On the Role of the Head Ganglia in Posture and Walking in Insects
In conclusion, we will present a few issues that have, until today, been little explored. For example, how and which descending neurons are selected to engage a specific motor behavior and how feedback from thoracic circuitry modulate the head ganglia circuitries. The review will discuss results from large insects, mainly locusts, crickets, and stick insects but will mostly focus on cockroaches and the fruit fly, Drosophila. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Numerical Simulation of the Influence of Geometric Configurations on Pressure Difference in the Intraventricular Tunnel
ConclusionRTT in the IVT is the main factor affecting the pressure difference. A small RTT will lead to a large pressure difference in the IVT. When RTT increases to 6 mm, the pressure difference in the IVT remains nearly unchanged. When performing the right ventricular double outlet correction; the turning radius of the IVT should be about 6 mm to ensure relatively small pressure difference. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Stretching Interventions in Children With Cerebral Palsy: Why Are They Ineffective in Improving Muscle Function and How Can We Better Their Outcome?
Hyper-resistance at the joint is one of the most common symptoms in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Alterations to the structure and mechanical properties of the musculoskeletal system, such as a decreased muscle length and an increased joint stiffness are typically managed conservatively, by means of physiotherapy involving stretching exercises. However, the effectiveness of stretching-based interventions for improving function is poor. This may be due to the behavior of a spastic muscle during stretch, which is poorly understood. The main aim of this paper is to provide a mechanistic explanation as to why the effectiv...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Cryptochromes Mediate Intrinsic Photomechanical Transduction in Avian Iris and Somatic Striated Muscle
Irises isolated from the eyes of diverse species constrict when exposed to light. Depending on species this intrinsic photomechanical transduction response (PMTR) requires either melanopsin or cryptochrome (CRY) photopigment proteins, generated by their respective association with retinoid or flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) chromophores. Although developmentally relevant circadian rhythms are also synchronized and reset by these same proteins, the cell type, mechanism, and specificity of photomechanical transduction (PMT) and its relationship to circadian processes remain poorly understood. Here we show that PMTRs consis...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Do Not Reduce Ventilation-Induced Lung Injury in Preterm Lambs
ConclusionAdministration of UCB cells 1 h after ventilation onset did not reduce VILI in preterm lambs. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Muscle Fatigue in the Three Heads of Triceps Brachii During Intensity and Speed Variations of Triceps Push-Down Exercise
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of changes in exercise intensity and speed on the three heads of the triceps brachii (TB) during triceps push-down exercise until task failure. Twenty-five subjects performed triceps push-down exercise at three different intensities (30, 45, and 60% 1RM) and speeds (slow, medium, and fast) until failure, and surface electromyography (sEMG) signals were recorded from the lateral, long and medial heads of the TB. The endurance time (ET), number of repetitions (NR) and rate of fatigue (ROF) were analyzed. Subsequently, the root-mean-square (RMS), mean power frequency ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Epicardial Fibrosis Explains Increased Endo –Epicardial Dissociation and Epicardial Breakthroughs in Human Atrial Fibrillation
BackgroundAtrial fibrillation (AF) is accompanied by progressive epicardial fibrosis, dissociation of electrical activity between the epicardial layer and the endocardial bundle network, and transmural conduction (breakthroughs). However, causal relationships between these phenomena have not been demonstrated yet. Our goal was to test the hypothesis that epicardial fibrosis suffices to increase endo–epicardial dissociation (EED) and breakthroughs (BT) during AF.MethodsWe simulated the effect of fibrosis in the epicardial layer on EED and BT in a detailed, high-resolution, three-dimensional model of the human atria wi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Phenotypic and Transcriptomic Response of the Grasshopper Oedaleus asiaticus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to Toxic Rutin
This study can provide a molecular basis and offer future opportunities for the development of rutin-related insecticides and their application to grasshopper control. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Multiparametric Mapping Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pancreatic Disease
BackgroundCurrent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pancreatic disease is qualitative in nature. Quantitative imaging offers several advantages, including increased reproducibility and sensitivity to detect mild or diffuse disease. The role of multiparametric mapping MRI in characterizing various tissue types in pancreatic disease such as chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has rarely been evaluated.PurposeTo evaluate the feasibility of multiparametric mapping [T1, T2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)] in defining tissue characteristics that occur in CP and PDAC to improve diseas...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 21, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Wearable Inertial Measurement Units for Assessing Gait in Real-World Environments
