A Multi-Domain Simulation Study of a Pulsatile-Flow Pump Device for Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction
Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices are currently under development to improve the physiology and hemodynamics of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Most of these devices, however, are designed to provide continuous-flow support. While it has been shown that pulsatile support may overcome some of the complications hindering the clinical translation of these devices for other heart failure phenotypes, the effects that it may have on the HFpEF physiology are still unknown. Here, we present a multi-domain simulation study of a pulsatile pump device with left atrial cannulation for H...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Immune Landscape of Kidney Pathology
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Altered Circulating MicroRNA Profiles After Endurance Training: A Cohort Study of Ultramarathon Runners
ConclusionExtreme physical activity, as exemplified by an ultramarathon, is associated with changes in circulating miRNAs’ expression related to inflammation, fibrosis, and cardiac muscle function. In particular, the negative correlations between miR-125a-5p and lactate concentrations, and miR-1-3p and hs-CRP, support their role in specific exercise-induced adaptation. Further studies are essential to validate the long-term effect of these observations. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Inside the Alterations of Circulating Metabolome in Antarctica: The Adaptation to Chronic Hypoxia
Although the human body may dynamically adapt to mild and brief oxygen shortages, there is a growing interest in understanding how the metabolic pathways are modified during sustained exposure to chronic hypoxia. Located at an equivalent altitude of approximately 3,800 m asl, the Concordia Station in Antarctica represents an opportunity to study the course of human adaption to mild hypoxia with reduced impact of potentially disturbing variables else than oxygen deprivation. We recruited seven healthy subjects who spent 10 months in the Concordia Station, and collected plasma samples at sea level before depart...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Electro-characteristics of Myocardial Pouches and Reduction of the Frequency of Steam Pops During Radiofrequency Ablation
This study aimed to explore the electro-characteristics of myocardial pouches, and the relationship between SP, pouch, and impedance.Methods: Swine myocardium was divided into the pouch group and smooth myocardium group. Continuous RFA at 50 W was applied. The initial impedance reduction within the first 3 s of ablation and the time from the start of ablation to SP were recorded. After enabling the delta impedance cutoff function, RFA was performed at different percentage of delta impedance (PDI) cutoff thresholds.Results: The impedance was higher for the pouch myocardium compared to the smooth myocardium (12...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Glufosinate-Ammonium Induced Aberrant Histone Modifications in Mouse Sperm Are Concordant With Transcriptome in Preimplantation Embryos
In conclusion, GLA-induced changes in sperm H3K4me3 and H3K27ac are concordant with gene expression in preimplantation embryos, which might further affect embryo development and offspring health. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Quantitative Analysis of the Cytoskeleton ’s Role in Inward Rectifier KIR2.1 Forward and Backward Trafficking
Alteration of the inward rectifier current IK1, carried by KIR2.1 channels, affects action potential duration, impacts resting membrane stability and associates with cardiac arrhythmias. Congenital and acquired KIR2.1 malfunction frequently associates with aberrant ion channel trafficking. Cellular processes underlying trafficking are intertwined with cytoskeletal function. The extent to which the cytoskeleton is involved in KIR2.1 trafficking processes is unknown. We aimed to quantify the dependence of KIR2.1 trafficking on cytoskeleton function. GFP or photoconvertible Dendra2 tagged KIR2.1 constructs were transfected in...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Exponential Relationship Between Maximal Apnea Duration and Exercise Intensity in Non-apnea Trained Individuals
It is well known that the duration of apnea is longer in static than in dynamic conditions, but the impact of exercise intensity on the apnea duration needs to be investigated. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between apnea duration and exercise intensity, and the associated metabolic parameters. Ten healthy active young non-apnea trained (NAT) men participated in this study. During the first visit, they carried out a maximum static apnea (SA) and a maximal progressive cycle exercise to evaluate the power output achieved at peak oxygen uptake (PVO2peak). During the second visit, they performed four r...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Magnesium Ions Moderate Calcium-Induced Calcium Release in Cardiac Calcium Release Sites by Binding to Ryanodine Receptor Activation and Inhibition Sites
Ryanodine receptor channels at calcium release sites of cardiac myocytes operate on the principle of calcium-induced calcium release. In vitro experiments revealed competition of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in the activation of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) as well as inhibition of RyRs by Mg2+. The impact of RyR modulation by Mg2+ on calcium release is not well understood due to the technical limitations of in situ experiments. We turned instead to an in silico model of a calcium release site (CRS), based on a homotetrameric model of RyR gating with kinetic parameters determined from in vitro measurements. We inspected changes in the acti...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Sweet and Salty Dietary Face of Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease in Lebanon
