Antidepressant-like effect of losartan involves TRKB transactivation from angiotensin receptor type 2 (AGTR2) and recruitment of FYN.
a SRL Abstract The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is associated with peripheral fluid homeostasis and cardiovascular function, but recent evidence also suggests a functional role in the brain. RAS regulates physiological and behavioral parameters related to the stress response, including depressive symptoms. Apparently, RAS can modulate levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and TRKB, which are important in the neurobiology of depression and antidepressant action. However, the interaction between the BDNF/TRKB system and RAS in depression has not been investigated before. Accordingly, in the forced swi...
Source: Neuropharmacology - March 14, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Diniz CRAF, Casarotto PC, Fred SM, Biojone C, Castrén E, Joca SRL Tags: Neuropharmacology Source Type: research

Transforming growth factor- β1 (TGF-β1) induces cerebrovascular dysfunction and astrogliosis through angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated signaling pathways.
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) induces cerebrovascular dysfunction and astrogliosis through angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated signaling pathways. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2018 Mar 05;: Authors: Ongali B, Nicolakakis N, Tong XK, Lecrux C, Imboden H, Hamel EE Abstract Transgenic mice constitutively overexpressing the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) (TGF mice) display cerebrovascular alterations as seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID), but no or only subtle cognitive deficits. TGF-β1 may exert part of...
Source: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology - March 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ongali B, Nicolakakis N, Tong XK, Lecrux C, Imboden H, Hamel EE Tags: Can J Physiol Pharmacol Source Type: research

Heart failure and inhibition of renin –angiotensin–aldosterone system
Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018 Source:Cor et Vasa Author(s): Jiří Vítovec, Jindřich Špinar, Lenka Špinarová A historical survey is presented of mortality clinical trials focussed on the inhibition of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system on different levels in patients with chronic heart failure. The first study, CONSENSUS, was published in 1987 and showed that the ACE-inhibitor enalapril clearly reduced mortality in severe heart failure compared with placebo. This was followed by studies with beta blockers, angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers, block...
Source: Cor et Vasa - March 2, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

[A novel agent in the treatment of heart failure with depressed systolic function].
CONCLUSIONS: Death due to cardiovascular causes, or hospital admission due to heart failure (the primary endpoint) occurred in 914 patients (21.8%) in the Sacubitril / valsartán group, and 1117 patients (26.5%) in the enalapril group (risk ratio in the sacubitril / valsartán group, 0.80, with a 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.73 to 0.87, P
Source: Archivos de Cardiologia de Mexico - February 28, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Duarte Vera YC, Cáceres Vinueza SV, Daher Nader JE, Lara Terán JF Tags: Arch Cardiol Mex Source Type: research

Continuous manufacturing and analytical characterization of fixed-dose, multilayer orodispersible films.
This study aims to develop orodispersible films (ODFs) in a continuous solvent casting process as child appropriate dosage form containing both enalapril maleate (EM) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) separated in different film layers. Furthermore, they should be characterised and the API migration analysed by confocal Raman microscopy (CRM). ODFs were successfully produced in a continuous manufacturing process in form of double- and triple-layer formulations based on hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) or a combination of HPC and polyvinylalcohol (PVA). CRM revealed that both APIs migrate within the film layers shortly after manufa...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences - February 27, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Thabet Y, Lunter D, Breitkreutz J Tags: Eur J Pharm Sci Source Type: research

Flexible and precise dosing of enalapril maleate for all paediatric age groups utilizing orodispersible minitablets
In this study, a dilution method has been developed by dispersing the lowest dose strength ODMTs to enable flexible and precise EM dosing during the dose titration phase of the therapy. Furthermore, the physicochemical stability of the ODMTs has been investigated in child-friendly beverages and the administration of ODMTs via nasogastric tubes (NGT) of different sizes and materials has been evaluated. The results for the ODMT dilution procedure reveal that dispersion within an oral syringe is preferred over dispersion in a separate container, leading to flexible and precise dosing down to 0.025 mg EM. Although ODMTs were s...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - February 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Effect of Levocarnitine on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Conventional Therapy in Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Results of a Randomized Trial in 29 Children
AbstractBackgroundThe effect of levocarnitine supplementation has not been evaluated in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to explore the effect of oral levocarnitine supplementation in pediatric patients with DCM.MethodsTwenty-nine children with DCM (17 male, 12 female, aged 1  month to 13 years) were divided into two groups according to a simple randomization: control group (n = 10) and experimental group (n = 19). All children were given oral hydrochlorothiazide, enalapril, and spironolactone; additionally, patients with cardiac function of NYHA gr...
Source: Pediatric Drugs - February 21, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research

