Increasing Upstream Chromatin Long –Range Interactions May Favor Induction of Circular RNAs in LysoPC-Activated Human Aortic Endothelial Cells
Increasing Upstream Chromatin Long–Range Interactions May Favor Induction of Circular RNAs in LysoPC-Activated Human Aortic Endothelial Cells Angus Li1,2†, Yu Sun1†, Charles Drummer IV1, Yifan Lu1, Daohai Yu3, Yan Zhou4, Xinyuan Li1, Simone J. Pearson1, Candice Johnson1, Catherine Yu5, William Y. Yang1, Kevin Mastascusa1, Xiaohua Jiang1, Jianxin Sun6, Thomas Rogers7, Wenhui Hu1, Hong Wang1 and Xiaofeng Yang1,7* 1Center for Metabolic Disease Research, Lewis Katz School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pratt School of Engineering...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Mechanisms Through Which Some Mitochondria-Generated Metabolites Act as Second Messengers That Are Essential Contributors to the Aging Process in Eukaryotes Across Phyla
Conclusions In this review, we analyzed mechanisms through which mitobolites, a distinct set of mitochondria-generated metabolites, can be released from mitochondria and then act as second messengers that contribute to cellular and organismal aging by regulating longevity-defining processes outside of mitochondria. Our analysis indicates that in eukaryotes across phyla, these second messengers of cellular aging exhibit the following common features: (1) they are produced in mitochondria in response to certain changes in the nutrient, stress, proliferation or age status of the cell; it remains unknown, however, what kind o...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Modeling Modulation of the Tick Regulome in Response to Anaplasma phagocytophilum for the Identification of New Control Targets
In this study, we applied complementary in silico approaches to modeling how Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection modulates tick vector regulome. This proof-of-concept research provided support for the use of network analysis in the study of regulome response to infection, resulting in new information on tick-pathogen interactions and potential targets for developing interventions for the control of tick infestations and pathogen transmission. Deciphering the precise nature of circuits that shape the tick regulome in response to pathogen infection is an area of research that in the future will advance our knowledge of tick-...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Cardiovascular Parameters in a Swine Model of Normobaric Hypoxia Treated With 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-Furfural (5-HMF)
Conclusion: 5-HMF treatment decreased P50, improved SaO2, and mitigated increases in PAP in this swine model of NH. Introduction The reduction of barometric pressure at altitude is associated with reduced partial pressure of ambient Oxygen (PO2). With lower ambient PO2, it can be anticipated that alveolar (PAO2), arterial O2 (PaO2) and blood O2 content (CaO2) will decrease accordingly, resulting in a widely recognized decrease in maximal O2 consumption (VO2) (Dill and Adams, 1972; Lucas et al., 2011). In humans, with acute exposure to altitude, maximal VO2 decrements are measurable at elevations even as low as 580 ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Effect of Resveratrol on the Composition and State of Lipids and the Activity of Phospholipase A2 During the Excitation and Regeneration of Somatic Nerves
Discussion It has been known that lipids participate in the functions of cell membranes that are related to their composition and high exchange rate, and various fatty acids determines the bilayer physical state and the ability to oxidize (Revin et al., 2006). Using layer chromatography, we investigated the change in lipid composition of the rat nerve after stimulation, damage, and resveratrol action. From the studies on the changes in individual phospholipid compositions in the rat nerve, it was eslished that the content of phosphatidylethanolamine (PEA) in the nerve (of the first experimental group) was 236.56 ±...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Effect of Changing the Contraction Mode During Resistance Training on mTORC1 Signaling and Muscle Protein Synthesis
In conclusion, changing the contraction mode to EC does not reinvigorate the blunted mTORC1 activation and MPS in response to RE during chronic RT. Introduction Resistance exercise is known to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS), and chronic resistance exercise training induces muscle hypertrophy (Ogasawara et al., 2016). Muscle hypertrophy is believed to occur as increased MPS enables new myofibrils to be added to pre-existing muscle fibers (Glass, 2003). Although the detailed molecular mechanisms of the resistance exercise-induced increase in MPS remain unclear, recent research revealed that the both rapamyc...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Sensory Machinery of the Head Louse Pediculus humanus capitis: From the Antennae to the Brain
This study showed that although head lice are arrested around human scalp samples, they did not show differences between the human samples of different volunteers nor with the aging of the scalp sample (i.e., 60 h-old samples are as much attractive as 0 h-old samples) (Ortega Insaurralde et al., 2016). Thus, a piece of filter paper (1 cm × 1 cm) was rubbed during 30 s against the scalp of one 30-year-old female volunteer who had not bathed or used perfumed products in the 24 h previous to the extraction. Immediately after rubbing, the filter paper was located at one side of the circ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Astrocyte as Spatiotemporal Integrating Detector of Neuronal Activity
