Robust Reductions of Body Weight and Food Intake by an Oxytocin Analog in Rats
Conclusion: This study provides proof-of-concept data demonstrating an oxytocin analog with extended in vivo stability and improved potency to reduce food intake and body weight in DIO animals which could mark a new avenue in anti-obesity drug interventions. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Acute Kidney Injury Increase Risk of Left Ventricular Remodeling: A Cohort of 1,573 Patients
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after coronary angiography (CAG) and associated with heart failure (HF). Left ventricular (LV) remodeling is a vital process in the progression of HF. However, few studies investigate the relationship between AKI and LV remodeling.Methods: We included consecutive patients undergoing CAG from January 2007 to December 2018 at Guangdong Provincial People’s Hospital (NCT04407936). AKI was defined as an absolute increase in serum creatinine (Scr) of ≥ 0.3mg/dl or a ≥ 50% increase in Scr from baseline within the first 48–72 h after the procedure. LV...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Paternal Resistance Exercise Modulates Skeletal Muscle Remodeling Pathways in Fathers and Male Offspring Submitted to a High-Fat Diet
Although some studies have shown that a high-fat diet (HFD) adversely affects muscle extracellular matrix remodeling, the mechanisms involved in muscle trophism, inflammation, and adipogenesis have not been fully investigated. Thus, we investigated the effects of 8 weeks of paternal resistance training (RT) on gene and protein expression/activity of critical factors involved in muscle inflammation and remodeling of fathers and offspring (offspring exposed to standard chow or HFD). Animals were randomly distributed to constitute sedentary fathers (SF; n = 7; did not perform RT) or trained fathers (TF n = 7; performed RT), w...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Associations Between Lipoprotein Subfractions and Area and Density of Abdominal Muscle and Intermuscular Adipose Tissue: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
Skeletal muscle quantity and quality decrease with older age, which is partly attributed to ectopic fat infiltration and has negative metabolic consequences. To inform efforts to preserve skeletal muscle with aging, a better understanding of biologic correlates of quantity and quality of muscle and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is needed. We used targeted lipidomics of lipoprotein subfractions among 947 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants to provide a detailed metabolic characterization of area and density of abdominal muscle and IMAT. Serum lipoprotein subfractions were measured at the first visit usi...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Ex vivo Demonstration of Functional Deficiencies in Popliteal Lymphatic Vessels From TNF-Transgenic Mice With Inflammatory Arthritis
Background: Recent studies demonstrated lymphangiogenesis and expansion of draining lymph nodes during chronic inflammatory arthritis, and lymphatic dysfunction associated with collapse of draining lymph nodes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and TNF-transgenic (TNF-Tg) mice experiencing arthritic flare. As the intrinsic differences between lymphatic vessels afferent to healthy, expanding, and collapsed draining lymph nodes are unknown, we characterized the ex vivo behavior of popliteal lymphatic vessels (PLVs) from WT and TNF-Tg mice. We also interrogated the mechanisms of lymphatic dysfunction through inhibition of ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Troponin Variants as Markers of Skeletal Muscle Health and Diseases
Ca2+-regulated contractility is a key determinant of the quality of muscles. The sarcomeric myofilament proteins are essential players in the contraction of striated muscles. The troponin complex in the actin thin filaments plays a central role in the Ca2+-regulation of muscle contraction and relaxation. Among the three subunits of troponin, the Ca2+-binding subunit troponin C (TnC) is a member of the calmodulin super family whereas troponin I (TnI, the inhibitory subunit) and troponin T (TnT, the tropomyosin-binding and thin filament anchoring subunit) are striated muscle-specific regulatory proteins. Muscle type-specific...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Mesencephalic Astrocyte-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Regulates Morphology of Pigment-Dispersing Factor-Positive Clock Neurons and Circadian Neuronal Plasticity in Drosophila melanogaster
Mesencephalic Astrocyte-derived Neurotrophic Factor (MANF) is one of a few neurotrophic factors described in Drosophila melanogaster (DmMANF) but its function is still poorly characterized. In the present study we found that DmMANF is expressed in different clusters of clock neurons. In particular, the PDF-positive large (l-LNv) and small (s-LNv) ventral lateral neurons, the CRYPTOCHROME-positive dorsal lateral neurons (LNd), the group 1 dorsal neurons posterior (DN1p) and different tim-positive cells in the fly’s visual system. Importantly, DmMANF expression in the ventral lateral neurons is not controlled by the cl...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