Effect of Levocarnitine on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Conventional Therapy in Children with Dilated Cardiomyopathy: Results of a Randomized Trial in 29 Children.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The effect of levocarnitine supplementation has not been evaluated in children with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of oral levocarnitine supplementation in pediatric patients with DCM. METHODS: Twenty-nine children with DCM (17 male, 12 female, aged 1 month to 13 years) were divided into two groups according to a simple randomization: control group (n = 10) and experimental group (n = 19). All children were given oral hydrochlorothiazide, enalapril, and spironolactone; additionally, patients with ...
Source: Paediatric Drugs - February 21, 2018 Category: Pediatrics Authors: Wang Y, Xu Y, Zou R, Wu L, Liu P, Yang H, Xie Z, Wang C Tags: Paediatr Drugs Source Type: research

Capillary rarefaction and altered renal development: the imbalance between pro- and anti-angiogenic factors in response to angiotensin II inhibition in the developing rat kidney
In this study, we investigated the effects of enalapril (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) on angiogenesis-related gene expression and microvascular endothelium related to glomeular and tubular changes in the neonatal rat kidney. Enalapril-treated rats had higher tubular injury scores and lower glomerular maturity grades than those of untreated rats. In the enalapril-treated group, intrarenal angiopoietin-2, Tie-2, and thrombospondin-1 protein expression increased, whereas intrarenal angiopoietin-1 protein expression decreased. JG12-positive glomerular and peritubular capillary staining was reduced in the enalapril-...
Source: Journal of Molecular Histology - February 13, 2018 Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research

Effect of sacubitril/valsartan on recurrent events in the Prospective comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure trial (PARADIGM ‐HF)
AimsRecurrent hospitalizations are a major part of the disease burden in heart failure (HF), but conventional analyses consider only the first event. We compared the effect of sacubitril/valsartan vs. enalapril on recurrent events, incorporating all HF hospitalizations and cardiovascular (CV) deaths in PARADIGM‐HF, using a variety of statistical approaches advocated for this type of analysis. Methods and resultsIn PARADIGM‐HF, a total of 8399 patients were randomized and followed for a median of 27 months. We applied various recurrent event analyses, including a negative binomial model, the Wei, Lin and Weissfel...
Source: European Journal of Heart Failure - February 12, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ulrik M. Mogensen, Jianjian Gong, Pardeep S. Jhund, Li Shen, Lars K øber, Akshay S. Desai, Martin P. Lefkowitz, Milton Packer, Jean L. Rouleau, Scott D. Solomon, Brian L. Claggett, Karl Swedberg, Michael R. Zile, Guenther Mueller‐Velten, John J.V. McMu Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

A mechanistic look at sacubitril/valsartan action. Unravelling magician's secrets
The “Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure” (PARADIGM-HF) trial has shaken the medical community with its striking results in terms of reduction of cardiovascular mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalization among patients with systolic HF treated with the novel angiotensin-receptor/neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) LCZ696 (also named sacubitril/valsartan), compared with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) enalapril. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - February 9, 2018 Category: Cardiology Authors: Giuseppe Vergaro, Alberto Aimo, Andrea Barison, Michele Emdin Tags: Editorial Source Type: research

