Alterations in Cardiac Function Following Endurance Exercise Are Not Duration Dependent
Cardiac function has been shown to transiently decrease following prolonged exercise, with greater durations related to increased impairment. However, the prospective assessment of exercise duration on cardiac performance is rare, and the influence of relative exercise intensity is typically not assessed in relation to these changes. The aim of this study was to determine whether progressively longer running distances over the same course would elicit greater cardiac impairment. The present investigation examined cardiac alterations in 49 athletes, following trail-running races of 25, 50, 80, and 160 km, performed on the s...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Crosstalk Between Innate and T Cell Adaptive Immunity With(in) the Muscle
Growing evidence demonstrates a continuous interaction between the immune system and the skeletal muscle in inflammatory diseases of different pathogenetic origins, in dystrophic conditions such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy as well as during normal muscle regeneration. Although one component of the innate immunity, the macrophage, has been extensively studied both in disease conditions and during cell or gene therapy strategies aiming at restoring muscular functions, much less is known about dendritic cells and their primary immunological targets, the T lymphocytes. This review will focus on the dendritic cells and T lym...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Role of Kv7 Channels in Neural Plasticity and Behavior
Activity-dependent persistent changes in neuronal intrinsic excitability and synaptic strength are widely thought to underlie learning and memory. Voltage-gated KCNQ/Kv7 potassium channels have been of great interest as the potential targets for memory disorders due to the beneficial effects of their antagonists in cognition. Importantly, de novo dominant mutations in their neuronal subunits KCNQ2/Kv7.2 and KCNQ3/Kv7.3 are associated with epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by developmental delay and intellectual disability. The role of Kv7 channels in neuronal excitability and epilepsy has been extensiv...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Hidden Microatelectases Increase Vulnerability to Ventilation-Induced Lung Injury
In conclusion, hidden microatelectases are linked with an increased pulmonary vulnerability for mechanical ventilation characterized by an aggravation of epithelial injury. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Treatment With Gemfibrozil Prevents the Progression of Chronic Kidney Disease in Obese Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats
Recently, we reported that Dahl salt-sensitive leptin receptor mutant (SSLepRmutant) rats exhibit dyslipidemia and renal lipid accumulation independent of hyperglycemia that progresses to chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, in the current study, we examined the effects of gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering drug (200 mg/kg/day, orally), on the progression of renal injury in SS and SSLepRmutant rats for 4 weeks starting at 12 weeks of age. Plasma triglyceride levels were markedly elevated in the SSLepRmutant strain compared to SS rats (1193 ± 243 and 98 ± 16 mg/day, respectively). Gemfibrozil treatment only red...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effect of Hyperventilation on Periodic Repolarization Dynamics
Heart and lung functions are closely connected, and the interaction is mediated by the autonomic nervous system. Hyperventilation has been demonstrated to especially activate its sympathetic branch. However, there is still a lack of methods to assess autonomic activity within this cardiorespiratory coupling. Periodic repolarization dynamics (PRD) is an ECG-based biomarker mirroring the effect of efferent cardiac sympathetic activity on the ventricular myocardium. Its calculation is based on beat-to-beat variations of the T wave vector (dT°). In the present study, we investigated the effects of a standardized hyperventi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Identification of Drug-Induced Multichannel Block and Proarrhythmic Risk in Humans Using Continuous T Vector Velocity Effect Profiles Derived From Surface Electrocardiograms
We present continuous T vector velocity (TVV) effect profiles as a new method for identifying drug effects on cardiac ventricular repolarization. TVV measures the temporal change in the myocardial action potential distribution during repolarization. The T vector dynamics were measured as the time required to reach p percent of the total T vector trajectory length, denoted as Tr(p), with p in {1, …, 100%}. The Tr(p) values were individually corrected for heart rate at each trajectory length percentage p. Drug effects were measured by evaluating the placebo corrected changes from baseline of Tr(p)c jointly for all p u...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Regulation of Angiotensin- Converting Enzyme 2 in Obesity: Implications for COVID-19
