The Role of Neprilysin Inhibitors in Cardiovascular Disease
Abstract Heart failure affects over five million Americans each year and contributes to morbidity, mortality, and high health care costs. Despite the benefits of RAAS and SNS blockers, 5-year survival rates in patients with heart failure remain low, necessitating continued research and new drug targets. LCZ696 (sacubitril/valsartan) is an angiotensin-receptor neprilysin inhibitor recently approved for HFrEF, with dual actions that result in enhancement of natriuretic peptide levels and blockade of angiotensin II activities. This drug shows promise in further improving clinical outcomes in HFrEF and is being studie...
Source: Current Heart Failure Reports - October 14, 2015 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Effect of folic acid supplementation on risk of new‐onset diabetes in adults with hypertension in China: Findings from the CSPPT
Abstract BackgroundIt remains unclear whether folic acid supplementation can reduce the risk of new‐onset diabetes, particularly in regions without grain fortification with folic acid. This post‐hoc analysis of the China Stroke Primary Prevention Trial(CSPPT) aimed to evaluate the effect of folic acid supplementation on the risk of new‐onset diabetes in adults with hypertension in China. MethodsA total of 20,702 adults with hypertension with no history of stroke and/or myocardial infarction(MI) were randomly assigned to receive double‐blind daily treatments of a tablet containing 10 mg enalapril and 0.8&thin...
Source: Journal of Diabetes - October 11, 2015 Category: Endocrinology Authors: Xianhui Qin, Jianping Li, Yan Zhang, Dafang Chen, Binyan Wang, Mingli He, Jia Fu, Genfu Tang, Yefeng Cai, Xiuli Shi, Xin Xu, Fan Fan Hou, Xiaobin Wang, Yong Huo Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Phytochemical and in vitro and in vivo biological investigation on the antihypertensive activity of mango leaves (Mangifera indica L.)
Conclusions: Dichloromethanic fraction of M. indica presented an antihypertensive effect, most likely by ACE inhibition, with benefits in baroreflex sensitivity and cardiac hypertrophy. Altogether, the results of the present study suggest that the dichloromethanic fraction of M. indica leaves may have potential as a promoting antihypertensive agent. (Source: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease)
Source: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease - October 9, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Ronchi, S. N., Brasil, G. A., do Nascimento, A. M., de Lima, E. M., Scherer, R., Costa, H. B., Romao, W., Boechat, G. A. P., Lenz, D., Fronza, M., Bissoli, N. S., Endringer, D. C., de Andrade, T. U. Tags: Original Research Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of LCZ696 (sacubitril-valsartan) according to age: insights from PARADIGM-HF
We examined the pre-specified efficacy and safety outcomes according to age category (years):
Source: European Heart Journal - October 7, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jhund, P. S., Fu, M., Bayram, E., Chen, C.-H., Negrusz-Kawecka, M., Rosenthal, A., Desai, A. S., Lefkowitz, M. P., Rizkala, A. R., Rouleau, J. L., Shi, V. C., Solomon, S. D., Swedberg, K., Zile, M. R., McMurray, J. J. V., Packer, M., PARADIGM-HF Investiga Tags: Heart failure/cardiomyopathy Source Type: research

Clinical weighting of drug‐drug interactions in hospitalized elderly
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology)
Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology - October 1, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Teresa Juárez‐Cedillo, Cynthia Martinez‐Hernández, Angel Hernández‐Constantino, Juan Carlos Garcia‐Cruz, Annia Mariso Avalos‐Mejia, Luis A Sánchez‐Hurtado, Valentin Islas Perez, Philip D. Hansten Tags: Original Article Source Type: research

Prospective randomized study of the tolerability and efficacy of combination therapy for hypertensive chronic kidney disease: results of the PROTECT-CKD study
Abstract Background We conducted a randomized, open-label trial to determine which of the antihypertensive drugs was most beneficial for CKD patients with hypertension in spite of treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). Methods Patients 20–75 years of age who had CKD according to the definition in the K/DOQI Guidelines and hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mmHg) with the usual dose of an ARB were randomly assigned to receive losartan 50 mg plus 5 m...
Source: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology - October 1, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research

