Evidence for Modulation of Substance Use Disorders by the Gut Microbiome: Hidden in Plain Sight.
hn DM Abstract The gut microbiome modulates neurochemical function and behavior and has been implicated in numerous central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including developmental, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders. Substance use disorders (SUDs) remain a serious threat to the public well-being, yet gut microbiome involvement in drug abuse has received very little attention. Studies of the mechanisms underlying SUDs have naturally focused on CNS reward circuits. However, a significant body of research has accumulated over the past decade that has unwittingly provided strong support for gut microbiome par...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - February 21, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Angoa-Pérez M, Kuhn DM Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Concomitant use of dexamethasone and tetracyclines: a potential therapeutic option for the management of severe COVID-19 infection?
Abstract Introduction: The global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has posed a critical challenge to the research community as well as to the healthcare systems. Severe COVID-19 patients are at a higher risk of developing serious complications and mortality. There is a dire need for safe and effective pharmacotherapy for addressing unmet needs of patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Concomitant use of dexamethasone and tetracyclines, by virtue of their immunomodulatory and other relevant pharmacological properties, offers a potential strategy for synergy aimed at improving clinical outcomes. Areas ...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - February 15, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Singh H, Chauhan P, Singh J, Saurabh S, Gautam CS, Kakkar AK Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

PHARMACOL REV; +149 new citations
149 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: PHARMACOL REV These pubmed results were generated on 2021/02/14PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - February 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Drug delivery and targeting to brain tumors: considerations for crossing the blood-brain barrier.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: The blood-brain barrier (BBB) selectively impedes the transportation of drug molecules into the brain, which makes the drug delivery and targeting of brain tumors very challenging. AREAS COVERED: Having surveyed the recent literature, comprehensive insights are given into the impacts of the BBB on the advanced drug delivery and targeting modalities for brain tumors. EXPERT OPINION: Brain capillary endothelial cells form the BBB in association with astrocytes, pericytes, neurons, and extracellular matrix. Coop of these forms the complex setting of neurovascular unite. The BBB mainta...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - February 8, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Omidi Y, Kianinejad N, Kwon Y, Omidian H Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

An update on drug development for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease - from ongoing clinical trials to future therapy.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents an increasingly recognized disease entity with rising prevalence of 25% in the general population. Given the epidemic increase, regulatory agencies have defined an unmet medical need and implemented initiatives to expedite the development of drugs for NASH treatment. AREAS COVERED: Literature search in Medline and worldwide web were accessed latest on 18.01.2021. In recent years new drugs acting on various pathophysiological processes in NASH have entered clinical development. These drugs combine beneficial metabolic effects with anti...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - February 4, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rau M, Geier A Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Treatment of infections in cancer patients: an update from the neutropenia, infection and myelosuppression study group of the Multinational Association for Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC).
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Patients with hematological and advanced solid malignancies have acquired immune dysfunction, often exacerbated by treatment, posing a significant risk for development of infections. This review evaluates the utility of current clinical and treatment guidelines, in the setting of management of infections in cancer patients. AREAS COVERED: : These include causes of infection in cancer patients, management of patients with high-risk and low-risk febrile neutropenia, management of low-risk patients in an outpatient setting, the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in the p...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - February 1, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Rapoport BL, Cooksley T, Johnson DB, Anderson R, Shannon VR Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Are long-chain methotrexate polyglutamate levels the reason for LD-MTX related adverse events in inflammatory arthritis?
PMID: 33517814 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - February 1, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sandhu A, Kaur P, Dhir V, Bhat OM Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of injectable deoxycholic acid for submental fat reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
CONCLUSIONS: DOC is effective and safe for SMF reduction. Efficacy and safety are the same for 1 and 2 mg/cm2 of DOC. PMID: 33523775 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - February 1, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cunha KS, Lima F, Cardoso RM Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