The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Age, smoking, obesity, and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes have been described as risk factors for severe complications and mortality in COVID-19. Obesity and diabetes are usually associated with dysregulated lipid synthesis and clearance, which can initiate or aggravate pulmonary inflammation and injury. It has been shown that for viral entry into the host cell, SARS-CoV-2 utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors present on the cells. We aimed to characterize how SARS-CoV-2 dysregulates lipid meta...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Identification of Novel SCN5A Single Nucleotide Variants in Brugada Syndrome: A Territory-Wide Study From Hong Kong
BackgroundThe aim of this study is to report on the genetic composition of Brugada syndrome (BrS) patients undergoing genetic testing in Hong Kong.MethodsPatients with suspected BrS who presented to the Hospital Authority of Hong Kong between 1997 and 2019, and underwent genetic testing, were analyzed retrospectively.ResultsA total of 65 subjects were included (n = 65, 88% male, median presenting age 42 [30–54] years old, 58% type 1 pattern). Twenty-two subjects (34%) showed abnormal genetic test results, identifying the following six novel, pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations in SCN5A: c.674G> A, c.2024-11T...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Role of Incubation Conditions in the Onset of Avian Myopathies
White striping, wooden breast, and spaghetti muscle have become common myopathies in broilers worldwide. Several research reports have indicated that the origin of these lesions is metabolic disorders. These failures in normal metabolism can start very early in life, and suboptimal incubation conditions may trigger some of the key alterations on muscle metabolism. Incubation conditions affect the development of muscle and can be associated with the onset of myopathies. A series of experiments conducted with broilers, turkeys, and ducks are discussed to overview primary information showing the main changes in breast muscle ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Fractal Correlation Properties of Heart Rate Variability: A New Biomarker for Intensity Distribution in Endurance Exercise and Training Prescription?
Exercise and training prescription in endurance-type sports has a strong theoretical background with various practical applications based on threshold concepts. Given the challenges and pitfalls of determining individual training zones on the basis of subsystem indicators (e.g., blood lactate concentration, respiratory parameters), the question arises whether there are alternatives for intensity distribution demarcation. Considering that training in a low intensity zone substantially contributes to the performance outcome of endurance athletes and exceeding intensity targets based on a misleading aerobic threshold can lead...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Transcriptomic Profiling of Various Developmental Stages of Aphis Aurantii to Provide a Genetic Resource for Gene Expression and SSR Analysis
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Wnt Pathway: An Emerging Player in Vascular and Traumatic Mediated Brain Injuries
The Wnt pathway, which comprises the canonical and non-canonical pathways, is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that regulates crucial biological aspects throughout the development and adulthood. Emergence and patterning of the nervous and vascular systems are intimately coordinated, a process in which Wnt pathway plays particularly important roles. In the brain, Wnt ligands activate a cell-specific surface receptor complex to induce intracellular signaling cascades regulating neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, neuronal plasticity, synaptic plasticity, angiogenesis, vascular stabilization, and inflammation. The Wnt pathway ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Hydrogen Sulfide Alleviates Skeletal Muscle Fibrosis via Attenuating Inflammation and Oxidative Stress
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) treatment on skeletal muscle contusion. We established a skeletal muscle contusion model (S group) and an H2S treated of skeletal muscle contusion model (H2S group). Gastrocnemius muscles (GMs) were collected at day 1, day 5, day 10, and day 15 after injury, and comprehensive morphological and genetic analyses was conducted. H2S treatment reduced M1 macrophage (CD68), profibrotic cytokines (TGF-β), pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6), chemokines (CCL2, CCR2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL12, and CXCR4)...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Pupillary Response of the Common Octopus (Octopus vulgaris)
Cephalopods have very conspicuous eyes that are often compared to fish eyes. However, in contrast to many fish, the eyes of cephalopods possess mobile pupils. To increase the knowledge of pupillary and thus visual function in cephalopods, the dynamics of the pupil of one of the model species among cephalopods, the common octopus (Octopus vulgaris), was determined in this study. We measured pupillary area as a function of ambient luminance to document the light and dark reaction of the octopus eye. The results show that weak light (
