From molecular signatures to radiomics: tailoring neurooncological strategies through forecasting of glioma growth
CONCLUSIONS: The authors developed an advanced statistical model to predict tumor volumes both pre- and postoperatively, using comprehensive data prior to the initiation of adjuvant therapy. Using radiomics enhanced the precision of the prediction models. Whereas tumor extent of resection and topology emerged as influential factors in tumor growth, the IDH status did not. This study emphasizes the imperative of advanced computational methods in refining personalized low-grade glioma treatment, advocating a move beyond traditional paradigms.PMID:38301234 | DOI:10.3171/2023.11.FOCUS23685 (Source: Neurosurgical Focus)
Source: Neurosurgical Focus - February 1, 2024 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Philip Rauch Martin Aichholzer Carlo Serra Olivier Zanier Victor E Staartjes Petra B öhm Gregor Seyer Helga Wagner Ilja Manakov Michael Sonnberger Nico Stroh Stefan Aspalter Kathrin Aufschnaiter-Hiessb öck Tobias Rossmann Annette Leibetseder Stefan Katl Source Type: research

Suppression of antitumor immune signatures and upregulation of VEGFA as IDH-mutant gliomas progress to higher grade
CONCLUSIONS: Here, the authors have provided a transcriptomic analysis of a progression cohort for IDH-mutant glioma. Compared with lower-grade tumors, grade 4 astrocytomas displayed alterations that may inform the timing of antiangiogenic and immune-based therapy as these tumors progress.PMID:38301244 | DOI:10.3171/2023.11.FOCUS23694 (Source: Neurosurgical Focus)
Source: Neurosurgical Focus - February 1, 2024 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Eric P Grewal Leland G K Richardson Jing Sun Rishab Ramapriyan Maria Martinez-Lage Julie J Miller Daniel P Cahill Bryan D Choi William T Curry Source Type: research

Radiographic growth rate as a predictor of aggressiveness of diffuse gliomas without 1p19q codeletion
CONCLUSIONS: The spontaneous radiographic tumor growth rates could be used as an additional tool to preoperatively screen tumor aggressiveness of adult-type diffuse gliomas without 1p19q codeletion.PMID:38301236 | DOI:10.3171/2023.11.FOCUS23648 (Source: Neurosurgical Focus)
Source: Neurosurgical Focus - February 1, 2024 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Arthur Leclerc Alexandre Roux Angela Elia Sophie Peeters Oumaima Aboubakr Aziz Bedioui Martin Planet Joseph Benzakoun Giorgia Antonia Simboli Arnault Tauziede-Espariat Alessandro Moiraghi Pascale Varlet Fabrice Chr étien Catherine Oppenheim Marc Zanello Source Type: research

From molecular signatures to radiomics: tailoring neurooncological strategies through forecasting of glioma growth
CONCLUSIONS: The authors developed an advanced statistical model to predict tumor volumes both pre- and postoperatively, using comprehensive data prior to the initiation of adjuvant therapy. Using radiomics enhanced the precision of the prediction models. Whereas tumor extent of resection and topology emerged as influential factors in tumor growth, the IDH status did not. This study emphasizes the imperative of advanced computational methods in refining personalized low-grade glioma treatment, advocating a move beyond traditional paradigms.PMID:38301234 | DOI:10.3171/2023.11.FOCUS23685 (Source: Neurosurgical Focus)
Source: Neurosurgical Focus - February 1, 2024 Category: Neurosurgery Authors: Philip Rauch Martin Aichholzer Carlo Serra Olivier Zanier Victor E Staartjes Petra B öhm Gregor Seyer Helga Wagner Ilja Manakov Michael Sonnberger Nico Stroh Stefan Aspalter Kathrin Aufschnaiter-Hiessb öck Tobias Rossmann Annette Leibetseder Stefan Katl Source Type: research

Rise of oligodendroglioma hypermutator phenotype from a subclone harboring TP53 mutation after TMZ treatment
We report a case of 51-year-old woman with a left fronto-temporal oligodendroglioma that contained a small portion with aTP53 mutation, R248Q, at the initial surgery. On a first, slow-growing recurrence 29  months after radiation and nitrosourea-based chemotherapy, the patient underwent TMZ chemotherapy. The recurrent tumor responded well to TMZ but developed a rapid progression after 6 cycles as a malignant hypermutator tumor with aMSH6 mutation. Most of the recurrent tumor lacked typical oligodendroglioma morphology that was observed in the primary tumor, while it retained theIDH1 mutation and 1p/19q co-deletion. The id...
Source: Brain Tumor Pathology - January 31, 2024 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

Differentiating IDH-mutant astrocytomas and 1p19q-codeleted oligodendrogliomas using DSC-PWI: high performance through cerebral blood volume and percentage of signal recovery percentiles
ConclusionsOligodendrogliomas exhibit higher CBV and lower PSR than astrocytomas, traits that are emphasized when considering percentiles rather than mean or extreme values. The combination of CBV and PSR percentiles results in promising classification outcomes.Clinical relevance statementThe combination of histogram-derived percentile values of cerebral blood volume and percentage of signal recovery from DSC-PWI enhances the presurgical differentiation between astrocytomas and oligodendrogliomas, suggesting that incorporating these metrics into clinical practice could be beneficial.Key Points• The unsupervised selection...
Source: European Radiology - January 29, 2024 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical and molecular determinants of bleeding-related adverse outcomes in high-grade glioma
ConclusionIn this study we found that the use of rivaroxaban was associated with more bleeding-related events compared to apixaban and enoxaparin in patients with high-grade glioma. In this study we also found that the diagnosis of astrocytoma, IDH mutant, grade 4 was associated with more bleeding events. However, this is based on a small study and there is a need for larger studies to further evaluate these results. (Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - January 29, 2024 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