PHARMACOL REV; +101 new citations
101 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: PHARMACOL REV These pubmed results were generated on 2021/01/29PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - January 29, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Biologic and advanced immunomodulating therapeutic options for sarcoidosis: a clinical update.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: : Sarcoidosis is a multi-organ disease with a wide range of clinical manifestations and outcomes. A quarter of sarcoidosis patients require long-term treatment for chronic disease. In this group, corticosteroids and cytotoxic agents may be insufficient to control disease. AREAS COVERED: : Several biologic agents have been studied for treatment of chronic pulmonary and extra-pulmonary disease. A review of the available literature was performed searching PubMed and an expert opinion regarding specific therapy was developed. EXPERT OPINION: : These agents have the potential of treatin...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - January 25, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Obi ON, Lower EE, Baughman RP Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ligands and Signaling of Mas-Related G Protein-Coupled Receptor-X2 in Mast Cell Activation.
Abstract Mas-related G protein-coupled receptor-X2 (MRGPRX2) is known as a novel receptor to activate mast cells (MCs). MRGPRX2 plays a dual role in promoting MC-dependent host defense and immunomodulation and contributing to the pathogenesis of pseudo-allergic drug reactions, pain, itching, and inflammatory diseases. In this article, we discuss the possible signaling pathways of MCs activation mediated by MRGPRX2 and summarize and classify agonists and inhibitors of MRGPRX2 in MCs activation. MRGPRX2 is a low-affinity and low-selectivity receptor, which allows it to interact with a diverse group of ligands. Diver...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - January 22, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mi YN, Ping NN, Cao YX Tags: Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

An update on the complex relationship between clozapine and pneumonia.
PMID: 33461363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - January 19, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Schoretsanitis G, Ruan CJ, Rohde C, Verdoux H, De Las Cuevas C, Spina E, de Leon J Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The protective effect of tanshinone IIa on endothelial cells: a generalist among clinical therapeutics.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: : Tanshinone IIa (TSA) has been approved to treat cardiovascular diseases by the China State Food and Drug Administration. TSA has exhibited a variety of pharmacological effects, including vasodilator, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumour properties. Endothelial cells play an important physiological role in vascular homeostasis and control inflammation, coagulation, and thrombosis. Accumulating studies have shown that TSA can improve endothelial function through various pathways. AREAS COVERED: The PubMed database was reviewed for relevant papers published up to 2020. This re...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - January 19, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Feng J, Liu L, Yao F, Zhou D, He Y, Wang J Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The paradigm of norgestimate: a third-generation testosterone-derivative progestin with a peripheral anti-androgenic activity and the lowest risk of venous thromboembolism.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Norgestimate (NGM) represents an interesting progestin, as it is a testosterone derivative with peculiar receptor activities. AREAS COVERED: This is a narrative review of the available data on the pharmacotherapy of NGM in combined hormonal contraceptives (CHCs) in terms of contraceptive efficacy, venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk, safety, tolerability and bleeding patterns. A comprehensive literature review was conducted in August 2020 using PubMed with the keyword "norgestimate". EXPERT OPINION: NGM shows a mild estrogenic activity associated with anti-mineralocorticoid...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - January 19, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Grandi G, Del Savio MC, Facchinetti F Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

The new European guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular disease are misleading.
g R Abstract Introduction: The European Society of Cardiology and European Atherosclerosis Society (ESC/EAS) have recently published three major revisions of their guidelines for the management of chronic heart disease, blood lipids, and diabetes. Areas covered: We have scrutinized these guidelines in detail and found that the authors have ignored many studies that are in conflict with their conclusions and recommendations. Expert commentary: The authors of the guidelines have ignored that LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) of patients with acute myocardial infarction is lower than normal; that high cholesterol is not a risk...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - January 8, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ravnskov U, Alabdulgader A, de Lorgeril M, Diamond DM, Hama R, Hamazaki T, Hammarskjöld B, Harcombe Z, Kendrick M, Langsjoen P, McCully KS, Okuyama H, Sultan S, Sundberg R Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Novel therapies for AML: a round-up for clinicians.
We describe how to incorporate these agents into the current treatment paradigm for specific AML patients. Expert opinion: Knowing the molecular characteristics of patients with AML is of utmost importance to plan the best management. There are promising drugs targeting leukemogenesis by various mechanisms. It is important to consider clinical trial options for patients if and when available. We have provided a brief overview of the most promising agents on the horizon for AML therapy. PMID: 33412978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - January 7, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Swaminathan M, Wang ES Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory Effects of Curcumin in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Evidence from Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Outcomes.
In conclusion, curcumin has been found to ameliorate RA complications through modulating inflammatory and autoreactive responses in immune cells and synovial fibroblast cells via inhibiting the expression or function of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activated protein-1 (AP-1), and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Of note, curcumin treatment without any adverse effects can attenuate the clinical symptoms of RA patients and, therefore, has therapeutic potential for the treatment of the diseases. PMID: 33404796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - January 7, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mohammadian Haftcheshmeh S, Khosrojerdi A, Aliabadi A, Lotfi S, Mohammadi A, Momtazi-Borojeni AA Tags: Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

