Maximal Strength, Sprint, and Jump Performance in High-Level Female Football Players Are Maintained With a Customized Training Program During the COVID-19 Lockdown
ConclusionOur findings suggest that a prescribed home-based and group-based intervention with increased training time devoted to strength, jump, and sprint ability, and regulated to obtain a sufficient infection control level is feasible and effective to preserve strength, jumping, and sprinting abilities of high-level female football players during a ∼ 3-month period of a pandemic-induced lockdown. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Vascular Dysfunction in Diabetes and Obesity: Focus on TRP Channels
Transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily consists of a diverse group of non-selective cation channels that has a wide tissue distribution and is involved in many physiological processes including sensory perception, secretion of hormones, vasoconstriction/vasorelaxation, and cell cycle modulation. In the blood vessels, TRP channels are present in endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) and perivascular sensory nerves, and these channels have been implicated in the regulation of vascular tone, vascular cell proliferation, vascular wall permeability and angiogenesis. Addition...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Hypoxic Respiratory Chemoreflex Control in Young Trained Swimmers
During an apnea, changes in PaO2 activate peripheral chemoreceptors to increase respiratory drive. Athletes with continuous apnea, such as breath-hold divers, have shown a decrease in hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), which could explain the long apnea times; however, this has not been studied in swimmers. We hypothesize that the long periods of voluntary apnea in swimmers is related to a decreased HVR. Therefore, we sought to determine the HVR and cardiovascular adjustments during a maximum voluntary apnea in young-trained swimmers. In fifteen trained swimmers and twenty-seven controls we studied minute ventilation (VE)...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Health Effects of Alternate Day Fasting Versus Pair-Fed Caloric Restriction in Diet-Induced Obese C57Bl/6J Male Mice
Alternate day fasting (ADF) induces weight loss and improves various markers of health in rodents and humans. However, it is unclear whether the benefits of ADF are derived from the lower caloric intake of ADF or from the 24-h fasting period. Therefore, this study directly compared selected markers for health – such as glucose control, body weight, liver triglycerides, T cell frequencies, and others – in high-fat (60% calories from fat) diet-induced obese mice subjected to either ADF or caloric restriction (CR). Obese mice were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (1) ADF: remained on the high-fat diet, but...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Biological Significance and Implications of Planar Cell Polarity for Nephrology
The orientation of cells in two-dimensional and three-dimensional space underpins how the kidney develops and responds to disease. The process by which cells orientate themselves within the plane of a tissue is termed planar cell polarity. In this Review, we discuss how planar cell polarity and the proteins that underpin it govern kidney organogenesis and pathology. The importance of planar cell polarity and its constituent proteins in multiple facets of kidney development is emphasised, including ureteric bud branching, tubular morphogenesis and nephron maturation. An overview is given of the relevance of planar cell pola...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Vascular and Macrophage Heme Oxygenase-1 in Hypertension: A Mini-Review
Hypertension is one predictive factor for stroke and heart ischemic disease. Nowadays, it is considered an inflammatory disease with elevated cytokine levels, oxidative stress, and infiltration of immune cells in several organs including heart, kidney, and vessels, which contribute to the hypertension-associated cardiovascular damage. Macrophages, the most abundant immune cells in tissues, have a high degree of plasticity that is manifested by polarization in different phenotypes, with the most well-known being M1 (proinflammatory) and M2 (anti-inflammatory). In hypertension, M1 phenotype predominates, producing inflammato...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Differences in Daytime Activity Levels and Daytime Sleep Between Night and Day Duty: An Observational Study in Italian Orthopedic Nurses
Working nonstandard work schedules is often associated with increased sedentary behavior and risk of sleep disorders. Night shift workers are prone to accumulating sleep debt, which they recover by sleeping during the day. The effect on daytime activity levels is unknown. The present study aims to objectively assess whether daytime sleep could affect daytime activity levels of shift worker nurses, resulting in an accumulation of their activity debt differently between working and rest periods. The study population (N = 37; mean age 41.7 ± 9.1 years) was composed of orthopedic nurses working on a rotating schedule, i...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