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 1.28 billion adults aged 30–79 years worldwide have hypertension; and every year, hypertension takes 7.6 million lives. High intakes of salt and sugar (mainly fructose from added sugars) have been linked to the etiology of hypertension, and this may be particularly true for countries undergoing the nutrition transition, such as Lebanon. Salt-induced hypertension and fructose-induced hypertension are manifested in different mechanisms, including Inflammation, aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor pathway, aldosterone independent mineralocorticoid receptor...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Pyroptosis and Its Regulation in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DbCM) is a prevalent disease, characterized by contractile dysfunction and left ventricular hypertrophy. Patients with DbCM have high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent studies have identified that pyroptosis, a kind of cell death, could be induced by hyperglycemia involved in the formation of DbCM. This review summarizes the regulatory mechanisms of pyroptosis in DbCM, including NOD-like receptor3, AIM2 inflammasome, long non-coding RNAs, microRNAs, circular RNA, autophagy, and some drugs. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Impact of Inhaled Corticosteroids on the Modulation of Respiratory Defensive Reflexes During Artificial Limb Exercise in Ovalbumin-Sensitized Rabbits
ConclusionInhaled corticosteroids are able to restore desensitization of the cough reflex during artificial limb exercise in an animal model of airway eosinophilic inflammation. Airway inflammation thus appears to be involved in the physiopathology of exercise-induced cough in this ovalbumin sensitized rabbit model. Inhaled anti-inflammatory treatments could have potential benefit for the management of exercise-induced cough in asthma patients. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

In Hamstring Muscles of Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis an Increased Ultrasound Shear Modulus Indicates a Permanently Elevated Muscle Tonus
ConclusionPreliminary results show that the shear modulus of the hamstring of KOA patients is higher than that of healthy people, the WOMAC score and the shear modulus of patients are moderately correlated. These preliminary results show that ultrasonic shear wave elastography measurement of shear modulus may be enough to sensitive, can detect these effects, more targeted in order to assist the doctor’s diagnosis and treatment. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Proposition for Bipolar Depression Forecasting Based on Wearable Data Collection
Bipolar depression is treated wrongly as unipolar depression, on average, for 8 years. It is shown that this mismedication affects the occurrence of a manic episode and aggravates the overall condition of patients with bipolar depression. Significant effort was invested in early detection of depression and forecasting of responses to certain therapeutic approaches using a combination of features extracted from standard and online testing, wearables monitoring, and machine learning. In the case of unipolar depression, this approach yielded evidence that this data-based computational psychiatry approach would be helpful in c...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 25, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Anopheles gambiae Actively Metabolizes Uric Acid Following Plasmodium Infection to Limit Malaria Parasite Survival
In this study, we examine the role of uric acid metabolism in the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, following malaria parasite infection. We demonstrate that levels of uric acid are significantly decreased in the excreta and the mosquito at 24 and 48 h post-Plasmodium infection when compared to controls fed on naïve mouse blood. When we examine the expression of well-known enzymes responsible for uric acid metabolism, we see a significant increase in both urate oxidase (UO) and allatoicase (ALLC) expression following Plasmodium infection. Targeting the essential first step in uric acid metabolism by silencing UO resulted i...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 24, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Issues on Trainability
Trainability is an adaptive response to given exercise loads and must be localized to the targeted physiological function since exercise-induced acute and chronic adaptations are systemic. Lack of adaptation or moderate level of adaptation in one organ or one physiological function would not mean that other organs or functions would not benefit from exercise training. The most beneficial training load could easily be different for skeletal muscle, brain, the gastro-intestinal track, or the immune systems. Hence, the term of non-responders should be used with caution and just referred to a given organ, cell type, molecular ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 24, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Visualization of Dynamic Mitochondrial Calcium Fluxes in Isolated Cardiomyocytes
BackgroundCardiomyocyte contraction requires a constant supply of ATP, which varies depending on work rate. Maintaining ATP supply is particularly important during excitation-contraction coupling, where cytosolic Ca2+ fluxes drive repeated cycles of contraction and relaxation. Ca2+ is one of the key regulators of ATP production, and its uptake into the mitochondrial matrix occurs via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter. Fluorescent indicators are commonly used for detecting cytosolic Ca2+ changes. However, visualizing mitochondrial Ca2+ fluxes using similar methods is more difficult, as the fluorophore must be permeable to...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 24, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Local Electrical Impedance Mapping of the Atria: Conclusions on Substrate Properties and Confounding Factors