Lineage tracing aged mouse kidneys shows lower number of cells of renin lineage and reduced responsiveness to raas inhibition.
LINEAGE TRACING AGED MOUSE KIDNEYS SHOWS LOWER NUMBER OF CELLS OF RENIN LINEAGE AND REDUCED RESPONSIVENESS TO RAAS INHIBITION. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2018 Feb 07;: Authors: Hamatani H, Eng DG, Kaverina NV, Gross KW, Freedman B, Pippin JW, Shankland SJ Abstract Blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) remains a mainstay of therapy in hypertension and glomerular diseases. With the population aging, our understanding of renin producing cells in kidneys with advanced age is more critical than ever. Accordingly, we administered tamoxifen to Ren1cCreERxRs-tdTomato-R mice to permanently ...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology - February 7, 2018 Category: Physiology Authors: Hamatani H, Eng DG, Kaverina NV, Gross KW, Freedman B, Pippin JW, Shankland SJ Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research

Enalapril decreases rat plasma concentration of TMAO, a gut bacteria-derived cardiovascular marker.
CONCLUSIONS: Enalapril decreases rat plasma TMAO, but does not affect the plasma level of indoxyl sulfate and gut bacteria composition. The enalapril-induced decrease in plasma TMAO level may be of therapeutic and diagnostic importance. PMID: 29363331 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomarkers)
Source: Biomarkers - January 25, 2018 Category: Research Tags: Biomarkers Source Type: research

Sacubitril/valsartan for heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction : A  retrospective cohort study.
Sacubitril/valsartan for heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction : A retrospective cohort study. Herz. 2018 Jan 19;: Authors: De Vecchis R, Ariano C, Di Biase G, Noutsias M Abstract BACKGROUND: The combination drug sacubitril/valsartan was reported to be superior to enalapril in reducing all-cause death, cardiovascular mortality, and heart failure (HF) hospitalizations in patients with cardiac insufficiency and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFREF) with NYHA class II-IV. METHODS: Our retrospective cohort study aimed to assess the effects of sacubitril/va...
Source: Herz - January 21, 2018 Category: Cardiology Tags: Herz Source Type: research

Comparison of Enalapril, Candesartan and Intralesional Triamcinolone in Reducing Hypertrophic Scar Development: An Experimental Study
ConclusionsEnalapril, candesartan and intralesional steroid therapies were all effective in reducing scar tissue development; however, enalapril and steroid groups revealed better results.No Level AssignedThis journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authorswww.springer.com/00266. (Source: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery)
Source: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery - January 18, 2018 Category: Cosmetic Surgery Source Type: research

Rationale and design of the comParIson Of sacubitril/valsartaN versus Enalapril on Effect on nt-pRo-bnp in patients stabilized from an acute Heart Failure episode (PIONEER-HF) trial
Conclusion The PIONEER-HF trial will inform clinical practice by providing evidence on the safety, tolerability and efficacy of in-hospital initiation of sacubitril/valsartan among patients who have been stabilized following an admission for acute decompensated HF with a reduced EF. (Source: American Heart Journal)
Source: American Heart Journal - January 17, 2018 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Balancing effect of Biejiajian Oral Liquid ( 鳖甲煎口服液) on ACE-Ang II-AT1R axis and ACE2-Ang-(1–7)-Mas axis in rats with CCl 4 -induced hepatic fibrosis
AbstractObjectiveTo explore the effect of Biejiajian Oral Liquid ( 鳖甲煎口服液, BOL) on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats by detecting the changes in the levels of angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin-(1–7) [Ang-(1–7)], angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), Mas, etc.MethodsA total of 180 Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups by random digital table method: prevention experiment and treatment experiment. Each group was further subdivided into the following 6 subgroups: normal control group, model group, vitamin E [100 mg/(kg •d), VE] group, ...
Source: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine - January 15, 2018 Category: Internal Medicine Source Type: research

New Innovations in Treatment and Monitoring of Heart Failure With Guidelines on the Use of Sacubitril/Valsartan and Ivabradine
Conclusion: As the population of the United States continues to age, the number of patients with heart failure will continue to rise. Understanding the wide range of treatment options available to elderly patients is increasingly important for clinicians. Determining whether any of the new therapeutic options is appropriate for a patient will be a collaborative effort between a clinician and patient and will depend heavily on the patient's comorbidities, functional status, and goals of care. (Source: American Journal of Therapeutics)
Source: American Journal of Therapeutics - January 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Systematic Review and Clinical Guidelines Source Type: research