Developmental Changes in Phosphate Homeostasis.
Abstract Phosphate is a multivalent ion critical for a variety of physiological functions including bone formation, which occurs rapidly in the developing infant. In order to ensure maximal bone mineralization, young animals must maintain a positive phosphate balance. To accomplish this, intestinal absorption and renal phosphate reabsorption are greater in suckling and young animals relative to adults. This review discusses the known intestinal and renal adaptations that occur in young animals in order to achieve a positive phosphate balance. Additionally, we discuss the ontogenic changes in phosphotropic endocrin...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - January 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: MacDonald T, Saurette M, Beggs MR, Todd Alexander R Tags: Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cross-Talk Between the Adenylyl Cyclase/cAMP Pathway and Ca2+ Homeostasis.
Abstract Cyclic AMP and Ca2+ are the first second or intracellular messengers identified, unveiling the cellular mechanisms activated by a plethora of extracellular signals, including hormones. Cyclic AMP generation is catalyzed by adenylyl cyclases (ACs), which convert ATP into cAMP and pyrophosphate. By the way, Ca2+, as energy, can neither be created nor be destroyed; Ca2+ can only be transported, from one compartment to another, or chelated by a variety of Ca2+-binding molecules. The fine regulation of cytosolic concentrations of cAMP and free Ca2+ is crucial in cell function and there is an intimate cross-tal...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - January 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sanchez-Collado J, Lopez JJ, Jardin I, Salido GM, Rosado JA Tags: Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