In this study we show that different level of the neuronal activity can trigger Ca2+ dynamics in astrocyte with various spatio-temporal characteristics which can lead to different astrocytic-induced regulatory effects on synaptic transmission. The minimal synaptic activity causes the fast and local Ca2+ elevation in astrocytic process. This small Ca2+ signal triggers the gliotransmission in the active synapse induces localized regulatory astrocytic feedback of the synapse (Figure 6). Increasing frequency of synaptic activity can produce Ca2+ signal which can spread to another astrocytic process (Figure 7) and to the whole ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Increasing upstream chromatin long-range interactions may favor induction of circular RNAs in lysoPC-activated human aortic endothelial cells
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Keeping Athletes Healthy at the 2020 Tokyo Summer Games: Considerations and Illness Prevention Strategies
Conclusion It is apparent that athletes will be exposed to various stressors during both the preparatory and competition phases of the Summer Games. Athletes residing in the southern hemisphere appear to be at increased risk for illness during the preparatory phase, while female, Paralympic, water-sport and multi-competition/event athletes may be more susceptible to illness during the competition phase of the Summer Games. To maintain athlete health, illness prevention strategies should be targeted to stressors and at-risk athletes. Keeping athletes healthy will contribute to optimal Olympic and Paralympic athletic perfor...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Association Between Muscle Deoxygenation and Muscle Hypertrophy to Blood Flow Restricted Training Performed at High and Low Loads
In conclusion, our results suggest that the addition of BFR to exercise contributes to neuromuscular adaptations only when RT is performed with low-load. Furthermore, we found a significant association between the changes in [HHb] (i.e., metabolic stress) and increases in muscle CSA from T2 to T3 only for the LL-BFR, when muscle edema was attenuated. Introduction Resistance training- (RT) induced changes in muscle strength are partially due to increases in muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) (i.e., muscle hypertrophy) and changes in muscle architecture (e.g., increase in the pennation angle of muscle fibers) (Aagaard...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Transmission of a Protease-Secreting Bacterial Symbiont Among Pea Aphids via Host Plants
Marisa Skaljac1, Heiko Vogel2, Natalie Wielsch2, Sanja Mihajlovic1 and Andreas Vilcinskas1,3* 1Branch for Bioresources, Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology, Giessen, Germany 2Entomology Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Jena, Germany 3Institute for Insect Biotechnology, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany Aphids are economically important pest insects that damage plants by phloem feeding and the transmission of plant viruses. Their ability to feed exclusively on nutritionally poor phloem sap is dependent on the obligatory symbiotic bacterium Buch...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Dose-Response Relationship Between External Load Variables, Body Composition, and Fitness Variables in Professional Soccer Players
Conclusion This study analyzed the associations between accumulated external load variables and changes in body composition and fitness variables after a 10-week period of soccer training. Main findings regarding the pre- and post-assessments revealed almost certain large increases of VO2max (7.5%), moderate-to-large increases in hamstrings peak torque and likely moderate-to-large increases of agonist/antagonist ratios of isokinetic strength. Associations with load variables revealed that the accumulated duration of sessions was largely and inversely associated with % of changes in VO2max and hamstrings and quadriceps pea...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Repeated Changes to the Gravitational Field Negatively Affect the Serum Concentration of Select Growth Factors and Cytokines
Ulrik Stervbo1†, Toralf Roch2†, Timm H. Westhoff1, Ludmyla Gayova3, Andrii Kurchenko3, Felix S. Seibert1‡ and Nina Babel1,2*‡ 1Center for Translational Medicine, Medical Department I, Marien Hospital Herne, University Hospitals of the Ruhr-University of Bochum, Herne, Germany 2Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin-Brandenburg Center for Regenerative Therapies, Berlin, Germany 3Department of Bioorganic and Biological Chemistry, Bogomolets National M...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

FGF21 as Modulator of Metabolism in Health and Disease
