Angioedema With Renin Angiotensin System Drugs and Neutral Endopeptidase Inhibitors
In the PARADIGM-HF study, sacubitril-valsartan (LCZ696) was found to be superior to enalapril in reducing the risks of death and hospitalization for heart failure.1 The medication was approved by the FDA for use in patients with chronic NYHA Class II-IV heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. However, questions remain about the use of sacubitril-valsartan across the spectrum of patients with heart failure and on the occurrence of angioedema.2 (Source: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension - March 7, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: John B. Kostis, Abel E. Moreyra, William J. Kostis Tags: Commentary Source Type: research

Clinically Relevant Doses of Enalapril Mitigate Multiple Organ Radiation Injury.
Abstract Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) are effective mitigators of radiation nephropathy. To date, their experimental use has been in fixed-dose regimens. In clinical use, doses of ACEi and other medication may be escalated to achieve greater benefit. We therefore used a rodent model to test the ACEi enalapril as a mitigator of radiation injury in an escalating-dose regimen. Single-fraction partial-body irradiation (PBI) with one hind limb out of the radiation field was used to model accidental or belligerent radiation exposures. PBI doses of 12.5, 12.75 and 13 Gy were used to establish multi-org...
Source: Radiation Research - March 2, 2016 Category: Physics Authors: Cohen EP, Fish BL, Moulder JE Tags: Radiat Res Source Type: research

Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone Signaling Inhibitors-Losartan, Enalapril, and Cardosten-Prevent Infarction-induced Heart Failure Development in Rats.
Conclusions • The study was the first to have demonstrated that preventive treatment with losartan, enalapril, or cardosten can attenuate pathological hypertrophy in infarction-induced heart failure in rats. PMID: 27036051 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine)
Source: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine - March 1, 2016 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Kiss K, Fekete V, Pálóczi J, Sárközy M, Murlasits Z, Pipis J, Kheyfets IA, Dugina JL, Sergeeva SA, Epstein OI, Csonka C, Csont T, Ferdinandy P, Bencsik P Tags: Altern Ther Health Med Source Type: research

Influence of Ejection Fraction on Outcomes and Efficacy of Sacubitril/Valsartan (LCZ696) in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction: The Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) Trial [Original Articles]
Background— The angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with enalapril in patients with heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction (EF) in the Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial. We evaluated the influence of EF on clinical outcomes and on the effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan compared with enalapril. Methods and Results— Eight thousand three hundred ninety-nine patients with New York Heart Association class II to IV H...
Source: Circulation: Heart Failure - February 25, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Solomon, S. D., Claggett, B., Desai, A. S., Packer, M., Zile, M., Swedberg, K., Rouleau, J. L., Shi, V. C., Starling, R. C., Kozan, O., Dukat, A., Lefkowitz, M. P., McMurray, J. J. V. Tags: Heart Failure Original Articles Source Type: research

