Microfluidics sorting enables the isolation of an intact cellular pair complex of CD8 < sup > + < /sup > T cells and antigen-presenting cells in a cognate antigen recognition-dependent manner
In this study , we successfully isolated intact antigen-specific cellular complexes of CD8+ T/APC by utilizing a microfluidics cell sorter. Using ovalbumin (OVA) model antigen and OT-I-derived OVA-specific CD8+ T cells, we analyzed the formation of antigen-specific and antigen-non-specific T/APC cellular complexes and revealed that the antigen-specific T/APC cellular complex was highly stable than the non-specific one, and that the intact antigen-specific T/APC complex can be retrieved as well as enriched using a microfluidics sorter, but not a conventional cell sorter. The single T/APC cellular complex obtained can be fur...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Soichiro Kuwabara Source Type: research

Awareness of COVID-19 influences on the wellness of Thai health professional students: An ambulatory assessment during the early “new normal” informing policy
by Krueakaew Tiaprapong, Achiraporn Sirikul, Chamawee Krajangmek, Namfon Duangthongkul, Nichaya Pandam, Nitita Piya-amornphan The COVID-19 global pandemic has had a socioeconomic effect, including many people suffering from stress and mental disorders. Health professional students are at risk of health issues as well when compared to their age-matched counterpart in the population. The present study aimed to find out the impact of COVID-19 awareness on the wellness of Thai health professional students. The awareness of COVID-19 and wellness among Thai health professional students, such as medical, physical therapy, nursin...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Krueakaew Tiaprapong Source Type: research

Rapid and sound assessment of well-being within a multi-dimensional approach: The < i > Well-being Numerical Rating Scales < /i > (WB-NRSs)
by Andrea Bonacchi, Francesca Chiesi, Chloe Lau, Georgia Marunic, Donald H. Saklofske, Fabio Marra, Guido Miccinesi The assessment of well-being remains an important topic for many disciplines including medical, psychological, social, educational, and economic fields. The present study assesses the reliability and validity of a five-item instrument for evaluating physical, psychological, spiritual, relational, and general well-being. This measure uniquely utilizes a segmented numeric version of the visual analog scale in which a respondent selects a whole number that best reflects the intensity of the investigated charact...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Andrea Bonacchi Source Type: research

< i > In silico < /i > analysis of deleterious SNPs of human < i > MTUS1 < /i > gene and their impacts on subsequent protein structure and function
by Liza Teresa Rozario, Tanima Sharker, Tasnin Akter Nila The mitochondrial tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1) gene acts as a crucial tumor suppressor by inhibiting growth and proliferation of eukaryotic cells including tumor cell lines. Down regulation ofMTUS1 gene has been implicated in a wide range of cancers as well as various human diseases. Alteration through nsSNPs can potentially damage the structure and/or function of the protein. As characterization of functional SNPs in such disease linked genes is a major challenge, it is feasible to analyze putative functional SNPs prior to performing larger population studies. Hence...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Liza Teresa Rozario Source Type: research

Spatial inhibition of return is impaired in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer ’s disease
by Xiong Jiang, James H. Howard Jr., G. William Rebeck, Raymond Scott Turner Spatial inhibition of return (IOR) refers to the phenomenon by which individuals are slower to respond to stimuli appearing at a previously cued location compared to un-cued locations. Here with a group of older adults (n = 56, 58–80 (67.9±5.2) year old, 31 females, 18.7±3.6 years of education ), we provide evidence supporting the notion that spatial IOR is mildly impaired in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and the impairment is detectable using a double cue paradigm. Fu...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xiong Jiang Source Type: research

Impact of social distancing on the spread of common respiratory viruses during the coronavirus disease outbreak
by Min-Chul Kim, Oh Joo Kweon, Yong Kwan Lim, Seong-Ho Choi, Jin-Won Chung, Mi-Kyung Lee During the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, social distancing was effective in controlling disease spread across South Korea. The impact of national social distancing on the spread of common respiratory virus infections has rarely been investigated. We evaluated the weekly proportion of ne gative respiratory virus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test results and weekly positive rates of each respiratory virus during the social distancing period (10th–41st weeks of 2020) and the corresponding period in different years, ut...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Min-Chul Kim Source Type: research

