Changing the treatment paradigm for Parkinson's disease psychosis with pimavanserin.
Abstract Introduction: Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) may affect up to 60% of patients with Parkinson's disease over the course of their disease, and is associated with poor prognosis, including increased risks of mortality and nursing home placement. PDP treatments have been limited to off-label use of atypical antipsychotics, most of which pose risks of worsened motor symptoms and other potential adverse events (AEs) due to their dopamine receptor blockade and additional off-target receptor affinities. Pimavanserin is a highly selective 5-HT2A inverse agonist and poses no known risks for worsening of parkin...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - June 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lyons KE, Pahwa R, Hermanowicz N, Davis T, Pagan F, Isaacson S Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Prescribing issues in elderly individuals living with HIV.
Abstract Introduction: Combined antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV infection into a chronic disease thus people living with HIV (PLWH) live longer. As a result, the management of HIV infection is becoming more challenging as elderly experience age-related comorbidities leading to complex polypharmacy and a higher risk for drug-drug or drug-disease interactions. Furthermore, age-related physiological changes affect pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics thereby predisposing elderly PLWH to incorrect dosing or inappropriate prescribing and consequently to adverse drug reactions and the subsequent risk of star...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - June 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Marzolini C, Livio F Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Antibiotic exposure at the site of infection: principles and assessment of tissue penetration.
Abstract Introduction: Since the majority of bacterial infections occur at sites outside the bloodstream, antibiotic tissue concentrations are of significant relevance to optimize treatment. The aim of this review is to aid the clinician in choosing optimal regimens for the treatment of extravascular infections. Areas covered: We discuss the principles of antibiotic tissue penetration and assess different approaches to obtain data on this subject. Finally, we present tissue penetration data for several relevant groups of antibiotic agents in a number of extravascular sites. Data were obtained from an extensive lit...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - May 28, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jager NGL, van Hest RM, Lipman J, Roberts JA, Cotta MO Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Stationary and Nonstationary Ion and Water Flux Interactions in Kidney Proximal Tubule: Mathematical Analysis of Isosmotic Transport by a Minimalistic Model.
en JN Abstract Our mathematical model of epithelial transport (Larsen et al. Acta Physiol. 195:171-186, 2009) is extended by equations for currents and conductance of apical SGLT2. With independent variables of the physiological parameter space, the model reproduces intracellular solute concentrations, ion and water fluxes, and electrophysiology of proximal convoluted tubule. The following were shown: 1. Water flux is given by active Na+ flux into lateral spaces, while osmolarity of absorbed fluid depends on osmotic permeability of apical membranes. 2. Following aquaporin "knock-out," water uptake is not...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - May 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Larsen EH, Sørensen JN Tags: Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

Curcumin in Advancing Treatment for Gynecological Cancers with Developed Drug- and Radiotherapy-Associated Resistance.
Abstract The development of resistance toward current cancer therapy modalities is an ongoing challenge in gynecological cancers, especially ovarian and cervical malignancies that require further investigations in the context of drug- and irradiation-induced resistance. In this regard, curcumin has demonstrated beneficial and highly pleiotropic actions and increased the therapeutic efficiency of radiochemotherapy. The antiproliferative, anti-metastatic, anti-angiogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin have been extensively reported in the literature, and it could also act as a chemopreventive agent which...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - May 18, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Momtazi-Borojeni AA, Mosafer J, Nikfar B, Ekhlasi-Hundrieser M, Chaichian S, Mehdizadehkashi A, Vaezi A Tags: Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effect of rilpivirine on the pharmacokinetics of methadone in HIV-Infected Chinese patients.
CONCLUSION: Concomitant administration of rilpivirine was unlikely to have significant effects on the pharmacokinetics of methadone. PMID: 31091116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - May 15, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lei S, Hong L, Yang C, Zhang S, Zhang Y, Huang S, Xie R, Li X, Ma Q, Li H Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Assessing the Adoption of Clinical Trial Results Summary Disclosure to Patients and the Public.