Comparative clinical evaluation of Boerhavia diffusa root extract with standard Enalapril treatment in Canine chronic renal failure
Conclusions: In conclusion, the efficacy of B. diffusa root extract was comparable to standard enalapril treatment of CRF in dogs. (Source: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine)
Source: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine - September 30, 2015 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Nethaji Lokeswar OburaiV Vaikunta RaoRam Babu Naik Bonath Source Type: research

A Case of Adverse Response of Right Ventricular Pacing in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Who Had Fully Recovered Systolic Function
A 70's-year-old female was diagnosed and treated as non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Ejection fraction had fully recovered to normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function with medication of carvedilol and enalapril. After a while, DDD pacing was implanted for her development of atrioventricular block and bradycardia. Two year later, she was rushed to our hospital with cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Recurrence of LV systolic dysfunction was revealed without appearance of atrial fibrillation or any other arrhythmias. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 25, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hideki Kunichika, Eizou Akagawa, Takayosi Kato, Masaki Shibuya, Koutaro Shiomi, Shiro Ono Source Type: research

Bisoprolol Caused Warm Shock and Acute Kidney Injury in a Severe Heart Failure Patient
A 30-year-old man with acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure due to DCM admitted to our hospital. We treated successfully his severe heart failure with dobutamine and milrinon. After discontinuation of dobutamine, we could gradually increase carvedilol up to 20 mg and enalapril up to 10 mg without worsening heart failure. In spite of these medications, his heart rate was still 80-90 bpm with alternating pulse and his systolic blood pressure (SBP) was about 100mmHg. Therefore, we tried to add bisoprolol 1.25 mg to carvedilol. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - September 25, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Hiromi Tsuchiya, Hidetaka Kioka, Norifumi Nakamura, Kei Nakamoto, Yasumasa Tsukamoto, Tomohito Ohtani, Osamu Yamaguchi, Yasushi Sakata Source Type: research

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Dialyzability and Outcomes in Older Patients Receiving Hemodialysis
Conclusion: In this study of older patients receiving hemodialysis, the dialyzability of ACE inhibitors was not associated with mortality or cardiovascular outcomes.Blood Purif 2015;40:232-242 (Source: Blood Purification)
Source: Blood Purification - September 18, 2015 Category: Hematology Source Type: research

Persistent Change in Cardiac Fibroblast Physiology Following Transient ACE Inhibition.
Abstract Transient angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition induces persistent changes that protect against future nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor-induced cardiac fibrosis and inflammation. Given the role of fibroblasts in mediating these effects, the present study investigates whether prior ACE inhibition produced persistent changes in cardiac fibroblast physiology. Adult male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with vehicle (C+L) or the ACE inhibitor, enalapril (E+L) for 2 weeks followed by a 2-week washout period, and a subsequent 7-day challenge with the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME. A thir...
Source: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology - September 14, 2015 Category: Physiology Authors: D'Souza KM, Biwer LA, Madhavpeddi L, Ramaiah P, Shahid W, Hale TM Tags: Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol Source Type: research

Enhanced elution of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in ion chromatography: Application to their simultaneous quantitation in formulations and human plasma
Publication date: January 2016 Source:Microchemical Journal, Volume 124 Author(s): Fawzi Elsebaei, Yan Zhu In this paper, ion chromatography is utilized as a superior alternative to HPLC for analysis of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. A low-capacity weak cation exchanger functionalized with carboxylic acid groups (Dionex IonPac SCS1) is used in which the cation exchange separation mechanism predominates over the hydrophobic interactions that happen in most HPLC columns. This leads to much improvement of studied drugs peak profiles, which permits their analysis at normal temperature and ordinary pH with ...
Source: Microchemical Journal - September 11, 2015 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Enalapril in Combination with Benznidazole Reduces Cardiac Inflammation and Creatine Kinases in Mice Chronically Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.
In conclusion, during the chronic experimental T. cruzi infection, the combination therapy using enalapril plus benznidazole potentiated their immunomodulatory effects, resulting in a low production of biomarkers of cardiac lesions. PMID: 26350447 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - September 8, 2015 Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Penitente AR, Leite AL, Costa GP, Shrestha D, Horta AL, Natali AJ, Neves CA, Talvani A Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research

Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Losartan Inhibits Spontaneous Motility of Isolated Human Ureter
Abstract Background and Objectives Ureteral motility is essential for elimination of intraluminal stones, and it may be adversely affected by cardiovascular drugs that a patient is taking chronically. The aim of our study was to test whether ACE inhibitors and an angiotensin receptor blocker may influence spontaneous contractions of isolated human ureter. Methods Both phasic and tonic contractions of the isolated ureteral segments taken from 10 patients were measured as changes of the longitudinal tension or pressure recordings. Captopril, enalapril and ...
Source: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics - September 2, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Losartan and enalapril decrease viral absorption and interleukin 1 beta production by macrophages in an experimental dengue virus infection
Abstract The role of angiotensin II (Ang II) in dengue virus infection remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of losartan, an antagonist of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 receptor), and enalapril, an inhibitor of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), on viral antigen expression and IL-1β production in peritoneal macrophages infected with dengue virus type 2. Mice treated with losartan or enalapril and untreated controls were infected intraperitoneally with the virus, and macrophages were analyzed. Infection resulted in increased IL-1β production and a high percentage...
Source: Archives of Virology - September 1, 2015 Category: Virology Source Type: research

Prevalence and clinical significance of potential drug-drug interactions in diabetic patients attended in a tertiary care outpatient center, Brazil
Abstract The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs), as well as classifying them in relation to level of severity, scientific evidence, time of onset, and potential clinical impact in adult and older adult patients with diabetes mellitus 2 (DM2). This cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care outpatient center. The consecutive sample was made up of 140 patients with DM2. The Anatomical-Therapeutic-Chemical Classification was used for classifying the classes of medications. The PDDIs were analyzed using the DRUG-REAX® system. The relationships...
Source: International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries - August 23, 2015 Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research

The Effects of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Enalapril and the Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blocker Losartan on Fracture Healing in Rats.
CONCLUSION: ACEIs had significant positive effects on fracture repair. Losartan failed to display these stimulatory effects, which suggests that local RAS in bone tissue exerts its actions via alternative receptors or pathways than the AT1 receptor. PMID: 26278426 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Clinical and Investigative Medicine)
Source: Clinical and Investigative Medicine - August 21, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Bayar A, Turan A, Gülle K, Akpolat M, Turan İ, Turhan E Tags: Clin Invest Med Source Type: research

Systemic oxygen therapy versus oral enalapril for treatment of diabetic macular ischemia: a randomized controlled trial
Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structural and functional effects of systemic oxygen therapy and enalapril in patients with diabetic macular ischemia (DMI). This randomized clinical trial consisted of 105 eyes with DMI divided into three groups. Group I received systemic oxygen by face mask at a flow rate of 10 L/min; Group II received 5 mg enalapril daily; and Group III received placebo tablets for 3 months. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT), extent of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) on fluorescein ...
Source: International Ophthalmology - August 21, 2015 Category: Opthalmology Source Type: research

Atenolol vs enalapril in young hypertensive patients after successful repair of aortic coarctation
Perna, M G Russo & R Calabrò (Source: Journal of Human Hypertension)
Source: Journal of Human Hypertension - August 20, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: G Di SalvoB CastaldiS GalaL BaldiniF Del GaizoF A D'AielloA MormileA ReaG ScognamiglioG PacileoS KeatingB M FadelL BerrinoA PernaM G RussoR Calabrò Source Type: research