Targeting Cancer Lysosomes with Good Old Cationic Amphiphilic Drugs.
telä M Abstract Being originally discovered as cellular recycling bins, lysosomes are today recognized as versatile signaling organelles that control a wide range of cellular functions that are essential not only for the well-being of normal cells but also for malignant transformation and cancer progression. In addition to their core functions in waste disposal and recycling of macromolecules and energy, lysosomes serve as an indispensable support system for malignant phenotype by promoting cell growth, cytoprotective autophagy, drug resistance, pH homeostasis, invasion, metastasis, and genomic integrity. On ...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - January 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ellegaard AM, Bach P, Jäättelä M Tags: Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. CXI. Pharmacology, Signaling, and Physiology of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors.
Abstract Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors respond to glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, mediating a modulatory role that is critical for higher-order brain functions such as learning and memory. Since the first mGlu receptor was cloned in 1992, eight subtypes have been identified along with many isoforms and splice variants. The mGlu receptors are transmembrane-spanning proteins belonging to the class C G protein-coupled receptor family and represent attractive targets for a multitude of central nervous system disorders. Concerted drug discovery efforts over the past th...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - December 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gregory KJ, Goudet C Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. CX. Classification of Receptors for 5-hydroxytryptamine; Pharmacology and Function.
y FO, Lummis SCR, Marin P, Maroteaux L, McCreary AC, Nelson DL, Neumaier JF, Newman-Tancredi A, Nury H, Roberts A, Roth BL, Roumier A, Sanger GJ, Teitler M, Sharp T, Villalón CM, Vogel H, Watts SW, Hoyer D Abstract 5-HT receptors expressed throughout the human body are targets for established therapeutics and various drugs in development. Their diversity of structure and function reflects the important role 5-HT receptors play in physiologic and pathophysiological processes. The present review offers a framework for the official receptor nomenclature and a detailed understanding of each of the 14 5-HT recep...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - December 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Barnes NM, Ahern GP, Becamel C, Bockaert J, Camilleri M, Chaumont-Dubel S, Claeysen S, Cunningham KA, Fone KC, Gershon M, Di Giovanni G, Goodfellow NM, Halberstadt AL, Hartley RM, Hassaine G, Herrick-Davis K, Hovius R, Lacivita E, Lambe EK, Leopoldo M, Le Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Correction to "Pharmacological Manipulation of Translation as a Therapeutic Target for Chronic Pain".
Correction to "Pharmacological Manipulation of Translation as a Therapeutic Target for Chronic Pain". Pharmacol Rev. 2021 Jan;73(1):570 Authors: PMID: 33370242 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - December 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Subcellular Organization of the cAMP Signaling Pathway.
Abstract The field of cAMP signaling is witnessing exciting developments with the recognition that cAMP is compartmentalized and that spatial regulation of cAMP is critical for faithful signal coding. This realization has changed our understanding of cAMP signaling from a model in which cAMP connects a receptor at the plasma membrane to an intracellular effector in a linear pathway to a model in which cAMP signals propagate within a complex network of alternative branches and the specific functional outcome strictly depends on local regulation of cAMP levels and on selective activation of a limited number of branc...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - December 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Zaccolo M, Zerio A, Lobo MJ Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Psychedelics in Psychiatry: Neuroplastic, Immunomodulatory, and Neurotransmitter Mechanisms.
Abstract Mounting evidence suggests safety and efficacy of psychedelic compounds as potential novel therapeutics in psychiatry. Ketamine has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration in a new class of antidepressants, and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is undergoing phase III clinical trials for post-traumatic stress disorder. Psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) are being investigated in several phase II and phase I clinical trials. Hence, the concept of psychedelics as therapeutics may be incorporated into modern society. Here, we discuss the main known neurobiological therapeutic me...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - December 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Inserra A, De Gregorio D, Gobbi G Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Drug Addiction: Hyperkatifeia/Negative Reinforcement as a Framework for Medications Development.
Abstract Compulsive drug seeking that is associated with addiction is hypothesized to follow a heuristic framework that involves three stages (binge/intoxication, withdrawal/negative affect, and preoccupation/anticipation) and three domains of dysfunction (incentive salience/pathologic habits, negative emotional states, and executive function, respectively) via changes in the basal ganglia, extended amygdala/habenula, and frontal cortex, respectively. This review focuses on neurochemical/neurocircuitry dysregulations that contribute to hyperkatifeia, defined as a greater intensity of negative emotional/motivationa...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - December 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Koob GF Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults and Therapeutic Strategies.
Abstract Cognitive impairment and its severe form dementia are increasingly prevalent in older adults and loom as a public health disaster unless effective interventions are developed. Cognitive impairment is a convergent trait caused by damage from an idiosyncratic mix of four prevalent diseases (Alzheimer disease; vascular brain injury; Lewy body diseases, such as Parkinson disease and dementia with Lewy bodies; and limbic-predominant age-related transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 encephalopathy) that is counterbalanced by individually varying resilience, which is comprised of reserve and compensation. ...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - December 11, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Montine TJ, Bukhari SA, White LR Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Post-Translational Modifications of G Protein-Coupled Receptors Control Cellular Signaling Dynamics in Space and Time.
Abstract G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large family comprising>800 signaling receptors that regulate numerous cellular and physiologic responses. GPCRs have been implicated in numerous diseases and represent the largest class of drug targets. Although advances in GPCR structure and pharmacology have improved drug discovery, the regulation of GPCR function by diverse post-translational modifications (PTMs) has received minimal attention. Over 200 PTMs are known to exist in mammalian cells, yet only a few have been reported for GPCRs. Early studies revealed phosphorylation as a major regulator of GPCR...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - December 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Patwardhan A, Cheng N, Trejo J Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Mutations in G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Mechanisms, Pathophysiology and Potential Therapeutic Approaches.
r I Abstract There are approximately 800 annotated G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) genes, making these membrane receptors members of the most abundant gene family in the human genome. Besides being involved in manifold physiologic functions and serving as important pharmacotherapeutic targets, mutations in 55 GPCR genes cause about 66 inherited monogenic diseases in humans. Alterations of nine GPCR genes are causatively involved in inherited digenic diseases. In addition to classic gain- and loss-of-function variants, other aspects, such as biased signaling, trans-signaling, ectopic expression, allele variants o...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - November 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Schöneberg T, Liebscher I Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Pharmacological Manipulation of Translation as a Therapeutic Target for Chronic Pain.
Abstract Dysfunction in regulation of mRNA translation is an increasingly recognized characteristic of many diseases and disorders, including cancer, diabetes, autoimmunity, neurodegeneration, and chronic pain. Approximately 50 million adults in the United States experience chronic pain. This economic burden is greater than annual costs associated with heart disease, cancer, and diabetes combined. Treatment options for chronic pain are inadequately efficacious and riddled with adverse side effects. There is thus an urgent unmet need for novel approaches to treating chronic pain. Sensitization of neurons along the ...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - November 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yousuf MS, Shiers SI, Sahn JJ, Price TJ Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