This article discusses why adoption remains low and suggests that the absence of clear regulatory requirements and their enforcement is the primary cause. Expert Commentary: The authors anticipate that the regulatory environment will tighten and that public, patient and patient advocate appetite and expectation for the disclosure of clinical trial results summaries in plain language will intensify during the next 18 months. These pressures will compel research sponsors to accelerate adoption. PMID: 31050914 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - May 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Getz K, Farides-Mitchell J Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Stiripentol for the treatment of seizures in Dravet syndrome.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Dravet syndrome is an early childhood-onset epilepsy syndrome characterized by drug-resistant seizures, frequent episodes of status epilepticus, and the development of neurocognitive impairment. Seizure freedom in this condition is rare and there is a higher rate of sudden unexplained death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP) than other epilepsy syndromes. Stiripentol is a recently approved medication with an indication specifically for the treatment of seizures in children with Dravet syndrome. Areas covered: Review of relevant literature including the current and emerging treatment of seizures in...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Eschbach K, Knupp KG Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Does choice of antiretroviral drugs matter for inflammation?
Abstract INTRODUCTION: The massive implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has forever changed the landscape of HIV infection. This unprecedented success has turned HIV infection into a manageable chronic disease. The increased survival of people living with HIV is, however, shadowed by a high burden of aging-related comorbidities. The pathogenic basis underlying this excess of co-morbid conditions is most likely a persistent inflammatory and immune activation state, despite an optimal control of HIV replication, which in turn has largely been attributed to bacterial or bacterial products trans...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gutierrez MDM, Mateo MG, Vidal F, Domingo P Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics of tamoxifen and endoxifen.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Tamoxifen dominates the anti-estrogenic therapy in the early and metastatic breast cancer setting. Tamoxifen has a complex metabolism, being mainly metabolized by CYP2D6 into its 30-100 times more potent metabolite, endoxifen. Recently, a phase I study in which endoxifen as an orally z-endoxifen hydrochloride, has been successfully evaluated. Areas covered: the principal pharmacogenetic and non-genetic differences in the pharmacology of tamoxifen and endoxifen are evaluated. To this end, references from PubMed, Embase or Web of Science, among others, were reviewed As non-genetic factors, imp...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 22, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sanchez-Spitman AB, Swen JJ, Dezentje VO, Moes DJAR, Gelderblom H, Guchelaar HJ Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Chinese Herbal Medicine for Wilson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Abstract Wilson's disease (WD) is a rare autosomal recessive inherited disorder of chronic copper toxicosis. Currently, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) is widely used for WD. Here, we conducted an updated systematic review to investigate the efficacy and safety of CHM for WD and its possible mechanisms. Randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCTs), which compared CHM with Western conventional medicine or placebo for WD, were searched in six databases from inception to July 2017. The methodological quality was assessed using 7-item criteria from the Cochrane's collaboration tool. All the data were analyzed using Rev...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Xu MB, Rong PQ, Jin TY, Zhang PP, Liang HY, Zheng GQ Tags: Front Pharmacol Source Type: research

Clinical pharmacology of caplacizumab for the treatment of patients with acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Caplacizumab is a humanized anti-von Willebrand Factor (vWF) Nanobody® for the treatment of acquired Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (aTTP). Caplacizumab targets the A1-domain of vWF, inhibiting the interaction between vWF and platelets. Clinical studies conducted in aTTP patients confirmed the rapid and sustained complete suppression of the vWF activity using an initial intravenous dose of 10 mg, and a maintenance subcutaneous 10 mg daily dosing regimen, with corresponding favorable efficacy and safety profiles. Areas covered: The pharmacokinetics of caplacizumab are non-linear, cha...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 12, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sargentini-Maier ML, De Decker P, Tersteeg C, Canvin J, Callewaert F, De Winter H Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Cervical spondylodiscitis mimicking Pott's disease: a case report.
CONCLUSIONS: Cervical spondylodiscitis can be an unusual cause of severe neck pain with a challenging differential diagnosis. Conservative treatment should always be considered for patients without neurological symptoms as long as close follow-up evaluations are performed. PMID: 30977864 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gasparini G, Mercurio M, Caroleo B, Galasso O Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Staged surgical management of the sequelae of neonatal septic hip arthritis: a case report and review of the literature.