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Short and Long Term Repeatability of Saccharin Transit Time in Current, Former, and Never Smokers
Smoking progressively damages the efficiency of mucociliary clearance (MCC) defense mechanisms, thus contributing to increased susceptibility to respiratory infections. Prolonged mucociliary clearance transit time (MCCTT) caused by chronic smoking has been investigated by saccharin test, but little data is available about its short- and long-term reproducibility. Moreover, it is not known if MCC impairment can be reversed when stopping smoking. Objective of the study is to investigate and compare short (3 days) and long term (30 days) repeatability of baseline saccharin transit time (STT) among current, former, and never s...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 18, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Proteomic Analysis of Two Weight Classes of Mule Duck “foie gras” at the End of an Overfeeding Period
In this study, we performed an analysis of the proteome profile of two weight classes of light (between 550 and 599 g) and heavy (more than 700 g) livers. For the analysis of the proteic extracts, a liquid chromatographic analysis coupled with mass spectrometry was carried out. In low-weight livers, aerobic energy metabolism, protein metabolism and lipid metabolism oriented toward export and beta-oxidation were overexpressed. On the contrary, high weight livers were characterized by anaerobic energy metabolism and a more active protein catabolism associated with cell apoptosis and reorganization of the cell structure. (Sou...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 17, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism by Trehalose-6-Phosphate Synthase 3 in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens
Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is one of the pests that harm rice. In this paper, a new trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene, TPS3, was identified by transcriptome sequencing and gene cloning. To explore its role in the energy metabolism of N. lugens we examined the carbohydrate contents at different stages of development, the tissue expression of TPS, and some physiological and biochemical indicators by injecting dsTPS3 and dsTPSs (a proportional mixture of dsTPS1, dsTPS2, and dsTPS3). The glucose content at the fifth instar was significantly higher than that in the fourth instar and the adult sta...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 17, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Heart Rate Variability and Exceptional Longevity
Centenarians are the paradigm of human extreme longevity and healthy aging, because they have postponed, if not avoided, mayor age-related diseases. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential differences in resting heart rate variability (HRV) between young adults, octogenarians, and centenarians and assess whether HRV variables are predictors of all-cause mortality in centenarians. To this end, three groups of participants: young adults (N = 20; 20.6 ± 2.3 years), octogenarians (N = 18; 84.1 ± 2.6 years), and centenarians (N = 17; 101.9 ± 1.9 years) were monitored for 15 min at rest (seate...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 17, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Application of the Moran Model in Estimating Selection Coefficient of Mutated CSF3R Clones in the Evolution of Severe Congenital Neutropenia to Myeloid Neoplasia
Bone marrow failure (BMF) syndromes, such as severe congenital neutropenia (SCN) are leukemia predisposition syndromes. We focus here on the transition from SCN to pre-leukemic myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Stochastic mathematical models have been conceived that attempt to explain the transition of SCN to MDS, in the most parsimonious way, using extensions of standard processes of population genetics and population dynamics, such as the branching and the Moran processes. We previously presented a hypothesis of the SCN to MDS transition, which involves directional selection and recurrent mutation, to explain the distribut...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 17, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Myocardial Energy Metabolism in Non-ischemic Cardiomyopathy
As the most metabolically demanding organ in the body, the heart must generate massive amounts of energy adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from the oxidation of fatty acids, carbohydrates and other fuels (e.g., amino acids, ketone bodies), in order to sustain constant contractile function. While the healthy mature heart acts omnivorously and is highly flexible in its ability to utilize the numerous fuel sources delivered to it through its coronary circulation, the heart’s ability to produce ATP from these fuel sources becomes perturbed in numerous cardiovascular disorders. This includes ischemic heart disease and myocardi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Quantitative Optical Diffraction Tomography Imaging of Mouse Platelets