This study investigates the potential of local electrical impedance-based substrate mapping of the atria for human in-vivo data. The presented pipeline for impedance mapping particularly contains options for dealing with undesirable effects originating from cardiac motion, catheter motion, or proximity to other intracardiac devices. Bloodpool impedance was automatically determined as a patient-specific reference. Full-chamber, left atrial impedance maps were drawn up from interpolating the measured impedances to the atrial endocardium. Finally, the origin and magnitude of oscillations of the raw impedance recording were pr...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 24, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Climbing-Specific Exercise Tests: Energy System Contributions and Relationships With Sport Performance
ConclusionThe combined analysis of performance predictors and metabolic profiles of the climbing test battery indicated that not only maximal grip force, but also all-out isometric contractions are equally decisive physical performance indices of climbing performance. Maximal grip force reflects maximal anaerobic power, while all-out average force and force time integral of constant isometric contraction at 60% of maximal force are functional measures of anaerobic capacity. Aerobic energy demand for the intermittent exercise is dominated aerobic re-phosphorylation of high-energy phosphates. The force-time integral from the...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 24, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Assisted Oocyte Activation With Calcium Ionophore Improves Pregnancy Outcomes and Offspring Safety in Infertile Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of calcium ionophore during assisted oocyte activation (AOA). This meta-analysis contained randomized controlled trials and prospective observational and retrospective trials. The summary odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated for clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Both fixed and random effects models were applied. A total of 22 studies were included into this meta-analysis. Seventeen of the included studies showed that calcium ionophore increased the clinical pregnancy rate (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.38–3.31). Similarly, 14 studies ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 24, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

To What Degree Does Limb Spasticity Affect Motor Performance in Para-Footballers With Cerebral Palsy?
This study aimed to assess the association of clinical spasticity measurements with the performance of sport-specific tests used for classification purposes. Sixty-nine international footballers with CP voluntarily participated in this study. The Australian Spasticity Assessment Scale was used to measure spasticity in lower limbs muscle groups and activity limitation tests were conducted considering dynamic balance, coordination, vertical and horizontal jumps, acceleration, and change of direction ability. Low-to-moderate negative significant associations were found between the hip spasticity and measures of dynamic balanc...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 24, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of Pharmacological Inhibitors of NADPH Oxidase on Myogenic Contractility and Evoked Vasoactive Responses in Rat Resistance Arteries
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anions and hydrogen peroxide, are reported to contribute to the dynamic regulation of contractility in various arterial preparations, however, the situation in pressurized, myogenically active resistance arteries is much less clear. In the present study, we have utilized established pharmacological inhibitors of NADPH oxidase activity to examine the potential contribution of ROS to intrinsic myogenic contractility in adult Sprague–Dawley rat resistance arteries and responses to vasoactive agents acting via the endothelium (i.e., acetylcholine, SKA-31) or smooth muscle...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 24, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Functional Characterization and Pharmaceutical Targets in Common and Rare CFTR Dysfunctions
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 24, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Biomechanical Finite Element Method Model of the Proximal Carpal Row and Experimental Validation
The Finite Element Method (FEM) models are valuable tools to create an idea of the behavior of any structure. The complexity of the joints, materials, attachment areas, and boundary conditions is an open issue in biomechanics that needs to be addressed. Scapholunate instability is the leading cause of wrist pain and disability among patients of all ages. It is needed a better understanding of pathomechanics to develop new effective treatments. Previous models have emulated joints like the ankle or the knee but there are few about the wrist joint. The elaboration of realistic computational models of the carpus can give crit...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 24, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Predicting T Cell Receptor Antigen Specificity From Structural Features Derived From Homology Models of Receptor-Peptide-Major Histocompatibility Complexes
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 24, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Transcriptome Analysis for Identification of Genes Related to Growth and Development, Digestion and Detoxification, Olfaction in the Litchi Stink Bug Tessaratoma papillosa