We present our staged surgical treatment of Choi's type IV A sequelae of septic hip arthritis in a 2-year old boy. Open reduction, followed by various reconstructive procedures, were performed. After 8 years of follow-up, the child has a stable, mobile hip, with good functional outcomes. Close follow-up is mandatory to ensure a good long-term outcome. Our technique proved to be successful in the achievement of a functional hip by maintaining the remnants of the femoral head and creating the conditions to remodel them quasi-normal. PMID: 30977865 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Maxim A, Vasilescu D, Corbu A, Valeanu M, Cosma D Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Distal humeral septic non-union treated with debridement and vascularized fibular transfer: case report and review of the literature.
We report a novel and very successful treatment of a 58-year-old man presenting an infected non-union of the right distal humerus, secondary to a closed fracture initially treated with two anatomic plates. After hardware removal, a two-stage reconstruction was performed. Bone and soft-tissue debridement was performed, followed by vascularized fibular transfer and free iliac bone crest chips fixed with plates and screws. Consolidation was achieved within three months, and a very good elbow function was presented two years thereafter. This technique shows great promise for improved management of large segmental infected bone...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bigoni M, Turati M, Arnoldi M, Omeljaniuk RJ, Peri Di Caprio A, Del Bene M, Zatti G, Gaddi D Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

The use of custom-made antibiotic-loaded spacer in periprosthetic knee infection caused by XDR organism: case report and review of literature.
We present a rare case of a PKI caused by a XDR Klebsiella pneumoniae in a young patient who underwent a prosthetic reconstruction due to an osteosarcoma of the tibia. In this patient, the PKI has been treated using intravenous administration of Amikacin and an Amikacin-impregnated PMMA custom-made spacer. To our knowledge, only two cases that successfully used hand-mixed antibiotic-loaded spacer based on antibiotic sensitivity for the treatment of PKI caused by MDR and XDR microorganisms have been reported in the literature. PMID: 30977867 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Noia G, Meluzio MC, Sircana G, Maccauro G, Fantoni M, Ziranu A Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Diabetic foot infections: a comprehensive overview.
Abstract Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs), a micro-vascular complication, are associated with a substantial increase in morbidity and mortality. DFUs are a complicated mixture of neuropathy, peripheral arterial diseases, foot deformities, and infections. Foot infections are frequent and potentially devastating complications. Infection prospers in more than half of all foot ulcers and is the factor that most often leads to lower extremity amputation. The complications of microbial flora span the spectrum from superficial cellulitis to chronic osteomyelitis and gangrenous extremity lower limb amputations. Wounds without ...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pitocco D, Spanu T, Di Leo M, Vitiello R, Rizzi A, Tartaglione L, Fiori B, Caputo S, Tinelli G, Zaccardi F, Flex A, Galli M, Pontecorvi A, Sanguinetti M Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Urinary tract infections after early removal of urinary catheter in total joint arthroplasty.
CONCLUSIONS: Data from this study support early catheter removal after TJA. Predominant catheter-isolated bacteria are enteric species. The culture of a catheter tip specimen should be discouraged for the diagnosis of UTI within the firsts 24 hours after surgery. PMID: 30977869 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Corigliano A, Galasso O, Varano A, Riccelli DA, Gasparini G Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Serum biomarkers in the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection: consolidated evidence and recent developments.
Abstract Periprosthetic Joint Infection (PJI) represents one of the leading causes of revision prosthetic surgery, accounting for 25% of failed Total Knee Replacement (TKR) and 15% of failed Total Hip Replacement (THR). The search for a biomarker that, together with clinical and radiological findings, could improve the management of such a kind of patients is currently a big challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. This review aims (1) to assess the accuracy and the limitations of the traditional (Serum Erythrocytes Sedimentation Rate, C-reactive Protein, Procalcitonin, Interleukin 6, Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha), (2) ...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vicenti G, Bizzoca D, Nappi V, Pesce V, Solarino G, Carrozzo M, Moretti F, Dicuonzo F, Moretti B Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Two-stage reimplantation in periprosthetic knee infection.