Platelets are specialized anucleate cells that play a major role in hemostasis following vessel injury. More recently, platelets have also been implicated in innate immunity and inflammation by directly interacting with immune cells and releasing proinflammatory signals. It is likely therefore that in certain pathologies, such as chronic parasitic infections and myeloid malignancies, platelets can act as mediators for hemostatic and proinflammatory responses. Fortunately, murine platelet function ex vivo is highly analogous to human, providing a robust model for functional comparison. However, traditional methods of studyi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Frizzled 2 Functions in the Regulation of TOR-Mediated Embryonic Development and Fecundity in Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter
The mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis Reuter, is an important predator of rice planthoppers in Asia. In a previous study, C. lividipennis fed on gramineous weeds with brown planthopper (BPH) eggs had reduced development compared to those fed on rice with BPH eggs. In the current study, the concentrations of selected amino acids (AAs) were higher in rice than five gramineous species, which might explain the enhanced growth of C. lividipennis on rice. When C. lividipennis was fed on AA-deprived artificial diets, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway was inhibited. Furthermore, C. lividipennis females silenced for expression of Fr...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

In silico Comparison of Left Atrial Ablation Techniques That Target the Anatomical, Structural, and Electrical Substrates of Atrial Fibrillation
Catheter ablation therapy for persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) typically includes pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and may include additional ablation lesions that target patient-specific anatomical, electrical, or structural features. Clinical centers employ different ablation strategies, which use imaging data together with electroanatomic mapping data, depending on data availability. The aim of this study was to compare ablation techniques across a virtual cohort of AF patients. We constructed 20 paroxysmal and 30 persistent AF patient-specific left atrial (LA) bilayer models incorporating fibrotic remodeling from late...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Proteomic Analysis of Atrial Appendages Revealed the Pathophysiological Changes of Atrial Fibrillation
In this study, AF patients proteomically analyzed to identify possible mechanisms. Totally 20 patients undergoing cardiac surgery (10 with paroxysmal AF and 10 with persistent AF) and 10 healthy subjects were recruited. The differentially expressed proteins identified here included AKR1A1, LYZ, H2AFY, DDAH1, FGA, FGB, LAMB1, LAMC1, MYL2, MYBPC3, MYL5, MYH10, HNRNPU, DKK3, COPS7A, YWHAQ, and PAICS. These proteins were mainly involved in the development of structural remodeling. The differently expressed proteins may provide a new perspective for the pathological process of AF, and may enable useful targets for drug interfer...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Total Matrix Ca2+ Modulates Ca2+ Efflux via the Ca2+/H+ Exchanger in Cardiac Mitochondria
In this study, Ca2+ efflux via the CHE was investigated in isolated rat cardiac mitochondria and permeabilized H9c2 cells. Mitochondria were exposed to (a) increasing matrix Ca2+ load via repetitive application of a finite CaCl2 bolus to the external medium and (b) change in the pH gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Ca2+ efflux at different matrix Ca2+ loads was revealed by inhibiting Ca2+ uptake or reuptake with Ru360 after increasing number of CaCl2 boluses. In Na+-free experimental buffer and with Ca2+ uptake inhibited, the rate of Ca2+ efflux and steady-state free matrix Ca2+ [mCa2+]ss increased as...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Skeletal Muscle-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Influence of Different Culture Conditions on Proliferative and Myogenic Capabilities
Skeletal muscle tissue is characterized by restrained self-regenerative capabilities, being ineffective in relation to trauma extension both in time span (e.g., chronic diseases) and in size (e.g., large trauma). For these reasons, tissue engineering and/or cellular therapies represent a valuable solution in the cases where the physiological healing process failed. Satellite cells, the putative skeletal muscle stem cells, have been the first solution explored to remedy the insufficient self-regeneration capacity. Nevertheless, some limitation related to donor age, muscle condition, expansion hitch, and myogenic potentialit...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Oxygen Glucose Deprivation Induced Prosurvival Autophagy Is Insufficient to Rescue Endothelial Function
In conclusion, the autophagic flux induced by MCUR1 downregulation in response to OGD is insufficient in protecting endothelial cells from undergoing apoptotic cell death and requires enhancement of autophagic flux by additional means such as serum starvation. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Potential Mechanisms for COVID-19 Induced Anosmia and Dysgeusia