In conclusion, FGF21 belongs to a promising class of cytokines that are induced in response to stress and that can be used as a drug, drug target, or through a biomarker, depending on the physio-pathological context. All these findings will become clear when FGF21 will be used as a therapeutic molecule, exploiting the beneficial effects of FGF21 for treating metabolic disease or when it will be blocked to ameliorate disease progression and the onset of disease. Author Contributions CT and MS wrote the manuscript. VR contributed to the discussion. Funding This work was supported from the AFM-Telethon (19524), Italian Mi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Blood Flow Restriction Exercise Attenuates the Exercise-Induced Endothelial Progenitor Cell Response in Healthy, Young Men
Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to show that BFR exercise did not augment EPC response to exercise, and in fact blunted the EPC response to low load unilateral KE exercise in young, healthy males. Ethics Statement This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of Edinburgh Napier University Research and Ethics Governance Committee. The study was ethically approved by Edinburgh Napier University Research and Ethics Governance Committee. All participants gave written informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Author Contributions MR, RM, AP, CW, GF-J designed the s...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 17, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Body Composition and Body Weight Changes at Different Altitude Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Tobias Dünnwald1†, Hannes Gatterer2†, Martin Faulhaber3, Marjan Arvandi4 and Wolfgang Schobersberger1,5* 1Institute for Sports Medicine, Alpine Medicine & Health Tourism, UMIT – University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, Hall in Tirol, Austria 2Institute of Mountain Emergency Medicine, EURAC Research, Bolzano, Italy 3Department of Sport Science, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria 4Institute of Public Health, Medical Decision Making and HTA, Department for Public Health, Medical Decision Making and Health Technology Assessment, UMIT – University ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

How Hypertension Affects Heart Metabolism
Conclusion Myocardial energy metabolism is a complex process, which consists of a network of biochemical reactions and pathways. The initial stage is energy substrate utilization due to its uptake and metabolism as well as following participation of intermediates in TCA cycle. Then mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation enables generation of ATP molecules, and finally, the creatine kinase system transports ATP from mitochondria to the sarcomeres. In the light of the foregoing evidence, metabolism of the heart subjected to pressure overload may be disturbed in all of this areas. In spite of differences among humans and an...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Systems Biology Approaches and Precision Oral Health: A Circadian Clock Perspective
Conclusion Most head and neck pathologies show a broad cellular heterogeneity making it difficult to achieve an accurate diagnosis and efficient treatment (Graf and Zavodszky, 2017; Lo Nigro et al., 2017). Single cell analysis of circadian omics (Lande-Diner et al., 2015; Abraham et al., 2018), may be a crucial tool needed in the future to fully understand the circadian control of head and neck diseases. It becomes more obvious that there is only a small genetic component but a largely unknown epigenetics and/or environmental component for most of the head and neck pathologies (Moosavi and Motevalizadeh Ardekani, 2016; He...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Influence of the Gut Microbiome on Host Metabolism Through the Regulation of Gut Hormone Release
Alyce M. Martin1, Emily W. Sun1, Geraint B. Rogers2,3 and Damien J. Keating1,4* 1Molecular and Cellular Physiology Laboratory, College of Medicine and Public Health, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia 2Microbiome Research Laboratory, Flinders University, Adelaide, SA, Australia 3Infection and Immunity, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia 4Nutrition and Metabolism, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, SA, Australia The microbial community of the gut conveys significant benefits to host physiology. A clear relationship has now bee...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Bovine Milk Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) Modification Elicits Skeletal Muscle Growth in Rats
Conclusion Sonication is a newer approach to understanding how EVs obtained through the diet may affect the physiology of an organism. Notably, the changes observed in gastrocnemius fCSA, transcriptome, miRNA, and oxidative stress markers in rats suggest that modulating bovine milk-derived EVs may affect skeletal muscle physiology. Ethics Statement All experimental procedures were approved by Auburn University’s Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC, protocol #2017-3081). Author Contributions AK, MDR, KY, and JZ contributed conception and design of the study. HP, CM, PM, MAR, CH, YZ, PR, and IV cont...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Ten-Year Legacy Effects of Three Eight-Month Exercise Training Programs on Cardiometabolic Health Parameters
Johanna L. Johnson1, Cris A. Slentz1*, Leanna M. Ross1, Kim M. Huffman1 and William E. Kraus1,2 1Duke Molecular Physiology Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States 2Division of Cardiology and Urbaniak Sports Sciences Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States Background: STRRIDE (Studies Targeting Risk Reduction Interventions through Defined Exercise) was an eight-month exercise study conducted from 1998–2003. Subjects were randomized to control or one of three exercise groups differing in intensity and amount. To determine if there were legacy effects,...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Exercise Overrides Blunted Hypoxic Ventilatory Response in Prematurely Born Men