Impaired angiogenesis in the enalapril-treated neonatal rat kidney.
Authors: Yim HE, Yoo KH, Bae ES, Hong YS, Lee JW Abstract PURPOSE: Nephrogenesis is normally accompanied by a tightly regulated and efficient vascularization. We investigated the effect of angiotensin II inhibition on angiogenesis in the developing rat kidney. METHODS: Newborn rat pups were treated with enalapril (30 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (control) for 7 days after birth. Renal histological changes were checked using Hematoxylin & Eosin staining. We also investigated the intrarenal expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1), VEGFR2, platelet-derived growth factor (PD...
Source: Korean Journal of Pediatrics - February 21, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Tags: Korean J Pediatr Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Instability Preceded by Orolingual Angioedema after Alteplase Treatment.
Authors: Kageyama T, Okanoue Y, Takai R, Suenaga T Abstract An 87-year-old man taking antihypertensive medications, including 10 mg enalapril, daily visited our hospital complaining of motor aphasia, dysarthria, and right hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an ischemic lesion in the left frontal lobe including the insular cortex and severe stenosis of the left middle cerebral artery. After he received intravenous alteplase infusion, he developed orolingual angioedema followed by transient bradycardia with subsequent hypotension, resulting in the deterioration of his neurological signs and expansion of ...
Source: Internal Medicine - February 17, 2016 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor (ACEI)-Mediated Amelioration in Renal Fibrosis Involves Suppression of Mast Cell Degranulation
Background/Aims: The mechanism by which angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) attenuate renal fibrosis has not been fully uncovered. Methods: Renal fibrosis in rats was triggered by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and treated with Enalapril. Results: Enalapril attenuated renal fibrosis, as evidenced by the fibrosis scores (1.07±0.73 versus 2.18±0.75 for 200 mg/ml Enalapril versus control, p (Source: Kidney and Blood Pressure Research)
Source: Kidney and Blood Pressure Research - February 16, 2016 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Combining angiotensin II receptor 1 antagonism and neprilysin inhibition for the treatment of heart failure.
Authors: Katsanos S, Bistola V, Parissis JT Abstract Sacubitril/valsartan is a novel, first-in-class drug, which combines a neprilysin inhibitor with an angiotensin receptor blocker. Sacubitril inhibits neprilysin endopeptidase, blocking the catabolism of natriuretic peptides (NP), thereby increasing their bioavailability. Valsartan counterbalances the increase of angiotensin II that results from neprilysin inhibition, exerting also the beneficial effects of angiotensin receptor blockers seen in previous HF trials. PARADIGM-HF trial has proved the superiority of sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696) over ACE inhibitor enal...
Source: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology - February 14, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Sacubitril/Valsartan: A Review in Chronic Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction
Abstract Sacubitril/valsartan (Entresto™; LCZ696) is an orally administered supramolecular sodium salt complex of the neprilysin inhibitor prodrug sacubitril and the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) valsartan, which was recently approved in the US and the EU for the treatment of chronic heart failure (NYHA class II–IV) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In the large, randomized, double-blind, PARADIGM-HF trial, sacubitril/valsartan reduced the incidence of death from cardiovascular causes or first hospitalization for worsening heart failure (composite primary endpoint) significantly more than th...
Source: Drugs - February 12, 2016 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effects of orally administered enalapril on blood pressure and hemodynamic response to vasopressors during isoflurane anesthesia in healthy dogs
Abstract ObjectiveTo examine whether preanesthetic administration of enalapril, compared with placebo, results in a greater decline in blood pressure (BP) or decreased responsiveness of BP to isotonic fluids or vasopressors in healthy dogs during isoflurane anesthesia. Study designRandomized, experimental, placebo‐controlled, blinded, crossover study. AnimalsTwelve healthy, female, purpose‐bred beagles. MethodsDogs underwent the following week‐long treatment protocols, each preceded by a 1 week washout period: oral placebo twice daily (PLA); oral enalapril, 0.5 mg kg−1 twice daily, with the 15th ...
Source: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia - February 5, 2016 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Amanda E. Coleman, Molly K. Shepard, Chad W. Schmiedt, Erik H. Hofmeister, Scott A. Brown Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

ACE-Inhibition Benefit on Lung Function in Heart Failure is Modulated by ACE Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism
Abstract Purpose The benefit of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in chronic heart failure (HF) is partially due to its effects on pulmonary function and particularly on lung diffusion, the latter being counteracted by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Tissue ACE activity is largely determined by an insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism resulting in three possible genotypes (DD, ID and II). It is not clear if ACE inhibitor therapy could exert different effects in these genotypes. The aim of the study was to understand whether I/D polymorphism interferes with ACE inhibitor’s protec...
Source: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy - February 4, 2016 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Comparison of the Efficacy and Safety of Different ACE Inhibitors in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: A PRISMA-Compliant Network Meta-Analysis
Abstract: Heart failure is a public health problem and a great economic burden for patients and healthcare systems. Suppression of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors remains the mainstay of treatment for heart failure. However, the abundance of ACE inhibitors makes it difficult for doctors to choose. We performed this network meta-analysis of ACEIs in patients with heart failure in order to address this area of uncertainty. We searched PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, and Medline. Any randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of captopril, enalapril, l...
Source: Medicine - February 1, 2016 Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Research Article: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Source Type: research