Effect of combination therapy consisting of enalapril, α-lipoic acid, and menhaden oil on diabetic neuropathy in a High fat/low dose streptozotocin treated rat.
In this study we sought to determine the efficacy of combining these three treatments on vascular and neural complications in a high fat fed low dose streptozotocin treated rat, a model of type 2 diabetes. Rats were fed a high fat diet for 8 weeks followed by a 30mg/kg dose of streptozotocin. Eight weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia diabetic rats were treated with a combination of enalapril, α-lipoic acid and menhaden oil. Diabetic rats not receiving treatment were continued on the high fat diet. Glucose clearance was impaired in diabetic rats and significantly improved with treatment. Diabetes caused steatosis, ...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - August 17, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Davidson EP, Holmes A, Coppey LJ, Yorek MA Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research

Extrapolation of enalapril efficacy from adults to children using pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling
ConclusionsMathematical modelling was used to extrapolate enalapril efficacy to young children to support a paediatric investigation plan targeting a paediatric‐use marketing authorization application. (Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology)
Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology - August 10, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Irene‐Ariadne Kechagia, Lida Kalantzi, Aristides Dokoumetzidis Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research

Digoxin therapy in the modern management of cardiovascular disease: An unusual but serious complication.
Authors: Mkoko P, Mokhele N, Ntsekhe M, Ntusi NA Abstract A 67-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Unit, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, with a 1-week history of poor appetite, vomiting and fatigue. Her background history was notable for infundibular pulmonary stenosis resection, pulmonary embolism and atrial flutter. Two days before, she complained to her general practitioner of recent-onset, recurrent syncope and worsening gastrointestinal upset. Her medical treatment included warfarin 5 mg daily, enalapril 5 mg twice daily, furosemide 40 mg twice daily, atenolol 50 mg twice ...
Source: South African Medical Journal - August 8, 2015 Category: African Health Tags: S Afr Med J Source Type: research

Effect of the angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696 compared with enalapril on mode of death in heart failure patients
Aims The angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) LCZ696 reduced cardiovascular deaths and all-cause mortality compared with enalapril in patients with chronic heart failure in the prospective comparison of ARNI with an Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure (PARADIGM-HF) trial. To more completely understand the components of this mortality benefit, we examined the effect of LCZ696 on mode of death. Methods and results PARADIGM-HF was a prospective, double-blind, randomized trial in 8399 patients with chronic heart failure, New York Heart Asso...
Source: European Heart Journal - August 7, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Desai, A. S., McMurray, J. J. V., Packer, M., Swedberg, K., Rouleau, J. L., Chen, F., Gong, J., Rizkala, A. R., Brahimi, A., Claggett, B., Finn, P. V., Hartley, L. H., Liu, J., Lefkowitz, M., Shi, V., Zile, M. R., Solomon, S. D. Tags: Heart failure/cardiomyopathy Source Type: research

Efficacy of LCZ696 Persists at Lower Than Target Doses in the PARADIGM-HF Trial
In PARADIGM-HF, LCZ696 was shown to reduce cardiovascular death, heart failure hospitalization and all-cause mortality compared with enalapril. As the majority of patients maintained the target dose of LCZ696 200 mg bid (mean 375 mg daily for LCZ696) and enalapril 10 mg bid (18.9 mg daily for enalapril) during the study, we investigated whether LCZ696 confers similar benefit relative to enalapril in patients who could not tolerate target doses. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - July 31, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Orly Vardeny, Brian Claggett, John J.V. McMurray, Milton Packer, Jean Rouleau, John R. Teerlink, Michael Zile, Karl Swedberg, Martin Lefkowitz, Victor Shi Tags: Rapid-Fire Abstracts I Source Type: research