BCAS1 defines a heterogeneous cell population in diffuse gliomas
This study analyzes the expression of BCAS1 in different tumor samples from patients with diffuse gliomas (17 oligodendrogliomas; 8 astrocytomas; 60 glioblastomas) and uncovers the molecular and ultrastructural features of BCAS1+ cells by immunostaining and electron microscopy. Our results show that BCAS1+ cells exhibit stellate or spherical morphology with similar ultrastructural features. Stellate and spherical cells were detected as isolated cells in all studied gliomas. Nevertheless, only stellate cells were found to be proliferative and formed tightly packed nodules with a highly proliferative rate in oligodendrogliom...
Source: Oncotarget - January 26, 2024 Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Raquel Morales-Gallel Mar ía José Ulloa-Navas Patricia Garc ía-Tárraga Ricardo Prat-Ac ín Gaspar Reyn és Pedro P érez-Borredá Luis Rubio Vivian Capilla-Gonz ález Jaime Ferrer-Lozano Jos é Manuel García-Verdugo Source Type: research

Case report: Diagnostic challenge: a new multiple sclerosis “relapse” leading to the diagnosis of anaplastic astrocytoma
Cerebral tumors and multiple sclerosis (MS) can show overlapping clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features and even occur concurrently. Due to the emergence of new symptoms, not usually MS related, an MRI was conducted in a 29-year-old woman with relapsing-remitting MS and showed a significant size progression of a parieto-occipital lesion, with mild clinical correlates, such as blurred vision, difficulty in speaking, and headache. Contrast-enhanced MRI and fluorothymidine positron-emission tomography (PET) did not point toward neoplasm, a lesion biopsy, however, showed astrocytoma, which was confirmed as grad...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - January 26, 2024 Category: Neurology Source Type: research

CDKN2A/B deletion in IDH-mutant astrocytomas: An evaluation by Fluorescence in-situ hybridization
ConclusionsCDKN2A/B-deletion was observed across all the histological grades ofIDH-mutant astrocytic tumours, expectedly more in the higher grade. FISH, as a method, can be used for the detection ofCDKN2A/B homozygous deletion, when there is concordant interpretation. (Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - January 24, 2024 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Phase I study targeting newly diagnosed grade 4 astrocytoma with bispecific antibody armed T cells (EGFR BATs) in combination with radiation and temozolomide
ConclusionTargeting AG4 with EGFR BATs at the maximum feasible dose of 80  × 109, with or without TMZ was safe and induced significant anti-tumor-specific immune responses. These results support further clinical trials to examine the efficacy of this adoptive cell therapy in patients with MGMT-unmethylated GBM.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03344250 (Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - January 23, 2024 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The immunological landscape of peripheral blood in glioblastoma patients and immunological consequences of age and dexamethasone treatment
ConclusionHigh-dimensional mass cytometry of peripheral blood in patients with different types of intracranial tumor provides insight into the relation between intracranial pathology and peripheral immune status. Wide immunosuppression associated with age and pre-operative dexamethasone treatment provide further evidence for their deleterious effects on treatment with immunotherapy. (Source: Frontiers in Immunology)
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - January 18, 2024 Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

Alternative lengthening of telomeres: mechanism and the pathogenesis of cancer
Telomere maintenance and elongation allows cells to gain replicative immortality and evade cellular senescence during cancer development. While most cancers use telomerase to maintain telomere lengths, a subset of cancers engage the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway for telomere maintenance. ALT is present in 5%–10% of all cancers, although the prevalence is dramatically higher in certain cancer types, including complex karyotype sarcomas, isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant astrocytoma (WHO grade II–IV), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, neuroblastoma and chromophobe hepatocellular carcinomas. AL...
Source: Journal of Clinical Pathology - January 18, 2024 Category: Pathology Authors: Mori, J. O., Keegan, J., Flynn, R. L., Heaphy, C. M. Tags: Editor's choice, Molecules in pathogenesis Source Type: research

Reliable detection of genetic alterations in cyst fluid DNA for the diagnosis of brain tumors
ConclusionCell-free DNA obtained from cyst fluid in cystic brain tumors is a reliable alternative to tumor DNA when diagnosing brain tumors. (Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology)
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - January 16, 2024 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Comparison of diagnostic performance of radiologist- and AI-based assessments of T2-FLAIR mismatch sign and quantitative assessment using synthetic MRI in the differential diagnosis between astrocytoma, IDH-mutant and oligodendroglioma, IDH-mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted
ConclusionCompared to the radiologists ’ assessment using the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign, the AI and the SyMRI assessments increased both sensitivity and objectivity, resulting in improved diagnostic performance in differentiating gliomas. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 15, 2024 Category: Radiology Source Type: research