The IL-24 gene protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells against H2O2-induced injury and may be useful as a treatment for cardiovascular disease.
Abstract The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of interleukin-24 (IL-24) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced vascular endothelial injury and to examine the association between IL-24 and cardiovascular disease. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to increasing concentrations of H2O2 in the presence or absence of IL-24, which was introduced via Lipofectamine® 2000-mediated transfection. The successful uptake of the IL-24 plasmid was confirmed by RT-PCR at 24 h post-transfection. The effects of H2O2 and IL-24 on the proliferation a...
Source: International Journal of Molecular Medicine - January 25, 2016 Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Wang Z, Wang Y, Chen Y, Lv J Tags: Int J Mol Med Source Type: research

Early administration of enalapril prevents diastolic dysfunction and ventricular remodeling in rabbits with myocardial infarction
We aimed to investigate the role of early administration of Enalapril (Enal) on post myocardial infarction (MI) ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in rabbits. White New Zealand rabbits underwent to coronary artery ligature or Sham were divided in 3 experimental groups: 1) sham; 2) MI and 3) MI+Enal. Enal was given by gavage at a dose of 10 mg kg-1 day-1 starting at 3 hours after surgery for 35 days. At the end of the protocol we measured: 1) Mean arterial pressure; 2) Left ventricular (LV) +dP/dtmax; 3) LV end diastolic pressure (LVEDP) and Isovolumic relaxation (Tau); 4) LV dimensions; 5) LV Ejection and sho...
Source: Cardiovascular Pathology - January 21, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Germán E. González, Luciana Wilensky, Pablo Cassaglia, Celina Morales, Ricardo J. Gelpi Source Type: research

Haemodynamic Responses to Selective Vagal Nerve Stimulation under Enalapril Medication in Rats
by Mortimer Gierthmuehlen, Thomas Stieglitz, Josef Zentner, Dennis T. T. Plachta Selective vagal nerve stimulation (sVNS) has been demonstrated to lower blood pressure (BP) in rats without causing major side effects. This method might be adapted for the treatment of therapy-resistant hypertension in patients. Converting enzyme inhibitors (CEIs) are among the first drugs that are administered for arterial hypertension and prominently reduce BP primarily by interacting with the renin-angiotensin system of the kidneys. Beyond the reduction of BP, CEI have a positive effect on the survival rate after myocardial infarction; th...
Source: PLoS One - January 14, 2016 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mortimer Gierthmuehlen et al. Source Type: research

Influenza Vaccination in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure
Conclusions Influenza vaccination rates varied widely in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction enrolled in the PARADIGM-HF trial, and vaccination was associated with reduced risk for death, although whether this association was causal cannot be determined. (Source: JACC: Heart Failure)
Source: JACC: Heart Failure - January 11, 2016 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Risk Related to Pre-Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Mellitus in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Insights From Prospective Comparison of ARNI With ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure Trial [Original Articles]
We examined clinical outcomes in 8399 patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction according to history of diabetes mellitus and glycemic status (baseline hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]:
Source: Circulation: Heart Failure - January 11, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Kristensen, S. L., Preiss, D., Jhund, P. S., Squire, I., Cardoso, J. S., Merkely, B., Martinez, F., Starling, R. C., Desai, A. S., Lefkowitz, M. P., Rizkala, A. R., Rouleau, J. L., Shi, V. C., Solomon, S. D., Swedberg, K., Zile, M. R., McMurray, J. J. V., Tags: Congenital Heart Disease, Heart Failure, Pharmacology Original Articles Source Type: research