Comparison of the Baseline Demographics of the LCZ696 PARADIGM-HF and TITRATION Studies
The PARADIGM-HF study demonstrated LCZ696 reduced cardiovascular mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with HF compared to enalapril. Patients enrolled in PARADIGM-HF were required to tolerate both study drugs by completing a sequential active drug run-in prior to randomization. To assess whether patients enrolled in the PARADIGM-HF study are representative of community HF patients, we compared the patient demographics of PARADIGM-HF with the recently completed TITRATION HF study comparing two LCZ696 titration regimens. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - July 31, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Fabian Chen, Alan Charney, Jim Gong, Victor Shi, Michele Senni Tags: Clinical Trials I Source Type: research

The Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor LCZ696 is Effective Across the Spectrum of Ejection Fraction in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction
The angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor LCZ696 reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared to enalapril in the PARADIGM-HF Trial. We evaluated the influence of ejection fraction on clinical outcomes and on the effectiveness of LCZ696 compared with enalapril. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - July 31, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Scott Solomon, Milton Packer, Michael Zile, Karl Swedberg, Jean Rouleau, Martin Lefkowitz, Victor Shi, Akshay Desai, Brian Claggett, Randall Starling, John J.V. McMurray Tags: Clinical Trials I Source Type: research

Simultaneous determination of antihypertensive drugs by flow injection analysis using multiple pulse amperometric detection with a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode
Publication date: 1 October 2015 Source:Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Volume 754 Author(s): Bruna C. Lourencao, Roberta A. Medeiros, Orlando Fatibello-Filho A flow injection analysis (FIA) and multiple pulse amperometric detection (MPA) using a cathodically pretreated boron-doped diamond electrode (CPT-BDD) were employed for simultaneous determination of the antihypertensive drugs hydrochlorothiazide (HTZ) and enalapril (ENP). A dual-potential waveform as a function of time, previously optimized, was used: Edet.1 =+1.50V/150ms (pulse potential at which HTZ was oxidized) and Edet.2 =+1.80V/150ms (pulse potent...
Source: Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry - July 26, 2015 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Investigation of the Environmental Transport of Human Pharmaceuticals to Surface Water: A Case Study of Persistence of Pharmaceuticals in Effluent of Sewage Treatment Plants and Hospitals in Malaysia
The present work reports the occurrence and monitoring of 11 pharmaceuticals (i.e., caffeine, prazosin, enalapril, carbamazepine, nifedipine, gliclazide, levonorgestrel, simvastatin, hydrochlorothiazide, diclofenac-Na and mefenamic acid) in surface water and in the influent and effluent of sewage treatment plants (STPs) and hospitals (HSPs). A total of 105 water samples were analyzed using solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-time-of-flight/mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-TOF/MS). The mean concentrations of the detected pharmaceuticals in STP influent and effluent ranged from
Source: Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society - July 24, 2015 Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

Ambulatory Blood Pressures in Hypertensive Patients Treated With One Antihypertensive Agent: Differences Among Drug Classes and Among Drugs Belonging to the Same Class
The authors investigated the differences in office and ambulatory blood pressure (BP) among major antihypertensive drug classes and among frequently used drugs in each class in 22,617 patients treated with monotherapy from the Spanish ABPM Registry. Using thiazides as the reference group, patients treated with calcium channel blockers have significantly (P
Source: The Journal of Clinical Hypertension - July 24, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Alejandro Sierra, Manuel Gorostidi, José R. Banegas, Julián Segura, Ernest Vinyoles, Juan J. Cruz, Luis M. Ruilope Tags: Original Paper Source Type: research

Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibition in Heart Failure: Mechanistic Action and Clinical Impact
Heart failure (HF) is an increasingly common syndrome associated with high mortality and economic burden, and there has been a paucity of new pharmacotherapies that improve outcomes over the past decade. However, recent data from a large, randomized controlled trial compared the novel agent LCZ696, a dual acting angiotensin receptor blocker and neprilysin inhibitor (ARNi), to the well-established angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril and found significant reduction in mortality among the chronic, reduced ejection fraction HF population. (Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure)
Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - July 21, 2015 Category: Cardiology Authors: Jonathan Buggey, Robert J. Mentz, Adam D. DeVore, Eric J. Velazquez Source Type: research