ConclusionElderly test subjects walked differently in controlled lab settings compared to their real-world environments, which indicates the need to better understand natural walking patterns under ecologically valid conditions before clinically relevant conclusions can be drawn on a subject’s functional status. Moreover, the greater inter-group differences in real-world environments seem promising regarding the sensitive identification of subjects with indications of a walking disorder. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 20, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Contribution of TRPC Channels to Intracellular Ca2 + Dyshomeostasis in Smooth Muscle From mdx Mice
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an irreversible muscle disease characterized by a progressive loss of muscle function, decreased ambulation, and ultimately death as a result of cardiac or respiratory failure. DMD is caused by the lack of dystrophin, a protein that is important for membrane stability and signaling in excitable cells. Although vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) dysfunction occurs in many pathological conditions, little is known about vascular smooth muscle function in DMD. We have previously shown that striated muscle cells, as well as neurons isolated from dystrophic (mdx) mice have higher intracellu...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 20, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Defining the Progression of Diabetic Cardiomyopathy in a Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes
This study aimed to determine the time course of development of diabetic cardiomyopathy in a model of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in vivo. Diabetes was induced in 6-week-old male FVB/N mice via streptozotocin (55 mg/kg i.p. for 5 days; controls received citrate vehicle). At 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of untreated diabetes, left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography before post-mortem quantification of markers of LV cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, collagen deposition, DNA fragmentation, and changes in components of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP) were assessed. Blood glucose and HbA1c levels were elevated...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 20, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Lymphatic Programing and Specialization in Hybrid Vessels
Building on a large body of existing blood vascular research, advances in lymphatic research have helped kindle broader investigations into vascular diversity and endothelial plasticity. While the endothelium of blood and lymphatic vessels can be distinguished by a variety of molecular markers, the endothelia of uniquely diverse vascular beds can possess distinctly heterogeneous or hybrid expression patterns. These expression patterns can then provide further insight on the development of these vessels and how they perform their specialized function. In this review we examine five highly specialized hybrid vessel beds that...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 20, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Quantifying Regional Lung Deformation Using Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: A Comparison of Conventional and Oscillatory Ventilation
In this study, we used registration of four-dimensional computed tomographic (4DCT) images to assess regional lung aeration and deformation in 10 pigs under baseline conditions and following acute lung injury induced with oleic acid. CT images were obtained via dynamic axial imaging (Siemens SOMATOM Force) during conventional pressure-controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV), as well as high-frequency and multi-frequency oscillatory ventilation modalities (HFOV and MFOV, respectively). Our results demonstrate that oscillatory modalities reduce intratidal strain throughout the lung in comparison to conventional ventilation, ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 20, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A Transcriptome Analysis: Various Reasons of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes Caused by Acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection
ConclusionT. gondii infection can induce global transcriptomic changes in the uterus that may cause pregnancy hypertension, destruct the intrauterine environment, and hinder the normal development of placenta and embryo. Our results may help to understand the molecular mechanisms of the acute T. gondii infection, which could promote the development of new therapeutics or prophylactics for toxoplasmosis in pregnancy. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 19, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Palmitoylation: A Fatty Regulator of Myocardial Electrophysiology
Regulation of cardiac physiology is well known to occur through the action of kinases that reversibly phosphorylate ion channels, calcium handling machinery, and signaling effectors. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that palmitoylation or S-acylation, the post-translational modification of cysteines with saturated fatty acids, plays instrumental roles in regulating the localization, activity, stability, sorting, and function of numerous proteins, including proteins known to have essential functions in cardiomyocytes. However, the impact of this modification on cardiac physiology requires further investigation....