Differential Effects of Enalapril-Felodipine vs Enalapril-Lercanidipine Combination Drug Treatment on Sympathetic Nerve Traffic and Metabolic Profile in Obesity-Related Hypertension
Scanty information is available on the effects of combination drug treatment based on an ACE-inhibitor and a calcium channel blocker on the neurometabolic alterations characterizing obesity-related hypertension (OHT). After 2 weeks run-in with enalapril (E, 20 mg), 36 OHTs were randomized according to a double-blind crossover design to a combination therapy with either lercanidipine 10 mg (L) or felodipine extended release 5 mg (F), each lasting 8 weeks. Measurements included clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and heart rate, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index, plasma norepinephrine (NE) and muscle sympatheti...
Source: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension - January 9, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gino Seravalle, Gianmaria Brambilla, Daniela Prata Pizzalla, Anna Casati, Marta Riva, Cesare Cuspidi, Michele Bombelli, Giuseppe Mancia, Guido Grassi Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Differential effects of enalapril–felodipine versus enalapril–lercanidipine combination drug treatment on sympathetic nerve traffic and metabolic profile in obesity-related hypertension
Scanty information is available on the effects of combination drug treatment based on an ACE inhibitor and a calcium channel blocker on the neurometabolic alterations characterizing obesity-related hypertension (OHT). After 2-week run-in with enalapril (20 mg), 36 OHTs were randomized according to a double-blind crossover design to a combination therapy with either lercanidipine 10 mg (L) or felodipine extended release 5 mg (F), each lasting 8 weeks. Measurements included clinic and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and heart rate, homeostasis model assessment index, plasma norepinephrine, and mu...
Source: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension - January 9, 2016 Category: Cardiology Authors: Gino Seravalle, Gianmaria Brambilla, Daniela Prata Pizzalla, Anna Casati, Marta Riva, Cesare Cuspidi, Michele Bombelli, Giuseppe Mancia, Guido Grassi Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Soluble neprilysin (sNEP) retains catalytic activity in heart failure
Neprilysin (NEP) is a transmembrane receptor active in the degradation of a plethora of vasoactive peptides. Very recently NEP has gained focus as a heart failure (HF) biotarget.1 Indeed, in the PARADIGM-HF Trial the novel drug sacubitril-valsartan elegantly demonstrated superior clinical efficacy of dual inhibition (NEP and AT1 receptor inhibition) over standard-of-care (enalapril).2 The soluble form of NEP has biomarker potential in heart failure. Our group demonstrated that the circulating soluble form of NEP (sNEP) is measurable in patients with chronic and acute HF. (Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation)
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - January 6, 2016 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Antoni Bayes-Genis, Timothy C. Prickett, Richards A Mark, Jaume Barallat, Josep Lupón Source Type: research

Soluble neprilysin retains catalytic activity in heart failure
Neprilysin (NEP) is a transmembrane receptor active in the degradation of a plethora of vasoactive peptides. Very recently, NEP has gained focus as a heart failure (HF) biotarget.1 Indeed, in the PARADIGM-HF trial, the novel drug sacubitril-valsartan elegantly demonstrated superior clinical efficacy of dual inhibition (NEP and AT1 receptor inhibition) over the standard-of-care treatment (enalapril).2 The soluble form of NEP has biomarker potential in heart failure. Our group demonstrated that the circulating soluble form of NEP (sNEP) is measurable in patients with chronic and acute HF. (Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation)
Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - January 6, 2016 Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Antoni Bayes-Genis, Timothy C. Prickett, A. Mark Richards, Jaume Barallat, Josep Lupón Tags: Research Correspondence Source Type: research

Contraceptive Provision to Adolescent Females Prescribed Teratogenic Medications
CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate female adolescents prescribed teratogens receive inadequate contraception provision, which could increase their risk for negative pregnancy outcomes. Although the presence of a federal risk mitigation system appears to improve contraceptive provision, these systems are costly and, in some instances, difficult to implement. Efforts to improve provider practices are needed. (Source: PEDIATRICS)
Source: PEDIATRICS - January 4, 2016 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Stancil, S. L., Miller, M., Briggs, H., Lynch, D., Goggin, K., Kearns, G. Tags: Adolescent Health/Medicine, Contraception, Pharmacology, Therapeutics Article Source Type: research

The Renin-Angiotensin and Renal Dopaminergic Systems Interact in Normotensive Humans
The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAAS) and renal dopaminergic systems interact to maintain sodium balance. High NaCl intake increases renal synthesis of dopamine and dopaminergic receptor activity, decreasing epithelial sodium transport, whereas sodium deficit activates the RAAS, increasing epithelial sodium transport. We tested the hypothesis that attenuation of the natriuretic effect of dopamine D1-like receptors during salt restriction results in part from increased RAAS activity in seven salt-resistant normotensive adults using a double-blind placebo-controlled balanced crossover design. All subjects attained sodium ...
Source: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN - December 31, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Natarajan, A. R., Eisner, G. M., Armando, I., Browning, S., Pezzullo, J. C., Rhee, L., Dajani, M., Carey, R. M., Jose, P. A. Tags: Clinical Research Source Type: research