CONCLUSIONS: The strategy that involves the use of cement spacer, intravenous antibiotic therapy, and successive revision total knee implantation is nowadays considered the gold standard for the management of the periprosthetic knee infection. This treatment is actually considered the first choice not only for chronic but also for acute infections, especially in the presence of resistant bacteria. PMID: 30977871 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Vasso M, Braile A, Ascione F, Toro G, De Cicco A, Lepore F, Schiavone Panni A Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Clinical and prognostic features of prosthetic joint infections caused by Enterococcus spp.
CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities should arise the suspect of infection by enterococci. Associative protocols, considering drugs active against biofilm should be considered in the cases with enterococcal infection. PMID: 30977872 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ascione T, Balato G, Mariconda M, Fantoni M, Giovannenze F, Pagliano P Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Risk factors for failure of two-stage revision arthroplasty for infected hip prosthesis: review of the literature and single centre cohort analysis.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) are one of the most dangerous complications in hip surgery. "Two-stage" revision surgery is the treatment of choice. Nevertheless, 5-10% of failures are reported. The aim of this study is to evaluate which factors determine the failure of the two-stage revision in patients affected by hip PJI. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 21 patients treated for hip PJI who had undergone two-stage revision surgery. The diagnosis had been made using criteria established by the Musculoskeletal Infection Society (MSIS) and readapted by the P...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Logroscino G, Campana V, Pagano S, Taccari F, Fantoni M, Saracco M Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Post-arthroscopic septic arthritis of the knee. Analysis of the outcome after treatment in a case series and systematic literature review.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the characteristics of patients with septic arthritis after ACL reconstruction comparing our results with those deriving from the literature review. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with suspected post arthroscopic septic arthritis of the knee occurring within 6 months after surgery were evaluated to be included in the investigation. Septic arthritis was defined by i) clinical evidence; ii) laboratory investigations; iii) synovial fluid leukocyte count of more than 2,5 x 104/μL or positive cultures obtained by synovial fluid aspirate. RESULTS: Thir...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ascione T, Balato G, Mariconda M, Rosa D, Rizzo M, Pagliano P Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Contamination of revision procedures in patients with adverse tissues reaction to metal on metal implant.
CONCLUSIONS: We consider it appropriate to perform two-stage revision in all case of failure of MoM replacement so as to allow to minimize the likelihood of infection in patients with damaged tissues by ALVAL, pseudotumour, and necrosis that could create an ideal environment for bacterial development. PMID: 30977875 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Favetti F, Mazzotta G, Papalia M, Panegrossi G, Casella F, Falez F Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of thoraco lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis: indications and outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: The role of minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of PS is rapidly expanding. Reducing surgery-related morbidity in these frail patients is possible and often necessary. However, while more and more new techniques are being proposed, still few clinical data are available. Clinical comparison studies with open traditional surgery should be encouraged, and more attention should be paid to long-term outcomes. For the present, the indications for minimally invasive procedures should, therefore, be evaluated on a case by case basis and on clinical and radiological findings. PMID: 30977876 [PubMed - in pr...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Pola E, Pambianco V, Autore G, Cipolloni V, Fantoni M Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

The identification of pathogens associated with periprosthetic joint infection in two-stage revision.
CONCLUSIONS: In two-stage revision after PJI, taking into account the sensitivity and specificity values, just a few microbiological and molecular exams and nuclear imaging methods should be considered in the decision process to re-implant the components. PMID: 30977877 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Cozzi Lepri A, Del Prete A, Soderi S, Innocenti M, Civinini R Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

A systematic review: characteristics, complications and treatment of spondylodiscitis.
CONCLUSIONS: Spondylodiscitis is a complex and multifactorial disease, whose diagnosis and management are still challenging. Due to its potential morbidity, it is extremely important to investigate the 5 key elements discussed in this paper in order to provide an early diagnosis and initiate the most effective treatment. PMID: 30977878 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gentile L, Benazzo F, De Rosa F, Boriani S, Dallagiacoma G, Franceschetti G, Gaeta M, Cuzzocrea F Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Advances in management of periprosthetic joint infections: an historical prospective study.
CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is a risk factor for "early/delayed infection" of TJA. Two-stage arthroplasty exchange, debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention in patients are treatments with a high rate of success in terms of reinfection. PMID: 30977879 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Papalia R, Vespasiani-Gentilucci U, Longo UG, Esposito C, Zampogna B, Antonelli Incalzi R, Denaro V Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Arthrodesis of the ankle joint in septic osteoarthritis: six years long term outcomes in authors' personal experience.