In Chinese adults with hypertension, adding folic acid to enalapril reduced incident stroke.
PMID: 26192588 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Internal Medicine)
Source: Annals of Internal Medicine - July 21, 2015 Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Barer D Tags: Ann Intern Med Source Type: research

Efficacy of aliskiren, compared with angiotensin II blockade, in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice: should the combination therapy be a focus?
Authors: Zhou G, Liu X, Cheung AK, Huang Y Abstract Although the intensive use of angiotensin II blockade (ACEI or ARB), progression of diabetic nephropathy is common. A feedback increase in renin production often accompanies angiotensin II blockade. We therefore examined whether aliskiren, a direct renin inhibitor, confers better renoprotection than angiotensin II blockade and whether the addition of aliskiren to an ACEI or ARB would enhance the efficacy in slowing the progression of glomerulosclerosis in diabetes. Untreated db/db mice developed progressive mesangial matrix expansion and albuminuria between weeks ...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - July 18, 2015 Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research

Dual Angiotensin Receptor and Neprilysin Inhibition in Chronic Systolic Heart Failure: Understanding the New PARADIGM.
CONCLUSIONS: LCZ696 significantly improved morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic HFrEF but will require careful application to "real-world" populations of HFrEF. PMID: 26175499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Annals of Pharmacotherapy)
Source: The Annals of Pharmacotherapy - July 14, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Lillyblad MP Tags: Ann Pharmacother Source Type: research

Burning Mouth Syndrome Secondary to Antihypertensive Drug Use: Clinical Case Report
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a burning sensation or dysesthesia in an oral mucosa where no lesion was identified. A 57-year-old female complained of a strong burning sensation on the tongue, buccal mucosa, and lips, together with a significant reduction in salivation. No alteration of the oral mucosa was detected on intraoral clinical examination. The patient reported using various medications to control hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and asthma. Symptoms related to BMS appeared after a hypertensive crisis, resulting in a change in the pharmacological treatment regimen (an increase in the dose of captopril...

Evaluation of potential drug- herb interactions among a group of Palestinian patients with chronic diseases
Background: The aim of this study was to find the prevalence of potential drug-herb interactions in patients with chronic diseases and identify factors associated with these interactions if present.MethodThe study was a questionnaire based cross-sectional study. It was conducted at a number of governmental primary healthcare centers which include outpatient clinics for chronic diseases between July and November 2013. Patients come to these clinics monthly or bimonthly to receive their medications for their chronic diseases free. The patients in this study were seen at these clinics and their medications were reported from ...
Source: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine - July 11, 2015 Category: Complementary Medicine Authors: Rowa¿ Al-RamahiNidal JaradatRuba ShalalfehSojoud NasirYazan ManasraIhab ShalalfehYasmen Esam Source Type: research

Bioactive peptides identified in Thornback ray skin's gelatin hydrolysates by proteases from Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.
This study describes a peptidomic approach for the identification of ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant peptides generated from thornback ray muscle (Raja clavata) hydrolysates from Bacillus subtilis A26 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Neutrase® enzymes and expose the potential of thornback ray muscle hydrolysate as a source of bioactive peptides. In this sense, the decrease of systolic blood pressure is one of the main measurements considered in public health for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, stroke and even end-stage renal disease. Traditionally, synthetic drugs such as captopril and enalapril have been used a...
Source: Journal of Proteomics - July 4, 2015 Category: Biochemistry Authors: Lassoued I, Mora L, Barkia A, Aristoy MC, Nasri M, Toldrá F Tags: J Proteomics Source Type: research