Association of insertion/deletion polymorphism of angiotensin-converting enzyme gene among Malay male hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors
Introduction: Several studies show that the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been associated with hypertension in various populations. The present study sought to determine the association of the I/D gene polymorphism among Malay male essential hypertensive subjects in response to ACE inhibitors (enalapril and lisinopril). Materials and methods: A total of 72 patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and 72 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Blood pressure was recorded from 0 to 24 weeks of treatment with enalapril or lisinopril. Genotyping of the I/D p...
Source: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System : JRAAS - December 23, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Heidari, F., Vasudevan, R., Mohd Ali, S. Z., Ismail, P., Etemad, A., Pishva, S. R., Othman, F., Bakar, S. A. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Innovative regulatory-conforming bioanalytical approaches enabling systematic investigations of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics by paediatric clinical studies in all age groups
Conclusion The child-appropriate bioanalytical platform can be applied in upcoming paediatric Phase II and Phase III studies of the LENA (Labeling of Enalapril from Neonates up to Adolescents) project. Meaningful concentration-time profiles with 6–7 sampling points can be obtained even in neonates without infringing ethical recommendations on trial-related blood lost. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreement n°602295 (LENA). (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - December 14, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Burckhardt, B. B., Tins, J., Läer, S. Tags: POSTER PRESENTATIONS Source Type: research

Evaluation of the applicability of a child-appropriate high throughput hplc-ms/ms method for the determination of enalapril and enalaprilat in small sample volumes of serum and urine within a gclp-compliant environment
Conclusion The developed paediatric tailored high throughput HPLC-MS/MS analysis proved its applicability in a GCLP-compliant environment and is suitable for the upcoming phase II and phase III studies of the LENA project focussing on paediatric patients. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreement n°602295 (LENA). (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - December 14, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Schäfer, J., Burckhardt, B. B., Tins, J., Läer, S. Tags: POSTER PRESENTATIONS Source Type: research

Development and establishment of a quality-framework for the lena project
Conclusion The consortiums approach enabled the preparation of a comprehensive, reliable GxP compliant quality system within a short timeframe and with the limited resources of a publicly funded project. 1 "GCLP" is used as acronym for a quality system established in compliance with "Reflection paper for laboratories that perform the analysis or evaluation of clinical trial samples" (EMA/INS/GCP/532137/2010; 28 February 2012) The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreement n°602295 (LENA). (Sou...
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - December 14, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Ciplea, A. M., Kleine, K., Burckhardt, B. B., Läer, S., Breitkreutz, J., Spatenkova, L., Klingmann, I. Tags: POSTER PRESENTATIONS Source Type: research

Safety of ace inhibitors in children with heart failure
Conclusions Renal failure, hypotension and hyperkalemia are the most reported adverse events in children on an ACE-I for heart failure. We defined strict adjusting- and stopping rules for enalapril based on an Acute Kidney Injury scale, b. on values of systolic blood pressure and on c. serum levels potassium. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreement n°602295 (LENA). (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)
Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood - December 14, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Authors: der Meulen, M. v., Läer, S., Castro, C., Khalil, F., de Wildt, S., Dalinghaus, M., Jovanovic, I., Bajcetic, M., Lagler, F. Tags: POSTER PRESENTATIONS Source Type: research

Renin Angiotensin System Gene Polymorphisms in Response to Antihypertensive Drugs and Visit-To-Visit Blood Pressure Variability in Essential Hypertensive Patients
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genes polymorphism have been associated with blood pressure (BP) response to antihypertensives drugs and may also influence the variability in visit-tovisit BP. Here we have investigated the association of RAS gene polymorphism with response to three classes of antihypertensive drugs (atenolol, amlodipine and enalapril) and also with genetic factor which may influence the variability in visit-to-visit BP. Total of 230 participants of south Indian ethnicity under the medication of any of these three classes of drugs were enrolled. The four polymorphisms analyzed were AGT M235T (rs699), ACE...
Source: Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine - December 11, 2015 Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