CONCLUSIONS: Ankle arthrodesis could allow painless gait, improving patients life quality, even after long-term follow-up, and is, therefore, a solution to be considered in patients affected by septic arthritis. PMID: 30977880 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Simoni G, Maccauro G, Fenga D, De Santis V, Orani RA, Centofanti F, Rosa MA Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Acute osteomyelitis and septic arthritis in children: a systematic review of systematic reviews.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these works provide strong evidence regarding a large number of issues including classification, epidemiology and risk factors, causative organisms, clinical presentation, laboratory markers, imaging, diagnostic needle aspiration, antibiotic therapy, surgical therapy, and prognosis. A clinical summary based on the best evidence is supplied. PMID: 30977881 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Gigante A, Coppa V, Marinelli M, Giampaolini N, Falcioni D, Specchia N Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Trends in surgical management of the infected total ankle arthroplasty.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study reveals the improvement of the surgical management of the infected total ankle arthroplasty through the last 20 years. Irrigation and debridement and two-stage revision represent the most viable treatment in acute postoperative and late chronic infections respectively. We noted a trend towards maintaining articularity through a two-stage revision. The quality of evidence is weak with biases both in reporting and selection process. High quality randomized controlled trials are required to compare different treatments in order to introduce an evidence-based treatment protocol. PMID: 30977882 [PubM...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Mazzotti A, Geraci G, Panciera A, Perna F, Stefanini N, Pilla F, Ruffilli A, Faldini C Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Infection after spinal surgery and procedures.
Abstract Postoperative infections after spinal surgery are a challenging issue, difficult to diagnose and treat, that requires prolonged medical therapy and even surgery. In this paper, we aim to review the current standards in the diagnosis and treatment of post-procedural Spondylodiscitis (SD). We performed a review of the available literature focusing on diagnostic and therapeutic standards of post-procedural SD, both after minimally invasive procedures and open surgery. Spinal infections can occur in less invasive procedures with an incidence ranging from 0.26% to 2.75%. Post-surgical spinal infections range f...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Di Martino A, Papalia R, Albo E, Diaz L, Denaro L, Denaro V Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Managing of musculoskeletal infections in children.
CONCLUSIONS: Among others frequent pathogens, MRSA shows a high rate of physis involvement. Musculoskeletal infections represent a challenge in skeletally immature patients because of their potential severe complications. Timing of diagnosis and consequent targeted treatment is fundamental to avoid complications and functional sequelae. PMID: 30977884 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Giordano M, Aulisa AG, Guzzanti V, Careri S, Krzysztofiak A, Toniolo RM Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Epidemiological and clinical features of prosthetic joint infections caused by gram-negative bacteria.
CONCLUSIONS: The treatment with the two-stage procedure for PJIs caused by GNB seems to be associated with a low rate of failure, while PJI due to CRB seems to be related to the worst outcome. PMID: 30977885 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fantoni M, Borrè S, Rostagno R, Riccio G, Carrega G, Giovannenze F, Taccari F Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Infections in primary intramedullary nailing of open tibial fractures: a review article.
CONCLUSIONS: Primary intramedullary nailing should be considered for the definitive treatment of open tibial fractures, providing many advantages in terms of rehabilitation, time of hospitalization and costs. PMID: 30977886 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lillo M, El Ezzo O, Cauteruccio M, Ziranu A, De Santis V, Maccauro G Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Spondylodiscitis: is really all well defined?
Abstract The term spondylodiscitis describes the infection of both the intervertebral disc space and the adjacent vertebrae. Pyogenic Vertebral Osteomyelitis (PVO) is more common in older patients (mean age 59-69 years) with a male preponderance (52-69%). Recent studies reported an alarming increase of incidence over the last 20 years, due to the increase of diagnostic sensibility, the increase of the average lifetime and to the consequent association of chronic disabling pathologies, of immunosuppression, of surgical or invasive procedure. Improvements in radiological diagnosis, surgical techniques, and managemen...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Marchionni E, Marconi L, Ruinato D, Zamparini E, Gasbarrini A, Viale P Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Masquelet technique and osteomyelitis: innovations and literature review.
