Auditory brainstem response asymmetries in older adults: An exploratory study using click and speech stimuli
ConclusionsResults of this study show that older adults with normal hearing exhibit symmetric encoding for click stimuli at the brainstem level between the right and left ear presentation. However, they present with brainstem asymmetries for the encoding of selective stimulus components of the speech-ABR between the right and left ear presentation. The right ear presentation of a /da/ syllable elicited reduced neural timing for both transient and sustained components compared to the left ear. Conversely, a stronger left ear F0 encoding was observed. These findings suggest that at a preattentive, sensory stage of auditory p...
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Alejandro Ianiszewski Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance among final year undergraduate medical and pharmacy students at three universities in East Africa
This study was designed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and perception of final year medical and pharmacy students on antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance at three universities in Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania. MethodologyA cross-sectional survey was carried out among final year undergraduate medical and pharmacy students at three universities in East Africa. A Self-administered questionnaire was developed which included dichotomous questions and questions using a 4-point Likert scale. The questions were based on knowledge and attitude about antibiotics, and preparedness to use antibiotics in clinical scenario...
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Margaret Lubwama Source Type: research

Knowledge and beliefs about the use/abuse of oral contraceptive pills among males: A mixed-method explanatory sequential study in community pharmacy settings
ConclusionThis study provided insight into unexpected uses of OCPs by males in Jordan. Community pharmacists have a crucial role in the management of OCPs use and abuse. However, restricted regulations and monitoring must be released and implemented on the community to limit such practices. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Muna Barakat Source Type: research

Diabetes in a TB and HIV-endemic South African population: Analysis of a virtual cohort using routine health data
We described the relationship between previous TB, newly diagnosed TB disease and HIV infection on diabetes using HbA1c results as an outcome measure. The study population was predominately female (67%), 13% had a history of active TB disease and 18% were HIV positive. The HIV positive group had diabetes ascertained at a significantly younger age (46 years c.f. 53 years respectively, p (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tsaone Tamuhla Source Type: research

Does aerial baiting for controlling feral cats in a heterogeneous landscape confer benefits to a threatened native meso-predator?
by Russell Palmer, Hannah Anderson, Brooke Richards, Michael D. Craig, Lesley Gibson Introduced mammalian predators can have devastating impacts on recipient ecosystems and disrupt native predator–prey relationships. Feral cats (Felis catus) have been implicated in the decline and extinction of many Australian native species and developing effective and affordable methods to control them is a national priority. While there has been considerable progress in the lethal control of feral cats, effective management at landscape scales has proved challenging. Justification of the allocation of resources to feral cat contr...
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Russell Palmer Source Type: research

Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury affects inflammation and excitotoxic mRNA expression at acute and chronic time-points
by Matthew I. Hiskens, Anthony G. Schneiders, Rebecca K. Vella, Andrew S. Fenning The cumulative effect of mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) can result in chronic neurological damage, however the molecular mechanisms underpinning this detriment require further investigation. A closed head weight drop model that replicates the biomechanics and head acceleration forces of huma n mTBI was used to provide an exploration of the acute and chronic outcomes following single and repeated impacts. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned into one of four impact groups (control; one, five and 15 impacts) which were deliver...
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Matthew I. Hiskens Source Type: research

Population-based incidence rates and increased risk of < i > EGFR < /i > mutated non-small cell lung cancer in M āori and Pacifica in New Zealand
ConclusionThe population risk ofEGFR mutation-positive NSCLC was significantly higher for M āori and Pacifica compared with New Zealand Europeans. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Phyu Sin Aye Source Type: research