Tadej Debevec1,2*, Vincent Pialoux3,4, Grégoire P. Millet5, Agnès Martin3,6, Minca Mramor7 and Damjan Osredkar8 1Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia 2Department of Automation, Biocybernetics and Robotics, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana, Slovenia 3Laboratoire Interuniversitaire de Biologie de la Motricité, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France 4Institut Universitaire de France, Paris, France 5Faculty of Biology and Medicine, Institute of Sport Sciences of the University of Lausanne, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland 6Master BioScien...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Atmospheric Electricity Influencing Biogeochemical Processes in Soils and Sediments
We present evidence supporting the proposed linkages and identify challenges for future research. Drivers of Spatio-Temporal Variability in Earth’s Subsurface Electrochemistry Small-scale variation in the electrochemical properties of sediments and soils are mainly controlled by biotic influences. For instance, locomotive activity of invertebrates that rework soils and sediments (bioturbation) is a well-known driver of micro to millimeter-scale redox conditions in both soils and sediments (Tokida et al., 2007; Hunting et al., 2012). Bacterial metabolic activity, in particular, is considered to be mainly controlled ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Diabetes and Hypertension Differentially Affect Renal Catecholamines and Renal Reactive Oxygen Species
Anna M. D. Watson1,2*, Eleanor A. M. Gould2, Sally A. Penfold2, Gavin W. Lambert2,3, Putra Riza Pratama2, Aozhi Dai1, Stephen P. Gray2, Geoffrey A. Head2† and Karin A. Jandeleit-Dahm1,2† 1Department of Diabetes, Central Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia 2Baker Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, VIC, Australia 3Iverson Health Innovation Research Institute, Faculty of Health, Arts and Design, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC, Australia Patients with diabetic hypertensive nephropathy have accelerated ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Multimodal Optical Diagnostics of the Microhaemodynamics in Upper and Lower Limbs
This article presents an overview on recent advances in optical non-invasive diagnostics of the peripheral hemodynamics of the upper and lower limbs in rheumatological and endocrinological profile patients. Among these are laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), tissue reflectance oximetry (TRO), pulse oximetry (PO) and fluorescent spectroscopy (FS). The laser Doppler flowmetry method allows for investigating the blood flow in the microcirculatory bed in vivo. The method is based on probing the tissue with laser radiation and analyzing back reflected from the tissue radiation partially scattered from moving red blood cells (Bonner...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Sleep Is Compromised in −12° Head Down Tilt Position
Sleep Is Compromised in −12° Head Down Tilt Position Alessa L. Boschert1*, David Elmenhorst2,3, Peter Gauger1, Zhili Li4, Maria T. Garcia-Gutierrez5, Darius Gerlach1, Bernd Johannes1, Jochen Zange1, Andreas Bauer2,6 and Jörn Rittweger1,7 1Department of Muscle and Bone Metabolism, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany 2Forschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-2), Jülich, Germany 3Division of Medical Psychology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany 4State Key Laboratory of Space Medicine Fundamentals and Application, China ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Landing-Takeoff Asymmetries Applied to Running Mechanics: A New Perspective for Performance
This study aimed to compare elastic bouncing parameters between the higher- and lower-performing athletes in a 3000 m test. Methods: Thirty-eight endurance runners (men) were divided into two groups based on 3000 m performance: the high-performance group (Phigh; n = 19; age: 29 ± 5 years; mass: 72.9 ± 10 kg; stature: 177 ± 8 cm; 3000time: 656 ± 32 s) and the low-performance group (Plow; n = 19; age: 32 ± 6 years; mass: 73.9 ± 7 kg; stature: 175 ± 5 cm; 3000time: 751 ± 29 s). They performed three tests on different days: (i) 3000 m on a track; (ii) incremental running...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Red Blood Cell Membrane Conductance in Hereditary Haemolytic Anaemias
Conclusion Trying to summarize and come up with a common channel increased activity/dysfunction or just an effect (decrease or increase in conductance) accompanying RBCs ion disbalance disorders, we stumble upon a great variability in results. Such a variability is of course reflecting the many triggers of the disbalance and for sure not lessened by the fact that not only between different mutations but also among members of a family with the same mutation there are distinct differences starting from the severity of the disease and extending down to the cellular level. Such a summary is even harder and certainly not helpe...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Influence of Habitual Physical Behavior – Sleeping, Sedentarism, Physical Activity – On Bone Health in Community-Dwelling Older People