CONCLUSIONS: The survey is not a systematic review. Nevertheless, new concepts are introduced and analyzed identifying 6 areas of interest and induced membrane technique development. PMID: 30977888 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Careri S, Vitiello R, Oliva MS, Ziranu A, Maccauro G, Perisano C Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Periprosthetic hip and knee infections: comparison of etiology, perioperative management and costs.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: We compared two series of patients treated at our Hospital for periprosthetic hip and knee infections (PHI; PKI), in order to evaluate etiology, perioperative management (duration of spacer, antibiotic therapy, quality of life during the treatment), length of hospital stay, and costs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included in the study 32 patients with PHI and 30 patients with PKI. The average age of the patients was 74.8 in PHI and 71.2 in PKI. Treatment consisted of a two-stage revision associated with antibiotic therapy. All patients were followed up for at least two years after surgery. We ...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Efremov K, Benedetti Valentini M, De Maio F, Potenza V, Caterini R, Farsetti P Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Prevention of surgical site infections in orthopaedic surgery: a synthesis of current recommendations.
This article will review and summarize the recent international guidelines released on this subject together with other published relevant evidence. PMID: 30977890 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tucci G, Romanini E, Zanoli G, Pavan L, Fantoni M, Venditti M Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Clinical applications of Bioactive glass S53P4 in bone infections: a systematic review.
CONCLUSIONS: BAG-S53P4 seems to be a useful bone filler in orthopaedic surgery for osteomyelitis treatment. The attendant clinical results and associated rate of complications associated with BAG S53P4 use are comparable with those of other techniques in the short term. However, long-term follow-up studies are required in order to confirm the longevity of this treatment. PMID: 30977891 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Bigoni M, Turati M, Zanchi N, Lombardo AS, Graci J, Omeljaniuk RJ, Zatti G, Gaddi D Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Antifungal properties of silver coating on tumour endoprostheses: an in vitro study.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: We tested and quantified the in vitro effect of silver coating on preventing development of fungal biofilm over titanium, as found in some megaprosthesis used for musculoskeletal oncological reconstruction, to evaluate the antiseptic effect of this additional feature on this class of pathogens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different strains and species of Candida (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis) were cultured over 6 silver-coated and 6 non silver-coated titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) samples following a standardized procedure. Then spectrophotometrical analysis and viability assay were conduc...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: D'Adamio S, Ziranu A, Cazzato G, Sanguinetti M, Manicone PF, Rosa MA, Maccauro G Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Systemic antibiotic treatment of chronic osteomyelitis in adults.
Abstract Chronic osteomyelitis is a difficult to treat infection of the bone, which requires a combined medical and surgical approach and often persists intermittently for years, with relapses and failures. The optimal type, route of administration, and duration of antibiotic treatment remain controversial, and the emergence of multi-drug resistant organisms poses major therapeutic challenges. Identification of the causative agent and subsequent targeted antibiotic treatment has a major impact on patients' outcome. In this review, we summarize which intravenous and oral antibiotics are the best options available f...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Fantoni M, Taccari F, Giovannenze F Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Infection in orthopaedic oncology: crucial problem in modern reconstructive techniques.
CONCLUSIONS: Post-operative infections in orthopaedic oncology surgery are still frequent, and their diagnosis and treatment are demanding. According to the literature, silver-coated prostheses should be considered as the best option in case of revision surgery due to infection. However, there is no evidence that these new materials are effective to decrease the risk of infection drastically. Further studies with numerous series and long-term follow up are required. PMID: 30977894 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pharmacological Reviews)
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Trovarelli G, Angelini A, Pala E, Cappellari A, Breda A, Ruggieri P Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Infections in arthroscopy.