This study will help understand the growth and development of litchi stink bugs, their choice of host plants, food digestion and detoxification, and their reproductive behavior. In addition, this result can provide reference information for some target genes in the process of control of T. papillosa. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 24, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Fibrosis and Inflammation in Tissue Pathophysiology
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 21, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Long Non-coding RNA MALAT1 Is Depleted With Age in Skeletal Muscle in vivo and MALAT1 Silencing Increases Expression of TGF- β1 in vitro
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are thought to function as “sponges” for microRNAs, but a role for such competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) in muscle aging is not well understood. We therefore examined in skeletal muscles of young (4–6 months) and aged (22–24) male and female mice the expression of lncRNA MALAT1, which is predicted in silico to bind the senescence-associated microRNA miR-34a-5p. Results indicate a significant decrease in lncRNA MALAT1 expression in mouse skeletal muscle with age that coincides with an age-related increase in miR-34a-5p expression. In vitro studies using mouse C2C12 my...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 21, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Melatonin Hormone Acts on Cells of Maternal Blood and Placenta From Diabetic Mothers
Changes in glucose metabolism of diabetic mothers affect immunological components, proinflammatory factors, and placental hypervascularization that can induce cell death. The hormone melatonin has been identified as a potential modulating agent. The aim of this study was to analyze the oxidative process and the apoptosis in maternal blood and placental cells modulated by melatonin from diabetic mothers. The groups were 40 pregnant women divided into non-diabetic (ND) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) groups. Blood and placental cells were obtained by density gradient and maintained in culture treated or not with melatoni...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 21, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Maternal Obesity Programming of Perivascular Adipose Tissue and Associated Immune Cells: An Understudied Area With Few Answers and Many Questions
At present, the worldwide prevalence of obesity has become alarmingly high with estimates foreshadowing a continued escalation in the future. Furthermore, there is growing evidence attributing an individual’s predisposition for developing obesity to maternal health during gestation. Currently, 60% of pregnancies in the US are to either overweight or obese mothers which in turn contributes to the persistent rise in obesity rates. While obesity itself is problematic, it conveys an increased risk for several diseases such as diabetes, inflammatory disorders, cancer and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Additionally, as we a...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 21, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Relationship Between Isokinetic Lower-Limb Joint Strength, Isometric Time Force Characteristics, and Leg-Spring Stiffness in Recreational Runners
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between isokinetic knee and ankle joint peak torque (PT), the force-time characteristics of isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), and leg stiffness (Kleg)/vertical stiffness (Kvert) in recreationally trained runners. Thirty-one male runners were recruited and underwent three separate tests. In the first session, the body composition, Kleg, and Kvert at running speeds of 12 and 14 km⋅h–1 were measured. In the second session, isokinetic knee and ankle joint PT at 60°⋅s–1 were tested. The force-time characteristics of the IMTP were evaluated in the final se...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 21, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A Vasopressin-Induced Change in Prostaglandin Receptor Subtype Expression Explains the Differential Effect of PGE2 on AQP2 Expression
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) stimulates the concentration of renal urine by increasing the principal cell expression of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin2α (PGF2α) increase the water absorption of the principal cell without AVP, but PGE2 decreases it in the presence of AVP. The underlying mechanism of this paradoxical response was investigated here. Mouse cortical collecting duct (mkpCCDc14) cells mimic principal cells as they endogenously express AQP2 in response to AVP. PGE2 increased AQP2 abundance without desmopressin (dDAVP), while in the presence of dDAVP, PGE2, an...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 21, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of Different Intensities and Durations of Aerobic Exercise on Vascular Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged and Elderly People: A Meta-analysis
BackgroundPrevious studies have found that aerobic exercise was more effective in improving vascular endothelial function than resistance training, high-intensity interval training (HIIT), and other types of exercise, while the effects between different intensities and durations of aerobic exercise were unclear. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to investigate the effects of different intensities and durations of aerobic exercise on the vascular endothelial function of middle-aged and elderly people.Methods:Databases were searched up to April 2021 for studies evaluating the influences of different intensities and ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 21, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Alternation of the Autonomic Nervous System Is Associated With Pulmonary Sequelae in Patients With COVID-19 After Six Months of Discharge
