Kalaivani Chellappan, Nadira D. Karunaweera The first-line treatment forLeishmania donovani-induced cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Sri Lanka is intra-lesional sodium stibogluconate (IL-SSG). Antimony failures in leishmaniasis is a challenge both at regional and global level, threatening the ongoing disease control efforts. There is a dearth of information on treatment failures to routine therapy in Sri Lanka, which hinders policy changes in therapeutics. Laboratory-confirmed CL patients (n = 201) who attended the District General Hospital Hambant...
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hermali Silva Source Type: research

Stratifying the early radiologic trajectory in dyspneic patients with COVID-19 pneumonia
This study aimed to stratify the early pneumonia trajectory on chest radiographs and compare patient characteristics in dyspneic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Materials and methodsWe retrospectively included 139 COVID-19 patients with dyspnea (87 men, 62.7 ±16.3 years) and serial chest radiographs from January to September 2020. Radiographic pneumonia extent was quantified as a percentage using a previously-developed deep learning algorithm. A group-based trajectory model was used to categorize the pneumonia trajectory after symptom onset during hosp italization. Clinical findings, and outcomes ...
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jin Young Kim Source Type: research

Judicial judgment and media sensation of violence against medical staff in China: A fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA)
ConclusionsThe integrated model greatly enriches the extant theories and literature, and also yields implications for preventing violence against medical staff in China. We suggest that sustainable and innovative healthcare reform should be initiated. For example, public hospitals should remain the cornerstone of national public health security. Medical staff in public hospitals must be regarded as “civil servants”. Therefore, the current legal system should be improved. The media should objectively report events concerning medical staff and improve public healthcare knowledge. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jian Xu Source Type: research

Prevalence and factors associated with suicidal behavior among trans women in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
ConclusionSuicidal behavior prevalence rates among Brazilian trans women were alarming and directly linked to violence and poor mental health. Effective mental health and public health policies addressing violence against trans women are urgently needed to prevent suicidal behavior among this highly vulnerable population. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ricardo de Mattos Russo Rafael Source Type: research

Reduced utilitarian willingness to violate personal rights during the COVID-19 pandemic
by Rea Antoniou, Heather Romero-Kornblum, J. Clayton Young, Michelle You, Joel H. Kramer, Winston Chiong The COVID-19 pandemic poses many real-world moral dilemmas, which can pit the needs and rights of the many against the needs and rights of the few. We investigated moral judgments in the context of the contemporary global crisis among older adults, who are at greatest personal risk from the pandem ic. We hypothesized that during this pandemic, individuals would give fewer utilitarian responses to hypothetical dilemmas, accompanied by higher levels of confidence and emotion elicitation. Our pre-registered analysis (http...
Source: PLoS One - October 22, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rea Antoniou Source Type: research

Validation of the Korean version of the composite autonomic symptom scale 31 in patients with Parkinson ’s disease
by Jong Hyeon Ahn, Jin Myoung Seok, Jongkyu Park, Heejeong Jeong, Younsoo Kim, Joomee Song, Inyoung Choi, Jin Whan Cho, Ju-Hong Min, Byoung Joon Kim, Jinyoung Youn PurposeThe composite autonomic symptom scale-31 (COMPASS-31) is a self-rated questionnaire that evaluates diverse autonomic symptoms. In the present study, we developed the Korean version of the COMPASS-31 (K-COMPASS-31) with appropriate translation, and verified its reliability and internal and external validity in patients with Parkinson ’s disease (PD). MethodsThe original COMPASS-31 was translated independently into Korean by two bilingual neurologists...
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jong Hyeon Ahn Source Type: research

Foods from the wild: Local knowledge, use pattern and distribution in Western Nepal
This study aimed to enumerate WEP diversity an d status of WEPs in a part of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Sikles region, where the population is dominated by theGurung community. Ethnobotanical data were collected using guided field walks, semi-structured interviews, and field observation. The informant consensus method was employed and group discussions were conducted for triangulation of the information. Free listing and identification tests were performed to assess the knowledge of the informants. Both descriptive statistics and quantitative ethnobotanical methods were used for data analysis. A total of 72 wild food...
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dhruba Khakurel Source Type: research

TRPV4 is activated by mechanical stimulation to induce prostaglandins release in trabecular meshwork, lowering intraocular pressure
by Takatoshi Uchida, Shota Shimizu, Reiko Yamagishi, Suzumi M. Tokuoka, Yoshihiro Kita, Rei Sakata, Megumi Honjo, Makoto Aihara Trabecular meshwork constitutes the conventional outflow pathway and controls intraocular pressure by regulating aqueous outflow. Mechanical stimulation has been studied as one of the triggers to regulate aqueous outflow in trabecular meshwork, but it is not well understood. We investigated that h ow transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) functions in human trabecular meshwork cells (HTMC) and affects intraocular pressure (IOP). HTMC were treated with TRPV4 siRNA...
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Takatoshi Uchida Source Type: research