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Detrusor Smooth Muscle KV7 Channels: Emerging New Regulators of Urinary Bladder Function
We describe KV7 channel expression profiles at the mRNA and protein levels, and further elaborate on functional effects of KV7 channel selective modulators on DSM excitability, contractility, and intracellular Ca2+ dynamics in animal species along with in vivo studies and the limited data on human DSM. Within each topic, we highlight the main observations, current gaps in knowledge, and most pressing questions and concepts in need of resolution. We emphasize the lack of systematic studies on human DSM KV7 channels that are now actively ongoing in our laboratory. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene D/I Polymorphism in Relation to Endothelial Function and Endothelial-Released Factors in Chinese Women
Many studies have investigated the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D/I polymorphism and cardiovascular disease or endothelial dysfunction; however, hardly any of these studies has taken aging or menopause into consideration. Furthermore, despite that many studies have examined the regulatory effects of endothelial-released factors (ERFs) on endothelial function, no study has evaluated the relationship between ERFs and endothelial function with respect to ACE D/I polymorphism and menopause status. To answer these questions, 391 healthy Chinese women over a wide range of ages (22–75 years) were...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 16, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: Alveolar Dynamics and Beyond – the Importance of Surfactant Protein C and Cholesterol in Lung Homeostasis and Fibrosis
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

New Insights Into the Role and Mechanism of Partial Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Kidney Fibrosis
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is described as the process in which injured renal tubular epithelial cells undergo a phenotype change, acquiring mesenchymal characteristics and morphing into fibroblasts. Initially, it was widely thought of as a critical mechanism of fibrogenesis underlying chronic kidney disease. However, evidence that renal tubular epithelial cells can cross the basement membrane and become fibroblasts in the renal interstitium is rare, leading to debate about the existence of EMT. Recent research has demonstrated that after injury, renal tubular epithelial cells acquire mesenchymal characteristi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Long Non-coding RNAs Are Differentially Expressed After Different Exercise Training Programs
BackgroundMolecular regulation related to the health benefits of different exercise modes remains unclear. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as an RNA class with regulatory functions in health and diseases. Here, we analyzed the expression of lncRNAs after different exercise training programs and their possible modes of action related to physical exercise adaptations.MethodsPublic high-throughput RNA-seq data (skeletal muscle biopsies) were downloaded, and bioinformatics analysis was performed. We primarily analyzed data reports of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), and...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Effect of Different Dietary Sugars on the Development and Fecundity of Harmonia axyridis
The aim of this study was to screen synergistic substances included in existing artificial feeds in order to improve the fertility and survival rate of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), an efficient pest predator. To this end, we analyzed the potential effects of glucose and trehalose on the growth, development, and reproduction of H. axyridis and evaluated the effect of three different artificial feeds on the energy stress of H. axyridis. The artificial diets contained fresh pork liver, honey, sucrose, vitamin C, and royal jelly, which was marked it as Diet1. The glucose was added to diet1, which was...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Using Electrical Impedance Myography as a Biomarker of Muscle Deconditioning in Rats Exposed to Micro- and Partial-Gravity Analogs
As astronauts prepare to undertake new extra-terrestrial missions, innovative diagnostic tools are needed to better assess muscle deconditioning during periods of weightlessness and partial gravity. Electrical impedance myography (EIM) has been used to detect muscle deconditioning in rodents exposed to microgravity during spaceflight or using the standard ground-based model of hindlimb unloading via tail suspension (HU). Here, we used EIM to assess muscle changes in animals exposed to two new models: hindlimb suspension using a pelvic harness (HLS) and a partial weight-bearing (PWB) model that mimics partial gravity (inclu...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Heat Shock Factor Is Involved in Regulating the Transcriptional Expression of Two Potential Hsps (AhHsp70 and AhsHsp21) and Its Role in Heat Shock Response of Agasicles hygrophila