Whole transcriptome analysis of the differential RNA profiles and associated competing endogenous RNA networks in LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI)
by Xiangnan Teng, Jing Liao, Lili Zhao, Wei Dong, Haiyi Xue, Lang Bai, Shanling Xu Acute lung injury (ALI) is a serious inflammation disease usually arises alveolar epithelial membrane dysfunction and even causes death. Therefore, the aims of this study are to screen the differentially expressed lncRNAs, circRNAs, miRNAs, and mRNAs in ALI based on the high-throughput sequencing. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI mouse model was established, the injury of ALI mouse model was evaluated through histological analysis with hemotoxylin and eosin (H& E) staining assay, dry/wet ratio, infiltrated-immune cells, ET-1 mRN...
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Xiangnan Teng Source Type: research

Challenges in access and satisfaction with reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health services in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional survey
ConclusionThe COVID-19 lockdown posed challenges to accessing RMNCH services for a significant proportion of women surveyed. Although overall satisfaction with care was fairly high, there is a need to provide tailored COVID-19 sensitive inter-personal care to clients at all levels of care. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mobolanle Balogun Source Type: research

Effectiveness of Pilates and Yoga to improve bone density in adult women: A systematic review and meta-analysis
ConclusionsDespite of the non-significant results, the BMD maintenance in the postmenopausal population, when BMD detrimental is expected, could be understood as a positive result added to the beneficial impact of Pilates-Yoga in multiple fracture risk factors, including but not limited to, strength and balance. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rub én Fernández-Rodríguez Source Type: research

Tubular cell damage may be the earliest sign of renal extrahepatic manifestation caused by Hepatitis C
by Kati Kaartinen, Sauli Vuoti, Eero Honkanen, Eliisa L öyttyniemi, Ravinder Singh, Martti Färkkilä Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the most well-known extrahepatic manifestations caused by hepatitis C infection (HCV). CKD is typically discovered at a late stage. HCV-nephropathy may show different histopathologic patterns, as both glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage have been describ ed. Identification of patients with early renal manifestations would be beneficial to provide treatment and avoid progression to CKD. The observational prospective single-center HCVKID study assessed the prevalence ...
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kati Kaartinen Source Type: research

Overinvestment in selected Central and Eastern European countries: Production and economic effects
This study may be of importance both to farms (as guidelines for investment planning) and to agricultural policymakers who develop investment support programs. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Krzysztof Piotr Paw łowski Source Type: research

Direct health system costs for systemic lupus erythematosus patients in Alberta, Canada
by Francis Fatoye, Tadesse Gebrye, Lawrence W. Svenson Systemic lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-system autoimmune disease that can affect a person’s physical, mental, and social life. It imposes a substantial economic burden up on patients, carers, healthcare systems, and wider society. This is the first study to examine the direct heal th care costs of SLE in Alberta using real-world data. Alberta maintains a publicly funded, universally available health care system. Health service use and direct healthcare costs of SLE and non-SLE cases were determined from inpatient hospital services, fee-for-physici...
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Francis Fatoye Source Type: research

Analyzing the importance of attributes for Brazilian consumers to replace conventional beef with cultured meat
The objective of this study is to identify which attributes influence consumers to possibly replace conventional beef meat with cultured meat in Br azil. An online survey was conducted, and Best-worst scaling methodology was applied to a sample of 225 consumers. The sampling leaned towards educated and employed residents of the southeast region of Brazil, which might not fully represent the Brazilian population. Despite limitations in terms of the sampling demographic, overall, Brazilians appear to be willing to consume cultured meat: 80.9% of the sample would be willing to try it, 61.3% would be willing to eat it regularl...
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gabriela Andrade de Oliveira Source Type: research

Preparation for airway management in Australia and New Zealand ICUs during the COVID -19 pandemic
ConclusionThere was a high uptake of a standardised approach to airway management in COVID-19 patients in ICUs in Australia and New Zealand, likely due to endorsement of national guidelines. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 7, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: David J. Brewster Source Type: research

Advancing health equity in cancer care: The lived experiences of poverty and access to lung cancer screening
ConclusionUnderserved populations will require multiprong interventions that work at the individual, system and structural level to reduce inequities in lung-cancer risk and access to healthcare services such as cancer screening. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ambreen Sayani Source Type: research