High-Intensity Interval Training Does Not Change Vaspin and Omentin and Does Not Reduce Visceral Adipose Tissue in Obese Rats
This study aimed to determine the expression of omentin and vaspin, inflammatory markers, body composition, and lipid profile in diet-induced obese rats and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: untrained normal diet, trained normal diet (T-ND), untrained high-fat diet (Unt-HFD), and trained high-fat diet (T-HFD). For the animals of the Unt-HFD and T-HFD groups, a high-fat diet was offered for 4 weeks. After that, all the animals in the T-ND and T-HFD groups were submitted to HITT, three times per week, for 10 weeks (2 weeks of adaptation and 8 weeks of HIIT). Muscle (gas...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Long Non-coding RNA H19 Augments Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Apoptosis and Injury by the miR-130a/BCL2L11 Pathway
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a severe kidney disease defined by partial or abrupt loss of renal function. Emerging evidence indicates that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), particularly long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), function as essential regulators in AKI development. Here we aimed to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of the lncRNA H19/miR-130a axis for the regulation of inflammation, proliferation, and apoptosis in kidney epithelial cells. Human renal proximal tubular cells (HK-2) were induced by hypoxia/reoxygenation to replicate the AKI model in vitro. After treatment, the effects of LncRNA H19 and miR-130a on prolif...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Olfactory Rod Cells: A Rare Cell Type in the Larval Zebrafish Olfactory Epithelium With a Large Actin-Rich Apical Projection
We report the presence of a rare cell type, the olfactory rod cell, in the developing zebrafish olfactory epithelium. These cells each bear a single actin-rich rod-like apical projection extending 5–10 μm from the epithelial surface. Live imaging with a ubiquitous Lifeact-RFP label indicates that the olfactory rods can oscillate. Olfactory rods arise within a few hours of the olfactory pit opening, increase in numbers and size during larval stages, and can develop in the absence of olfactory cilia. Olfactory rod cells differ in morphology from the known classes of olfactory sensory neuron, but express reporters dr...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Volume Load-Induced Right Ventricular Failure in Rats Is Not Associated With Myocardial Fibrosis
ConclusionsIn the ACS rat model, long-term volume load was initially well tolerated at 1 month and 3 months, but induced overt clinical signs of end-stage RV failure at 6 months. However, no myocardial fibrosis or increased pro-fibrotic signaling had developed. These findings indicate that myocardial fibrosis is not involved in the transition from compensated to decompensated RV dysfunction in this model. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Models to Study Muscle Function, Plasticity, and Disease
Skeletal muscle possesses remarkable plasticity that permits functional adaptations to a wide range of signals such as motor input, exercise, and disease. Small animal models have been pivotal in elucidating the molecular mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle adaptation and plasticity. However, these small animal models fail to accurately model human muscle disease resulting in poor clinical success of therapies. Here, we review the potential of in vitro three-dimensional tissue-engineered skeletal muscle models to study muscle function, plasticity, and disease. First, we discuss the generation and function of in vitro ske...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of Plyometric Jump Training on Physical Fitness in Amateur and Professional Volleyball: A Meta-Analysis
We aimed to examine the effects of plyometric jump training (PJT) on measures of physical fitness in amateur and professional volleyball players. A systematic electronic literature search was carried out in the databases PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. Controlled studies including pre-to-post intervention tests of physical fitness and involving healthy volleyball players regardless of age and sex were considered. A random-effects model was used to calculate effect sizes (ES) between intervention and control groups. Moderator analyses considered programme duration, training frequency, total number of training s...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Improving the Breath-Holding CVR Measurement Using the Multiband Multi-Echo EPI Sequence