Egyptian patients ’/guardians’ experiences and perception about clinical informed consent and its purpose: Cross sectional study
This study aimed to assess the Egyptian patients ’/guardians’ experiences about IC and their expectations about its practices’ purposes in general and according to the type of the healthcare facility. MethodsSelf-administered questionnaire was carried out for 1092 participants who had undergone or were scheduled to a procedure requiring an IC at three studied types for Egyptian health care facilities. Ten statements were ranked twice by the participants to reflect their perception of IC purpose as per what is currently practiced and what they believe should be practiced. ResultsIC implementation varies si...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ammal M. Metwally Source Type: research

Associations of the Big Five and locus of control with problem gambling in a large Australian sample
by Juliane M. von der Heiden, Boris Egloff Gambling may range from being a recreational leisure activity to a behavioral addiction. A rising number of gamblers experience adverse consequences from gambling, termed problem gambling, which may become a challenge for the individual and society. With the present research, we aimed to investiga te the correlates of problem gambling. We used a large sample of more than 12,500 individuals (46% male,Mage = 48,SDage = 18) from the Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) Survey and analyzed sociodemographic and personality variables (Big Five, locus of control) ...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Juliane M. von der Heiden Source Type: research

Adverse outcomes after surgeries in patients with liver cirrhosis among Korean population: A population-based study
by Hyun Ho Jo, Changwook Min, Dae-Sung Kyoung, Min-Ae Park, Sang Gyune Kim, Young Seok Kim, Young Chang, Soung Won Jeong, Jae Young Jang, Sae Hwan Lee, Hong Soo Kim, Baek Gyu Jun, Young Don Kim, Gab Jin Cheon, Jeong-Ju Yoo BackgroundPatients with liver cirrhosis have an increased risk of in-hospital mortality or postoperative complication after surgery. However, large-scale studies on the prognosis of these patients after surgery are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate the adverse outcomes of patients with liver cirrhosis after surgery over five years. Methods and findingsWe used the Health Insurance Review an...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hyun Ho Jo Source Type: research

Intragenomic sequence variations in the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) ribosomal DNA of the malaria vector < i > Anopheles stephensi < /i >
This study reports the presence of intragenomic sequence variation in the ITS2-rDNA ofAn.stephensi and hypothesizes that observed intra-specific differences in this species may have resulted due to ambiguous DNA sequence-chromatogram resulting from intragenomic heterogeneity.Anopheles stephensi collected from different parts of India were sequenced for complete ITS2 and the variable region of 28S-rDNA (d1-d3 domains). Intragenomic variations were found in ITS2 region of allAn.stephensi sequenced, but no such variation was observed in d1 to d3 domains of 28S-rDNA. Cloning and sequencing of ITS2 through the d3 domain of the ...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Shobhna Mishra Source Type: research

Sex differences in the incidence, mortality, and fatality of COVID-19 in Peru
by Max Carlos Ram írez-Soto, Hugo Arroyo-Hernández, Gutia Ortega-Cáceres BackgroundThere is a worrying lack of epidemiological data on the sex differential in COVID-19 infection and death rates between the regions of Peru. MethodsUsing cases and death data from the national population-based surveillance system of Peru, we estimated incidence, mortality and fatality, stratified by sex, age and geographic distribution (per 100,000 habitants) from March 16 to November 27, 2020. At the same time, we calculated the risk of COVID-19 death. ResultsDuring the study period, 961894 cases and 35913 deaths were re...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Max Carlos Ram írez-Soto Source Type: research

Detection of myocardial ischemia by intracoronary ECG using convolutional neural networks
This study tested a novel, hypothesis-generating approach using pre-trained CNN to determine the optimal ischemic parameter as obtained from the highly susceptible intracoronary ECG (icECG). MethodThis was a retrospective observational study in 228 patients with chronic coronary syndrome. Each patient had participated in clinical trials with icECG recording and ST-segment shift measurement at the beginning (i.e., non-ischemic) and the end (i.e., ischemic) of a one-minute proximal coronary artery balloon occlusion establishing the reference. Using these data (893 icECGs in total), two pre-trained, open-access CNN (GoogLeNet...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Marius Reto Bigler Source Type: research