Influence of Habitual Physical Behavior – Sleeping, Sedentarism, Physical Activity – On Bone Health in Community-Dwelling Older People Gladys Onambele-Pearson1*, Jorgen Wullems1,2, Conor Doody1, Declan Ryan1,3, Christopher Morse1 and Hans Degens4,5,6 1Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom 2Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium 3Faculty of Health and Society, University of Northampton, Northampton, United Kingdom 4School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, United Kingdom 5In...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Relationship of Pre-season Training Load With In-Season Biochemical Markers, Injuries and Performance in Professional Soccer Players
Conclusion: Our study showed that pre-season training load is not associated with overall team performance. This association is most likely multifactorial and other factors (e.g., technical and tactical level of the team, opponents, environment) may play an important role for the collective team performance. Our findings may help coaches to better prepare their athletes during pre-season. Introduction Physiological demands in soccer have changed over the past years. In fact, the intensity level of soccer matches has increased tremendously (Carling et al., 2010; Clemente et al., 2013). Today, the average percentage ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome-Associated Genes Are Enriched in Motile Neural Crest Cells and Affect Craniofacial Development in Xenopus laevis
Alexandra Mills†, Elizabeth Bearce†, Rachael Cella, Seung Woo Kim, Megan Selig, Sangmook Lee and Laura Anne Lowery* Biology Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, United States Wolf-Hirschhorn Syndrome (WHS) is a human developmental disorder arising from a hemizygous perturbation, typically a microdeletion, on the short arm of chromosome four. In addition to pronounced intellectual disability, seizures, and delayed growth, WHS presents with a characteristic facial dysmorphism and varying prevalence of microcephaly, micrognathia, cartilage malformation in the ear and nose, and facial asymmetr...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

An Evaluation of Personal Cooling Systems for Reducing Thermal Strain Whilst Working in Chemical/Biological Protective Clothing
Conclusion: The IV, PCM, and SLIV produced lower heart rate, mean skin, rectal and mean body temperatures in addition to improved work times compared to control. The WS did not improve work times possibly as a result of the cooling capacity of the suit abating, and magnifying thermal insulation. Considering the added time and resources required to implement combination cooling in the form of ice slurry and ice vest (SLIV), there was no significant additive effect for perception, cardiovascular strain, rectal temperature and total trial time relative to the phase change vest or ice vest alone. This may be a product of a &ld...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Physiological, Anthropometric, and Motor Characteristics of Elite Chinese Youth Athletes From Six Different Sports
This study evaluated the concurrent validity of physiological performance prerequisites, body dimensions, as well as specific motor performances. The sample consisted of N = 97 youth athletes from all ninth grade classes of a Shanghai Elite Sport school belonging to six different sports including basketball (n = 7), fencing (n = 23), judo (n = 20), swimming (n = 10), table tennis (n = 15), and volleyball (n = 22). The performance diagnosis took place between September 2016 and March 2017, and comprised five physiological measurements of the heart rate at rest, vital capacity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and hemo...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Lipidomics Reveals Seasonal Shifts in a Large-Bodied Hibernator, the Brown Bear
In this study, we aimed to investigate the seasonal changes in retention and mobilization of lipids from various categories, which are expected to significantly impact on metabolisms, in wild Scandinavian brown bears (Ursus arctos). For this purpose and because lipids are found under many different forms and have pleiotropic actions, we used a lipidomic approach to determine the lipid composition in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissues (to assess lipid retention), and in blood plasma (reflecting lipid trafficking) of bears during winter hibernation and the summer active period. Specifically, we hypothesized that bears...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Gross Motor Skills Training Leads to Increased Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Healthy Older Adults: A Pilot Study
Conclusion This study supports the notion that exercise programs with a focus on gross motor skills development could result in elevated BDNF concentrations in healthy older adults. Furthermore, improvements in cognitive performances could be observed without significant concomitant increases in BDNF levels. Ethics Statement This study was approved and carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the ethics guidelines of the Comité d’éthique de la recherche vieillissement-neuroimagerie du CIUSSS du Centre-Sud-de-l’île-de-Montréal with written informed consent from all subj...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Why Do Birds Flock? A Role for Opioids in the Reinforcement of Gregarious Social Interactions