Readiness of physicians and medical students to cope with the COVID-19 pandemic in the UAE
This study aims to assess the knowledge, preparedness and attitudes of medical students, physicians and faculty members in the U nited Arab Emirates (UAE) on COVID-19 and their perspective on the roles of educational and healthcare institution towards improving pandemic preparedness and enabling optimal care. MethodologyAn exploratory, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 444 participants, using a non-probability convenience sampling method. English-speaking participants from the medical field aged 18 and above were included in the study. The validated questionnaire was administered online and distributed a...
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hiba J. Barqawi Source Type: research

Psychological, sociocultural and economic coping strategies of mothers or female caregivers of children with a disability in Belu district, Indonesia
by Gregorius Abanit Asa, Nelsensius Klau Fauk, Paul Russell Ward, Karen Hawke, Rik Crutzen, Lillian Mwanri Caring for children with a disability can cause a range of psychological and socioeconomic challenges for parents and caregivers, such as anxiety, depression, inability to find affordable and appropriate childcare, loss of income and expenses related to disability specific treatment. As part of a study exploring the impacts of childhood disability on mothers or female caregivers and families, and the copy strategies they used, this paper describes strategies employed by mothers or female caregivers to cope with chall...
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gregorius Abanit Asa Source Type: research

Instructor-led distance learning for training students in cardiopulmonary resuscitation: A randomized controlled study
This study aimed to evaluate whether laypersons who completed instructor-led distance learning (DL) acquired a level of CPR skill comparable to that achieved via CL training. MethodsThis randomized controlled study recruited students from 28 Korean high schools who were randomized to complete instructor-led DL or CL training. The CL training involved classroom-based face-to-face training, whereas the instructor-led DL training was provided online using a videoconferencing system. ResultsThe study enrolled 62 students who were randomized to the CL group (31 participants) or the DL group (31 participants). Relative to the CL...
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sangsoo Han Source Type: research

Accuracy analysis of dam deformation monitoring and correction of refraction with robotic total station
by Jianguo Zhou, Bo Shi, Guanlan Liu, Shujun Ju Robotic total stations have been widely used in continuous automatic monitoring of dam deformations. In this regard, monitoring accuracy is an important factor affecting deformation analysis. First the displacements calculation methods for dam deformation monitoring with total stations are present ed, and the corresponding mean square error formulas are derived. Then for errors caused by atmospheric refraction, two correction methods are described. Simulations were conducted to compare the displacement accuracy calculated through different methods. It indicated that the diff...
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jianguo Zhou Source Type: research

Utilisation of far infrared-emitting garments for optimising performance and recovery in sport: Real potential or new fad? A systematic review
by Bastien Bontemps, Mathieu Gruet, Fabrice Vercruyssen, Julien Louis BackgroundThanks to the specific materials they embed, far infrared (FIR)-emitting garments can interact with the body ’s physiological functions. Such effects have been sought in medicine and physiotherapy for a long time for the treatment/relief of a variety of pathologies and disabling conditions. Recently, FIR-emitting garments have been introduced in the sporting domain under the influence of manufacturers se eing here a new opportunity to support physical performance in athletes, though this is not clearly established. To fill this gap, in th...
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bastien Bontemps Source Type: research

The impact of SARS-COV2 infection on people in residential care with Parkinson Disease or parkinsonisms: Clinical case series study
by Chiara Sorbera, Amelia Brigand ì, Vincenzo Cimino, Lilla Bonanno, Rosella Ciurleo, Placido Bramanti, Giuseppe Di Lorenzo, Silvia Marino On March 2019 the World Health Organization declared Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Several recent reports disclose that the outcome of the infection is related to age, sex and can be influenced by underlying clinical conditions. Parkinson’s disease (PD) and other parkinsonisms are the most common chronic disease which can cause, directly or indirectly, the patient to be more exposed to other diseases, mostly respiratory system’s ones. Our primary outcome i...
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chiara Sorbera Source Type: research