Evaluation of Computer-Aided Nodule Assessment and Risk Yield (CANARY) in Korean patients for prediction of invasiveness of ground-glass opacity nodule
by Juyoung Lee, Brian Bartholmai, Tobias Peikert, Jaehee Chun, Hojin Kim, Jin Sung Kim, Seong Yong Park Differentiating the invasiveness of ground-glass nodules (GGN) is clinically important, and several institutions have attempted to develop their own solutions by using computed tomography images. The purpose of this study is to evaluate Computer-Aided Analysis of Risk Yield (CANARY), a validated v irtual biopsy and risk-stratification machine-learning tool for lung adenocarcinomas, in a Korean patient population. To this end, a total of 380 GGNs from 360 patients who underwent pulmonary resection in a single institution...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Juyoung Lee Source Type: research

Hematological parameters of type 2 diabetic adult patients at Debre Berhan Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study
by Mesay Arkew, Tilahun Yemane, Yordanos Mengistu, Kabtamu Gemechu, Girum Tesfaye BackgroundDiabetes is a global public health problem and associated with metabolic, cellular, and blood disturbances. Hematological changes have been reported in diabetes and play a major role in diabetes-associated complications. However, reports are contradicting and data on hematological parameters of type 2 diabetic patients in the study area are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the hematological parameters of type 2 diabetic adult patients at Debre Berhan Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia from May 01 to June 30,...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mesay Arkew Source Type: research

Effect of rK39 testing in guiding treatment initiation and outcome in patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Ethiopia: A prospective cohort study
by Dawit Gebreegzabher Hagos, Yazezew Kebede, Mahmud Abdulkader, Etsay Nigus, Zekarias Gessesse Arefaine, Gebreab Nega, Henk D. F. Schallig, Dawit Wolday BackgroundThe rapid diagnostic test (RDT) rK39 is currently being used for routine diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in East Africa. However, continuous monitoring of the performance of the assay, in particular its impact on the clinical decision in initiating anti-leishmanial treatment and outcomes remains needed as there are concerns about the diagnostic performance of this test. MethodsVL patients prospectively enrolled in a diagnostic trial and with rK39 RDT we...
Source: PLoS One - June 14, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dawit Gebreegzabher Hagos Source Type: research

Is a cross-connector beneficial for single level traditional or cortical bone trajectory pedicle screw instrumentation?
by Fr édéric Cornaz, Jonas Widmer, Marie-Rosa Fasser, Jess Gerrit Snedeker, Keitaro Matsukawa, José Miguel Spirig, Mazda Farshad The cortical bone trajectory (CBT) has been introduced with the aim of better screw hold, however, screw-rod constructs with this trajectory might provide less rigidity in lateral bending (LB) and axial rotation (AR) compared to the constructs with the traditional trajectory (TT). Therefore, the a ddition of a horizontal cross-connector could be beneficial in counteracting this possible inferiority. The aim of this study was to compare the primary rigidity of TT with CBT scr...
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fr édéric Cornaz Source Type: research

Investigating difficult to detect pancreatic lesions: Characterization of benign pancreatic islet cell tumors using multiparametric pancreatic 3-T MRI
ConclusionThe majority of PICTs enhance simultaneously to surrounding parenchyma, present with atypical signal-characteristics and thus are poorly visible. In non-enhancing PICTs, radiologists should search for small lesions most likely conspicuous on unenhanced T1w or DWI. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kwadwo Antwi Source Type: research

An examination of the prospective association between physical activity and academic achievement in youth at the population level
The objective of th is study is to determine the direction and magnitude of the association between physical activity and academic achievement in a large prospective sample of adolescents. Linear mixed models with random intercepts and multinomial ordinal generalized estimating equations were employed to analyze the pr ospective relationship between measures of physical activity and academic achievement from the COMPASS study (N = 9,898 linked participant data cases from year 2 (2013 –2014) to year 4 (2015–2016)). The linear relationships between minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity and academic ac...
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mia Papasideris Source Type: research

Physiotherapists ’ perspectives on barriers to implementation of direct access of physiotherapy services in the United Arab Emirates: A cross-sectional study
ConclusionMore efforts are needed to implement direct access in the UAE, considering the benefits of improved professional status, cost savings, patient satisfaction, and higher efficiency. This study recommends leadership support, professional autonomy, and mentorship as possible ways to achieve this goal. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Arwa Alnaqbi Source Type: research