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 19, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A Novel Tyrosinase Gene Plays a Potential Role in Modification the Shell Organic Matrix of the Triangle Mussel Hyriopsis cumingii
In this study, a novel tyrosinase designated HcTyr2 was isolated and characterized from the freshwater mussel Hyriopsis cumingii. The change in HcTyr2 mRNA expression during the process of embryonic development was detected by real-time quantitative PCR. The result showed that the expression of HcTyr2 mRNA was significantly upregulated at the stages of gastrulae and unmatured glochidia (P
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 19, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Determination of Chitin Content in Insects: An Alternate Method Based on Calcofluor Staining
Chitin is an aminopolysaccharide present in yeast cells and arthropod cuticle and is one of the most abundant biopolymers. The conventional methods for the quantitation of chitin content in biological samples are based on its hydrolysis (acid or enzymatic), and the assessment of the byproduct, glucosamine. However, previously described methodologies are time-consuming, laborious, low throughput, and not applicable to insect samples in many cases. Here we describe a new approach to chitin content quantitation based on calcofluor fluorescent brightener staining of samples, followed by microplate fluorescence readings. Calcof...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Metabolomic Response of Equine Skeletal Muscle to Acute Fatiguing Exercise and Training
The athletic horse, despite being over 50% muscle mass, remains understudied with regard to the effects of exercise and training on skeletal muscle metabolism. To begin to address this knowledge gap, we employed an untargeted metabolomics approach to characterize the exercise-induced and fitness-related changes in the skeletal muscle of eight unconditioned Standardbred horses (four male, four female) before and after a 12-week training period. Before training, unconditioned horses showed a high degree of individual variation in the skeletal muscle metabolome, resulting in very few differences basally and at 3 and 24 h afte...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Relationships Between Distention-, Butyrate- and Pellet-Induced Stimulation of Peristalsis in the Mouse Colon
ConclusionsButyrate is effective in promoting peristalsis, but only when the level of colonic activity is low such as under conditions of low intraluminal pressure. This suggests that it may play a significant role in patients with poor fiber intake, where there is low mechanical stimulation in the lumen. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

An Overview of Embryogenesis: External Morphology and Transcriptome Profiling in the Hemipteran Insect Nilaparvata lugens
During embryogenesis of insects, the morphological and transcriptional changes are important signatures to obtain a better understanding of insect patterning and evolution. The brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens is a serious insect pest of rice plants, but its embryogenesis has not uncovered. Here, we described embryonic development process of the pest and found it belongs to an intermediate-germ mode. The RNA-seq data from different times (6, 30, 96, and 150 h, after egg laying) of embryogenesis were then analyzed, and a total of 10,895 genes were determined as differentially expressed genes (DEGs) based on pairwise com...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

“Heart Oddity”: Intrinsically Reduced Excitability in the Right Ventricle Requires Compensation by Regionally Specific Stress Kinase Function
The traditional view of ventricular excitation and conduction is an all-or-nothing response mediated by a regenerative activation of the inward sodium channel, which gives rise to an essentially constant conduction velocity (CV). However, whereas there is no obvious biological need to tune-up ventricular conduction, the principal molecular components determining CV, such as sodium channels, inward-rectifier potassium channels, and gap junctional channels, are known targets of the “stress” protein kinases PKA and calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), and are thus regulatable by signal pathways...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Topical Application of Wogonin Provides a Novel Treatment of Knee Osteoarthritis
We examined the pain-reducing, anti-inflammatory, and chondroprotective effects of wogonin when applied as a topical cream. We validated the efficacy of delivering wogonin transdermally in a cream using pig ear skin in a Franz diffusion system. Using a surgical mouse model, we examined the severity and progression of OA with and without the topical application of wogonin. Using a running wheel to track activity, we found that mice with wogonin treatment were statistically more active than mice receiving vehicle treatment. OA progression was analyzed using modified Mankin and OARSI scoring and direct quantification of cyst-...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Modeling Bainbridge-Ropers Syndrome in Xenopus laevis Embryos
In this study, we utilize the frog, Xenopus laevis as a simpler and more accessible vertebrate neurodevelopmental model system to understand the embryological cause of Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome. We have found that ASXL3 protein knockdown during early embryo development highly perturbs neural cell fate specification, potentially resembling the Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome phenotype in humans. Thus, the frog embryo is a powerful tool for understanding the etiology of Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome in humans. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Glycemia Regulation: From Feedback Loops to Organizational Closure