ImageTBAD: A 3D Computed Tomography Angiography Image Dataset for Automatic Segmentation of Type-B Aortic Dissection
Type-B Aortic Dissection (TBAD) is one of the most serious cardiovascular events characterized by a growing yearly incidence, and the severity of disease prognosis. Currently, computed tomography angiography (CTA) has been widely adopted for the diagnosis and prognosis of TBAD. Accurate segmentation of true lumen (TL), false lumen (FL), and false lumen thrombus (FLT) in CTA are crucial for the precise quantification of anatomical features. However, existing works only focus on only TL and FL without considering FLT. In this paper, we propose ImageTBAD, the first 3D computed tomography angiography (CTA) image dataset of TBA...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Deciphering the Role of microRNAs in Large-Artery Stiffness Associated With Aging: Focus on miR-181b
Large artery stiffness (LAS) is a major, independent risk factor underlying cardiovascular disease that increases with aging. The emergence of microRNA signaling as a key regulator of vascular structure and function has stimulated interest in assessing its role in the pathophysiology of LAS. Identification of several microRNAs that display age-associated changes in expression in aorta has focused attention on defining their molecular targets and deciphering their role in age-associated arterial stiffening. Inactivation of the microRNA-degrading enzyme, translin/trax, which reverses the age-dependent decline in miR-181b, co...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Editorial: The Tribute of Physiology for the Understanding of COVID-19 Disease
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Physiological and Clinical Impact of Repeated Inhaled Oxygen Variation on Erythropoietin Levels in Patients After Surgery
The “Normobaric Oxygen Paradox” (NOP) is a physiologic mechanism that induces an increase of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) production by creating a state of relative hypoxia in subjects previously exposed to hyperoxia, followed by a rapid return to normoxia. Oxygen exposure duration and inspired oxygen fraction required to observe a significant increase in EPO or hemoglobin are not clearly defined. Consequently, we here study the effect of one model of relative hypoxia on EPO, reticulocytes and hemoglobin stimulation in patients after surgery. Patients were prospectively randomized in two groups. The O2 group...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Long-Time Prediction of Arrhythmic Cardiac Action Potentials Using Recurrent Neural Networks and Reservoir Computing
The electrical signals triggering the heart's contraction are governed by non-linear processes that can produce complex irregular activity, especially during or preceding the onset of cardiac arrhythmias. Forecasts of cardiac voltage time series in such conditions could allow new opportunities for intervention and control but would require efficient computation of highly accurate predictions. Although machine-learning (ML) approaches hold promise for delivering such results, non-linear time-series forecasting poses significant challenges. In this manuscript, we study the performance of two recurrent neural network (RNN) ap...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Impact of COVID-19 Infection on Oxygen Homeostasis: A Molecular Perspective
The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2) causes respiratory symptoms including a substantial pulmonary dysfunction with worsening arterial hypoxemia (low blood oxygenation), eventually leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The impact of the viral infection on blood oxygenation and other elements of oxygen homeostasis, such as oxygen sensing and respiratory mitochondrial mechanisms, are not well understood. As a step toward understanding these mechanisms in the context of COVID-19, recent experiments revealed contradictory data on the impact of COVID-19 infection on red blood cells (RBCs) oxygenation pa...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors Regulate Ischemic Arrhythmia by Targeting MicroRNA-1