High rate of completion for weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid treatment in Chinese children with latent tuberculosis infection —A single center study
In this study, we evaluated the completion rate and safety of the 3HP regimen among children in China. Participants aged 1–14 years receiving 3HP for TB prevention at Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center were followed from December 2019 to November 2020 to evaluate the safety and completion rate of the treatment. Thirty-one children were eligible for inclusion, but five were e xcluded from the analysis (three were treated with a lower than recommended dose, and two were lost to follow-up). Of the 26 children included in the analysis, the treatment completion rate was 100%. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were reporte...
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Heng Yang Source Type: research

Knowledge about mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS, its prevention and associated factors among reproductive-age women in sub-Saharan Africa: Evidence from 33 countries recent Demographic and Health Surveys
ConclusionKnowledge about MTCT of HIV/AIDS and its prevention among reproductive-age women in SSA was low. Therefore, it is better to consider the high-risk groups during the intervention to increase awareness about this essential public health issue and to tackle its devastating outcome. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Achamyeleh Birhanu Teshale Source Type: research

Immunohistochemical analysis of CD155 expression in triple-negative breast cancer patients
ConclusionsCD155 may be a novel target for antitumor immunotherapy. The results of this study indicate that CD155 may expand the pool of candidates with triple-negative breast cancer who could benefit from antitumor immunotherapy. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Katsuhiro Yoshikawa Source Type: research

Prevalence of active tuberculosis disease among healthcare workers and support staff in healthcare settings of the Amhara region, Ethiopia
ConclusionsThe magnitude of TB among healthcare workers and support staff in healthcare settings was higher than in the general population (140 per 100000 population). The status of implementation of tuberculosis prevention and control measures indicated missed opportunities. Hence, strict implementation of developed infection control plans of TB in healthcare settings needs to be improved. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Melashu Balew Shiferaw Source Type: research

Molecular characterization of < i > Cryptosporidium < /i > spp. from humans in Ethiopia
This study examined the presence and genetic diversity ofCryptosporidium species circulating in Ethiopian human population. Stool samples collected from patients who visited rural (n = 94) and urban (n = 93) health centers in Wurgissa and Hawassa district, respectively, were examined for the presence ofCryptosporidium spp. using microscopy, nested PCR and real-time PCR. To detect infection with PCR, analysis of18S ribosomal RNA was performed. Subtyping was performed by sequencing a fragment ofGP60 gene. The overall prevalence of infection was 46% (n = 86) by microscope and PCR. When 48 (out of 86) PCR positive samples were...
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ambachew W. Hailu Source Type: research

Automatic classification of medical image modality and anatomical location using convolutional neural network
In this study, fou r classes of images were created, namely, CT (computed tomography) of abdomen, CT of brain, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of brain and MRI of spine. After converting these images into JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) format, our proposed CNN architecture could automatically classify these 4 groups of medical images by both their image modality and anatomic location. We achieved excellent overall classification accuracy in both validation and test sets (> 99.5%), specificity and F1 score (> 99%) in each category of this dataset which contained both diseased and normal images. Our study has...
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chen-Hua Chiang Source Type: research

Phenotypes of caregiver distress in military and veteran caregivers: Suicidal ideation associations
This study sought to identify clusters of characteristics and health factors (phenotypes) associated with suicidal ideation in a sample of military caregivers using a cros s-sectional, web-based survey. Measures included the context of caregiving, physical, emotional, social health, and health history of caregivers. Military caregivers in this sample (n = 458) were mostly young adults (M = 39.8, SD = 9.9), caring for complex medical conditions for five or more years. They reported high symptomology on measures of pain, depression, and stress. Many (39%) experienced interruptions in their education and 23.6% reported suicid...
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Roxana E. Delgado Source Type: research

Interplay of phosphate and carbonate ions with flavin photosensitizers in photodynamic inactivation of bacteria
by Daniel Bernhard Eckl, Stefanie Susanne Eben, Laura Schottenhaml, Anja Eichner, Rudolf Vasold, Andreas Sp äth, Wolfgang Bäumler, Harald Huber Photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of pathogenic bacteria is a promising technology in different applications. Thereby, a photosensitizer (PS) absorbs visible light and transfers the energy to oxygen yielding reactive oxygen species (ROS). The produced ROS are then capable of killing microorganisms v ia oxidative damage of cellular constituents. Among other PS, some flavins are capable of producing ROS and cationic flavins are already successfully applied in PDI. When PDI i...
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Daniel Bernhard Eckl Source Type: research