Endocrinologists apply the idea of feedback loops to explain how hormones regulate certain bodily functions such as glucose metabolism. In particular, feedback loops focus on the maintenance of the plasma concentrations of glucose within a narrow range. Here, we put forward a different, organicist perspective on the endocrine regulation of glycaemia, by relying on the pivotal concept of closure of constraints. From this perspective, biological systems are understood as organized ones, which means that they are constituted of a set of mutually dependent functional structures acting as constraints, whose maintenance depends ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Effects of Calorie Restriction and Exercise on Age-Related Alterations in Corpus Cavernosum
ConclusionIn our study, both CR and PE prevented age-related changes in the corpus cavernosum of rats. Reducing nitrosative damage in the neurovascular structure was the main mechanism. CR and exercise restored the endothelial and smooth muscle cells in corpus cavernosum by decreasing apoptosis. The mechanism of enhancing functional response in corpus cavernosum with CR was the improvement of endothelial function via eNOS activation however it involves increases in the NO-cGMP signaling pathway by an endothelium-independent mechanism with PE. This might be a direct stimulation of smooth muscle cells by NO, which released f...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Plasma Myokine Concentrations After Acute Exercise in Non-obese and Obese Sedentary Women
Exercise and physical activity levels influence myokine release from skeletal muscle and contribute to circulating concentrations. Indeed, many myokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-15, secreted protein acidic rich in cysteine (SPARC), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 are higher in the circulation after an exercise bout. Since these peptides modulate muscle metabolism and can also be targeted toward other tissues to induce adaptations to energy demand, they are of great interest regarding metabolic diseases. Therefore, we set out to compare, in six women with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) and five healthy women (BMI...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Luteolin Attenuates Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity Through Promoting Mitochondrial Autophagy
This study was designed to examine the possible effect of luteolin on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, if any, and the mechanism(s) involved with a focus on mitochondrial autophagy. Luteolin application (10 μM) in adult mouse cardiomyocytes overtly improved doxorubicin-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction including elevated peak shortening amplitude and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening along with unchanged duration of shortening and relengthening. Luteolin alleviated doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity including apoptosis, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of mitochondrial mem...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Near Infrared Spectroscopy Measurements of Mitochondrial Capacity Using Partial Recovery Curves
ConclusionThe Mito6 analysis is a valid and repeatable approach to measure mitochondrial capacity. The Mito6 protocol used fewer ischemic occlusion periods and multiple tests could be performed in succession in less time, increasing the practicality of the NIRS mitochondrial capacity test. There were no order effects for the rate constants of four repeated 6-occlusion tests of mitochondrial capacity, supporting the use of multiple tests to improve accuracy. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Intracellular Chloride Channels: Novel Biomarkers in Diseases
Ion channels are integral membrane proteins present on the plasma membrane as well as intracellular membranes. In the human genome, there are more than 400 known genes encoding ion channel proteins. Ion channels are known to regulate several cellular, organellar, and physiological processes. Any mutation or disruption in their function can result in pathological disorders, both common or rare. Ion channels present on the plasma membrane are widely acknowledged for their role in various biological processes, but in recent years, several studies have pointed out the importance of ion channels located in intracellular organel...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Tuft Cell Formation Reflects Epithelial Plasticity in Pancreatic Injury: Implications for Modeling Human Pancreatitis
Chronic pancreatitis, a known risk factor for the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), is a serious, widespread medical condition characterized by inflammation, fibrosis, and acinar to ductal metaplasia (ADM). ADM is a cell type transdifferentiation event where pancreatic acinar cells become ductal-like under conditions of injury or oncogenic mutation. Here, we show that chronic pancreatitis and ADM in genetically wild type mice results in the formation of a significant population of chemosensory tuft cells. Transcriptomic analyses of pancreatitis tuft cells identify expression of inflammatory mediators, ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Phosphorus Restriction Changes the Expression of Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Its Receptors in Laying Hens
Dietary phosphorus oversupply wastes non-renewable natural resources and raises environmental concerns in animal agriculture. We hypothesized that laying hens do not need large safety margins for dietary phosphorus because of the existence of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). In experiment 1, a total of 504 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (40-week-old) were randomly assigned to seven diets (for each diet, six replicates of 12 hens), containing 0.12, 0.17, 0.22, 0.27, 0.32, 0.37, and 0.42% non-phytate phosphorus, respectively, for 15 weeks. In experiment 2, a total of 14 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (40-week-old) were randomly as...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Composition of Cerebrospinal Fluid Fractions Shows Their Contribution to Cognitive Resilience of a Pre-symptomatic Alzheimer ’s Disease Cohort