Low-salt diet increases NO bioavailability and COX-2 vasoconstrictor prostanoid production in spontaneously hypertensive rats
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2015 Source:Life Sciences Author(s): T.C. Travaglia, R.C.M. Berger, M.B. Luz, L.B. Furieri, Junior R.F. Ribeiro, D.V. Vassallo, J.G. Mill, I. Stefanon, P.F. Vassallo Aims The ability of dietary sodium restriction to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular mortality and improve vascular function in hypertension still remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of a long period of salt restriction on the vascular reactivity of mesenteric resistance arteries of SHRs. Methods Male SHRs received either standard-salt diet (0.3% NaCl) or low...
Source: Life Sciences - December 11, 2015 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Acute kidney injury in neonatal intensive care: Medicines involved.
Authors: Safina AI, Daminova MA, Abdullina GA Abstract BACKGROUND: The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) in neonates in the intensive care units and neonatal intensive care (NICU) according Plotz et al. ranges from 8% to 22% [3]. According to Andreoli, neonatal death due to AKI in NICU amounts up to 10-61% [1]. It should be in the reasons of AKI emphasize.The role of certain drugs, which are widely used in modern neonatology: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), antibiotics (aminoglycosides, glycopeptides, carbapenems, 3rd generation cephalosporins), furosemide, enalapril, in contributing to AKI shou...
Source: International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine - December 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Int J Risk Saf Med Source Type: research

Adherence to EBM guidelines in clinical practice.
CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacotherapy of patients aimed at secondary prevention of myocardial infarction did not fully conform to the principles of evidence-based medicine. Standards for rehabilitation after myocardial infarction require revision based on existing clinical guidelines and evidence-based medicine. PMID: 26639710 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine)
Source: International Journal of Risk and Safety in Medicine - December 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Int J Risk Saf Med Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Enalapril against Methionine-Enriched Diet-Induced Hypertension: Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum and Oxidative Stress.
Abstract In the present study, we investigated the effect of methionine-enriched diet (MED) on blood pressure in rats and examined the protective effect of enalapril, a widely used angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) class antihypertensive drug. The results showed that MED induced significant increase of SBP and Ang II-induced contractile response in aortae of rats. MED significantly increased plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and ACE. In addition, MED increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) and expres...
Source: Biomed Res - December 9, 2015 Category: Research Authors: Zhou Y, Zhao L, Zhang Z, Lu X Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research

Sleep-related movement disorder symptoms in SHR are attenuated by physical exercise and an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
This study suggested the existence of comorbidity between hypertension and sleep-related movement disorders in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Physical exercise and enalapril conferred protection for both hypertension and the observed behavioral changes. In addition, these treatments led to changes in dopaminergic signaling in the striatal region (i.e., D2 receptor, TH and DAT). (Source: Physiology and Behavior)
Source: Physiology and Behavior - December 7, 2015 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of the lercanidipine–enalapril combination vs. the corresponding monotherapies on home blood pressure in hypertension: evidence from a large database
Objective: To compare a combination of a dihydropyridine calcium-channel blocker with an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor vs. monotherapy with one or the other drug and placebo for their effects on home blood pressure (HBP). Methods: After a 2-week placebo wash-out, patients with an elevated office blood pressure (BP) (diastolic 100–109 and systolic (Source: Journal of Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Hypertension - December 3, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: ORIGINAL PAPERS: Therapeutic aspects Source Type: research

A Review of New Pharmacologic Treatments for Patients with Chronic Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction.
Abstract Heart failure (HF) impacts an estimated 5.7 million Americans and its prevalence is projected to increase to more than 8 million Americans in the next fifteen years. Key clinical trials have established an evidence-based foundation of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) treatment. Ivabradine and sacubitril/valsartan, which inhibit the f-channel and the angiotensin receptor and neprilysin, respectively, were recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for HFrEF. In the Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial, ivabradine significantly reduced the co...
Source: The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology - December 2, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Nguyen E, Weeda ER, White CM Tags: J Clin Pharmacol Source Type: research

Effects of Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors on Renal Expression of Renalase in Sprague-Dawley Rats Fed With High Salt Diet
Conclusion: This study indicates that high salt intake reduces renal expression, and renal RAS may be not involved in the regulation of renalase in SD rats fed with high-salt diet.Kidney Blood Press Res 2015;40:605-613 (Source: Kidney and Blood Pressure Research)
Source: Kidney and Blood Pressure Research - December 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Effects of high doses of enalapril and benazepril on the pharmacologically activated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in clinically normal dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, administration of high doses of enalapril and benazepril significantly inhibited ACE activity, yet did not prevent increases in mean urine and serum aldosterone concentrations resulting from furosemide activation of RAAS. This suggested that aldosterone breakthrough from ACE inhibition was a dose-independent effect of ACE inhibitors. PMID: 26618728 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research)
Source: American Journal of Veterinary Research - December 1, 2015 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Ames MK, Atkins CE, Lee S, Lantis AC, zumBrunnen JR Tags: Am J Vet Res Source Type: research