Renin angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockers usage among type II diabetes mellitus patients —A Retrospective Study
Conclusion RAAS blockers usage among T2DM patients was higher in primary care versus tertiary care settings. Majority of the patients did not receive optimal dose of RAAS blockers. (Source: Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews)
Source: Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews - December 22, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Effect of Smoking and Folate Levels on the Efficacy of Folic Acid Therapy in Prevention of Stroke in Hypertensive Men [Clinical Sciences]
Conclusions—Baseline folate levels and smoking status can interactively affect the risk of first stroke. Our data suggest that compared with never smokers, ever smokers may require a higher dosage of folic acid to achieve a greater beneficial effect on stroke. Our findings need to be confirmed by future randomized trials.Clinical Trial Registration—URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00794885. (Source: Stroke)
Source: Stroke - December 22, 2017 Category: Neurology Authors: Ziyi Zhou, Jianping Li, Yaren Yu, Youbao Li, Yan Zhang, Lishun Liu, Yun Song, Min Zhao, Yu Wang, Genfu Tang, Mingli He, Xiping Xu, Yefeng Cai, Qiang Dong, Delu Yin, Xiao Huang, Xiaoshu Cheng, Binyan Wang, Fan Fan Hou, Xiaobin Wang, Xianhui Qin, Yong Huo Tags: Primary Prevention, Hypertension, Treatment, Cerebrovascular Disease/Stroke Original Contributions Source Type: research

Anthracycline cardiotoxicity: the importance of horizontally integrating pre-clinical and clinical research
This editorial refers to ‘Diverging effects of enalapril or eplerenone in primary prevention against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity’ by R. Hullinet al., pp. 272 –281 and ‘Inhibition of the cardiac myocyte mineralocorticoid receptor ameliorates doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity’ by A. Lotheret al., pp.282 –290. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - December 19, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Antioxidant effects of β-carotene, but not of retinol and vitamin E, in orbital fibroblasts from patients with Graves’ orbitopathy (GO)
ConclusionsOur study supports an antioxidant role of retinol, β-carotene, and vitamin E in orbital fibroblasts from patients with GO and provides a basis for a possible clinical use these substances. (Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation)
Source: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation - December 18, 2017 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

Roles of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandins in the Sustained Antihypertensive Effects of Acanthospermum hispidum DC. on Ovariectomized Rats with Renovascular Hypertension.
Authors: Palozi RAC, Schaedler MI, Tirloni CAS, Silva AO, Lívero FADR, Souza RIC, Dos Santos AC, Prando TBL, de Souza LM, Gasparotto Junior A Abstract Although Acanthospermum hispidum is used in Brazilian folk medicine as an antihypertensive, no study evaluated its effects on a renovascular hypertension and ovariectomy model. So, this study investigated the mechanisms involved in the antihypertensive effects of an ethanol-soluble fraction obtained from A. hispidum (ESAH) using two-kidney-one-clip hypertension in ovariectomized rats (2K1C plus OVT). ESAH was orally administered at doses of 30, 100, and 300&th...
Source: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine - December 15, 2017 Category: Complementary Medicine Tags: Evid Based Complement Alternat Med Source Type: research

Sacubitril/valsartan and short-term changes in the 6-minute walk test: A pilot study
Impaired exercise capacity is the most disabling symptom in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Despite sacubitril/valsartan showing reduced long-term morbidity and mortality over enalapril in HFrEF, its effects on short-term functional capacity remain uncertain. We sought to evaluate the effects of sacubitril/valsartan on a 30-day six-minute walk test in eligible patients with HFrEF. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)
Source: International Journal of Cardiology - December 15, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Paola Beltr án, Patricia Palau, Eloy Domínguez, Mercedes Faraudo, Eduardo Núñez, Olga Guri, Anna Mollar, Juan Sanchis, Antoni Bayés-Genís, Julio Núñez Tags: Short communication Source Type: research