Conclusions: Both the SRF and the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β pathway are involved in the t-AUCB-mediated regulation of miR-1, and these factors interact with each other. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation Protocol in Infertile Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Objectives: To explore the appropriate controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols in infertility patients who received the in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatments during the COVID-19 pandemic.Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated the efficiency of the early follicular-phase long-acting GnRH-agonist long (EFLL) protocol (a new protocol developed by Chinese clinicians), prolonged pituitary down-regulation of EFLL protocol (Pro-EFLL), and the GnRH-ant protocol for couples meeting the study criteria between February 2020 and June 2020 who were treated ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of 5-Ion Beam Irradiation and Hindlimb Unloading on Metabolic Pathways in Plasma and Brain of Behaviorally Tested WAG/Rij Rats
A limitation of simulated space radiation studies is that radiation exposure is not the only environmental challenge astronauts face during missions. Therefore, we characterized behavioral and cognitive performance of male WAG/Rij rats 3 months after sham-irradiation or total body irradiation with a simplified 5-ion mixed beam exposure in the absence or presence of simulated weightlessness using hindlimb unloading (HU) alone. Six months following behavioral and cognitive testing or 9 months following sham-irradiation or total body irradiation, plasma and brain tissues (hippocampus and cortex) were processed to determine wh...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Time-Averaged Wavefront Analysis Demonstrates Preferential Pathways of Atrial Fibrillation, Predicting Pulmonary Vein Isolation Acute Response
This study aimed to identify preferential activation pathways during AF and predict the acute ablation response when these are targeted by pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). In patients with persistent AF (n = 14), simultaneous biatrial contact mapping with basket catheters was performed pre-ablation and following each ablation strategy (PVI, roof, and mitral lines). Unipolar wavefront activation directions were averaged over 10 s to identify preferential activation pathways. Clinical cases were classified as responders or non-responders to PVI during the procedure. Clinical data were augmented with a virtual cohort of 100 mo...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Protective Effect of a Novel Cross-Linked Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier on Hypoxia Injury of Acute Mountain Sickness in Rabbits and Goats
Hypoxia is the major cause of acute altitude hypoxia injury in acute mountain sickness (AMS). YQ23 is a kind of novel bovine-derived, cross-linked hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier (HBOC). It has an excellent capacity for carrying and releasing oxygen. Whether YQ23 has a protective effect on the acute altitude hypoxia injury in AMS is unclear. In investigating this mechanism, the hypobaric chamber rabbit model and plain-to-plateau goat model were used. Furthermore, this study measured the effects of YQ23 on the ability of general behavior, general vital signs, Electrocardiograph (ECG), hemodynamics, vital organ injury marker...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Metabolic Influences of Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis on Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic medical disorders characterized by recurrent gastrointestinal inflammation. While the etiology of IBD is still unknown, the pathogenesis of the disease results from perturbations in both gut microbiota and the host immune system. Gut microbiota dysbiosis in IBD is characterized by depleted diversity, reduced abundance of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) producers and enriched proinflammatory microbes such as adherent/invasive E. coli and H2S producers. This dysbiosis may contribute to the inflammation through affecting either the immune system or a metabolic pathway. The immune ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Resting Tendon Cross-Sectional Area Underestimates Biceps Brachii Tendon Stress: Importance of Measuring During a Contraction
Force produced by the muscle during contraction is applied to the tendon and distributed through the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the tendon. This ratio of force to the tendon CSA is quantified as the tendon mechanical property of stress. Stress is traditionally calculated using the resting tendon CSA; however, this does not take into account the reductions in the CSA resulting from tendon elongation during the contraction. It is unknown if calculating the tendon stress using instantaneous CSA during a contraction significantly increases the values of in vivo distal biceps brachii (BB) tendon stress in humans compared to ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Capsaicin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation and Barrier Dysfunction in Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell Line-J2