E1 Enzymes as Therapeutic Targets in Cancer.
Abstract Post-translational modifications of cellular substrates with ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs), including ubiquitin, SUMOs, and neural precursor cell-expressed developmentally downregulated protein 8, play a central role in regulating many aspects of cell biology. The UBL conjugation cascade is initiated by a family of ATP-dependent enzymes termed E1 activating enzymes and executed by the downstream E2-conjugating enzymes and E3 ligases. Despite their druggability and their key position at the apex of the cascade, pharmacologic modulation of E1s with potent and selective drugs has remained elus...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - November 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Barghout SH, Schimmer AD Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

PHARMACOL REV; +104 new citations
104 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: PHARMACOL REV These pubmed results were generated on 2020/11/11PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - November 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation: safety issues in the elderly.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are increasingly used for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Since NOACs are predominantly used in the elderly with AF at high risk for stroke and bleeding and with comorbidities requiring polypharmacy, it is important to assess their safety and efficacy in this population. AREAS COVERED: We review changes in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics observed with senescence and the effect on NOACs and drug and food interactions. We also provide an update on challenges related to NOAC use in situations that incre...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - October 27, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ajam T, Cumpian TL, Tilkens BL, Jahangir IA, Frost J, Ceretto C, Jahangir A Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

PHARMACOL REV; +127 new citations
127 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: PHARMACOL REV These pubmed results were generated on 2020/10/21PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - October 21, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Report Source Type: research

PHARMACOL REV; +118 new citations
118 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: PHARMACOL REV These pubmed results were generated on 2020/10/19PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Report Source Type: research

Prevalence and characteristics of South African treatment-seeking patients with substance use disorder and co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Abstract BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) constitutes a significant risk factor for the development of Substance Use Disorders (SUDs). Individuals with both conditions use more substances, and the pattern of substance use seems to differ between individuals with and without ADHD. RESEARCH AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of ADHD symptoms in adult South African treatment-seeking patients with SUD, and the pattern of substance use and presence of previous ADHD diagnoses and pharmacotherapy. METHODS: Adult patients (N=360) were recruited from rehabilitation faciliti...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - October 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Coetzee C, Truter I, Meyer A Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Appropriate chemopreventive strategy for anti-tubercular therapy related liver injury is unsettled: results from a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
CONCLUSION: N-acetyl cysteine, but not Silymarin/Silibinin, appears to be beneficial in prevention of ATT-DILI. However, the results were limited by the possible risk of bias in included studies, variable definitions of ATT-DILI and limited number and category of patients. PMID: 33043729 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - October 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Singh AK, Verma S, Kumar-M P, Soni H, Sharma S, Sharma S, Patil A, Sharma V Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

PHARMACOL REV; +119 new citations
119 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: PHARMACOL REV These pubmed results were generated on 2020/10/08PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - October 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Report Source Type: research