Survival time to first antenatal care visit and its predictors among women in Ethiopia
This study aimed to fill this dearth using the 2016 national representative data set to augment early antenatal care visits in Ethiopia. MethodsA cross-sectional study design using the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) data set. Kaplan-Meir estimate was used to explain the median survival time of the timing of the first ANC visit. Multivariate Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to identify the factors related to the timing of the first ANC visit. Adjusted hazard ratios (AHR) with a 95% Confidence interval (CI) plus a p-value of (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Abdu Seid Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitude, and practice on antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance among the veterinarians and para-veterinarians in Bhutan
ConclusionsOur study identified that most animal health workers in Bhutan had poor knowledge on antibiotics usage and AMR. Therefore, regular awareness education on antibiotics and AMR in the form of refresher course/training must be provided to the animal health workers in the country to avoid inappropriate use of antibiotics. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Karma Wangmo Source Type: research

Pediatric high users of Canadian hospitals and emergency departments
by Ryan Tiller, Kevin Chan, John C. Knight, Roger Chafe IntroductionFew studies have examined the most frequent pediatric users of hospital services. Our objective was to determine the clinical diagnoses, demographic characteristics, and medical severity of high-use pediatric patients in Canada. MethodsWe conducted a retrospective analysis of patients (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ryan Tiller Source Type: research

Association between serum uric acid and left ventricular hypertrophy/left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease
by Il Young Kim, Byung Min Ye, Min Jeong Kim, Seo Rin Kim, Dong Won Lee, Hyo Jin Kim, Harin Rhee, Sang Heon Song, Eun Young Seong, Soo Bong Lee BackgroundThe level of serum uric acid (SUA) has been reported to be associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). However, this association remains unclear in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). MethodsA total of 1025 patients with pre-dialysis CKD with preserved left ventricular systolic function were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The LVH and LVDD were assessed using two-dimensional echocardiography and tis...
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Il Young Kim Source Type: research

Health care costs of rheumatoid arthritis: A longitudinal population study
by Mark Tatangelo, George Tomlinson, J Michael Paterson, Edward Keystone, Nick Bansback, Claire Bombardier Quantifying the contribution of rheumatoid arthritis to the acquisition of subsequent health care costs is an emerging focus of the rheumatologic community and payers of health care. Our objective was to determine the healthcare costs before and after diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from th e public payer’s perspective. The study design was a longitudinal observational administrative data-based cohort with RA cases from Ontario Canada (n = 104,933) and two control groups, matched 1:1 on year of cohort en...
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mark Tatangelo Source Type: research

Effects of isoquinoline alkaloids from < i > Macleaya cordata < /i > on growth performance, survival, immune response, and resistance to < i > Vibrio parahaemolyticus < /i > infection of Pacific white shrimp ( < i > Litopenaeus vannamei < /i > )
by Pavarist Bussabong, Tirawat Rairat, Niti Chuchird, Arunothai Keetanon, Putsucha Phansawat, Kanokwan Cherdkeattipol, Phongchate Pichitkul, Waraporn Kraitavin Isoquinoline alkaloids (IQs) fromMacleaya cordata are promising natural products for enhancing the growth performance and overall health condition of farmed animals. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of two formulas of IQ extract, provided in either a powdered formula (IQ-E) or a water-soluble, granulated formula (IQ-WS) and containing the main active component sanguinarine at a concentration of 0.5% and 1%, respectively, on the growth, survival, i...
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Pavarist Bussabong Source Type: research