Previous studies suggest that autonomic dysfunction is associated with disease severity in acute phase in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the association between autonomic dysfunction and pulmonary sequelae in patients with COVID-19 is unknown. We conducted a prospective study to investigate the association between autonomic dysfunction and pulmonary sequelae in patients with COVID-19 discharged for 6 months. We included 40 eligible participants and collected the following indicators: heart rate variability (HRV), pulmonary function tests (PFTs), lung X-ray computed tomography (CT), routine bloo...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 21, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Using Synchrotron Radiation Imaging Techniques to Elucidate the Actions of Hexarelin in the Heart of Small Animal Models
The majority of the conventional techniques that are utilized for investigating the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in preclinical animal models do not permit microlevel assessment of in situ cardiomyocyte and microvascular functions. Therefore, it has been difficult to establish whether cardiac dysfunction in complex multiorgan disease states, such as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction and pulmonary hypertension, have their origins in microvascular dysfunction or rather in the cardiomyocyte. Herein, we describe our approach of utilizing synchrotron radiation microangiography to, first, ascertain whether...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 21, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Association Between the Coronary Sinus Ostial Size and Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
ConclusionAnatomical dilation of the CSo is a risk factor for AVNRT development in patients with PAH. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 21, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Red Blood Cell Abnormalities as the Mirror of SARS-CoV-2 Disease Severity: A Pilot Study
ConclusionThis pilot study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 infection has an effect on red blood cells and there seems to be an association between RBC markers and disease severity in these patients. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 20, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Maternal Fatty Acid Metabolism in Pregnancy and Its Consequences in the Feto-Placental Development
During pregnancy, maternal plasma fatty acids are critically required for cell growth and development, cell signaling, and the development of critical structural and functional aspects of the feto-placental unit. In addition, the fatty acids modulate the early stages of placental development by regulating angiogenesis in the first-trimester human placenta. Preferential transport of maternal plasma long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during the third trimester is critical for optimal fetal brain development. Maternal status such as obesity, diabetes, and dietary intakes may affect the functional changes in lipid metaboli...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 20, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Exercise Capacity Is Improved by Levosimendan in Heart Failure and Sarcopenia via Alleviation of Apoptosis of Skeletal Muscle
BackgroundPatients suffering from chronic heart failure (CHF) show an increased prevalence of sarcopenia. Levosimendan is an effective drug for the treatment of heart failure, but its effect on sarcopenia is still unclear. We aimed to explore whether levosimendan could enhance skeletal muscle contractibility, improve skeletal muscle atrophy, and thus improve exercise tolerance of individuals with heart failure.MethodsC57BL6/J mice were used to establish the heart failure with sarcopenia model and injected of levosimendan. Mice were separated into control group, sham operation group, HF group, HF + solvent group, HF + levos...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 20, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Cardiovascular Mechanobiology
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 20, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Central Pressure Waveform-Derived Indexes Obtained From Carotid and Radial Tonometry and Brachial Oscillometry in Healthy Subjects (2 –84 Y): Age-, Height-, and Sex-Related Profiles and Analysis of Indexes Agreement
Aortic blood pressure (aoBP) waveform-derived indexes could provide valuable (prognostic) information over and above cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs). To obtain aoBP waveform-characteristics, several (i) techniques, (ii) recording sites, (iii) pressure-only waveform analysis mathematical approaches [e.g., pulse wave analysis (PWA), wave separation analysis (WSA)], and (iv) indexes [augmentation pressure and index (AP and AIx), forward (Pf) and backward (Pb) components of aoBP, reflection magnitude (RM), and reflection index (Rix)], were proposed. An accurate clinical use of these indexes requires knowing their physiologi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 20, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Acute/Chronic Responses of Combined Training on Serum Pro-thermogenic/Anti-inflammatory Inducers and Its Relation With Fed and Fasting State in Overweight Type 2 Diabetic Individuals
Concentrations of pro-thermogenic/anti-inflammatory inductors are influenced by fed/fasting, sedentary/trained states, and metabolic pattern. However, there is a lack of information on the interactions of these conditions, especially in humans. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the chronic and acute training responses as well as the fed/fasted states of serum pro-thermogenic/anti-inflammatory inducers in overweight type 2 diabetics individuals. Fifteen individuals with type 2 diabetes [body mass index (BMI): 29.61 ± 3.60 kg/m2; age: 50.67 ± 3.97 years] participated in the study. In the pre- and post-e...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 20, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Repeated Interval Loughborough Soccer Passing Tests: An Ecologically Valid Motor Task to Induce Mental Fatigue in Soccer