PHARMACOL REV; +170 new citations
170 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search. Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results: PHARMACOL REV These pubmed results were generated on 2020/10/02PubMed comprises more than millions of citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites. (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - October 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Report Source Type: research

International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. CIX. Differences and Similarities between Human and Rodent Prostaglandin E2 Receptors (EP1-4) and Prostacyclin Receptor (IP): Specific Roles in Pathophysiologic Conditions.
Abstract Prostaglandins are derived from arachidonic acid metabolism through cyclooxygenase activities. Among prostaglandins (PGs), prostacyclin (PGI2) and PGE2 are strongly involved in the regulation of homeostasis and main physiologic functions. In addition, the synthesis of these two prostaglandins is significantly increased during inflammation. PGI2 and PGE2 exert their biologic actions by binding to their respective receptors, namely prostacyclin receptor (IP) and prostaglandin E2 receptor (EP) 1-4, which belong to the family of G-protein-coupled receptors. IP and EP1-4 receptors are widely distributed in the...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - September 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Norel X, Sugimoto Y, Ozen G, Abdelazeem H, Amgoud Y, Bouhadoun A, Bassiouni W, Goepp M, Mani S, Manikpurage HD, Senbel A, Longrois D, Heinemann A, Yao C, Clapp LH Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Development of Novel, Value-Based, Digital Endpoints for Clinical Trials: A Structured Approach Toward Fit-for-Purpose Validation.
Abstract Novel digital endpoints gathered via wearables, small devices, or algorithms hold great promise for clinical trials. However, implementation has been slow because of a lack of guidelines regarding the validation process of these new measurements. In this paper, we propose a pragmatic approach toward selection and fit-for-purpose validation of digital endpoints. Measurements should be value-based, meaning the measurements should directly measure or be associated with meaningful outcomes for patients. Devices should be assessed regarding technological validity. Most importantly, a rigorous clinical validati...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - September 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kruizinga MD, Stuurman FE, Exadaktylos V, Doll RJ, Stephenson DT, Groeneveld GJ, Driessen GJA, Cohen AF Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

RNA Drugs and RNA Targets for Small Molecules: Principles, Progress, and Challenges.
Abstract RNA-based therapies, including RNA molecules as drugs and RNA-targeted small molecules, offer unique opportunities to expand the range of therapeutic targets. Various forms of RNAs may be used to selectively act on proteins, transcripts, and genes that cannot be targeted by conventional small molecules or proteins. Although development of RNA drugs faces unparalleled challenges, many strategies have been developed to improve RNA metabolic stability and intracellular delivery. A number of RNA drugs have been approved for medical use, including aptamers (e.g., pegaptanib) that mechanistically act on protein...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - September 17, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Yu AM, Choi YH, Tu MJ Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Is Oxytocin "Nature's Medicine"?
Is Oxytocin "Nature's Medicine"? Pharmacol Rev. 2020 Oct;72(4):829-861 Authors: Carter CS, Kenkel WM, MacLean EL, Wilson SR, Perkeybile AM, Yee JR, Ferris CF, Nazarloo HP, Porges SW, Davis JM, Connelly JJ, Kingsbury MA Abstract Oxytocin is a pleiotropic, peptide hormone with broad implications for general health, adaptation, development, reproduction, and social behavior. Endogenous oxytocin and stimulation of the oxytocin receptor support patterns of growth, resilience, and healing. Oxytocin can function as a stress-coping molecule, an anti-inflammatory, and an antioxidant, with protective ...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - September 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Carter CS, Kenkel WM, MacLean EL, Wilson SR, Perkeybile AM, Yee JR, Ferris CF, Nazarloo HP, Porges SW, Davis JM, Connelly JJ, Kingsbury MA Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