Peripheral-neuron-like properties of differentiated human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs)
In this study, we demonstrated neuronal differentiation of hDPSCs via both their expression of neuronal marker proteins and their neuronal function examined using Ca2+ imaging. Moreover, to confirm the ability of nociception, Ca2+ responses in differentiated hDPSCs were compared to those of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Those cells showed similar responses to glutamate, ATP and agonists of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Since TRP channels are implicated in nociception, differentiated hDPSCs provide a usefulin vitro model of human peripheral neuron response to stimuli interpreted as pain. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yuki Arimura Source Type: research

Identification of a genetic variant underlying familial cases of recurrent benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
In this study, we performed whole exome sequencing [including untranslated regions (UTRs)] of 12 families and Sanger sequencing of additional 30 families with recurrent BPPV in Caucasians from the United States (US) Midwest region, to identify the genetic variant s responsible for heightened susceptibility to BPPV. Fifty non-BPPV families were included as controls.In silico and experimental analyses of candidate variants show that an insertion variant rs113784532 (frameshift causing truncation) in the neural cadherin genePCDHGA10 (protocadherin-gamma A10) is an exceedingly strong candidate (p = 1.80x10-4 vs. sample control...
Source: PLoS One - May 6, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yinfang Xu Source Type: research

Do women prefer caesarean sections? A qualitative evidence synthesis of their views and experiences
ConclusionsA wide variety of factors underlie women ’s preferences for CS in the absence of medical indications. Major factors contributing to perceptions of CS as preferable include fear of pain, uncertainty with vaginal birth and positive views on CS. Interventions need to address these factors to reduce unnecessary CS. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mercedes Colomar Source Type: research

Breast cancer survival and its prognostic factors in the United Arab Emirates: A retrospective study
ConclusionThe 2- and 5-year survival are within the norms compared to other countries. Significant clinical and pathological prognostic factors associated with survival were tumor grade, and the stage of cancer at presentation. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yusra Elobaid Source Type: research

US adults with diabetes mellitus: Variability in oral healthcare utilization
ConclusionsDental compliance among US adult diabetic individuals was low, particularly among rural residents, and as compared to other recommended diabetic care practices. Future public health interventions may target rural individuals without healthcare coverage, smokers and edentulous individuals. There is a need to integrate dental and medical care to facilitate cross-talks among different health professionals, so that educational preventive messages are reinforced at every healthcare visit. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Lorena Baccaglini Source Type: research

The incidence, characteristics and outcomes of pregnant women hospitalized with symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in the UK from March to September 2020: A national cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS)
ConclusionsWe have identified factors that increase the risk of symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy. Clinicians can be reassured that the majority of women do not experience severe complications of SARS-CoV-2 in pregnancy. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Nicola Vousden Source Type: research

Work, race and breastfeeding outcomes for mothers in the United States
DiscussionRace moderated the relationship between employment status/occupation type and breastfeeding such that, for White mothers, not working was the most advantageous circumstance for breastfeeding, in line with traditional work-family conflict theory. In contrast, for Black mothers, professional/managerial work was the most advantageous circumstance. These findings support the idea of the Market-Family Matrix, which allows that different work scenarios may be more or less advantageous for parenting behaviors like breastfeeding, depending on mothers ’ circumstances. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Margaret D. Whitley Source Type: research

Laminar flow substantially affects the morphology and functional phenotype of glomerular endothelial cells
In conclusion, laminar flow extensively affects the morphology and functional phenotype of glomerular endothelial cells in culture. Furthermore, glomerular endothelial cells respond differ ently to shear stress compared to macrovascular endothelium. To improve the translation of futurein vitro studies with glomerular endothelial cells to thein vivo situation, it appears therefore crucial to culture glomerular endothelial cells under physiological flow conditions. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Daan C. ‘t Hart Source Type: research

Sexual health knowledge and needs among young adults with congenital heart disease
This study aimed to assess the sexual knowledge and the n eeds for sexual health education among this group. The participants comprised 53 young adult outpatients (27 males, median age: 23 years) who had undergone surgical interventions (median: 3 times) for CHD. The Knowledge related to Safe Sex Practice scale (KSSP), an assessment tool containing 15 ques tions on sexual knowledge, was administered, and the rates of correct answers for each item and the overall scale were compared with the age and sex of a control group (n = 164). The overall mean KSSP score of the participant group (10.5 ± 1.8) was significantly l...
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Su Jin Kwon Source Type: research