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology is characterized by an early and prolonged decrease in the amyloid peptide (Aβ) levels concomitant with a later increase in phospho-tau concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We propose that changes in lipid metabolism can contribute to the abnormal processing of Aβ42 in AD. Our aim was to determine if polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) metabolism can differentiate pre-symptomatic AD from normal aging and symptomatic AD. Using neuropsychology measures and Aβ42/T-tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), we classify three groups of elderly study participants: cognitively ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Disrupted Protein Expression and Altered Proteolytic Events in Hypophosphatemic Dentin Can Be Rescued by Dentin Matrix Protein 1
Dentin, one of the four mineralized tissues of the craniofacial complex, forms sequentially from the deposition of an organic matrix to the nucleation of an inorganic phase within the matrix scaffold. Several promoters and inhibitors of mineralization support and regulate mineral nucleation. Clinical and experimental evidence suggest that dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) and phosphate-regulating neutral endopeptidase (PHEX) cooperate and are necessary for the formation of a cohesive dentin layer. The following study investigates the effect of PHEX loss-of-function on dentin matrix formation preceding mineralization. Using th...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Integrated Omics for Defining Interactomes
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Signaling in the Physiology and Pathophysiology of Pancreatic Stellate Cells – a Brief Review of Recent Advances
The interest in pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) has been steadily growing over the past two decades due mainly to the central role these cells have in the desmoplastic reaction associated with diseases of the pancreas, such as pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. In recent years, the scientific community has devoted substantial efforts to understanding the signaling pathways that govern PSC activation and interactions with neoplastic cells. This mini review aims to summarize some very recent findings on signaling in PSCs and highlight their impact to the field. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Puerarin Attenuates Diabetic Nephropathy by Promoting Autophagy in Podocytes
Puerarin, an active compound of radix puerariae, is a major compound used in Chinese herbal medicines to treat patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN). In the previous studies, we showed that puerarin exerts renoprotective effects in Streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice through activation of Sirt1 and anti-oxidative effects. Here, we further investigated the underlying mechanism mediating the renal protective effects of puerarin in DN. We studied the effects and mechanism of puerarin in STZ-induced diabetic mice and in cultured immortalized mouse podocytes treated with high glucose. We confirmed that puerarin ameliorat...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Intrauterine Infusion of Human Platelet-Rich Plasma Improves Endometrial Regeneration and Pregnancy Outcomes in a Murine Model of Asherman ’s Syndrome
Asherman’s syndrome (AS) is characterized by intrauterine adhesion or fibrosis resulting from damage to the endometrium, often leading to amenorrhea, infertility, or recurrent pregnancy loss. Although various therapeutic strategies for AS have been proposed, the options remain limited. New strategies such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BM-MSC) therapy aim to potentiate the intrinsic capacity of endometrial regeneration. However, BM-MSC therapy has not been widely adopted mainly because it involves invasive and expensive procedures such as bone marrow biopsy and cell storing. On the other hand, platelet...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

LPS Modulates the Expression of Iron-Related Immune Genes in Two Antarctic Notothenoids
In this study the response of iron metabolism related genes was evaluated in liver and head kidney of the Antarctic notothenoids Notothenia coriiceps and Notothenia rossii 7 days after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Average plasma Fe2+ concentration was unaffected by treatment in any of the species. The gene expression response to LPS varied between tissues and species, being stronger in N. coriiceps and more prominent in the head kidney than liver. The reaction to LPS was marked by increased individual variability in most genes analyzed, even when the change in expression was not statistically significant, suggesting...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Protonation of Piezo1 Impairs Cell-Matrix Interactions of Pancreatic Stellate Cells
In conclusion, our results indicate a strong interdependence between environmental pH, the mechanical output of PSCs and stromal mechanics, which promotes early local invasion of PDAC cells. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Modulation of Calcium Transients in Cardiomyocytes by Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 6 Channels
Transient receptor potential canonical 6 (TRPC6) channels are non-selective cation channels that are thought to underlie mechano-modulation of calcium signaling in cardiomyocytes. TRPC6 channels are involved in development of cardiac hypertrophy and related calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling. However, the exact location and roles of TRPC6 channels remain ill-defined in cardiomyocytes. We used an expression system based on neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) to investigate the location of TRPC6 channels and their role in calcium signaling. NRVMs isolated from 1- to 2-day-old animals were ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Slow 0.1 Hz Breathing and Body Posture Induced Perturbations of RRI and Respiratory Signal Complexity and Cardiorespiratory Coupling