Lauren V. Riters1*, Cynthia A. Kelm-Nelson2 and Jeremy A. Spool3 1Department of Integrative Biology, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, United States 2Division of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI, United States 3Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, United States The formation of social groups provides safety and opportunities for individuals to develop and practice important social skills. However, joining a social group does not result in any form of obv...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Mating Status of an Herbivorous Stink Bug Female Affects the Emission of Oviposition-Induced Plant Volatiles Exploited by an Egg Parasitoid
This study contributed to better understanding the host location process by egg parasitoids and laid the basis for the chemical characterization of the elicitor responsible for OIPV emission. Introduction Hymenopteran parasitoids play a key ecological role in many ecosystems and these insects have been recently suggested to be the most species-rich group within the animal kingdom (Forbes et al., 2018). Many parasitoid species are natural enemies of insect pests, which can be used in integrated pest management with the aim of reducing pesticide applications (van Lenteren, 2012; Heimpel and Mills, 2017). One of the k...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Astragalus and Ginseng Polysaccharides Improve Developmental, Intestinal Morphological, and Immune Functional Characters of Weaned Piglets
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the care and use of laboratory animals, Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University. The protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Hangzhou, China (SYXKzhe 2016-087). TABLE 1 Table 1. Composition and nutrient levels of the basal diet. Preparation of Aps and Gps The polysaccharide product had a purity of 80% and a molecular weight of 20,000–60,000. Aps was composed of hexanoic acid, glucose, fructose, rhamnose, arabinose, and galac...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Role of Muscle Perfusion in the Age-Associated Decline of Mitochondrial Function in Healthy Individuals
Fatemeh Adelnia1*, Donnie Cameron1,2, Christopher M. Bergeron3, Kenneth W. Fishbein3, Richard G. Spencer3, David A. Reiter1,4 and Luigi Ferrucci1* 1Translational Gerontology Branch, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, United States 2Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom 3Laboratory of Clinical Investigation, Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, United States 4Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University,...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Computational Modeling of Glucose Uptake in the Enterocyte
Nima Afshar1, Soroush Safaei1, David P. Nickerson1, Peter J. Hunter1 and Vinod Suresh1,2* 1Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand 2Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Absorption of glucose across the epithelial cells of the small intestine is a key process in human nutrition and initiates signaling cascades that regulate metabolic homeostasis. Validated and predictive mathematical models of glucose transport in intestinal epithelial cells are essential for interpreting experimental data, generating hypotheses, and understandin...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 12, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Benefits of Motor Imagery for Human Space Flight: A Brief Review of Current Knowledge and Future Applications
Conclusion: How to Implement MI Into the Preparation and Mission of the Astronauts Motor imagery should ideally be performed before, during, and after exposure to microgravity to prepare for the lack of gravity, counteract the effects of weightlessness and promote the re-adaptation to normogravity. A quite similar theoretical viewpoint had been nicely proposed by Bock et al. (2015), who more specifically focused on the preparation period few days before landing. These authors developed two phases of individual MI training program to reach an optimal level of preparation before exposure to microgravity. In the first phase,...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 11, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Experimental Analysis of Viral –Host Interactions
Experimental Analysis of Viral–Host Interactions Joseph Gillen and Aleksandra Nita-Lazar* Laboratory of Immune System Biology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States Viral and pathogen protein complexity is often limited by their relatively small genomes, thus critical functions are often accomplished by complexes of host and pathogen proteins. This requirement makes the study of host–pathogen interactions critical for the understanding of pathogenicity and virology. This review article discusses proteomic methods that offer an ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 11, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Self-Assembly of an Organized Cementum-Periodontal Ligament-Like Complex Using Scaffold-Free Tissue Engineering