This study investigated the effects of capsaicin on the gut inflammatory response, intestinal epithelial integrity, and gene expression level of nutrient transporters in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in non-differentiated intestinal porcine epithelial cell line-J2 (IPEC-J2). The results showed that the pre-treatment of cells with capsaicin (100 μM) significantly decreased the gene expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines induced by LPS through Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB signaling pathway. In addition, pre-treatment of cells with capsaicin also increased both gene and ...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

In silico Identification of Disrupted Myocardial Calcium Homeostasis as Proarrhythmic Trigger in Arrhythmogenic Cardiomyopathy
Conclusion: Beta-adrenergic stimulation and connexin43-mediated calcium entry upon loss of plakophilin-2 function contribute to generation of delayed-afterdepolarizations. RyR2 and NCX dysregulation play a key role in modulating these proarrhythmic events. This work provides insights into potential future antiarrhythmic strategies in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy due to plakophilin-2 loss-of-function. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Editorial: Contemporary Models in Ectodermal Organ Development, Maintenance and Regeneration
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

TGF-Beta Receptor II Is Critical for Osteogenic Progenitor Cell Proliferation and Differentiation During Postnatal Alveolar Bone Formation
Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling plays an important role during osteogenesis. However, most research in this area focuses on cortical and trabecular bone, whereas alveolar bone is largely overlooked. To address the role of TGFβR2 (the key receptor for TGFβ signaling) during postnatal alveolar bone development, we conditionally deleted Tgfβr2 in early mesenchymal progenitors by crossing Gli1-CreERT2; Tgfβr2flox/flox; R26RtdTomato mice (named early cKO) or in osteoblasts by crossing 3.2kb Col1-CreERT2; Tgfβr2flox/flox; R26RtdTomato mice (named late cKO). Both cKO lines were induc...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Insomnia Promotes Hepatic Steatosis in Rats Possibly by Mediating Sympathetic Overactivation
Conclusion: Sustained sleep deprivation-induced insomnia promotes hepatic steatosis in rats possibly by mediating sympathetic overactivation. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Role of Barrier Integrity and Dysfunctions in Maintaining the Healthy Gut and Their Health Outcomes
Mucosal surface layers are the critical borders throughout epithelial membranes. These epithelial cells segregate luminal material from external environments. However, mucosal linings are also accountable for absorbing nutrients and requiring specific barrier permeability. These functional acts positioned the mucosal epithelium at the epicenter of communications concerning the mucosal immune coordination and foreign materials, such as dietary antigens and microbial metabolites. Current innovations have revealed that external stimuli can trigger several mechanisms regulated by intestinal mucosal barrier system. Crucial cons...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Clostridium butyricum Supplement Can Ameliorate the Intestinal Barrier Roles in Broiler Chickens Experimentally Infected With Clostridium perfringens
In conclusion, these findings suggest that dietary supplementation of C. butyricum in broilers with NE improved chicken growth performance, intestinal integrity and barrier function, and immunological status. Notably, no statistical difference was observed with the addition of C. butyricum on day 1 or day 14. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Consequences of Training and Competition to the Musculoskeletal System in Ultramarathon Runners: A Narrative Review
Ultramarathons are becoming increasingly popular every year, leading to more and more publications focusing on athletes of these endurance events. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge on the effects of ultramarathons on the motor system. Various studies have attempted to answer questions about negative and positive effects on the musculoskeletal system, common injuries, optimal strategies, and regeneration. Considering the increasing number of ultramarathon athletes, the discoveries may have practical applications for a multitude of experts in the field of sports medicine, as well as for the athletes themse...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effect of Radiation Emitted by Wireless Devices on Male Reproductive Hormones: A Systematic Review
Exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from various wireless devices has increased dramatically with the advancement of technology. One of the most vulnerable organs to the RF-EMR is the testes. This is due to the fact that testicular tissues are more susceptible to oxidative stress due to a high rate of cell division and mitochondrial oxygen consumption. As a result of extensive cell proliferation, replication errors occur, resulting in DNA fragmentation in the sperm. While high oxygen consumption increases the level of oxidative phosphorylation by-products (free radicals) in the mitochondria. Furth...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Myofibril and Mitochondrial Area Changes in Type I and II Fibers Following 10 Weeks of Resistance Training in Previously Untrained Men