Rapid detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis based on allele-specific recombinase polymerase amplification and colorimetric detection
This study aimed to develop allele-specific isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (allele-specific RPA) to simultaneously detect the most common mutations in therpoB gene at codons 516, 526, and 531, which are associated with rifampicin resistance, and in thekatG gene at codon 315, which is related to isoniazid resistance. Allele-specific primers targeting four major mutations,rpoB516,rpoB526,rpoB531, andkatG315, were constructed and used in individual RPA reactions. The RPA amplicons were endpoints detected by the naked eye immediately after applying SYBR Green I. The optimised RPA assay was evaluated with theMy...
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nuntita Singpanomchai Source Type: research

High pyocyanin production and non-motility of < i > Pseudomonas aeruginosa < /i > isolates are correlated with septic shock or death in bacteremic patients
This study evaluating the role of microbial factors that significantly effect outcomes followingPa bloodstream infection suggests thatP.aeruginosa strains showing high pyocyanin production and the lack of motility independently increase the risk of SS. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Asmita Gupte Source Type: research

Structural connectivity differs between males and females in the brain object manipulation network
This study suggests that differential structural networks in males and females might influence object manipulation knowledge retrieval. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 11, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Dongha Lee Source Type: research

The Cedar Project: Relationship between child apprehension and attempted suicide among young Indigenous mothers impacted by substance use in two Canadian cities
This study examined relationships between child apprehension and suicide attempt within a cohort of young Indigenous women impacted by substance use. We utilized data collected every 6 months (2008–2016) by the Cedar Project, an Indigenous-governed cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use drugs in British Columbia, Canada. Recent child apprehension was defined as having a child apprehended by the Ministry of Child and Family Development since last visit. Recurrent event Cox proportional hazards models estimated the independent effect of child apprehension on maternal suicide attempt. Amon g 293 particip...
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Lisa Ritland Source Type: research

Screening for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR: Saliva or nasopharyngeal swab? Rapid review and meta-analysis
by Nusa ïbah Ibrahimi, Agnès Delaunay-Moisan, Catherine Hill, Gwénaël Le Teuff, Jean-François Rupprecht, Jean-Yves Thuret, Dan Chaltiel, Marie-Claude Potier BackgroundDiagnosis of COVID-19 in symptomatic patients and screening of populations for SARS-CoV-2 infection require access to straightforward, low-cost and high-throughput testing. The recommended nasopharyngeal swab tests are limited by the need of trained professionals and specific consumables and this procedure is poorly accepted as a screening method In contrast, saliva sampling can be self-administered. MethodsIn order to compare s...
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nusa ïbah Ibrahimi Source Type: research

Perceptions of wellbeing and quality of life following participation in a community-based pre-operative exercise programme in men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer: A qualitative pilot study
ConclusionThis study provides an insight into how the exercise programme impacted wellbeing and QoL in men preparing for prostate cancer surgery. These findings highlight the important role that exercise prehabilitation plays for men preparing for prostate cancer surgery. Such exercise programmes can be easily implemented into standard cancer pathways by establishing relationships between hospital teams and community exercise programmes. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Lisa Loughney Source Type: research

Medication-related hospital readmissions within 30 days of discharge —A retrospective study of risk factors in older adults
ConclusionPossibly medication-related readmissions within 30 days of discharge, in patients 65 years and older, are common. The odds of such readmissions increase in comorbid, highly medicated patients living in their own home, alone, and if having medication dosages adjusted at initial discharge. These results indicate that care planning before discharge and the provision of help with, for example, managing medications after discharge, are factors especially important if aiming to reduce the amount of medication-related readmissions among this population. Further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Maria Glans Source Type: research

A meta-analysis of transcriptomic profiles of Huntington ’s disease patients
by Manuel Seefelder, Stefan Kochanek Description of robust transcriptomic alterations in Huntington’s disease is essential to identify targets for biochemical studies and drug development. We analysed publicly available transcriptome data from the brain and blood of 220 HD patients and 241 healthy controls and identified 737 and 66 1 genes with robustly altered mRNA levels in the brain and blood of HD patients, respectively. In the brain, a subnetwork of 320 genes strongly correlated with HD and was enriched in transport-related genes. Bioinformatical analysis of this subnetwork highlighted CDC42, PAK1, YWHAH, NFY, ...
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Manuel Seefelder Source Type: research