In this study, scaffold-free tissue constructs engineered using periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs), which contain a population of adult stem/progenitor cells, self-assembled into an organized multi-tissue structure comprising a mineralized cementum-like core enclosed within a periodontal ligament (PDL)-like tissue. Scaffold-free engineered constructs were formed by culturing human PDLCs to form a cell sheet on six-well dishes containing two minutien pins placed 7 mm apart. The cell sheet was contracted by the cells to roll into the pins forming a cylindrical construct anchored on either end by the pins. These tissues ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 11, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Sickle Cell Disease Subjects Have a Distinct Abnormal Autonomic Phenotype Characterized by Peripheral Vasoconstriction With Blunted Cardiac Response to Head-Up Tilt
In this study, we used HUT as the means to provide an all-encompassing assessment of cardiac and/or peripheral autonomic function in normal controls, SCD subjects and non-SCD subjects with chronic anemia. We hypothesized that by identifying different categories of HUT response among these subjects, we would be able to isolate the autonomic phenotypes that might place SCD subjects at increased risk for microvascular occlusion and VOC. We then employed the causal modeling approach, which utilizes signal analysis and system identification techniques, to probe and disentangle the functional mechanisms involved in the cardiovas...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 11, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Tissue Oxygenation in Response to Different Relative Levels of Blood-Flow Restricted Exercise
Joana F. Reis1,2,3*, Pedro Fatela3,4,5, Goncalo V. Mendonca2,4, Joao R. Vaz2,3,6, Maria J. Valamatos2,4,5, Jorge Infante7, Pedro Mil-Homens2,4,5 and Francisco B. Alves1,2 1Laboratory of Physiology and Biochemistry of Exercise, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal 2Ciper, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal 3Universidade Europeia, Lisbon, Portugal 4Neuromuscular Research Lab, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal 5Biomechanics and Functional Morphology Laboratory, Faculdade de Motrocidade Humana, Univers...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 11, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Elite Swimmers ’ Training Patterns in the 25 Weeks Prior to Their Season’s Best Performances: Insights Into Periodization From a 20-Years Cohort
This study investigated the periodization of elite swimmers’ training over the 25 weeks preceding the major competition of the season. Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of elite male (n = 60) and female (n = 67) swimmers (46 sprint, 81 middle-distance) over 20 competitive seasons (1992–2012). The following variables were monitored: training corresponding to blood lactate 4–6 mmol⋅L-1,>6 mmol⋅L-1, and maximal swimming speed; general conditioning and maximal strength training hours; total training load (TTL); and the mean normalized volumes for both in-water and dryland...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Aortic Wall Elastic Properties in Case of Bicuspid Aortic Valve
Guillaume Goudot1, Tristan Mirault2,3, Patrick Bruneval2,4, Gilles Soulat5, Mathieu Pernot1 and Emmanuel Messas2,3* 1INSERM U1273, ESPCI Paris, CNRS FRE 2031, Physics for Medicine Paris, PSL Research University, Paris, France 2Centre de Référence des Maladies Vasculaires Rares, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Paris, France 3INSERM U970 PARCC, Paris Descartes University – Sorbonne Paris Cité University, Paris, France 4Service d’Anatomie Pathologique, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Assistanc...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Mitofusin 2 Participates in Mitophagy and Mitochondrial Fusion Against Angiotensin II-Induced Cardiomyocyte Injury
Conclusion: Mitofusin 2 promotes Parkin translocation and phosphorylation, leading to mitophagy to clear damaged mitochondria. However, the beneficial effects of MFN2 were reversed by autophagy inhibitors. Additionally, MFN2 participates in mitochondrial fusion to maintain mitochondrial quality. Thus, MFN2 participated in mitophagy and mitochondrial fusion against Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte injury. Introduction Ventricular remodeling is the core foundation for the development of heart failure (Hill and Olson, 2008). Pathological remodeling is typically due to a number of causes that result in increased pressure o...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A Short-Term High-Fat Diet Alters Glutathione Levels and IL-6 Gene Expression in Oxidative Skeletal Muscles of Young Rats
This study was carried out in strict accordance with recommendations of the National Institutes of Health guide for the care and use of Laboratory animals. Before undergoing the experimental work, the protocol was approved by the Comité Institutionnel de Protection des Animaux (CIPA) of UQAM (Permit Number: 0515-R3–759-0516). After a 3-day acclimatization period at UQAM’s animal facility, young (100–125 g; approximately 4 weeks old) male Wistar rats (Charles River, St-Constant, QC, Canada) were randomly fed with a regular chow diet (RCD; n = 13) or HFD (n = 12) for 14&...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - April 10, 2019 Category: Physiology Source Type: research