Short-term effects of dietary supplementation with amino acids in dogs with proteinuric chronic kidney disease.
Abstract This retrospective study investigated the impact of amino acid supplementation on body weight, serum albumin, creatinine and urea concentrations, and urine protein-to-creatinine (UPC) ratio in proteinuric dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Forty-six client-owned azotemic dogs with spontaneous proteinuric CKD already on a renal diet and in therapy with enalapril were included. After approximately 1 month of treatment (baseline), 29 dogs received oral amino acid supplementation daily (group A) and 17 dogs did not (group B). The parameters under investigation were determined at baseline and after 4 to 8...
Source: The Canadian Veterinary Journal - December 1, 2017 Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Zatelli A, D'Ippolito P, Roura X, Zini E Tags: Can Vet J Source Type: research

Sacubitril/valsartan reduces serum uric acid concentration, an independent predictor of adverse outcomes in PARADIGM ‐HF
We examined the association between SUA and outcomes as well as the effect of sacubitril/valsartan on SUA in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in PARADIGM‐HF. Methods and resultsThe association between SUA and the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization, its components, and all‐cause mortality was examined using Cox regression analyses among 8213 patients using quintiles (Q1–Q5) of SUA adjusted for baseline prognostic variables including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), diuretic dose, and log N‐terminal pro‐brain natr...
Source: European Journal of Heart Failure - November 30, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ulrik M. Mogensen, Lars K øber, Pardeep S. Jhund, Akshay S. Desai, Michele Senni, Søren L. Kristensen, Andrej Dukát, Chen‐Huan Chen, Felix Ramires, Martin P. Lefkowitz, Margaret F. Prescott, Victor C. Shi, Jean L. Rouleau, Scott D. Solomon, Karl Swed Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan in chronic heart-failure patients with reduced ejection fraction.
CONCLUSION: The treatment of HFrEF patients with sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril is cost effective, if a willingness-to-pay threshold of CHF 50 000 per QALY gained ratio is assumed. PMID: 29185253 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Swiss Medical Weekly)
Source: Swiss Medical Weekly - November 29, 2017 Category: General Medicine Authors: Ademi Z, Pfeil AM, Hancock E, Trueman D, Haroun RH, Deschaseaux C, Schwenkglenks M Tags: Swiss Med Wkly Source Type: research

Roselle is cardioprotective in diet-induced obesity rat model with myocardial infarction
This study was undertaken to investigate the actions of roselle aqueous extract (R) on cardiotoxicity in obese (OB) rats and thereon OB rats subjected to MI. Main methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with either normal diet or high-fat diet for 8weeks. Firstly, OB rats were divided into (1) OB and (2) OB+R (100mg/kg, p.o, 28days). Then, OB rats were subjected to MI (ISO, 85mg/kg, s.c, 2days) and divided into three groups: (1) OB+MI, (2) OB+MI+R and (3) OB+MI+enalapril for another 4weeks. Key findings Roselle ameliorated OB and OB+MI's cardiac systolic dysfunction and reduced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The incre...
Source: Life Sciences - November 27, 2017 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy of left ventricle. A rare event, but possible
Publication date: Available online 23 October 2017 Source:Cor et Vasa Author(s): Michele Scarano, Germana Gizzi, Cesare Mantini Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a form of inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by fibro-fatty substitution mainly right ventricular (RV). Affected patients may succumb to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and heart failure. It is even more common among athletes who experience sudden cardiac death (SCD). The disease involvement is not limited only to the RV, but the left ventricle (LV) can also be involved. We have reported a case of a 38 years-old man, with two episo...
Source: Cor et Vasa - November 19, 2017 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors enhance the hypotensive effects of propofol by increasing nitric oxide production.
In this study we evaluated 65 patients, divided into three groups: hypertensive patients chronically treated with ACEi (HT-ACEi; n=21), hypertensive patients treated with other antihypertensive drugs instead of ACEi, such as angiotensin II receptor blockers, β-blockers or diuretics (HT; n=21) and healthy normotensive subjects (NT; n=23). Venous blood samples were collected at baseline and after 10minutes of anesthesia with propofol2 mg/kg administrated intravenously by bolus injection. Hemodynamic parameters were recorded at each blood sample collection. Nitrite levels were determined by using an ozone-based chemilumi...
Source: Free Radical Biology and Medicine - November 11, 2017 Category: Biology Authors: Oliveira-Paula GH, Pinheiro LC, Ferreira GC, Garcia WNP, Lacchini R, Garcia LV, Tanus-Santos JE Tags: Free Radic Biol Med Source Type: research