This study compared an advanced multiband multi-echo (MBME) echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence with an existing multiband single-echo (MB) sequence to evaluate the repeatability and sensitivity of BH activation and CVR mapping. Images were acquired from 28 healthy volunteers, of which 18 returned for repeat imaging. Both MBME and MB data were pre-processed using both standard and advanced denoising techniques. The MBME data was further processed by combining echoes using a T2*-weighted approach and denoising using multi-echo independent component analysis. BH activation was calculated using a general linear model and the r...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Efficacy of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on Body Composition and Muscle Strength in Non-athletic Adults. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This systematic review and meta-analysis set out to determine the efficacy on whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on body composition and strength parameters in non-athletic cohorts. A systematic review of the literature according to the PRISMA statement included (a) controlled trials, (b) WB-EMS trials with at least one exercise and one control group, (c) WB-EMS as primary physical intervention, (d) WB-EMS with at least six electrodes covering most muscle groups, (e) non-athletic cohorts. We searched eight electronic databases up to June 30, 2020, without language restrictions. Standardized mean differences (SMD) fo...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Identification of Copy Number Variation Among Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and or Without Cleft Palate With Hypodontia: A Genome-Wide Association Study
This study identified the genetic aberration involved in both NSCL/P and hypodontia pathogenesis. A cross-sectional study using genome-wide study copy number variation-targeted CytoScan 750K array carried out on salivary samples from 61 NSCL/P and 20 noncleft with and without hypodontia Malay subjects aged 7–13 years old. Copy number variations (CNVs) of SKI and fragile histidine triad (FHIT) were identified in NSCL/P and noncleft children using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) as a validation analysis. Copy number calculated (CNC) for each gene determined with Applied Biosystems CopyCaller Software v2.0...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Demonstration of Patient-Specific Simulations to Assess Left Atrial Appendage Thrombogenesis Risk
Atrial fibrillation (AF) alters left atrial (LA) hemodynamics, which can lead to thrombosis in the left atrial appendage (LAA), systemic embolism and stroke. A personalized risk-stratification of AF patients for stroke would permit improved balancing of preventive anticoagulation therapies against bleeding risk. We investigated how LA anatomy and function impact LA and LAA hemodynamics, and explored whether patient-specific analysis by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can predict the risk of LAA thrombosis. We analyzed 4D-CT acquisitions of LA wall motion with an in-house immersed-boundary CFD solver. We considered six p...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

OpenEP: A Cross-Platform Electroanatomic Mapping Data Format and Analysis Platform for Electrophysiology Research
BackgroundElectroanatomic mapping systems are used to support electrophysiology research. Data exported from these systems is stored in proprietary formats which are challenging to access and storage-space inefficient. No previous work has made available an open-source platform for parsing and interrogating this data in a standardized format. We therefore sought to develop a standardized, open-source data structure and associated computer code to store electroanatomic mapping data in a space-efficient and easily accessible manner.MethodsA data structure was defined capturing the available anatomic and electrical data. Open...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 26, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Proposal of a Conditioning Activity Model on Sprint Swimming Performance
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

sGC Activity and Regulation of Blood Flow in a Zebrafish Model System
Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) protein is a heterodimer formed by two subunits encoded by GUCY1A1 and GUCY1B1 genes. The chromosomal locus 4q32.1 harbors both of these genes, which has been previously significantly associated with coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and high blood pressure. Blood pressure is influenced by both the environment and genetics and is complemented by several biological pathways. The underlying mechanisms associated with this locus and its genes still need to be investigated. In the current study, we aimed to establish the zebrafish as a model organism to investigate the mechanisms su...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Maternal Methadone Destabilizes Neonatal Breathing and Desensitizes Neonates to Opioid-Induced Respiratory Frequency Depression
In conclusion, the results presented demonstrate neurorespiratory disruption by maternal opioids and blunted opioid-induced respiratory frequency depression with neonatal opioids, which will be important for understanding and treating the increasing population of neonates exposed to gestational opioids. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

RF9 Rescues Cortisol-Induced Repression of Testosterone Levels in Adult Male Macaques