In this study, one heat shock factor gene (AhHsf) was isolated and its two potential target genes (AhHsp70 and AhsHsp21) were confirmed from Agasicles hygrophila. AhHsf sequence analysis indicated that it belongs to the Hsfs gene family. RT-qPCR showed that expression levels of heat shock factors and of two heat shock proteins significantly increased under heat stress. Injection with double-stranded Hsf RNA in freshly emerged adult beetles significantly inhibited expression of AhHsp70 and AhsHsp21, shortened the adult survival, drastically reduced egg production, and ultimately led to a decrease in fecundity. RNA interfere...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Repurposing Antidiabetic Drugs for Cardiovascular Disease
Metabolic diseases and diabetes represent an increasing global challenge for human health care. As associated with a strongly elevated risk of developing atherosclerosis, kidney failure and death from myocardial infarction or stroke, the treatment of diabetes requires a more effective approach than lowering blood glucose levels. This review summarizes the evidence for the cardioprotective benefits induced by antidiabetic agents, including sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP1-RA), along with sometimes conversely discussed effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhib...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Functional Changes in Chronic Kidney Disease: Integrative Physiology, Pathophysiology and Applications of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing
This article reviews the integrative physiology and pathophysiology of cardio-renal impairment, critical new insights derived from CPET technology, and contemporary evidence for potential applications of CPET technology in patients with kidney disease. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Improving the EMA Binding Test by Using Commercially Available Fluorescent Beads
Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a common anemia caused by germline mutations in red blood cell cytoskeleton proteins. The flow cytometry-based eosin-5′-maleimide (EMA) binding test is most frequently employed for reliable diagnostics. To perform this test, a number of healthy and ideally also age-matched controls are required, which can be challenging and complicates interlaboratory comparisons. To overcome this limitation, we modified the EMA binding test by replacing healthy controls with commercially available fluorescent beads. Blood samples from 289 individuals with suspected HS were analyzed using the EMA bind...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Increased Transglutaminase 2 Expression and Activity in Rodent Models of Obesity/Metabolic Syndrome and Aging
Diastolic dysfunction of the heart and decreased compliance of the vasculature and lungs (i.e., increased organ tissue stiffness) are known features of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Similarly, cardiac diastolic dysfunction is associated with aging. Elevation of the enzyme transglutaminase 2 (TG2) leads to protein cross-linking and enhanced collagen synthesis and participates as a candidate pathway for development of tissue stiffness. With these observations in mind we hypothesized that TG2 may be elevated in tissues of a rat model of obesity/metabolic syndrome (the ZSF 1 rat) and a mouse model of aging, i.e., the sen...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Dynamic Interplay Between Cardiac Inflammation and Fibrosis
Heart failure is a leading cause of death worldwide. While there are multiple etiologies contributing to the development of heart failure, all cause result in impairments in cardiac function that is characterized by changes in cardiac remodeling and compliance. Fibrosis is associated with nearly all forms of heart failure and is an important contributor to disease pathogenesis. Inflammation also plays a critical role in the heart and there is a large degree of interconnectedness between the inflammatory and fibrotic response. This review discusses the cellular and molecular mechanisms contributing to inflammation and fibro...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Monte Carlo Simulations of the GE Signa PET/MR for Different Radioisotopes
ConclusionMonte-Carlo simulations were used to predict sensitivity and NECR performance of GE Signa PET/MR for 18F, 15O, 13N, 11C, 82Rb, and 68Ga radioisotopes and were in line with literature data. Simulations confirmed that sensitivity and NECR were influenced by the particular decay scheme of each isotope. As expected, the positron range decreased in the direction perpendicular to the 3T magnetic field. However, this will be only partially improving the resolution properties of a clinical PET/MR system due to the limiting spatial resolution of the PET detector. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Metabolic Regulation, Oxygen Limitation and Heat Tolerance in a Subtidal Marine Gastropod Reveal the Complexity of Predicting Climate Change Vulnerability