Resistance training increases muscle fiber hypertrophy, but the morphological adaptations that occur within muscle fibers remain largely unresolved. Fifteen males with minimal training experience (24±4years, 23.9±3.1kg/m2 body mass index) performed 10weeks of conventional, full-body resistance training (2× weekly). Body composition, the radiological density of the vastus lateralis muscle using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained 1week prior to and 72h following the last training bout. Quantification of myofibril and mitochondrial areas i...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

In vivo Measurement of Intraosseous Vascular Haemodynamic Markers in Human Bone Tissue Utilising Near Infrared Spectroscopy
This study has demonstrated the potential for NIRS to contribute to research investigating the pathophysiological role of vascular dysfunction within bone tissue, but also the limitations and need for further development of NIRS technology. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

EH Domain-Containing 2 Deficiency Restricts Adipose Tissue Expansion and Impairs Lipolysis in Primary Inguinal Adipocytes
Lipid uptake can be facilitated via caveolae, specific plasma membrane invaginations abundantly expressed in adipocytes. The dynamin-related protein EH domain-containing 2 (EHD2) stabilizes caveolae at the cell surface. Here, we have examined the importance of EHD2 for lipid handling using primary adipocytes isolated from EHD2 knockout (Ehd2−/−) C57BL6/N mice. Following high-fat diet (HFD) feeding, we found a clear impairment of epididymal, but not inguinal, adipose tissue expansion in Ehd2−/− compared with Ehd2+/+ (WT) mice. Cell size distribution analysis revealed that Ehd2−/− mice had...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Metabolic Energy Contributions During High-Intensity Hatha Yoga and Physiological Comparisons Between Active and Passive (Savasana) Recovery
The objective of this study was to investigate metabolic energy contributions during high-intensity hatha yoga (HIHY) and to compare changes in physiological variables between active and passive recovery methods.Methods: The study involved 20 women yoga instructors (n = 20) who performed 10 min of HIHY (vigorous sun salutation). Upon completion, they were randomly assigned to either active (walking; n = 10) or passive (savasana; n = 10) recovery groups for a period of 10 min. During HIHY, physiological variables such as heart rate (HRpeak and HRmean), oxygen uptake (VO2peak and VO2mean), and blood lactate concentrations (p...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Connexin 43-Mediated Gap Junction Communication Regulates Ameloblast Differentiation via ERK1/2 Phosphorylation
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is an integral membrane protein that forms gap junction channels. These channels mediate intercellular transport and intracellular signaling to regulate organogenesis. The human disease oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is caused by mutations in Cx43 and is characterized by skeletal, ocular, and dental abnormalities including amelogenesis imperfecta. To clarify the role of Cx43 in amelogenesis, we examined the expression and function of Cx43 in tooth development. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis and immunostaining showed that Cx43 is highly expressed in pre-secretory ameloblasts, differentiated ameloblasts,...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effects of Extreme Weight Loss on Cardiometabolic Health in Children With Metabolic Syndrome: A Metabolomic Study
This study was a quasi-experimental design with a pretest and post-test. Thirty children with metabolic syndrome and aged 10–17years were recruited to an extreme weight loss program (i.e., exercise combined with diet control). The primary outcomes included plasma metabolites, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors. A total of 324 metabolites were quantitatively detected by an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry system, and the variable importance in the projection (VIP) value of each metabolite was calculated by the orthogonal projection to latent structures discrim...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

The Assessment of Autonomic Nervous System Activity Based on Photoplethysmography in Healthy Young Men
