Advancements in the use of Auger electrons in science and medicine during the period 2015-2019.
CONCLUSIONS: There have been a plethora of advancements in our understanding of Auger processes. These advancements range from basic atomic and molecular physics to new ways to implement Auger electron emitters in radiopharmaceutical therapy. The highly localized doses of radiation that are deposited within a 10 nm of the decay site make them precision tools for discovery across the physical, chemical, biological and medical sciences. PMID: 33021416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - October 8, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Improving the accuracy of dose estimates from automatically scored dicentric chromosomes by accounting for chromosome number.
Conclusions: A major source for the observed overdispersion could be identified, and statistical methods accounting for overdispersion introduced by variations in the number of detected chromosomes were developed, enabling more robust dose estimation and quantification of uncertainties or semi-automatic counting of dicentric chromosomes. PMID: 33001765 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - October 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Gut microbiota response to ionizing radiation and its modulation by HDAC inhibitor TSA.
CONCLUSION: TSA treatment post irradiation could effectively control bacterial translocation as well as GI injury in mice. PMID: 33001776 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - October 3, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Clinical efficacy of external beam radiotherapy complementing incomplete transarterial chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Conclusions: EBRT after incomplete TACE was feasible and yielded favorable oncologic outcomes. However, disease progression related to intrahepatic failure remained a hindrance.*EQD2: Equivalent dose in 2 Gy per fraction radiotherapy. PMID: 32990486 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Passage of uranium through human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells: influence of time exposure in mono- and co-culture in vitro models.
Conclusions: We show for the first time the in vitro passage of U across a human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells, and the intracellular localization of U precipitates without any cytotoxicity or modification of paracellular permeability. The difference between the results obtained with monolayers and co-culture models with pericytes illustrates the need to use complex in vitro models in order to mimic the neurovascular unit. Further in vivo studies should be performed to better understand the passage of U across the blood-brain barrier potentially involved in behavioral consequences. PMID: 32990492 [PubMed - a...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Enhancement in the ATP level and antioxidant capacity of Caenorhabditis elegans under continuous exposure to extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field for multiple generations.
Conclusions: These results indicated that continuous exposure to 50 Hz, 3mT ELF-EMF for multiple generations can increase the body length of worms, induce the synthesis of ATP and enhance the antioxidant capacity of worms. PMID: 32991227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Taurine Abates the Liver Damage Induced by γ-Irradiation in Rats through Anti-inflammatory and Anti-apoptotic Pathways.
Conclusion: Taken together, IR caused maximum devastation in the liver 2 weeks after exposure as shown by elevation of the inflammatory and apoptotic markers and reducing the antioxidants. Taurine was able to alleviate the deleterious biochemical and histological effects whether given before or after IR. The magnitude of the observed protective effects was in both cases very similar. PMID: 32991236 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Evaluation of interactive effects of phosphorus-32 and copper on marine and freshwater bivalve molluscs.
Conclusions: Our study is the first to explore the interactive effects of ionizing radiation (IR) and Cu on two bivalve species representing two ecological habitats. The complexity of IR-metal interactions demonstrate that extrapolation of findings obtained from single stressor studies into field conditions could be misrepresentative of real-world environments. In turn, environmental protective strategies deemed suitable in protecting biota from a single, isolated stressor may not be wholly adequate. HighlightsAdoption of an integrated, multi-biomarker approach in two bivalve speciesToxicity of combined mixtures of 32P and...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 26, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