This study investigated whether exogenous cortisol-induced repression of the HPG-axis can be rescued by RF9. Six intact adult male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to chair-restraint were administered hydrocortisone sodium succinate at a rate of 20 mg/kg of body weight (BW) per day for 12 days. Single blood sample was taken by venipuncture from each animal on alternate days for hormones analyses. On experimental day 12, hydrocortisone treated monkeys received a single intravenous bolus of RF9 (n = 3) and vehicle (n = 3). The animals were bled for a period of 4 h at 60 min intervals from an indwelling cannula in t...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Comprehensive Quantitative Proteome Analysis of Aedes aegypti Identifies Proteins and Pathways Involved in Wolbachia pipientis and Zika Virus Interference Phenomenon
In this study, we apply isobaric labeling quantitative mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics to quantify proteins and identify pathways altered during ZIKV infection; Wolbachia infection; co-infection with Wolbachia/ZIKV in the A. aegypti heads and salivary glands. We show that Wolbachia regulates proteins involved in reactive oxygen species production, regulates humoral immune response, and antioxidant production. The reduction of ZIKV polyprotein in the presence of Wolbachia in mosquitoes was determined by MS and corroborates the idea that Wolbachia helps to block ZIKV infections in A. aegypti. The present study offers...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Long-Term Patterns of Bone Mineral Density in an Elite Soccer Player
Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) have been associated with association football (soccer) participation. Seasonal changes in BMD of soccer players have been proposed as well. However, previous investigations were based on short-term observations. Actually, longitudinal investigation of BMD in soccer players is lacking, possibly because of frequent inter-club transfer, changes in club policy or continued availability of the relevant facilities. Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA)-measured areal BMD (aBMD) was obtained during the competitive season in an elite soccer player along 10 consecutive years. Findings showed ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Cerebrovascular Reactivity Measurement Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Systematic Review
Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) probes cerebral haemodynamic changes in response to a vasodilatory stimulus. CVR closely relates to the health of the vasculature and is therefore a key parameter for studying cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke, small vessel disease and dementias. MRI allows in vivo measurement of CVR but several different methods have been presented in the literature, differing in pulse sequence, hardware requirements, stimulus and image processing technique. We systematically reviewed publications measuring CVR using MRI up to June 2020, identifying 235 relevant paper...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Vessel Enlargement in Development and Pathophysiology
From developmental stages until adulthood, the circulatory system remodels in response to changes in blood flow in order to maintain vascular homeostasis. Remodeling processes can be driven by de novo formation of vessels or angiogenesis, and by the restructuration of already existing vessels, such as vessel enlargement and regression. Notably, vessel enlargement can occur as fast as in few hours in response to changes in flow and pressure. The high plasticity and responsiveness of blood vessels rely on endothelial cells. Changes within the bloodstream, such as increasing shear stress in a narrowing vessel or lowering bloo...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Impact of Ischemic Intra-Conditioning on Power Output and Bar Velocity of the Upper Limbs
This study evaluated the effects of ischemic conditioning on power output and bar velocity in the bench press exercise. Ten healthy males (age: 25 ± 2 years; body mass: 92 ± 8 kg; bench press one repetition maximum −1RM: 145 ± 13 kg), took part in two experimental sessions (with and without ischemia), 1 week apart in random and counterbalanced order. In the ischemic condition, cuffs placed around the upper part of the arms were inflated to 80% of arterial occlusion pressure before each set, while in the control condition there was no blood flow restriction. The exercise protocol included 5 sets o...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Elevated Lactate by High-Intensity Interval Training Regulates the Hippocampal BDNF Expression and the Mitochondrial Quality Control System
In conclusion, our study provided the mitochondrial mechanisms of HIIT enhancing brain function, and that lactate itself can mediate the HIIT effect on mitochondrial quality control system in the hippocampus. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

“Urate and NOX5 Control Blood Digestion in the Hematophagous Insect Rhodnius prolixus”