PARADIGM ‐HF Trial: Secondary Analyses Address Unanswered Questions
ConclusionsThe benefit of sacubitril/valsartan over enalapril for the primary endpoint in the PARADIGM‐HF trial is maintained throughout numerous secondary analyses. Though the subgroups analyzed are based on participants from a single clinical trial, clinicians can more confidently incorporate this novel therapy into practice with expanded knowledge of these existing analyses as well as ongoing prospective trials.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy)
Source: Pharmacotherapy: The Journal of Human Pharmacology and Drug Therapy - November 1, 2017 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Kristin R. Smith, Chia ‐Chi Hsu, Theodore J. Berei, Ahmed Aldemerdash, Ian B. Hollis, Orly Vardeny, Jo Ellen Rodgers Tags: Review of Therapeutics Source Type: research

Lichen Planus Pemphigoides Induced by Enalapril: A Case Report and a Review of Literature
We report an 81-year-old Thai woman with underlying hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus who presented with a 4-week history of multiple tense bullae initially on the hands and feet that subsequently expanded to the trunk and face. Enalapril was commenced to control hypertension. The histopathology and direct immunofluorescence were compatible with LPP. Circulating anti-basement antibodies BP180 was also positive. The patient was treated with topical corticosteroid with a modest effect. Enalapril was discontinued and complete resolution of LPP occurred within 12 weeks. There was no recurrence after a 1-year follow-up ...
Source: Case Reports in Dermatology - October 31, 2017 Category: Dermatology Source Type: research

Farnesoid X Receptor Agonism Protects against Diabetic Tubulopathy: Potential Add-On Therapy for Diabetic Nephropathy
Established therapies for diabetic nephropathy (dNP) delay but do not prevent its progression. The shortage of established therapies may reflect the inability to target the tubular compartment. The chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) ameliorates maladaptive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling and experimental dNP. Additionally, TUDCA activates the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which is highly expressed in tubular cells. We hypothesized that TUDCA ameliorates maladaptive ER signaling via FXR agonism specifically in tubular cells. Indeed, TUDCA induced expression of FXR-dependent genes (SOCS3 and DDAH1...
Source: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN - October 31, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Marquardt, A., Al-Dabet, M. M., Ghosh, S., Kohli, S., Manoharan, J., ElWakiel, A., Gadi, I., Bock, F., Nazir, S., Wang, H., Lindquist, J. A., Nawroth, P. P., Madhusudhan, T., Mertens, P. R., Shahzad, K., Isermann, B. Tags: Brief Communications Source Type: research

Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Antagonism Protects against Diabetic Nephropathy in a Type 2 Diabetic Model
We examined whether BMS002, a novel dual LPAR1 and LPAR3 antagonist, affects development of DN in endothelial nitric oxide synthase-knockout db/db mice. Treatment of these mice with BMS002 from 8 to 20 weeks of age led to a significant reduction in albuminuria, similar to that observed with renin-angiotensin system inhibition (losartan plus enalapril). LPAR inhibition also prevented the decline in GFR observed in vehicle-treated mice, such that GFR at week 20 differed significantly between vehicle and LPAR inhibitor groups (P
Source: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN - October 31, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Zhang, M.-Z., Wang, X., Yang, H., Fogo, A. B., Murphy, B. J., Kaltenbach, R., Cheng, P., Zinker, B., Harris, R. C. Tags: Basic Research Source Type: research

Urinary cytokine profiles according to the site of blockade of the renin-angiotensin system in nephrectomized rats.
CONCLUSION: Enalapril, candesartan and aliskiren presented similar effects on improving renal function and reducing MAP and urinary levels of IL-6 in rats with CKD. On the other hand, cytokine profile differed according to the treatment, suggesting that differential mechanisms were triggered in response to the site of RAS blockade. PMID: 29069238 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia)
Source: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia - October 28, 2017 Category: Urology & Nephrology Tags: J Bras Nefrol Source Type: research

Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) and atypical femoral fracture (AFF) in an osteoporotic patient chronically treated with bisphosphonates
Case report: A.C., female of Italian descent, age 87years, consulted in February 2013. She had a history of osteoporosis and had taken alendronate weekly for several years. She did not have densitometric studies. Due to low back pain an orthopedist had indicated i.v. zoledronic acid, 5mg/year for 3years (2006 –2008). She was on simvastatin, carvedilol, enalapril, with occasional supplements of ergocalciferol. In 2009 she suffered a fall and sustained a subtrochanteric fracture of the left femur. She was operated on and recovered uneventfully. (Source: Bone)
Source: Bone - October 18, 2017 Category: Orthopaedics Authors: A. S ánchez, G. Bruchmann, R. Blanco Tags: C ódigo: 4 Source Type: research

Therapeutic drug monitoring of amlodipine and the Z-FHL/HHL ratio: Adherence tools in patients referred for apparent treatment-resistant hypertension.
CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring antihypertensive adherence by assaying plasma medication concentrations is a feasible option for evaluating true v. pseudo-resistant hypertension. PMID: 29022534 [PubMed - in process] (Source: South African Medical Journal)
Source: South African Medical Journal - October 14, 2017 Category: African Health Tags: S Afr Med J Source Type: research

Similar clinical benefits from below ‐target and target dose enalapril in patients with heart failure in the SOLVD Treatment trial
AimsTo examine associations of below‐target and target dose of enalapril, an angiotensin‐converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, with outcomes in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) Treatment trial. Methods and resultsTwo thousand five hundred and sixty‐nine patients with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤35%) were randomized to below‐target (5–10 mg/day) dose placebo (n = 1284) or enalapril (n = 1285). One month post‐randomization, blind up‐titration to target (20 mg/day) dose was attempted for both study drugs in 2458 patients. A...
Source: European Journal of Heart Failure - October 5, 2017 Category: Cardiology Authors: Phillip H. Lam, Daniel J. Dooley, Gregg C. Fonarow, Javed Butler, Deepak L. Bhatt, Gerasimos S. Filippatos, Prakash Deedwania, Daniel E. Forman, Michel White, Ross D. Fletcher, Cherinne Arundel, Marc R. Blackman, Chris Adamopoulos, Ioannis E. Kanonidis, I Tags: Research Article Source Type: research

Potential Mortality Reduction with Optimal Usage of Sacubitril/Valsartan Therapy for the Treatment of Heart Failure in Chile
PARADIGM-HF, a phase III trial conducted in patients with heart failure (HF), showed that sacubitril/valsartan, a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor for treatment of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), provided incremental cardiovascular and overall survival benefit versus enalapril. This analysis aims to quantify the number of potential all-cause deaths that could be avoided with optimal usage of sacubitril/valsartan in the treatment of HFrEF in Chile. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: M Barbeau, M Alvarez Fleitas, R Tobar, R Haroun, A MacPherson Source Type: research

Potential Mortality Reduction with Optimal Usage of Sacubitril/Valsartan Therapy for the Treatment of Heart Failure in Mexico
PARADIGM-HF, a phase III trial conducted in patients with heart failure (HF), showed that sacubitril/valsartan, a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor for treatment of HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), provided incremental cardiovascular and overall survival benefit compared with enalapril. This analysis aims to quantify the number of all-cause deaths that could be avoided with optimal usage of sacubitril/valsartan in the treatment of HFrEF in Mexico. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: M Barbeau, X Romo, BS Botello, R Haroun, A MacPherson Source Type: research

Potential Mortality Reduction with Optimal Usage of Sacubitril/Valsartan Therapy for the Treatment of Heart Failure in Costa Rica
PARADIGM-HF, a phase III trial conducted in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), showed that sacubitril/valsartan, a first-in-class angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, provided incremental cardiovascular and overall survival benefit compared to enalapril. This analysis aimed to quantify the number of potential all-cause deaths that could be avoided with optimal usage of sacubitril/valsartan for the treatment of HFrEF in Costa Rica. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: M Barbeau, F Bonilla, A Calvo, C Amaya, A MacPherson Source Type: research