Predictions for climate vulnerability of ectotherms have focused on performance-enhancing physiology, even though an organism’s energetic state can also be balanced by lowering resting maintenance costs. Adaptive metabolic depression (hypometabolism) enables animals to endure food scarcity, and physically extreme and variable environmental conditions. Hypometabolism is common in terrestrial and intertidal marine gastropod species, though this physiology and tolerance of environmental change are poorly understood in subtidal benthic gastropods. We investigated oxygen limitation tolerance, hypometabolism and thermal pe...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Circulating Ceramide: A New Cardiometabolic Biomarker in Patients With Comorbid Acute Coronary Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
This study investigated the association of circulating ceramides in patients with comorbid acute coronary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (ACS-DM).MethodsA total of 761 patients with coronary heart disease who were admitted to the Department of Cardiology at the Chinese PLA General Hospital from March to August 2018 were enrolled in this study. Of these 761 patients, 282 were diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We selected 65 patients with ACS-DM (ACS-DM group; mean age 64.88 years; 38 men) and 65 patients with ACS but without any comorbidities (ACS group; mean age 64.68 years; 38 men); the two groups were ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

New Insights Into Heat Shock Protein 90 in the Pathogenesis of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a multifactorial and progressive disorder. This disease is characterized by vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling, which results in increased pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Although extensive studies have been carried out to understand the etiology, it is still unclear what intracellular factors contribute and integrate these pathological features. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a ubiquitous and essential molecular chaperone, is involved in the maturation of many proteins. An increasing number of studies have revealed direct connections between abnor...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Rolf Method of Structural Integration on Fascial Tissue Stiffness, Elasticity, and Superficial Blood Perfusion in Healthy Individuals: The Prospective, Interventional Study
Introduction: There are multiple theories surrounding the physiological impact of structural integration (SI) with little evidence or research corroborating any of these. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of 10 sessions of SI on fascial tissue (FT) superficial blood perfusion, stiffness, and elasticity in 13 healthy women.Methods: This was a prospective, interventional study. The primary outcome measures were FTs’ superficial blood perfusion, stiffness, and elasticity of bilateral selected FT points on the body. Data were collected before and after 10 sessions of SI intervention. Statistical analys...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Mobility in Older Community-Dwelling Persons: A Narrative Review
Due to the demographic changes and the increasing awareness of the role of physical function, mobility in older age is becoming an important topic. Mobility limitations have been reported as increasingly prevalent in older persons affecting about 35% of persons aged 70 and the majority of persons over 85 years. Mobility limitations have been associated with increased fall risk, hospitalization, a decreased quality of life, and even mortality. As concepts of mobility are multifactorial and complex, in this narrative review, definitions, physical factors, and their age-related changes associated with mobility will be present...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Identification and Profiling of MicroRNAs During Embryogenesis in the Red Claw Crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small non-coding RNAs that constitute a broad layer of gene regulation at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. In embryonic development, they regulate the complex gene expression associated with the complexity of embryogenesis. There is little information about miRNAs in the red claw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus), an important commercial species and a potential biological model. In the present study, miRNAs and their target genes were identified during three embryonic developmental stages of C. quadricarinatus. Nineteen known miRNAs and 3...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 15, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Long-Chain Acylcarnitines and Cardiac Excitation-Contraction Coupling: Links to Arrhythmias
A growing number of metabolomic studies have associated high circulating levels of the amphiphilic fatty acid metabolites, long-chain acylcarnitines (LCACs), with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. These studies show that plasma LCAC levels can be correlated with the stage and severity of CVD and with indices of cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular function. Complementing these recent clinical associations is an extensive body of basic research that stems mostly from the twentieth century. These works, performed in cardiomyocyte and multicellular preparations from animal and cell models, highlight stereotypical derangements...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 11, 2020 Category: Physiology Source Type: research