Low levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are now recognized as essential players in cell signaling. Here, we studied the role of two conserved enzymes involved in redox regulation that play a critical role in the control of ROS in the digestive physiology of a blood-sucking insect, the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus. RNAi-mediated silencing of RpNOX5 and RpXDH induced early mortality in adult females after a blood meal. Recently, a role for RpNOX5 in gut motility was reported, and here, we show that midgut peristalsis is also under the control of RpXDH. Together with impaired peristalsis, silencing either genes impaired ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Metabolic Alterations in SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Its Implication in Kidney Dysfunction
Clinical strategies focusing on pathogen elimination are expected in an infectious-disease outbreak, such as the severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), to avoid organ dysfunction. However, understanding the host response to viral infection is crucial to develop an effective treatment to optimize the patient’s conditions. The pathogenic viruses can promote metabolic changes during viral infection, favoring its survival, altering cell phenotype and function, and causing sustained inflammation and tissue injury. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19, provoke...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Dietary Trivalent Chromium Exposure Up-Regulates Lipid Metabolism in Coral Trout: The Evidence From Transcriptome Analysis
Diet quality greatly affects an animal’s performance and metabolism. Despite the fact that trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] is considered an essential element and is widely used in nutritional supplements for animals and humans, the potential toxicity of Cr(III) is unclear. Here, liver transcriptome sequencing was performed on coral trout (Plectropomus leopardus) exposed to 200 mg kg–1 of dietary organic Cr(III) [as chromium picolinate (CrPic)] for 8 weeks. One-hundred-and thirteen differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in response to Cr(III) stress, in comparison to the control, including 31 up-regu...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Immunostimulatory Effects of Commercial Feed Additives on Growth Performance, Non-specific Immune Response, Antioxidants Assay, and Intestinal Morphometry of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus
The main objective of the present research was to investigate the impacts of commercial immunostimulants on growth, non-specific immune response, antioxidant enzymes, and intestinal morphometry of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (100 ± 6.5 g) were randomly divided into five groups in triplicates (150 fish in each replicate), stocked in 20 m2 of aerated concrete ponds. The fish were fed on a control diet (30.0% crude protein) (control), and four experimental diets supplemented with Yeast Plus®, Digestarom®, and Biotronic® Top3 at 1 kg ton–1, and Sanolife PRO-F® at 0.5 kg ton–1. A...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A High-Precision Machine Learning Algorithm to Classify Left and Right Outflow Tract Ventricular Tachycardia
ConclusionsThe proposed multistage diagnostic scheme attained clinical-grade precision of prediction for LVOT and RVOT locations of VT origin with fewer applicability restrictions than prior studies. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Traditional Versus Velocity-Based Resistance Training in Competitive Female Cyclists: A Randomized Controlled Trial
We assessed the effects of a short-term velocity-based resistance training (VBRT, where exercise intensity is individualized based on the loads and repetitions that maximize power output) program compared with traditional resistance training (TRT, where the same number of repetitions and relative load are used for every individual) on body composition, muscle strength/power, and endurance performance in competitive female cyclists. Seventeen participants were randomly assigned to 6 weeks (two sessions/week) of TRT (n = 8) or VBRT (n = 9), during which they maintained their usual endurance program. Both interventions includ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Sodium Transporters in Human Health and Disease
Sodium (Na+) electrochemical gradients established by Na+/K+ ATPase activity drives the transport of ions, minerals, and sugars in both excitable and non-excitable cells. Na+-dependent transporters can move these solutes in the same direction (cotransport) or in opposite directions (exchanger) across both the apical and basolateral plasma membranes of polarized epithelia. In addition to maintaining physiological homeostasis of these solutes, increases and decreases in sodium may also initiate, directly or indirectly, signaling cascades that regulate a variety of intracellular post-translational events. In this review, we w...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Cerebral Hemodynamic and Neurotrophic Factor Responses Are Dependent on the Type of Exercise
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Antioxidant and Protective Effects of Artemisia campestris Essential Oil Against Chlorpyrifos-Induced Kidney and Liver Injuries in Rats