Enhanced Paediatric Pharmacovigilance at the European Medicines Agency: A Novel Query Applied to Adverse Drug Reaction Reports
Conclusions The EMA’s paediatric query can be used to highlight an imbalance for a drug–event pair among ADRs for a medicine when used in children and as compared with adults. Applying the query in practice can help the EMA to decide on whether stand-alone paediatric medicine development is warranted, and which, if any, further studies are necessary. Ongoing evaluation of the query is contributing to the development of new methods and guidance. (Source: Pediatric Drugs)
Source: Pediatric Drugs - November 23, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Enalapril and the VEGFA gene: Personalized medicine in hypertension therapy
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology - November 23, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enhanced Paediatric Pharmacovigilance at the European Medicines Agency: A Novel Query Applied to Adverse Drug Reaction Reports.
CONCLUSIONS: The EMA's paediatric query can be used to highlight an imbalance for a drug-event pair among ADRs for a medicine when used in children and as compared with adults. Applying the query in practice can help the EMA to decide on whether stand-alone paediatric medicine development is warranted, and which, if any, further studies are necessary. Ongoing evaluation of the query is contributing to the development of new methods and guidance. PMID: 26597489 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Paediatric Drugs)
Source: Paediatric Drugs - November 23, 2015 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Blake KV, Saint-Raymond A, Zaccaria C, Domergue F, Pelle B, Slattery J Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

In reply to: Enalapril and the VEGFA gene: personalized medicine in hypertension therapy
(Source: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology - November 20, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Enalapril Associated with Furosemide Induced Acute Kidney Injury in an Infant with Heart Failure. A Case Report, a Revision of the Literature and a Pharmacovigilance Database Analysis
The use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in combination with diuretics is a common strategy used for the treatment of patients affected by heart failure. An infant affected by initial congestive cardiac failure, after starting the treatment with enalapril in association with furosemide, developed acute kidney injury (AKI). No underlying renal disease or renal artery stenosis was found. He recovered from kidney injury after the therapy was suspended, thus suggesting that the drug combination is responsible for the onset of the adverse reaction. The present case report, the appraisal of the current knowledge...
Source: Pharmacology - November 18, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

AT1 receptor blocker losartan protects against mechanical ventilation-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction
Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention for patients in respiratory failure. Unfortunately, prolonged ventilator support results in diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction leading to diaphragm weakness, which is predicted to contribute to problems in weaning patients from the ventilator. While it is established that ventilator-induced oxidative stress is required for the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm weakness, the signaling pathway(s) that trigger oxidant production remain unknown. However, recent evidence reveals that increased plasma levels of angiotensin II (ANG II) result in oxidati...
Source: Journal of Applied Physiology - November 16, 2015 Category: Physiology Authors: Kwon, O. S., Smuder, A. J., Wiggs, M. P., Hall, S. E., Sollanek, K. J., Morton, A. B., Talbert, E. E., Toklu, H. Z., Tumer, N., Powers, S. K. Tags: ARTICLES Source Type: research

Sex-Specific Effect of Endothelin in the Blood Pressure Response to Acute Angiotensin II in Growth-Restricted Rats [Endothelin and Intrauterine Growth Restriction]
The renal endothelin system contributes to sex differences in blood pressure with males demonstrating greater endothelin type-A receptor-mediated responses relative to females. Intrauterine growth restriction programs hypertension and enhance renal sensitivity to acute angiotensin II in male growth-restricted rats. Endothelin is reported to work synergistically with angiotensin II. Thus, this study tested the hypothesis that endothelin augments the blood pressure response to acute angiotensin II in male growth-restricted rats. Systemic and renal hemodynamics were determined in response to acute angiotensin II (100 mg/kg pe...
Source: Hypertension - November 11, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Intapad, S., Ojeda, N. B., Varney, E., Royals, T. P., Alexander, B. T. Tags: Animal Models of Human Disease, Basic Science Research, Hypertension Endothelin and Intrauterine Growth Restriction Source Type: research