Blocking VEGF/Caveolin-1 signaling contributes to renal protection of fasudil in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
i-fang Zhang (Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica)
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - July 3, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Jing JinChao PengSu-zhen WuHong-min ChenBai-fang Zhang Tags: diabetic nephropathy glomerular sclerosis RhoA/ROCK signaling fasudil enalapril VEGF Src caveolin-1 Source Type: research

The Blocking on the Cathepsin B and Fibronectin Accumulation in Kidney Glomeruli of Diabetic Rats.
In this study, fluorometric, ELISA, and immunohistochemical methods were used. Administration of EN + LOS increased activity of cathepsin B in homogenates of glomeruli compared to DM. Losartan treatment resulted in reduction of the ratio kidney weight/body weight compared to untreated diabetic rats. SPIR resulted in the increase activity of cathepsin B in the homogenate of glomeruli. The values of cathepsin B in the plasma of rats in all studied groups were similar and showed no tendency. PMID: 26089895 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)
Source: International Journal of Endocrinology - June 21, 2015 Category: Endocrinology Tags: Int J Endocrinol Source Type: research

Myoglobin microplate assay to evaluate prevention of protein peroxidation
Publication date: 10 October 2015 Source:Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Volume 114 Author(s): Sara S. Marques , Luís M. Magalhães , Ana I.P. Mota , Tânia R.P. Soares , Barbara Korsak , Salette Reis , Marcela A. Segundo The current therapeutic strategies are based on the design of multifunctional drug candidates able to interact with various disease related targets. Drugs that have the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), beyond their main therapeutic action, may prevent the oxidative damage of biomolecules. Therefore, analytical approaches that monitor in a continuous...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - June 19, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Testicular Morphology and Spermatozoid Parameters In Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Treated Or Not With Enalapril
To evaluate testicular morphology and spermatozoid parameters of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) who received or did not receive treatment with enalapril. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Source: The Journal of Urology - June 15, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gustavo R. Bechara, Diogo B. de Souza, Michele Simoes, Bruno Felix-Patrício, Jorge L. Medeiros, Waldemar S. Costa, Francisco J.B. Sampaio Source Type: research

Testicular Morphology and Spermatozoid Parameters in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Treated with Enalapril
We evaluated testicular morphology and spermatozoid parameters in spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with enalapril. (Source: The Journal of Urology)
Source: The Journal of Urology - June 15, 2015 Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Gustavo R. Bechara, Diogo B. de Souza, Michele Simoes, Bruno Felix-Patrício, Jorge L. Medeiros, Waldemar S. Costa, Francisco J.B. Sampaio Tags: Investigative Urology Source Type: research

The Effects of Oral Atenolol or Enalapril Premedication on Blood Loss and Hypotensive Anesthesia in Orthognathic Surgery.
CONCLUSION: Premedication with enalapril (10 mg) combined with remifentanil under sevoflurane anesthesia attenuated blood loss and achieved satisfactory DH during orthognathic surgery. Furthermore, the amount of NTG was reduced during the surgery. PMID: 26069137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Yonsei Medical Journal)
Source: Yonsei Medical Journal - June 13, 2015 Category: Universities & Medical Training Authors: Kim NY, Yoo YC, Chun DH, Lee HM, Jung YS, Bai SJ Tags: Yonsei Med J Source Type: research

ACE-inhibition increases podocyte number in experimental glomerular disease independent of proliferation
Conclusion: The results show following an abrupt decline in podocyte number, the initiation of ACE-inhibition but not hydralazine, was accompanied by higher podocyte number in the absence of proliferation. This was accompanied by a higher number of parietal epithelial cells that co-express podocyte proteins. Increasing podocyte number appears to be accompanied by reduced glomerulosclerosis. (Source: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System : JRAAS)
Source: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System : JRAAS - June 12, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhang, J., Yanez, D., Floege, A., Lichtnekert, J., Krofft, R. D., Liu, Z.-H., Pippin, J. W., Shankland, S. J. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Hydronephrosis alters cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor expression in mice
Introduction: Hydronephrosis is characterized by substantial loss of tubules and affects renin secretion in the kidney. However, whether alterations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart are observed in hydronephrosis is unknown. Thus, we assessed these components in hydronephrotic mice treated with AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibitor. Materials and methods: Hydronephrosis was induced by left ureteral ligation in Balb/C mice except sham-operated animals. The levels of cardiac ACE, ACE2 and Mas receptor were measured after treatment of losartan or enalapril. Results: Hydronephrosis...
Source: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System : JRAAS - June 12, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhang, Y., Ma, L., Wu, J., Chen, T. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