Potential Mortality Reduction with Optimal Usage of Sacubitril/Valsartan Therapy for the Treatment of Heart Failure in Brazil
PARADIGM-HF, a phase III trial conducted in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), showed that sacubitril/valsartan, a first-in-class angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, provided incremental cardiovascular and overall survival benefit compared with enalapril. This analysis aims to quantify the number of all-cause deaths that potentially could be avoided with optimal usage of sacubitril/valsartan in the treatment of HFrEF in Brazil. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: N Lopes, C Tozato, M Barbeau, A MacPherson Source Type: research

The Cost Effectiveness of Sacubitril/Valsartan For The Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction In Korea
This study aims to estimate the cost-effectiveness of sacubitril/Valsartan compared with Enalapril for the treatment of chronic heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) in Korea. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: J Lee, S Ko Source Type: research

Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Sacubitril/Valsartan Compared With Standard Acei Therapies For Heart Failure Patients With Reduced Ejection Fraction In Taiwan
Heart failure (HF) is highly prevalent in the elderly people and has been considered as an intractable disease due to poor survival and life quality. Recently, a novel oral therapy, sacubitril/valsartan, has proven its efficacy in reducing cardiovascular (CV) mortality (by 20%) and all-cause mortality (by 16%) compared with enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Taiwan has a universal health insurance program govern by a single payer, National Health Insurance Administration (NHIA). (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: C Fann, S Chen Source Type: research

Budget Impact Analysis of Sacubitril/Valsartan Introduction For Heart Failure Treatment From The French Hospital Perspective
The study objective was to estimate the budget impact related to sacubitril/valsartan introduction in treatment strategy for patients with symptomatic chronic heart failure (HF) and reduced ejection fraction. The ESC 2012 HF guidelines recommend treatment with an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin II receptor blocker. Sacubitril/valsartan demonstrated a significant risk reduction of cardiovascular deaths by 20% and hospitalizations for HF by 21% versus enalapril, an ACE inhibitor. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: C Cariou, E Duteil, M Sion, N Mahieu, J Duco, A Achouba Source Type: research

Optimal Usage of Sacubitril/Valsartan For Heart Failure Treatment In Canada Potentially Reduces Mortality, Hospitalizations And Early Discharge Re-Admissions
The objective was to quantify the number of deaths, HF hospitalizations, and 30-day HF re-admissions that potentially could be avoided with optimal usage of sac/val for the treatment of HFrEF patients in Canada. (Source: Value in Health)
Source: Value in Health - October 1, 2017 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: P Haddad, RS McKelvie Source Type: research

Cost-effectiveness of sacubitril/valsartan versus enalapril in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction.
CONCLUSIONS: At current daily price of SGD 9.00, sacubitril/valsartan may not represent good value for limited healthcare dollars compared to enalapril in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in HF in Singapore healthcare setting. This study highlights the cost-benefit trade-off that healthcare professionals and patients face when considering therapy. PMID: 28959905 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Medical Economics)
Source: Journal of Medical Economics - September 30, 2017 Category: Health Management Tags: J Med Econ Source Type: research

Multiway calibration strategy with chromatographic data exploiting the second-order advantage for quantitation of three antidiabetic and three antihypertensive drugs in serum samples
Publication date: January 2018 Source:Microchemical Journal, Volume 136 Author(s): Celina M. Monzón, Carla M. Teglia, Mario R. Delfino, Héctor C. Goicoechea This paper proposes a multiway calibration strategy implementing the modeling with MCR-ALS and U-PLS/RBL of second-order chromatographic data for quantitation of six analytes: gliclazide, glibenclamide, glimepiride, atenolol, enalapril and amlodipine in serum samples, in an analysis time of 3min. The performance of both algorithms was compared in terms of predictive ability, showing relative error of prediction values below 10% in all cases. LOD values c...
Source: Microchemical Journal - September 28, 2017 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research