Noninvasive assessment of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is of great importance, but the accuracy of the method used, which is primarily based on electrocardiogram-derived heart rate variability (HRV), has long been suspected. We investigated the feasibility of photoplethysmography (PPG) in ANS evaluation. Data of 32 healthy young men under four different ANS activation patterns were recorded: baseline, slow deep breathing (parasympathetic activation), cold pressor test (peripheral sympathetic activation), and mental arithmetic test (cardiac sympathetic activation). We extracted 110 PPG-based features to construct...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Rheological Impact of GBT1118 Cessation in a Sickle Mouse Model
In sickle cell disease (SCD), higher whole blood viscosity is a risk factor for vaso-occlusive crisis, avascular necrosis, and proliferative retinopathy. Blood viscosity is strongly impacted by hemoglobin (Hb) levels and red blood cell (RBC) deformability. Voxelotor is a hemoglobin S (HbS) polymerization inhibitor with anti-sickling properties that increases the Hb affinity for oxygen, thereby reducing HbS polymerization. In clinical trials, voxelotor increased Hb by an average of 1g/dl, creating concern that this rise in Hb could increase viscosity, particularly when the drug was cleared. To investigate this potential reb...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Validity and Reliability of a Phone App and Stopwatch for the Measurement of 505 Change of Direction Performance: A Test-Retest Study Design
Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the validity and reliability of a phone app [named: change of direction (COD) timer] and stopwatches for the measurement of COD performance.Methods: Sixty-two youth basketball players (age: 15.9±1.4yrs., height: 178.8±11.0cm, and body mass: 70.0±14.1kg) performed six trials of 505 COD test (with the left side being the plant leg first, then the right side). The completion time was measured simultaneously via timing gates (with error correction processing algorithms), the phone app, and stopwatches.Results: There was an almost perfect correlation and agreeme...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Long-Lasting Desynchronization Effects of Coordinated Reset Stimulation Improved by Random Jitters
Abnormally strong synchronized activity is related to several neurological disorders, including essential tremor, epilepsy, and Parkinson's disease. Chronic high-frequency deep brain stimulation (HF DBS) is an established treatment for advanced Parkinson's disease. To reduce the delivered integral electrical current, novel theory-based stimulation techniques such as coordinated reset (CR) stimulation directly counteract the abnormal synchronous firing by delivering phase-shifted stimuli through multiple stimulation sites. In computational studies in neuronal networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), it was sh...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Preliminary Investigations Into the Effect of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage on Systemic Extracellular Vesicle Release in Trained Younger and Older Men
Background: Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) results in transient muscle inflammation, strength loss, and muscle soreness and may cause subsequent exercise avoidance. Research has recently proven that skeletal muscle can also release extracellular vesicles (EVs) into the circulation following a bout of exercise. However, EV’s potential role, including as a biomarker, in the response to eccentric resistance exercise stimulus remains unclear.Methods: Twelve (younger, n=7, 27.0±1.5years and older, n=5, 63.0±1.0years) healthy, physically active males, undertaking moderate, regular physical activity (3&...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum: The Regulation of Ruminal Short-Chain Fatty Acids on the Functions of Rumen Barriers
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 23, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Application of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Liver Biomechanics: A Systematic Review
MRI-based biomechanical studies can provide a deep understanding of the mechanisms governing liver function, its mechanical performance but also liver diseases. In addition, comprehensive modeling of the liver can help improve liver disease treatment. Furthermore, such studies demonstrate the beginning of an engineering-level approach to how the liver disease affects material properties and liver function. Aimed at researchers in the field of MRI-based liver simulation, research articles pertinent to MRI-based liver modeling were identified, reviewed, and summarized systematically. Various MRI applications for liver biomec...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

A Phase Defect Framework for the Analysis of Cardiac Arrhythmia Patterns