On the Clinical Pharmacology of Reactive Oxygen Species.
Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been correlated with almost every human disease. Yet clinical exploitation of these hypotheses by pharmacological modulation of ROS has been scarce to nonexistent. Are ROS, thus, irrelevant for disease? No. One key misconception in the ROS field has been its consideration as a rather detrimental metabolic by-product of cell metabolism, and thus, any approach eliminating ROS to a certain tolerable level would be beneficial. We now know, instead, that ROS at every concentration, low or high, can serve many essential signaling and metabolic functions. This likely explains w...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - August 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Casas AI, Nogales C, Mucke HAM, Petraina A, Cuadrado A, Rojo AI, Ghezzi P, Jaquet V, Augsburger F, Dufrasne F, Soubhye J, Deshwal S, Di Sante M, Kaludercic N, Di Lisa F, Schmidt HHHW Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Sex Differences in the Epilepsies and Associated Comorbidities: Implications for Use and Development of Pharmacotherapies.
Abstract The epilepsies are common neurologic disorders characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures. Boys, girls, men, and women of all ages are affected by epilepsy and, in many cases, by associated comorbidities as well. The primary courses of treatment are pharmacological, dietary, and/or surgical, depending on several factors, including the areas of the brain affected and the severity of the epilepsy. There is a growing appreciation that sex differences in underlying brain function and in the neurobiology of epilepsy are important factors that should be accounted for in the design and development of new th...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - August 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Christian CA, Reddy DS, Maguire J, Forcelli PA Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

CXC Chemokine Receptors in the Tumor Microenvironment and an Update of Antagonist Development.
This article reviews recent studies on the expression and function of CXC chemokine receptors in various tumor microenvironments and recent developments in cancer therapy using CXC chemokine receptor antagonists. PMID: 32816229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - August 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Xun Y, Yang H, Li J, Wu F, Liu F Tags: Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

Fetal safety of medications used in treating infertility.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: The medications used in assisted reproduction are given before and during early pregnancy, and hence, they may potentially result in adverse fetal effects. In this review we present an updated account of their fetal safety and discuss methodological challenges in interpretation of existing data. AREAS COVERED: The fetal safety/risks of clomiphene citrate, aromatase inhibitors, metformin, gonadotropins and progestins are discussed. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Google and Google Scholar from inception to April 30, 2020 for publications pertinent to our topic. EXPERT OPINION:...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - August 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Koren G, Barer Y, Cem Kaplan Y Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Correction to: Stationary and Nonstationary Ion and Water Flux Interactions in Kidney Proximal Tubule: Mathematical Analysis of Isosmotic Transport by a Minimalistic Model.
en JN Abstract The chapter 'Stationary and Nonstationary Ion and Water Flux Interactions in Kidney Proximal Tubule: Mathematical Analysis of Isosmotic Transport by a Minimalistic Model' has now been made available open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. PMID: 32813093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - August 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Larsen EH, Sørensen JN Tags: Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

Calcium-Permeable Channels in Tumor Vascularization: Peculiar Sensors of Microenvironmental Chemical and Physical Cues.
Abstract Calcium (Ca2+)-permeable channels are key players in different processes leading to blood vessel formation via sprouting angiogenesis, including endothelial cell (EC) proliferation and migration, as well as in controlling vascular features which are typical of the tumor vasculature.In this review we present an up-to-date and critical view on the role of Ca2+-permeable channels in tumor vascularization, emphasizing on the dual communication between growth factors (mainly VEGF) and Ca2+ signals. Due to the complexity of the tumor microenvironment (TME) as a source of multiple stimuli acting on the endotheli...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - August 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Scarpellino G, Munaron L, Cantelmo AR, Fiorio Pla A Tags: Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

Ongoing non-industry-sponsored COVID-19 clinical trials in the first trimester of the pandemic: significant differences between the European and the USA approaches.
te; R Abstract BACKGROUND: The different features, if any, between non-industry-sponsored medicine trials conducted in the 5 largest European countries and the USA to treat COVID-19 patients registered in the first trimester of the pandemic are unknown. METHODS: A search was conducted on four databases looking for ongoing medicine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs registered current through 25-April-2020. All trials assessing medicines on prophylaxis, special populations, assessing non-medicines and convalescent plasma, were excluded. Of each trial, medicines assessed, design, sample size, regi...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - August 13, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Dal-Ré R Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research