Clinical evaluation of BCL-2/X < sub > L < /sub > levels pre- and post- HER2-targeted therapy
by Jason J. Zoeller, Michael F. Press, Laura M. Selfors, Judy Dering, Dennis J. Slamon, Sara A. Hurvitz, Joan S. Brugge Our previous pre-clinical work defined BCL-2 induction as a critical component of the adaptive response to lapatinib-mediated inhibition of HER2. To determine whether a similar BCL-2 upregulation occurs in lapatinib-treated patients, we evaluated gene expression within tumor biopsies, collected be fore and after lapatinib or trastuzumab treatment, from the TRIO-B-07 clinical trial (NCT#00769470). We detected BCL2 mRNA upregulation in both HER2+/ER- as well as HER2+/ER+ patient tumors treated with lapatin...
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jason J. Zoeller Source Type: research

Social media and public perception as core aspect of public health: The cautionary case of @realdonaldtrump and COVID-19
by Agust ín Fuentes, Jeffrey V. Peterson The social media milieu in which we are enmeshed has substantive impacts on our beliefs and perceptions. Recent work has established that this can play a role in influencing understanding of, and reactions to, public health information. Twitter, in particular, appears to play a substantive role in the public health information ecosystem. From July 25th, 2020 to November 15th, 2020, we collected weekly tweets related to COVID19 keywords and assessed their networks, patterns and properties. Our analyses revealed the dominance of a handful of individual accounts as central stru...
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Agust ín Fuentes Source Type: research

What influences uptake and early adherence to Option B+ (lifelong antiretroviral therapy among HIV positive pregnant and breastfeeding women) in Central Uganda? A mixed methods study
ConclusionsUptake of Option B+ ART was very high. However, failure to start swallowing ART and sub-optimal adherence are a major public health concern. Enhancing women ’s readiness to start ART and encouraging HIV result revelation could improve ART uptake and adherence. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Aggrey David Mukose Source Type: research

The compounding effect of having HIV and a disability on child mortality among mothers in South Africa
ConclusionsThe findings suggest that children born to HIV-positive women with disabilities are at an exceptionally high risk of premature mortality. Established inequalities faced by women with disabilities may account for this increased risk. Given that maternal HIV and disability amplify each other ’s impact on child mortality, addressing disabled women’s HIV-related needs and understanding the pathways and mechanisms contributing to these disparities is crucial. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ilhom Akobirshoev Source Type: research

Couples ’ decision-making on post-partum family planning and antenatal counselling in Uganda: A qualitative study
ConclusionAntenatal couples ’ counselling has the potential to facilitate agreement PPFP, but some men are reluctant to attend antenatal clinics. Counselling at home by VHTs as well as simple changes to the organisation of antenatal clinics, could make it possible to deliver antenatal couples’ counselling on PPFP. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Merlin L. Willcox Source Type: research

Generally rare but occasionally severe weight gain after switching to an integrase inhibitor in virally suppressed AGE < sub > h < /sub > IV cohort participants
ConclusionsSwitching to INSTI-containing ART in our cohort of predominantly white men on long-term ART was not associated with greater mean weight gain, but>5% weight gain was more common than in controls. These results suggest that not all, but only certain, PWH may be particularly prone to gain a clinically significant amount of weight as a result of switching to INSTI. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sebastiaan O. Verboeket Source Type: research