In vitro comparison of bradykinin degradation by aliskiren, a renin inhibitor, and an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme
Conclusion: Aliskiren has no effect upon the rate of bradykinin degradation in plasma and a minimal effect employing vascular endothelial cells. The latter suggests inhibition of a non-renin enzyme that is a minor contributor to bradykinin degradation. (Source: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System : JRAAS)
Source: Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System : JRAAS - June 12, 2015 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Joseph, K., Tholanikunnel, T. E., Kaplan, A. P. Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Application of quantitative NMR for purity determination of standard ACE inhibitors
This study investigated the accuracy of the quantitative NMR method for purity determination of ACE inhibitors reference standards and the discovery of two pairs of new diastereoisomers. Six types of ACE inhibitors, imidapril hydrochloride, benazepril hydrochloride, lisinopril, enalapril maleate, quinapril hydrochloride, and captopril were quantificated and validated for the qNMR method by discussing factors that affect parameters of the qNMR experiment, internal standards, integration, pH-effect, and uncertainty. The results were compared with data obtained by the mass balance method. The study found that maleic acid infl...
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis - June 12, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

Combination Therapy With Lercanidipine And Enalapril Reduced Central Blood Pressure Augmentation In Hypertensive Patients With Metabolic Syndrome.
Abstract Arterial stiffness and blood pressure (BP) augmentation are independent predictors of cardiovascular events. In a randomized, open, parallel group study we compared the effect on these parameters of combination therapy with an ACE-inhibitor plus calcium channel blocker or thiazide diuretic in 76 hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome uncontrolled by ACE-inhibitor monotherapy. After 4weeks run-in with enalapril (ENA, 20mg), patients were randomized to a combination therapy with lercanidipine (LER, 10-20mg) or hydrochlorothiazide (HCT, 12.5-25mg) for 24weeks. Aortic stiffness (carotid to femoral puls...
Source: Vascular Pharmacology - June 9, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Ghiadoni L, Bruno RM, Cartoni G, Stea F, Magagna A, Virdis A, Grassi D, Ferri C, Taddei S Tags: Vascul Pharmacol Source Type: research

Chronic heart failure: what does the horizon look like?
Purpose of review: This review highlights the most recent developments in the field of heart failure with reduced and preserved ejection fraction (HFrEF and HFpEF). Recent findings: The largest trial to date in patients with HFrEF demonstrated that LCZ696, a novel combination drug of valsartan and a neprilysin inhibitor, as compared with enalapril, significantly reduced the death rates from any cause and from cardiovascular causes and the rates of hospitalizations for worsening heart failure. Both ivabradine, a novel heart rate lowering therapy, currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and coenzyme Q10...
Source: Current Opinion in Cardiology - June 8, 2015 Category: Cardiology Tags: CLINICAL TRIALS: Edited by Neal S. Kleiman Source Type: research

Polymorphisms in VEGFA gene affect the antihypertensive responses to enalapril
Conclusions These findings suggest that polymorphisms in VEGFA gene may affect the antihypertensive responses to enalapril. (Source: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology)
Source: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology - May 24, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

You-gui Pill ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis via inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway
Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that YGP had a renoprotective effect in ameliorating renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and this activity possibly via suppression of the TGF-β and its downstream regulatory signaling pathway, including Smad2/3. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - May 18, 2015 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research