Continuous glucose monitoring in obese pregnant women with no hyperglycemia on glucose tolerance test
The objective of the present study was to compare 24-hour glycemic levels between obese pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance and non-obese pregnant women. MethodsIn the present observational, longitudinal study, continuous glucose monitoring was performed in obese pregnant women with normal oral glucose tolerance test with 75 g of glucose between the 24th and the 28th gestational weeks. The control group (CG) consisted of pregnant women with normal weight who were selected by matching the maternal age and parity with the same characteristics of the obese group (OG). Glucose measurements were obtained during 72 hour...
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rosa Maria Rahmi Source Type: research

The prevalence and evidence-based management of needle fear in adults with chronic disease: A scoping review
ConclusionAlthough needle fear is common there is a paucity of evidence regarding interventions to address it among adults living with chronic disease. This scoping review has highlighted the need for improved identification of needle fear in adults and development of interventions are required for these cohorts. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Emily Duncanson Source Type: research

From birth to adulthood: An analysis of the Brazilian lancehead ( < i > Bothrops moojeni < /i > ) venom at different life stages
In conclusion, the Brazilian lancehead venom showed ontogenetic shift in its composition and activities. Furthermore, this change occurred in snakes from 1 to 2 years-old, and interestingly the venom pools from 3 years-old snakes had particular characteristics, which highlights the importance of comprehensive studies to better understand venom variability. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Daniela Miki Hatakeyama Source Type: research

Common data elements for predictors of pediatric sepsis: A framework to standardize data collection
ConclusionRoutine use of the common data elements in future studies can allow data sharing between studies and contribute to development of powerful risk prediction algorithms. These algorithms may then be used to support clinical decision making at triage in resource-limited settings. Continued collaboration, engagement, and feedback from the pediatric sepsis research community will be important to ensure the common data elements remain applicable across a broad range of geographical and sociocultural settings. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alishah Mawji Source Type: research

Direct cost of systemic arterial hypertension and its complications in the circulatory system from the perspective of the Brazilian public health system in 2019
ConclusionOur results show that the main Brazilian strategy to combat SAH was implemented in primary care, namely access to free antihypertensive drugs and multiprofessional teams, acting jointly to promote care and prevent and control SAH. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Daniel da Silva Pereira Curado Source Type: research

Simulated sunlight decreases the viability of SARS-CoV-2 in mucus
by Angela Sloan, Todd Cutts, Bryan D. Griffin, Samantha Kasloff, Zachary Schiffman, Mable Chan, Jonathan Audet, Anders Leung, Darwyn Kobasa, Derek R. Stein, David Safronetz, Guillaume Poliquin The novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has spread into a pandemic since its emergence in Wuhan, China in December of 2019. This has been facilitated by its high transmissibility within the human population and its ability to remain viable on inanimate surfaces for an extended period. To address the la tter, we examined the effect of simulated sunlight on the viability of SARS-CoV-2 spiked into tissue culture medium or mucus. The study r...
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Angela Sloan Source Type: research

Skeletal muscle loss and body composition in progressive supranuclear palsy: A retrospective cross-sectional study
ConclusionThis study is the first to show that a high proportion of patients with PSP have low muscle mass. We showed differences in terms of sex in muscle mass loss in women with PSP, which was associated with inactivity and aging. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yasuyuki Takamatsu Source Type: research

Investigating social development inequality among steel industry workers in Pakistan: A contribution to social development policies
This study, therefore focuses on social development inequalities among steel industry workers in one development zone (Badami Bagh area and along Sheikhupura road of Lahore) of Pakistan. A total of 225 workers were interview ed randomly following the stratified random sampling technique. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique was used to construct the socioeconomic score (SES) index. Five categories of socioeconomic index were measured using multinomial logistic regression model. A correlation matrix was calculate d for PCA. Results revealed that type/size of industry has negative relation while skill level has posit...
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Shahid Karim Source Type: research