High association of COVID-19 severity with poor gut health score in Lebanese patients
ConclusionsTo our knowledge, this is the first study that showed the impact of gut health and exposure to respiratory viruses on COVID-19 severity in Lebanon. These findings can facilitate combating the pandemic in Lebanon. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Imad Al Kassaa Source Type: research

SARS-CoV-2 infection and cardiovascular or pulmonary complications in ambulatory care: A risk assessment based on routine data
ConclusionsThe decision rules achieved a high prognostic accuracy non-inferior to complex machine learning methods. They might help to identify patients at risk, who should receive special attention and intensified protection in ambulatory care. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Siranush Karapetyan Source Type: research

Mortality in association with antipsychotic medication use and clinical outcomes among geriatric psychiatry outpatients with COVID-19
ConclusionWe observed a higher COVID-19 mortality associated with concurrent antipsychotics use in older patients receiving behavioral health services. The majority of patients in our geriatric clinic who recovered from COVID-19 appeared to return to their pre-COVID psychiatric function. More precise estimates of the risk associated with antipsychotic treatment in older patients with COVID-19 and other underlying factors will come from larger datasets and meta-analyses. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bienvenida Austria Source Type: research

Gastric bypass prevents diabetes in genetically modified mice and chemically induced diabetic mice
In this study, we sought to determine whether gastric bypass prevents the progression of prediabetes to overt diabetes in genetically modified mice and chemically induced diabetic mice. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) was performed in C57BL/KsJ-db/db null (BKS-db/db,) mice, high-fat diet (HFD)-fed NONcNZO10/LtJ (NZO) mice, C57BL/6 db/db null (B6-db/db) mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Food consumption, body weight, fat mass, fast blood glucose level, circulating insulin and adiponectin and glu cose tolerance test were analyzed. The liver and pancreatic tissues were subjected to H&E and immunohistoch...
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chenyu Zhu Source Type: research

Epidemiology of measles cases, vaccine effectiveness, and performance towards measles elimination in The Gambia
ConclusionThe Gambia ’s quest to attain measles elimination status by 2020 has registered significant success but it is unlikely that all target indicators will be met. Vaccination has been very effective in preventing cases. There is variation in measles risk by health region, and it will be important to take it into account when designing prevention and control strategies. The quality of case investigations should be improved to enhance the quality of surveillance for decision making. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alieu Sowe Source Type: research

Clinical characteristics and viral load dynamics of COVID-19 in a mildly or moderately symptomatic outpatient sample
by Amanda Caplan, Kelly W. Bates, Carla Brioni, Aileen Santos, Linda M. Sabatini, Karen L. Kaul, Mercedes R. Carnethon, Janardan D. Khandekar, Philip Greenland BackgroundStudies of outpatients with mild or moderate COVID-19 are uncommon. We studied: 1) association of symptoms with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results; and 2) association of initial RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) in relation to duration of RT-PCR positivity in outpatients with mild or moderate COVID-19. MethodsThis was a cohort study of outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 and at least one symptom. Participants had repeat nasopha...
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Amanda Caplan Source Type: research

Handgrip strength cutoff value predicting successful extubation in mechanically ventilated patients
ConclusionsHGS may be a predictive tool to guide extubation with better sensitivity and specificity than RSBI. A prospective study is needed to verify HGS test as adjunctive to RSBI in ventilator weaning protocol. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Narongkorn Saiphoklang Source Type: research

Inter-species cortical registration between macaques and humans using a functional network property under a spherical demons framework
by Haewon Nam, Chongwon Pae, Jinseok Eo, Maeng-Keun Oh, Hae-Jeong Park Systematic evaluation of cortical differences between humans and macaques calls for inter-species registration of the cortex that matches homologous regions across species. For establishing homology across brains, structural landmarks and biological features have been used without paying sufficien t attention to functional homology. The present study aimed to determine functional homology between the human and macaque cortices, defined in terms of functional network properties, by proposing an iterative functional network-based registration scheme usin...
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Haewon Nam Source Type: research

The importance of formal versus informal mindfulness practice for enhancing psychological wellbeing and study engagement in a medical student cohort with a 5-week mindfulness-based lifestyle program
This study investigated the effects of the program on mental health, perceived stress, study engagement, dispositional mindfulness, and whether any improvements were related to amount of formal and/or informal mindfulness practice. MethodsParticipants were first year undergraduate medical students (N = 310, 60% female,M = 18.60 years) with N = 205 individuals completing pre and post course questionnaires in a 5-week mindfulness-based lifestyle intervention. At pre- and post-intervention, participants completed the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale for Students...
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Naomi Kakoschke Source Type: research

Active pulmonary tuberculosis and coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionActive pulmonary tuberculosis is relatively common among COVID-19 patients and increases the risk of severe COVID-19 and COVID-19-related mortality. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ashutosh Nath Aggarwal Source Type: research