Abstract Infection is a rare complication of arthroscopic procedures, with an overall incidence estimated in less than 1%. However, the actual prevalence may be higher as many cases may go unreported. Despite low incidence, early diagnosis is of outmost importance in order to avoid devastating consequences, such as arthrofibrosis. Clinical presentation is usually not specific and may include, at varying degrees of severity: increasing pain and stiffness, local erythema, swelling, warmth, and fibrinous exudate. High temperature and signs of sepsis are not common but may be present in severe cases. Unfortunately, va...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Sircana G, Passiatore M, Capasso L, Saccomanno MF, Maccauro G Tags: Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci Source Type: research

Unraveling 'The Cancer Genome Atlas' information on the role of SLC transporters in anticancer drug uptake.
Abstract INTRODUCTION: Anticancer chemotherapy often faces the problem of intrinsic or acquired drug refractoriness due in part to efficient mechanisms of defense present or developed, respectively, in cancer cells. Owing to their polarity and/or high molecular weight, many cytostatic agents cannot freely cross the plasma membrane by simple diffusion and hence depend on SLC proteins to enter cancer cells. The downregulation of these transporters and the appearance of either inactivating mutations or aberrant splicing, hamper the possibility of anticancer drugs to interact with their intracellular targets. Areas co...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - April 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Al-Abdulla R, Perez-Silva L, Abete L, Romero MR, Briz O, Marin JJG Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Biased Receptor Signaling in Drug Discovery.
This article summarizes the current knowledge about the complex components of receptor systems, the evidence that biased signaling is used in natural physiology to fine-tune signaling, and the current thoughts on how this mechanism may be applied to the design of better drugs. Although this is a fairly newly discovered phenomenon, theoretical and experimental data suggest that it is a ubiquitous behavior of ligands and receptors and to be expected. Biased signaling is simple to detect in vitro and there are numerous methods to quantify the effect with scales that can be used to optimize this activity in structure-activity ...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - March 29, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kenakin T Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Core Outcome Measures in Preclinical Assessment of Candidate Analgesics.
Abstract All preclinical procedures for analgesic drug discovery involve two components: 1) a "pain stimulus" (the principal independent variable), which is delivered to an experimental subject with the intention of producing a pain state; and 2) a "pain behavior" (the principal dependent variable), which is measured as evidence of that pain state. Candidate analgesics are then evaluated for their effectiveness to reduce the pain behavior, and results are used to prioritize drugs for advancement to clinical testing. This review describes a taxonomy of preclinical procedures organized into an &q...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Negus SS Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Gut Reactions: Breaking Down Xenobiotic-Microbiome Interactions.
Abstract The microbiome plays a key role in health and disease, and there has been considerable interest in therapeutic targeting of the microbiome as well as mining this rich resource in drug discovery efforts. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that the gut microbiota can itself influence the actions of a range of xenobiotics, in both beneficial and potentially harmful ways. Traditionally, clinical studies evaluating the pharmacokinetics of new drugs have mostly ignored the important direct and indirect effects of the gut microbiome on drug metabolism and efficacy. Despite some important observations f...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - March 22, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Clarke G, Sandhu KV, Griffin BT, Dinan TG, Cryan JF, Hyland NP Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

A Practical Review of Proteasome Pharmacology.
Abstract The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) degrades individual proteins in a highly regulated fashion and is responsible for the degradation of misfolded, damaged, or unneeded cellular proteins. During the past 20 years, investigators have established a critical role for the UPS in essentially every cellular process, including cell cycle progression, transcriptional regulation, genome integrity, apoptosis, immune responses, and neuronal plasticity. At the center of the UPS is the proteasome, a large and complex molecular machine containing a multicatalytic protease complex. When the efficiency of this proteost...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - March 16, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Thibaudeau TA, Smith DM Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research

Target Site Delivery and Residence of Nanomedicines: Application of Quantitative Systems Pharmacology.
Abstract Quantitative systems pharmacology (QSP), an emerging field that entails using modeling and computation to interpret, interrogate, and integrate drug effects spanning from the molecule to the whole organism to forecast treatment outcomes, is expected to enhance the efficiency of drug development. Since late 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has advocated the use of an analogous approach of model-informed drug development. This review focuses on issues pertaining to nanosized medicines (NP) and the potential utility of QSP to determine NP delivery and residence at extracellular or intracellular ta...
Source: Pharmacological Reviews - March 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Au JL, Abbiati RA, Wientjes MG, Lu Z Tags: Pharmacol Rev Source Type: research