The influence of sham feedback on physiological processing during fear-driven stimulation
by Jan Ehlers, Janine Grimmer, Veronika Strack, Anke Huckauf Biofeedback constitutes a well-established, non-invasive method to voluntary interfere in emotional processing by means of cognitive strategies. However, treatment durations exhibit strong inter-individual variations and first successes can often be achieved only after a large number of sessions. Sham feedback constitutes a rather untapped approach by providing feedback that does not correspond to the participant’s actual state. The current study aims to gain insights into mechanisms of sham feedback processing in order to support new techniques in biofeed...
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jan Ehlers Source Type: research

Prospective estimation of the age of initiation of cigarettes among young adults (18 –24 years old): Findings from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) waves 1–4 (2013–2017)
ConclusionsThe substantial amount of cigarette initiation among young adults reinforces the need for prevention strategies among this population. Although, interventions are needed for all young adult populations, strategies should target 18-21-year-olds, with potentially differential prevention targets by sex and by race/ethnicity. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 5, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Adriana P érez Source Type: research

Regimen simplification and medication adherence: Fixed-dose versus loose-dose combination therapy for type 2 diabetes
by Anna-Katharina B öhm, Udo Schneider, Jens Aberle, Tom Stargardt BackgroundSuboptimal patient adherence to pharmacological therapy of type 2 diabetes may be due in part to pill burden. One way to reduce pill burden in patients who need multiple medications is to use fixed-dose combinations. Our study aimed to compare the effects of fixed-dose combination versus loose-dose combination therapy on medication adherence and persistence, health care utilization, therapeutic safety, morbidities, and treatment modification in patients with type 2 diabetes over three years. MethodsUsing administrative data, we conducted a re...
Source: PLoS One - May 4, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Anna-Katharina B öhm Source Type: research

The influence of emotional face distractors on attentional orienting in Chinese children with autism spectrum disorder
by Li Zhang, Guoli Yan, Valerie Benson The current study examined how emotional faces impact on attentional control at both involuntary and voluntary levels in children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A non-face single target was either presented in isolation or synchronously with emotional face distractors namely angr y, happy and neutral faces. ASD and typically developing children made more erroneous saccades towards emotional distractors relative to neutral distractors in parafoveal and peripheral conditions. Remote distractor effects were observed on saccade latency in both groups regardless of distr...
Source: PLoS One - May 4, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Li Zhang Source Type: research

Evaluation of long-term welfare initiatives on working equid welfare and social transmission of knowledge in Mexico
This study compares equid welfare and the social transmission of welfare information across Mexican communities that had previously received dif fering intervention histories (veterinary treatment plus educational initiatives, veterinary treatment only and control communities) in order to assess their efficacy. Indicators of equid welfare were assessed using the Equid Assessment Research and Scoping tool and included body condition score, sk in alterations, lameness, general health status and reaction to observer approach. Owners were interviewed about their involvement in previous welfare initiatives, beliefs regarding eq...
Source: PLoS One - May 4, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Emily Haddy Source Type: research

Subcuticular sutures versus staples for skin closure in patients undergoing abdominal surgery: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
ConclusionOur study demonstrated similar outcomes in SSI rate between subcuticular sutures and staples for skin closure in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. (Source: PLoS One)
Source: PLoS One - May 4, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Juntao Feng Source Type: research

SPATS1 (spermatogenesis-associated, serine-rich 1) is not essential for spermatogenesis and fertility in mouse
by Carlos A. Capoano, Luis Adri án Ortiz-Laquintana, Rosana Rodríguez-Casuriaga, Geraldine Schlapp, María Noel Meikle, Ana Paula Mulet, Martina Crispo, Ricardo Benavente, Adriana Geisinger SPATS1 (spermatogenesis-associated, serine-rich 1) is an evolutionarily conserved, testis-specific protein that is differentially expressed during rat male meiotic prophase. Some reports have suggested a link betweenSPATS1 underexpression/mutation and human pathologies such as male infertility and testicular cancer. Given the absence of functional studies, we generated aSpats1 loss-of-function mouse model using CRIS...
Source: PLoS One - May 4, 2021 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Carlos A. Capoano Source Type: research