GroEL is an immunodominant surface-exposed antigen of < i > Rickettsia typhi < /i >
by Jessica Rauch, Jessica Barton, Marcel Kwiatkowski, Malte Wunderlich, Pascal Steffen, Kristin Moderzynski, Stefanie Papp, Katharina H öhn, Hella Schw.e, Susanne Witt, Ulricke Richardt, Ute Mehlhoop, Hartmut Schlüter, Verena Pianka, Bernhard Fleischer, Dennis Tappe, Anke Osterloh Rickettsioses are neglected and emerging potentially fatal febrile diseases that are caused by obligate intracellular bacteria, rickettsiae.Rickettsia (R.)typhi andR.prowazekii constitute the typhus group (TG) of rickettsiae and are the causative agents of endemic and epidemic typhus, respectively. We recently generated a monoclonal an...
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jessica Rauch Source Type: research

When face masks signal social identity: Explaining the deep face-mask divide during the COVID-19 pandemic
by Nattavudh Powdthavee, Yohanes E. Riyanto, Erwin C. L. Wong, Jonathan X. W. Yeo, Qi Yu Chan With the COVID-19 pandemic still raging and the vaccination program still rolling out, there continues to be an immediate need for public health officials to better understand the mechanisms behind the deep and perpetual divide over face masks in America. Using a random sample of Americans (N = 615), following a pre-registered experimental design and analysis plan, we first demonstrated that mask wearers were not innately more cooperative as individuals than non-mask wearers in the Prisoners ’ Dilemma (PD) game when informa...
Source: PLoS One - June 10, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nattavudh Powdthavee Source Type: research

Health service use and health outcomes among international migrant workers compared with non-migrant workers: A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsMigrant workers may be less likely than non-migrant workers to use health services and more likely to have occupational injuries. More research is required on migrant workers from and in low- and middle-income countries, across migration stages, migrating irregularly, and in the informal economy. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 9, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Frank Pega Source Type: research

Spatial clustering and temporal trend analysis of international migrants diagnosed with tuberculosis in Brazil
ConclusionsThe study revealed the critical situation of TB among migrants in the country. Based on the findings, health authorities might focus on actions in regions identified, stablishing an intensive monitoring and following up, ensuring that these cases concluded their treatment and avoiding that they could spread the disease to the other regions or scenarios. The population of migrants are very dynamic, therefore strategies for following up them across Brazil are really urgent to manage the tuberculosis among international migrants in an efficient and proper way. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - June 9, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ricardo Alexandre Arc êncio Source Type: research

Age-structured Jolly-Seber model expands inference and improves parameter estimation from capture-recapture data
We present a novel age-structured Jolly-Sebe r model that incorporates age and capture-recapture data to provide comprehensive information on population dynamics, including abundance, age-dependent survival, recruitment, age structure, and population growth rates. We applied our model to a multi-year capture-recapture study of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in western Hudson Bay, Canada (2012 –2018), where management and conservation require a detailed understanding of how polar bears respond to climate change and other factors. In simulation studies, the age-structured Jolly-Seber model improved precision of survival...
Source: PLoS One - June 9, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nathan J. Hostetter Source Type: research

The impact of organizational culture on professional fulfillment and burnout in an academic department of medicine
by Karen E. A. Burns, Reena Pattani, Edmund Lorens, Sharon E. Straus, Gillian A. Hawker Physician wellness is vital to career satisfaction, provision of high quality patient care, and the successful education of the next generation of physicians. Despite this, the number of physicians experience symptoms of burnout is rising. To assess the impact of organizational culture on physicia ns’ professional fulfillment and burnout, we surveyed full-time Department of Medicine members at the University of Toronto. A cross-sectional survey assessed: physician factors (age, gender, minority status, disability, desire to reduc...
Source: PLoS One - June 9, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Karen E. A. Burns Source Type: research

Enlightenment on oscillatory properties of 23 class B notifiable infectious diseases in the mainland of China from 2004 to 2020
In this study, we collec ted time-series data for 23 class B notifiable infectious diseases from 2004 to 2020 using public datasets from the National Health Commission of China. Oscillatory properties were explored using power spectrum analysis. We found that the 23 class B diseases from the dataset have obvious oscillatory patterns (seasonal or sporadic), which could be divided into three categories according to their oscillatory power in different frequencies each year. These diseases were found to have different preferred outbreak months and infection selectivity. Diseases that break out in autumn and winter are mo re s...
Source: PLoS One - June 9, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chuanliang Han Source Type: research