Objective: We explored the physiological background of the non-linear operating mode of cardiorespiratory oscillators as the fundamental question of cardiorespiratory homeodynamics and as a prerequisite for the understanding of neurocardiovascular diseases. We investigated 20 healthy human subjects for changes using electrocardiac RR interval (RRI) and respiratory signal (Resp) Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA, α1RRI, α2RRI, α1Resp, α2Resp), Multiple Scaling Entropy (MSERRI1−4, MSERRI5−10, MSEResp1−4, MSEResp5−10), spectral coherence (CohRRI−Resp), cross DFA (ρ1 ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Pacing, Exercise Intensity, and Technique by Performance Level in Long-Distance Cross-Country Skiing
ConclusionElite and amateur skiers ski at comparable mean race exercise intensity, but they have clear differences in skiing speed. The difference in the pacing profiles between elite and amateur skiers (more even vs. distinct positive pacing) demonstrate the greater capacity of the former with respect to physiological capacity and highlights that amateurs seem to start too fast according to their capacities. The exclusive application of the double poling technique is no longer a phenomenon of elite skiers but is widely used among the top 1,000 ranked skiers. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Stress Memory of Recurrent Environmental Challenges in Marine Invasive Species: Ciona robusta as a Case Study
Fluctuating environmental changes impose tremendous stresses on sessile organisms in marine ecosystems, in turn, organisms develop complex response mechanisms to keep adaptive homeostasis for survival. Physiological plasticity is one of the primary lines of defense against environmental challenges, and such defense often relies on the antioxidant defense system (ADS). Hence, it is imperative to understand response mechanisms of ADS to fluctuating environments. Invasive species provide excellent models to study how species cope with environmental stresses, as invasive species encounter sudden, and often recurrent, extensive...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Heart Plasticity in Response to Pressure- and Volume-Overload: A Review of Findings in Compensated and Decompensated Phenotypes
The adult human heart has an exceptional ability to alter its phenotype to adapt to changes in environmental demand. This response involves metabolic, mechanical, electrical, and structural alterations, and is known as cardiac plasticity. Understanding the drivers of cardiac plasticity is essential for development of therapeutic agents. This is particularly important in contemporary cardiology, which uses treatments with peripheral effects (e.g., on kidneys, adrenal glands). This review focuses on the effects of different hemodynamic loads on myocardial phenotype. We examine mechanical scenarios of pressure- and volume ove...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Exercise-Released Myokines in the Control of Energy Metabolism
Physical activity reduces cardiometabolic risk, while physical inactivity increases chronic diseases risk. This led to the idea that exercise-induced muscle contraction contributes to metabolic regulation and health. It is now well established that skeletal muscle, through the release of endocrine factors, i.e., so-called myokines, crosstalk with metabolic organs such as adipose tissue, liver and pancreas. Recent advances suggested that a number of myokines are able to modulate adipose tissue metabolism and thermogenic activity, liver endogenous glucose production and β-cell insulin secretion. This novel paradigm offe...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Divergent Roles of Inflammation in Skeletal Muscle Recovery From Injury
A transient increase in local pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following skeletal muscle injury mediates the repair and regeneration of damaged myofibers through myogenesis. Regenerative capacity is diminished and muscle wasting occurs, however, when intramuscular inflammatory signaling is exceedingly high or persists chronically. An excessive and persistent inflammatory response to muscle injury may therefore impair recovery by limiting the repair of damaged tissue and triggering muscle atrophy. The concentration-dependent activation of different downstream signaling pathways by several pro-inflammatory cytokines in c...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

JAK2 Mediates the Regulation of Pept1 Expression by Leptin in the Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Intestine
In conclusion, these results may help in elucidating the regulatory effect of the leptin-mediated JAK2 pathway on intestinal Pept1 expression in C. idella and the molecular mechanism of peptide transport by the intestinal transporter Pept1 in fishes. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A Proteomic View of the Cross-Talk Between Early Intestinal Microbiota and Poultry Immune System
In this study, an in ovo technique and a proteomics approach was used to address how early bacterial colonization in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) could modulate inflammatory and immune responses in young broilers. Embryos at 18 embryogenic days were inoculated with saline (S), 102 CFU of Citrobacter freundii (CF), Citrobacter species (C2), or lactic acid bacteria mixture (L) into the amnion. At 10 days posthatch, ileum samples from 12 birds per treatment were selected for tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Our further findings indicated that treatment-specific influences on early GIT microbiota resulted in different im...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Validity of Field Methods to Estimate Fat-Free Mass Changes Throughout the Season in Elite Youth Soccer Players
The aim of this study was to determine the most effective anthropometric equations or bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) devices for quantifying the sensitivity to change in fat-free mass (FFM) in elite young soccer players, in comparison with measurements using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), between the pre- and mid-season. A total of 40 elite youth soccer players participated in this study. DXA values provided a criterion measure of FFM. Correlation coefficients, biases, limits of agreement, and differences were used as measures of sensitivity to change. All body density, skinfold, and anthropometric equatio...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 13, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research