The protective effect of oleuropein against radiation-induced cytotoxicity, apoptosis and genetic damage in cultured human lymphocytes.
Authors: Amani F, Allahbakhshian Farsani M, Gholami M, Aghamiri SMR, Bakhshandeh M, Hosein Mohamadi M Abstract Purpose: Oleuropein is one of the most abundant and important phenolic compounds in fruits and olive leaves . In this research, the radioprotective effect of oleuropein was investigated versus 2 Gy of gamma radiation on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of oleuropein radiation protection and to find an effective radioprotector.Materials and Method: Human mononuclear cells were treated with oleuropein at the concentration of 100 μM (...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 26, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Efficacy of delayed administration of sargramostim up to 120  hours post exposure in a nonhuman primate total body radiation model.
CONCLUSION: In a NHP ARS model, sargramostim administered starting at 48 h post-radiation was effective to improve survival, while beneficial hematological effects were observed with sargramostim initiated up to 120 h post exposure. PMID: 32960660 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Ionizing radiation-induced risks to the central nervous system and countermeasures in cellular and rodent models.
Conclusions. The majority of therapeutic approaches to protect the CNS from ionizing radiation have been limited to acute high dose and high dose rate gamma irradiation, and few are translatable from animal models to potential human application due to harmful side effects and lack of blood-brain barrier permeability that precludes peripheral administration. Therefore, a promising research direction would be to focus on practical applicability and effectiveness in a wider range of irradiation paradigms, from fractionated therapeutic to deep space radiation. In addition to discovering novel therapeutics, it would be worth ma...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Spaceflight Medical Countermeasures: A Strategic Approach for Mitigating Effects from Solar Particle Events.
Conclusions: While the likelihood of experiencing a significant SPE is very low, serious adverse health effects or even death could occur if no medical countermeasures were available. Having a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medical countermeasure on board that could mitigate acute radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome due to a SPE could provide life saving measures for the crew. This paper discusses the mitigation strategies that can be implemented for Artemis missions and identifies numerous areas of research for future improvements. PMID: 32946313 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Internati...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Radiotherapy in the fight against pneumonia associated with SARS-CoV-2.
Authors: Hertzog RG, Bicheru SN PMID: 32931359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 18, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

A Gottingen Minipig Model of Radiation-Induced Coagulopathy.
Conclusion: These data support the continued use of multiple approaches to evaluate the coagulation cascade in order to provide the most meaningful interpretation of the hematopoietic changes that occur post irradiation. PMID: 32924712 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Use of CT simulation and 3-D radiation therapy treatment planning system to develop and validate a total-body irradiation technique for the New Zealand White rabbit.
The objective of this study was to establish a simple, convenient, robust and accurate technique for validating total body irradiation (TBI) exposure of the New Zealand White rabbit. METHODS: We use radiotherapy techniques such as computed tomography simulation and a 3D-conformal radiation therapy treatment planning system (TPS) on three animals to comprehensively design and pre-plan a TBI technique for rabbits. We evaluate the requirement for bolus, treatment geometry, bilateral vs anterior-posterior treatment delivery, the agreement between monitor units calculated using the TPS vs a traditional hand calculation to t...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 16, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

The Impact of Supportive Care on Survival in Large Animal Models of Total Body Irradiation.
Conclusion: The study reported here provides a comparison of the impact of antibiotic administration on radiation-induced lethality. PMID: 32909856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

The New Zealand White Rabbit Animal Model of Acute Radiation Syndrome: Hematopoietic and Coagulation-based Parameters by Radiation Dose Following Supportive Care.
Conclusion: This NZW rabbit model demonstrates dose-dependent depletion of hematopoietic parameters. The LD50/30 of 7.8 Gy (95% CI: 6.6-8.4) with supportive care appears to be close to the ranges reported for rhesus macaques (5.25-7.44 Gy) and humans (6-8 Gy) with supportive care. These findings support the utility of the NZW rabbit model for further mechanistic investigation of acute radiation exposure and medical countermeasure testing. PMID: 32909860 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Developing and Comparing Models of Hematopoietic-Acute Radiation Syndrome in G öttingen and Sinclair Minipigs.
Conclusion: The results of this study provide a template for future MCM development in an alternate species, and support further development of the Göttingen and Sinclair minipig H-ARS models. PMID: 32909874 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Challenges in the quantification approach to a radiation relevant adverse outcome pathway for lung cancer.
Conclusion: Quantifying AOP components provides a means to assemble empirical evidence across different studies. This highlights challenges in the context of studies examining similar endpoints using different radiation types. Data linking KERs to a MIE of 'deposition of energy' is shown to be non-compatible with the stressor-agnostic principles of AOP design. Limiting data to that describing response-response relationships between adjacent KERs may better delineate studies relevant to the damage that drives a pathway to the next KE and still support an 'all hazards' approach. Such data remains limited and future investiga...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Study logistics that can impact medical countermeasure efficacy testing in mouse models of radiation injury.
Conclusions: Many potential confounders that could impact the outcomes of studies to assess efficacy of a medical countermeasure for radiation-induced injuries are addressed, and recommendations are made to assist investigators in carrying out research that is robust, reproducible, and accurate. PMID: 32909878 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Characterization of the Hemorrhagic Syndrome in the New Zealand White Rabbit Model Following Total Body Irradiation.
Conclusions: The hemorrhagic syndrome in the rabbit model of TBI recapitulates the pathogenesis described in humans following accidental or deliberate exposures. The rabbit may present an alternative to the rodent model as a small animal species for characterization of the full spectrum of multiorgan injury following TBI and early testing of promising medical countermeasures. PMID: 32909880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Using Biodosimetry to Enhance the Public Health Response to a Nuclear Incident.
Conclusions: With BARDA financial support, biodosimetry diagnostic assays in development will inform patient management, improve health and psychosocial outcomes, and save lives after a nuclear disaster. These tests include an SRI International developed rapid on-site screening test requiring only a finger stick of blood to triage those who have received little or no radiation from those who have received clinically significant levels of radiation and need further immediate patient management. In addition, multiple laboratory-based, high-throughput quantitative tests, currently under development by MRIGlobal, DxTerity, and...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