Loneliness, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder among Chinese adults during COVID-19: A cross-sectional online survey
This study aims to investigate the potential factors associated with mental health outcomes among Chinese adults during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. MethodsThis is an online cross-sectional survey conducted among Chinese adults in February 2020. Outcome measurements included the three-item UCLA Loneliness Scale (UCLA-3), two-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2), two-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire (GAD-2), and two items from the Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Scale. COVID-19 related factors, physical health, lifestyle, and self-efficacy were also measu...
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zijun Xu Source Type: research

Association between hepatic oxygenation on near-infrared spectroscopy and clinical factors in patients undergoing hemodialysis
by Yuichiro Ueda, Susumu Ookawara, Kiyonori Ito, Yusuke Sasabuchi, Hideyuki Hayasaka, Masaya Kofuji, Takayuki Uchida, Sojiro Imai, Satoshi Kiryu, Saori Minato, Haruhisa Miyazawa, Hidenori Sanayama, Keiji Hirai, Kaoru Tabei, Yoshiyuki Morishita The hepato-splanchnic circulation directly influences oxygenation of the abdominal organs and plays an important role in compensating for the blood volume reduction that occurs in the central circulation during hemodialysis (HD) with ultrafiltration. However, the hepato-splanchnic circulation and oxygenation cannot be easily evaluated in the clinical setting of HD therapy. We includ...
Source: PLoS One - October 21, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yuichiro Ueda Source Type: research

Urinary proteomics investigations into contrast-induced acute kidney injury
by Hong Zhu, Wenwen Chu, Shuai Han, Bihu Gao, Xin Wang Some patients have a decline in renal function after contrast medium injection, and this phenomenon is called contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI); a small number of people even suffer severe renal failure. To date, the mechanism of CI-AKI remains unclear. We aimed to identify novel poten tial biomarkers in the urine of patients with CI-AKI through LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics analysis. We enrolled patients who underwent coronary angiography (contrast agent: iohexol). The CI-AKI group included 4 cases, and the non-CI-AKI group included 20 cases. We mixed the 4...
Source: PLoS One - October 20, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hong Zhu Source Type: research

Study protocol for WHO and UNICEF estimates of global, regional, and national preterm birth rates for 2010 to 2019
by Ayesha De Costa, Ann-Beth Moller, Hannah Blencowe, Emily White Johansson, Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb, Eric O. Ohuma, Yemisrach B. Okwaraji, Jennifer Cresswell, Jennifer H. Requejo, Rajiv Bahl, Olufemi T. Oladapo, Joy E. Lawn, Allisyn C. Moran BackgroundPreterm birth is a leading cause of death among children under five years. Previous estimates indicated global preterm birth rate of 10.6% (14.8 million neonates) in 2014. We aim to update preterm birth estimates at global, regional, and national levels for the period 2010 to 2019. MethodsPreterm birth is defined as a live birth occurring before 37 completed gestational week...
Source: PLoS One - October 20, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ayesha De Costa Source Type: research

Lumpy skin disease outbreaks in Egypt during 2017-2018 among sheeppox vaccinated cattle: Epidemiological, pathological, and molecular findings
by Sherin R. Rouby, Nesreen M. Safwat, Khaled H. Hussein, Aml M. Abdel- Ra ’ouf, Bahaa S. Madkour, Ahmed S. Abdel-Moneim, Hosein I. Hosein The General Organization of the Veterinary Services in Egypt has adopted a sheeppox vaccination policy to control lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle. Over the course of the last two years, recurrent outbreaks were reported, with animals showing severe clinical signs and consequentially higher fata lities than that of cases reported in previous LSD outbreaks. A total of 1050 cattle showing typical clinical signs suggestive of LSD were clinically and pathologically investigated dur...
Source: PLoS One - October 20, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sherin R. Rouby Source Type: research

What drives small-scale farmers to vaccinate their multiple livestock species animals against common infectious diseases in Myanmar?
by Tu Tu Zaw Win, Angus Campbell, Ricardo J. Soares Magalhaes, Kyaw Naing Oo, Joerg Henning Livestock rearing is an important income source for small-scale farmers in Myanmar, but Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) and Newcastle disease (ND) are major constraints to livestock production. A study was conducted to identify perceptions of farmers about FMD and ND disease risks and perceptions abo ut vaccination practices by using the modified health belief model. The majority of livestock farmers (>70%) reported that they were aware of the risk and impact of FMD and ND and were willing to vaccinate their livestock (>60%). Fo...
Source: PLoS One - October 20, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tu Tu Zaw Win Source Type: research

Postprandial plasma glucose excursion is associated with an atherogenic lipid profile in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A cross-sectional study
This study enrolled diabetic partic ipants for whom FPG and lipid profile were sampled after a 12-hour fast, followed by PPG sampling two hours after consuming a standard meal with 75 grams of carbohydrates. The study enrolled 379 participants who were divided into PPGE tertiles according to the difference between their 2-hour PPG and FPG. Participants in the highest PPGE tertile had considerably greater plasma LDL cholesterol levels than patients in the lowest tertile (126.7 mg/dL vs. 99.5 mg/dL,P (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - October 20, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Po-Chung Cheng Source Type: research