Polypill for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (PolyIran): study design and rationale for a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial
Conclusion The infrastructure of GCS and the primary health care system in Iran enabled the conduct of this pragmatic large-scale trial. If the polypill strategy proves effective, it may be implemented to prevent cardiovascular disease in developing countries. (Source: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology)
Source: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology - November 9, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ostovaneh, M. R., Poustchi, H., Hemming, K., Marjani, H., Pourshams, A., Nateghi, A., Majed, M., Navabakhsh, B., Khoshnia, M., Jaafari, E., Mohammadifard, N., Malekzadeh, F., Merat, S., Sadeghi, M., Naemi, M., Etemadi, A., Thomas, G. N., Sarrafzadegan, N. Tags: Original scientific paper Source Type: research

A retrospective study of antihypertensives in pemphigus: a still unchartered odyssey particularly between thiols, amides and phenols.
CONCLUSIONS: Drug triggering should be suspected in every case of newly diagnosed or exacerbated pemphigus, as eliminating possible PV/PF triggers/sustainers may alleviate the clinical symptoms and enable the decrease of dose/range of immunosuppressants regardless of pemphigus form. Eliminating possible drug PV/PF triggers/sustainers may alleviate the clinical symptoms and enable the decrease of dose/range of immunosuppressants regardless of pemphigus form. PMID: 26528346 [PubMed] (Source: Archives of Medical Science)
Source: Archives of Medical Science - November 5, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Tags: Arch Med Sci Source Type: research

Clinical Weighting of Drug–Drug Interactions in Hospitalized Elderly
Abstract Adverse drug reactions impact on patient health, effectiveness of pharmacological therapy and increased health care costs. This investigation intended to detect the most critical drug–drug interactions in hospitalized elderly patients, weighting clinical risk. We conducted a cross‐sectional study between January and April 2014; all patients 70 years or older, hospitalized for>24 hr and prescribed at least one medication were included in the study. Drug–drug interactions were estimated by combining Stockley's, Hansten and Tatro drug interactions. Drug–drug interactions were weighted...
Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology - November 4, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Teresa Juárez‐Cedillo, Cynthia Martinez‐Hernández, Angel Hernández‐Constantino, Juan Carlos Garcia‐Cruz, Annia M Avalos‐Mejia, Luis A. Sánchez‐Hurtado, Valentin Islas Perez, Philip D. Hansten Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Abstract P039: Testosterone Increases BP in Male SHR by Activating the Renin-angiotensin System: A Cautionary Tale for "Low T" Supplements [Session Title: Poster Session 1- Trainee Onsite Poster Competition and Reception]
Testosterone supplements are widely prescribed for men in the US to improve overall quality of life by increasing libido and sexual performance and protecting against osteoporosis. Whether testosterone supplements affect CVD either positively or negatively is not clear since study results are controversial. Previously, we showed that chronic testosterone supplements cause hypertension in obese male Zucker rats but improves inflammation and metabolic syndrome symptoms. We also found that testosterone supplements in young male SHR further increase their BP, and that castration attenuates the hypertension. In the present stud...
Source: Hypertension - November 3, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Maranon, R. O., Yanes Cardozo, L. L., Dalmasso, C., Patil, C. N., Zhang, H., Harris, A., Reckelhoff, J. F. Tags: Session Title: Poster Session 1- Trainee Onsite Poster Competition and Reception Source Type: research

Comparing LCZ696 With Enalapril According to Baseline Risk Using the MAGGIC and EMPHASIS-HF Risk Scores An Analysis of Mortality and Morbidity in PARADIGM-HF
This study analyzed rates of the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death or heart failure hospitalization, its components, and all-cause mortality using the MAGGIC (Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure) and EMPHASIS-HF (Eplerenone in Mild Patients Hospitalization and Survival Study in Heart Failure) risk scores to categorize patients. The authors determined whether risk, on the basis of these scores, modified the treatment effect of LCZ696.ResultsThe complete MAGGIC risk score was available for 8,375 of the 8,399 patients in PARADIGM-HF. The median MAGGIC score was 20 (IQR: 16 to 24)...
Source: Journal of the American College of Cardiology - November 2, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research