During cardiac arrhythmias, dynamical patterns of electrical activation form and evolve, which are of interest to understand and cure heart rhythm disorders. The analysis of these patterns is commonly performed by calculating the local activation phase and searching for phase singularities (PSs), i.e., points around which all phases are present. Here we propose an alternative framework, which focuses on phase defect lines (PDLs) and surfaces (PDSs) as more general mechanisms, which include PSs as a specific case. The proposed framework enables two conceptual unifications: between the local activation time and phase descrip...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Electrocardiographic Scaling Reveals Differences in Electrocardiogram Interval Durations Between Marine and Terrestrial Mammals
Although the ability of marine mammals to lower heart rates for extended periods when diving is well documented, it is unclear whether marine mammals have electrophysiological adaptations that extend beyond overall bradycardia. We analyzed electrocardiographic data from 50 species of terrestrial mammals and 19 species of marine mammals to determine whether the electrical activity of the heart differs between these two groups of mammals. We also tested whether physiological state (i.e., anesthetized or conscious) affects electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters. Analyses of ECG waveform morphology (heart rate, P-wave duration, an...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Commentary: Rapalink-1 Increased Infarct Size in Early Cerebral Ischemia –Reperfusion With Increased Blood–Brain Barrier Disruption
(Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Acute Effect of Vibration Roller With and Without Rolling on Various Parts of the Plantar Flexor Muscle
In this study, DF ROM, passive torque, shear elastic modulus, muscle strength, and single-leg drop jump were measured before and immediately after the interventions. The DF ROM and passive torque at DF ROM were increased after all three conditions, whereas the shear elastic modulus was decreased after vibration rolling and static vibration on the muscle belly, but not following static vibration of the MTJ. In addition, there were no significant changes in muscle strength and jump performance in any group. Our results showed that vibration with rolling or static vibration on muscle belly could be effective to improve ROM an...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Circulating MicroRNAs in the Second Trimester From Pregnant Women Who Subsequently Developed Preeclampsia: Potential Candidates as Predictive Biomarkers and Pathway Analysis for Target Genes of miR-204-5p
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia (PE). However, the expression of circulating miRNAs was not analyzed in the second trimester of pregnancy, a period of major relevance to identify predictive biomarkers for PE. Therefore, we examined the expression profiles of 84 circulating miRNAs using a PCR array in plasma collected between 20 and 25 weeks of gestation from pregnant women, who subsequently developed PE and those who remained healthy during pregnancy, randomly selected from a prospective cohort. Overall, 23 miRNAs had a fold change> 2.0 and were considered to be upregulat...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Human Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Exhibit Low Blood Pressure and Altered Epithelial Transport Mechanisms in the Inactive and Active Cycles
This study characterizes the electrolyte and blood pressure phenotype of hAAT-Tg mice during the inactive and active cycles and investigates the mechanism by which ENaC activation is inhibited in part by a mechanism involving decreased cathepsin B activity and increased ANP levels in the systemic circulation. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Effect of Training and Detraining in the Components of Physical Fitness in People Living With HIV/AIDS
In conclusion, combined training and the subsequent period of detraining caused similar responses in body composition, isometric strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness of PLHA and CG, except for the extensor strength of the lower limbs and ventilatory threshold 1, which presented positive effects on training and negative effects on detraining for PLHA.Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT03075332. (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research

Cardiac Kinetic Energy and Viscous Dissipation Rate From Radial Flow Data
Recent studies have correlated kinetic energy (KE) and viscous dissipation rate (VDR) in the left ventricle (LV) with heart health. These studies have relied on 4D-flow imaging or computational fluid dynamics modeling, which are able to measure, or compute, all 3 components (3C) of the blood flow velocity in 3 dimensional (3D) space. This richness of data is difficult to acquire clinically. Alternatively, color Doppler echocardiography (CDE) is more widespread clinically, but only measures a single radial component of velocity and typically only over a planar section. Because of this limitation, prior CDE-based studies hav...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - September 22, 2021 Category: Physiology Source Type: research