A combinatorial approach of a polypharmacological adjuvant 2-deoxy-D-glucose with low dose radiation therapy to quell the cytokine storm in COVID-19 management.
Authors: Verma A, Adhikary A, Woloschak G, Dwarakanath BS, Papineni RV PMID: 32910699 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Lung damage by thoron progenies versus possible damage redemption by lung stem cells: a perspective.
Conclusion: Existing epidemiological data on thoron inhalation and associated health outcomes are limited and inconclusive. Further, in vivo experiments, with respect to radon/thoron inhalation dose rate ranges corresponding to the HNBR areas will be helpful in understanding the cellular and molecular effects. PMID: 32910703 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

A Radiobiological Study of Carbon Ions of Different Linear Energy Transfer in Resistant Human Malignant Cell Lines.
Conclusion: Significant elimination of HTB140 cells is observed along the carbon Bragg curve. The highest one is achieved by LET that is at the level of already reported. For the same LET, mono-energetic carbon ions provide higher cell elimination than the non mono-energetic. For all cell lines both carbon ion beams, more the monoenergetic one, express stronger killing rate than protons and especially γ-rays. PMID: 32910708 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Estimating partial body ionizing radiation exposure by automated cytogenetic biodosimetry.
Conclusions: Automated DCA can differentiate whole- from partial-body radiation exposures and provides timely quantification of estimated whole-body equivalent dose. PMID: 32910711 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Exploring the radiosensitizing potential of AZD8931: a pilot study on the human LoVo colorectal cancer cell line.
Conclusions: Our results show that AZD8931 increases IR efficacy in LoVo cells, suggesting that it works as a potent radiosensitizer, even more efficient than Gefitinib and Cetuximab, opening new pathways of investigation for further in vitro and in vivo studies aimed at confirming its potential to improve local radiotherapy in CRC. PMID: 32910714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