This study compared a novel MF-inducing task in soccer with the Stroop task and investigated the impact of induced MF on cognitive and soccer-specific skill performance. A randomized, counterbalanced crossover design was employed. Fifteen well-trained male soccer players randomly participated in three MF-inducing tasks. Two of them were motor tasks consisting of 10 repeated interval Loughborough Soccer Passing Test (10xLSPT or LSPT) in clockwise passing order (10xC-LSPT) with each block starting every 2 min. The two tasks share the same movement pattern, but C-LSPT is considered to have lower cognitive demands. The third w...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 20, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Serum and Glucocorticoid-Inducible Kinase 3/Nedd4-2 Signaling Pathway Participates in Podocyte Injury by Regulating the Stability of Nephrin
In this study, we focused on whether SGK3 affects nephrin levels and the mechanisms involved in the same. In the kidneys of adriamycin (ADR)-induced podocyte injury mouse model, the protein levels of SGK3 and nephrin were significantly decreased. Furthermore, the expression of SGK3 was negatively correlated with the output of proteinuria, and positively correlated with the levels of nephrin. In ADR-treated conditionally immortalized mouse podocyte cells (MPCs), the protein levels of nephrin and SGK3 were inhibited, while the constitutive expression of SGK3 reversed the ADR-induced decline in nephrin protein levels. Further...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 20, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1/Calpain1 Activation Impedes Macrophage ATP-Binding Cassette Protein A1-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux Induced by Extracellular Acidification
ConclusionExtracellular acidification declines cholesterol efflux via activating ASIC1 to promote calpain1-mediated ABCA1 degradation. Thus, ASIC1 may be a novel therapeutic target for atherosclerosis. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 20, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Similarity Score for the Identification of Active Sites in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation
ConclusionArrhythmogenic substrates with abnormal electrical activity are identified in patients with unsuccessful AF termination after catheter ablation, suggesting clinical efficacy of similarity score. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 20, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Tri-2-Hydroxyarachidonein Induces Cytocidal Autophagy in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Cancer Cell Models
Cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer is determined by a complex network of signaling pathways. Despite the extensive understanding of these protein-mediated signaling processes, there are no significant drug discoveries that could considerably improve a patient’s survival. However, the recent understanding of lipid-mediated signaling gives a new perspective on the control of the physiological state of pancreatic cells. Lipid signaling plays a major role in the induction of cytocidal autophagy and can be exploited using synthetic lipids to induce cell death in pancreatic cancer cells. In this work, we studied the a...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 20, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Response of the Estrogen-Related Receptor to 20-Hydroxyecdysone in Bombyx mori: Insight Into the Function of Estrogen-Related Receptor in Insect 20-Hydroxyecdysone Signaling Pathway
In this study, we obtained the upstream region of Bombyx mori ERR (BmERR) and confirmed the promoter activity of this region. Interestingly, we found that 10 and 50 nM 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) up-regulated the transcriptional activity of BmERR promoter. In addition, eight putative ecdysone response elements (EcREs) were predicted in the upstream sequence of BmERR. Based on their positions, the upstream sequence of BmERR was truncated into different fragments. Finally, an EcRE-like sequence (5′-AGTGCAGTAAACTGT-3′) was identified. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and cell transfection experiments confi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 18, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Aerobic Exercise Improves Pulmonary Fibrosis by Improving Insulin Resistance and Inflammation in Obese Mice
ConclusionsAE protects against HFD-induced pulmonary fibrosis by improving obesity-associated insulin resistance, chronic low-grade inflammation, and pro-oxidative/antioxidative imbalance. AE improved HFD-induced pulmonary fibrosis by suppressing IL-17, TGF-β, NE, and MMP-9 expression and activating IL-10 and sirt-1 expression. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 18, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Long-Term Hypoxia Negatively Influences Ca2+ Signaling in Basilar Arterial Myocytes of Fetal and Adult Sheep
Cerebral arterial vasoreactivity is vital to the regulation of cerebral blood flow. Depolarization of arterial myocytes elicits whole-cell Ca2+ oscillations as well as subcellular Ca2+ sparks due to activation of ryanodine receptors on the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Previous evidence illustrates that contraction of cerebral arteries from sheep and underlying Ca2+ signaling pathways are modified by age and that long-term hypoxia (LTH) causes aberrations in Ca2+ signaling pathways and downstream effectors impacting vasoregulation. We hypothesize that age and LTH affect the influence of membrane depolarization on whole-cell intr...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - January 18, 2022 Category: Physiology Source Type: research