This study is aimed to elucidate the possible antioxidant and protective effects of Artemisia campestris essential oil (ACEO) against the deleterious effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) in rats. The in vivo study revealed increases in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and the serum contents of creatinine, urea, uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins (LDL), and glucose in rats treated with CPF as compared to controls. Meanwhile, hepatic and renal activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Predictive Value of the Age, Creatinine, and Ejection Fraction (ACEF) Score in Patients With Acute Fulminant Myocarditis
ConclusionThe ACEF score was identified as an effective predictor of poor in-hospital outcomes, worse cardiac recovery after 30 days, and higher rates of MACE, all-cause death, and heart failure at 1 year in patients who had acute fulminant myocarditis. These data suggest that its predictive accuracy means the ACEF score could be used to assess the prognosis of patients with acute fulminant myocarditis. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Comparative Transcriptomic and Expression Profiles Between the Foot Muscle and Mantle Tissues in the Giant Triton Snail Charonia tritonis
The giant triton snail (Charonia tritonis), an endangered gastropod species of ecological and economic importance, is widely distributed in coral reef ecosystems of the Indo-West Pacific region and the tropical waters of the South China Sea. Limited research on molecular mechanisms can be conducted because the complete genomic information on this species is unavailable. Hence, we performed transcriptome sequencing of the C. tritonis foot muscle and mantle using the Illumina HiSeq sequencing platform. In 109,722 unigenes, we detected 7,994 (3,196 up-regulated and 4,798 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) f...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Melanocortin System in Kidney Homeostasis and Disease: Novel Therapeutic Opportunities
Melanocortin peptides, melanocortin receptors, melanocortin receptor accessory proteins, and endogenous antagonists of melanocortin receptors are the key components constituting the melanocortin hormone system, one of the most complex and important hormonal systems in our body. A plethora of evidence suggests that melanocortins possess a protective activity in a variety of kidney diseases in both rodent models and human patients. In particular, the steroidogenic melanocortin peptide adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), has been shown to exert a beneficial effect in a number of kidney diseases, possibly via a mechanism indep...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Baseline Arterial CO2 Pressure Regulates Acute Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Phrenic Long-Term Facilitation in Rats
Moderate acute intermittent hypoxia (mAIH) elicits a progressive increase in phrenic motor output lasting hours post-mAIH, a form of respiratory motor plasticity known as phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). mAIH-induced pLTF is initiated by activation of spinally-projecting raphe serotonergic neurons during hypoxia and subsequent serotonin release near phrenic motor neurons. Since raphe serotonergic neurons are also sensitive to pH and CO2, the prevailing arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2) may modulate their activity (and serotonin release) during hypoxic episodes. Thus, we hypothesized that changes in background PaCO2 direc...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Head-Down Tilt Position, but Not the Duration of Bed Rest Affects Resting State Electrocortical Activity
Adverse cognitive and behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders are considered a critical and unmitigated risk during future long-duration space missions (LDSM). Monitoring and mitigating crew health and performance risks during these missions will require tools and technologies that allow to reliably assess cognitive performance and mental well-being. Electroencephalography (EEG) has the potential to meet the technical requirements for the non-invasive and objective monitoring of neurobehavioral conditions during LDSM. Weightlessness is associated with fluid and brain shifts, and these effects could potentially chal...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

HvRNASET2 Regulate Connective Tissue and Collagen I Remodeling During Wound Healing Process
Several studies have recently demonstrated that the correct regeneration of damaged tissues and the maintaining of homeostasis after wounds or injuries are tightly connected to different biological events, involving immune response, fibroplasia, and angiogenetic processes, in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this context, our previous data demonstrated that the Hirudo verbana recombinant protein rHvRNASET2 not only plays a pivotal role in innate immune modulation, but is also able to activate resident fibroblasts leading to new collagen production, both in vivo and in vitro. Indeed, when injected in the leech body wa...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Role of Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids in Cardiac Remodeling
Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are metabolites of arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenases, which include four regioisomers: 5,6-EET, 8,9-EET, 11,12-EET, and 14,15-EET. Each of them possesses beneficial effects against inflammation, fibrosis, and apoptosis, which could combat cardiovascular diseases. Numerous studies have demonstrated that elevation of EETs by overexpression of CYP2J2, inhibition of sEH, or treatment with EET analogs showed protective effects in various cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. As is known to all, cardiac remodeling is the ma...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A Novel Model Based on Spatial and Morphological Domains to Predict the Origin of Premature Ventricular Contraction
Pace mapping is commonly used to locate the origin of ventricular arrhythmias, especially premature ventricular contraction (PVC). However, this technique relies on clinicians’ ability to rapidly interpret ECG data. To avoid time-consuming interpretation of ECG morphology, some automated algorithms or computational models have been explored to guide the ablation. Inspired by these studies, we propose a novel model based on spatial and morphological domains. The purpose of this study is to assess this model and compare it with three existing models. The data are available from the Experimental Data and Geometric Analy...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Differential Brain and Muscle Tissue Oxygenation Responses to Exercise in Tibetans Compared to Han Chinese
The Tibetans’ better aerobic exercise capacity at altitude remains ill-understood. We tested the hypothesis that Tibetans display better muscle and brain tissue oxygenation during exercise in hypoxia. Using near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS) to provide indices of tissue oxygenation, we measured oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin ([O2Hb] and [HHb], respectively) responses of the vastus lateralis muscle and the right prefrontal cortex in ten Han Chinese and ten Tibetans during incremental cycling to exhaustion in a pressure-regulated chamber at simulated sea-level (air at 1 atm: normobaric normoxia) and 5,000 m (air at 0.5 atm: ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Neutral Ceramidase Is Required for the Reproduction of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (St ål)
Ceramides are bioactive sphingolipids that have been implicated in insect development; however, their role in insect reproduction remains poorly understood. Here, we report the pivotal role of neutral ceramidase (NCER) in the female reproduction of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), a significant pest in rice cultivation in Asia. LC-MS/MS demonstrated that, among different developmental stages of BPH, the levels of ceramides were highest in 1st instar nymphs and lowest in adults. The transcription of NCER was negatively correlated with the levels of ceramides at different developmental stages of ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Transcriptomic and Metabolomic Analyses of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama Infected and Non-infected With Candidatus Liberibacter Asiaticus
The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri is the transmission vector of Huanglongbing (HLB), a devastating disease of citrus plants. The bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus” (CLas) associated with HLB is transmitted between host plants by D. citri in a circulative manner. Understanding the interaction between CLas and its insect vector is key for protecting citrus cultivation from HLB damage. Here, we used RNA sequencing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to analyze the transcriptome and metabolome of D. citri interacting with CLas. We identified 662 upregulated and 532 downregulated g...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Two Deoxythymidine Triphosphate Synthesis-Related Genes Regulate Obligate Symbiont Density and Reproduction in the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci MED
Deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) is essential for DNA synthesis and cellular growth in all organisms. Here, genetic capacity analysis of the pyrimidine pathway in insects and their symbionts revealed that dTTP is a kind of metabolic input in several host insect/obligate symbiont symbiosis systems, including Bemisia tabaci MED/Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum (hereafter Portiera). As such, the roles of dTTP on both sides of the symbiosis system were investigated in B. tabaci MED/Portiera. Dietary RNA interference (RNAi) showed that suppressing dTTP production significantly reduced the density of Portiera, significantly r...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Optimal Tetralogy of Fallot Repair Using Generative Adversarial Networks
ConclusionThis approach has the potential to reduce the intraoperative misjudgment rate, thereby providing a detailed surgical plan in patients with TOF. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - February 23, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research