IL-2 and IL-2R gene polymorphisms and immune function in people residing in areas with high background radiation, Yangjiang, China.
Authors: Wen C, Su S, Tang Y, Li R, Xu H, Chen H, Wang T Abstract Purpose Long-term exposure to low dose radiation may trigger immune response and stimulate hormesis. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) play a crucial role in immune function. We aimed to explore the possible association of IL-2 and IL-2R gene polymorphisms with low dose radiation exposure, as well as the relationship with IL-2 gene expression in people residing in areas with a high background radiation in Yangjiang, China.Materials and methods We recruited and assigned 54 native men residing in Yangxi County, Yangjiang city to t...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Dosimetry study on Auger electron-emitting nuclear medicine radioisotopes in micrometer and nanometer scales using Geant4-DNA simulation.
Conclusions: Among the widely-used diagnostic radioisotopes, 201Tl and 125I had the greatest effect on the rate of SSBs and DSBs, respectively, while the 131I therapeutic radioisotope almost had no effect and therapeutic radioisotope of 211At had a moderate effect on the number of breaks. PMID: 32910718 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 12, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Etiology of Posterior Subcapsular Cataracts Based on a Review of Risk Factors including Aging, Diabetes, and Ionizing Radiation.
Conclusions: Lens epithelial cells (LECs) and lens fiber cells are normally hypoxic and therefore very sensitive to changes in oxidative stress, as quantified by the radiation oxygen effect. We hypothesize that the development of PSC opacities is a two-stage process. Stage I, early in life, is driven by risk factors that promote oxidative stress and ion-pump disruption, harming lens fibers and causing aberrant LECs to proliferate and ectopically migrate as Wedl cells (perhaps by processes associated with an epithelial to mesenchymal transition) to the posterior pole region. After a latent period, in Stage II the developmen...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - September 9, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Exploiting active nuclear import for efficient delivery of Auger electron emitters into the cell nucleus.
Conclusion: Transport from the cytoplasm to the nucleus along with binding to the cancer cell is one of the key stages in the delivery of AE emitters; therefore, several constructs for exploitation of this transport have been developed. The transport is carried out through a nuclear pore complex (NPC) with the use of specific amino acid nuclear localization sequences (NLS) and carrier proteins named importins, which are located in the cytosol. Therefore, the effectiveness of NLS-containing delivery constructs designed to provide energy-dependent transport of AE emitter into the nuclei of cancer cells also depends on their ...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Characterization of sphere cells derived from a patient-derived xenograft model of lung adenocarcinoma treated with ionizing radiation.
CONCLUSIONS: Tumorigenicity assays revealed that sphere cells from 2- or 5-Gy IR-treated tumors more aggressive than sphere cells from non-IR treated tumors. Microarray results showed that SERPIB4 and CCL2 were upregulated in sphere cells from IR-treated tumors compared to that in sphere cells from non-IR treated tumors. Interestingly, these genes are related to immune reactions in cancer. Taken together, our results suggest that the aggressiveness of sphere cells obtained after IR treatment is related to resistance, and provide new opportunities for exploring targeted therapies to overcome common radioresistance. PMID...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Evaluation of induced biological effects in rats by continuous and natural gamma radiation using a physical simulator.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that the continuous exposure of females rats to 3.6 and 20 μSv h-1 doses of gamma radiation slightly affected the hepatic tissue, but did not alter the histological parameters in the kidneys and ovaries and oxidative stress. PMID: 32845812 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 29, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Study on X-ray Enhancement in Laser-Compton Scattering for Auger Therapy.
CONCLUSION: We are going to demonstrate the LCS X-ray enhancement by crab crossing of electron beam and laser pulse. The expected enhancement factor is 3.8. We have successfully finished the laser development and the proof-of-principle experiment will be conducted soon.Subject classification codes: include these here if the journal requires them. PMID: 32835574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 26, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Development of a Monte Carlo beam model for raster scanning proton beams and dosimetric comparison.
Conclusions: This work described a method for adapting a MC simulation model for a raster scanning proton beam. The good concordance between the simulations and measurements shows that the MC model is an accurate and reliable method. It has the potential to be used for patient specific quality assurance (PSQA) to reduce the beam time for the measurements in water. PMID: 32816596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

The sine qua non of the fish invitrome today and tomorrow in environmental radiobiology.
Conclusions: The fish invitrome contains at least 714 fish cell lines. However, only a few of these cell lines have been used to study radiation biology in fish and they represent only 10 fish species. The fish invitrome is clearly not yet explored for its full potential in radiation biology. Evidence suggests that they are useful and, in some cases, irreplaceable in making underlying theories and fundamental concepts in radiation responses in fish. The debate of whether environmental radiation is harmful, presents risks, has no effect on health, or is beneficial is on-going and is one that fish cell lines can help address...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 22, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Synthesis of a novel 99mTc labeled GE11 peptide for EGFR SPECT imaging.
CONCLUSION: The new SPECT tracer 99mTc-peptide-GE11 showed EGFR specificity, favorable pharmacokinetics and great potential for EGFR-targeted imaging. PMID: 32809887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Investigation of neutron and gamma radiation protective characteristics of synthesized quinoline derivatives.
Conclusions: Neutron shielding parameters such as removal cross-section, mean free path, half value layer and transmission number were theoretically determined for fast neutrons. To determine neutron absorption capacity of quinoline derivatives, neutron absorption, experiments were conducted. In addition, gamma radiation shielding parameters were calculated such as the mean free path (MFP), mass attenuation coefficient (μt), half value thickness layer (HVL) and effective atomic number (Zeff) in the energy range of 0.015-15 MeV. The results of the all quinoline derivatives have excellent fast neutron shielding pow...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 20, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Environmental radiation on large Japanese field mice in Fukushima reduced colony forming potential in hematopoietic progenitor cells without inducing genomic instability.
Conclusions: Our study suggests that low dose-rate radiation of more than 200 μGy/d reduced HPCs in A. speciosus, possibly eliminating genomically unstable HPCs. PMID: 32791031 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 14, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Role of DNA damage and repair in radiation cancer therapy: A current update and a look to the future.
Conclusions: We unite accumulating evidence and knowledge over the last 20 years or so on the importance of radiation treatment of cancer. This radiation-based therapy comes unfortunately with a deficit and this is the radiation-induced genetic instability which can fuel radiation toxicity, even several years after the initial treatment on patients through the activation of DNA damage response (DDR) and the immune system. PMID: 32776818 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Suppression of innate immune signaling molecule, MAVS, reduces radiation-induced bystander effect.
Conclusions: Our results indicated that the innate immune signaling molecule MAVS in recipient cells participate in RIBE. ROS is an important factor in RIBE via MAVS pathway and MAVS may be a potential target for the precise radiotherapy and radioprotection. PMID: 32776819 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

DNA Damage in Blood Leukocytes from Mice Irradiated with Accelerated Carbon Ions with an Energy of 450  MeV/nucleon.
The objective of the study was to estimate the DNA damage in blood leukocytes at long terms after irradiation of mice with carbon ions (450 MeV/nucleon) both before and in the Bragg peak.Materials and methods: White outbred SHK male mice were exposed to whole-body irradiation with carbon ions at doses of 0.1-2 Gy in the spread-out Bragg peak and at a dose of 6 Gy before and in the Bragg peak. At different times after irradiation (1-75 days), whole blood was collected from the tail of each mouse and analyzed by the comet assay. Mice X-irradiated in the same dose range served as a positive control. The l...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Follow-up strategy based on event dynamics for stage II nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Conclusions: Follow-up strategies of stage II NPC should be performed based on currently recommended guidelines. In future, it should be modified to meet the needs of individual patients. PMID: 32780614 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Proton Scanning and X-ray Beam Irradiation Induce Distinct Regulation of Inflammatory Cytokines in a Preclinical Mouse Model.
Conclusions: The inflammatory response to proton and X-ray irradiation seem to be distinct as the principal pro-inflammatory cytokines are differentially regulated short- and long-term following irradiation. Both the development of normal tissue damage and efficacy of immunotherapy could be influenced by an altered inflammatory response to irradiation. PMID: 32780616 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - August 13, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Electronic properties of DNA-related molecules containing a bromine atom.
Discussion: Our results suggest that the Br atom may not contribute substantially to the core-level electronic states of the molecule, but rather to the microscopic states related to the excitation of lattice vibrations (oscillation and rotation in the molecule), which may be involved in valence electronic states. The phonon (or valence) excitation by secondary low-energy electrons generated around brominated bases in genomic DNA may be important in DNA damage induction. PMID: 32720858 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - July 30, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

The psychological consequences of (perceived) ionizing radiation exposure: a review on its role in radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall the evidence shows prenatal exposure to low and moderate doses to be detrimental to brain development and subsequent cognitive functioning, however the evidence for adolescent and adult low- and moderate-dose exposure remains uncertain. The persistent psychological stress following accidental exposure to low-doses in adulthood may pose a greater threat to our cognitive functioning. Indeed, the psychological implications for instructed cohorts (e.g., astronauts and radiotherapy patients) is less clear and warrants further investigation. Nonetheless, the psychosocial consequences of low- and moderate-dos...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - July 28, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Multifaceted applications of pre-mature chromosome condensation in radiation biodosimetry.
Conclusion: G0-PCC, can be useful tool for high dose biodosimetry with quick assessment of fragment frequency. Further, it holds potential for multi-parametric dosimetry in combination of FISH. PMID: 32689847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - July 23, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Meta-analysis of transcriptomic datasets using benchmark dose modeling shows value in supporting radiation risk assessment.
Conclusion: Overall, the results from this work highlight the value of the BMD methodology to derive meaningful outputs that are consistent across different models, provided the studies are conducted using a similar dose-range. PMID: 32687419 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - July 21, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Assessment of probable scenarios of radiological emergency and their consequences.
Conclusions: It is vital to educate decision makers, first responders and the public about the factual extent of possible radiological consequences, as well as about the very real danger of over-reaction. Since the extent of the countermeasures deployed is unavoidably connected, in the eye of the public, with the extent of the danger, we suggest launching educational campaigns that explain the factual extent of the radiation risk, followed by easing regulations and narrowing safety margins. Such measures will probably be the most efficient method of countering radiological terrorism: by depriving any adversary of the most ...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - July 21, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research

Radiation alters osteoclastogenesis by regulating the cytoskeleton and lytic enzymes in RAW 264.7 cells and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages.
Conclusions: Irradiation with 2 Gy inhibited the viability of osteoclast precursors, but increased osteoclastogenesis by enhancing cell fusion and increasing the secretion of lytic enzymes, which may be an important mechanism of radiation-induced bone loss. PMID: 32687425 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - July 21, 2020 Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research