Clinical impact of EVT with failed reperfusion in patients with acute ischemic stroke: results from the ESCAPE and ESCAPE-NA1 trials
ConclusionClinical outcomes of EVT patients with failed reperfusion did not differ significantly from patients treated with best medical management (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiological features of head and neck mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: 11 new cases with a systematic review of 29 cases reported in 28 publications
ConclusionMASCs are newly recognized malignant tumors. Characteristic T1WI high intensity on MRI and predominant cystic morphology may reflect its unique histological profile. Ill-defined tumor margin status was related to frequent metastasis. Awareness of these characteristic radiological features can assist radiologists in better detection of this novel entity. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Effects of combat sports on functional network connectivity in adolescents
AbstractPurposeTo explore the effects of combat sports on functional network connectivity (FNC) in healthy adolescents.MethodsResting-state fMRI data were acquired from the combat sports (CS) group (n = 32) and non-athlete healthy control (HC) group (n = 29). Resting-state networks (RSNs) were obtained based on independent component analysis (ICA), and FNC analysis was performed. Then, the intra-network and inter-network connections were compared between the two groups.ResultsCompared with the HC group, the CS group demonstrated increased intra-network FC within the sensorimotor network (SMN), v...
Source: Neuroradiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance features and cranial nerve involvement in pediatric head and neck rhabdomyosarcomas
ConclusionCranial nerve involvement is frequent in pediatric head and neck RMS and occurs secondary to “geographic” invasion due to direct extension through skull base foramina or cavernous sinus. These tumors never showed distant perineural metastatic disease as is seen in cases of adult head and neck carcinomas. This implies a different biological interaction between the nerves and these tumors in comparison to adult H&N tumors. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Woven EndoBridge device for ruptured intracranial aneurysms: international multicenter experience and updated meta-analysis
ConclusionWEB embolization in the setting of aSAH provides similar protection against rebleeding with comparable retreatment rates to traditional approaches. However, there is a higher rate of incomplete radiographic occlusion and operative complications compared to WEB embolization of unruptured aneurysms. Long-term prospective studies are needed to fully delineate the role of WEB embolization in aSAH. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Utility of spinal angiography and arterial embolization in patients undergoing CT guided alcohol injection of aggressive vertebral hemangiomas
ConclusionWhile CT-guided direct alcohol injection is effective in the management of symptomatic and aggressive vertebral hemangiomas, spinal angiography and trans-arterial embolization of the blood supply to the vertebral body hemangioma, prior to the direct transpedicular alcohol embolization of the lesion, improves the safety of the procedure. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI may be helpful to predict response and prognosis after bevacizumab treatment in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma: comparison with diffusion tensor and dynamic susceptibility contrast imaging
AbstractPurposeWe aimed to evaluate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE), and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging for stratifying bevacizumab treatment outcomes in patients with recurrent high-grade glioma.MethodsFifty-three patients with recurrent high-grade glioma who underwent baseline magnetic resonance imaging including DTI, DCE, and DSC before bevacizumab treatment were included. The mean apparent diffusion coefficient, fractional anisotropy, normalized cerebral blood volume, normalized cerebral blood flow, volume transfer constant, rate transfer coefficient (Kep), ...
Source: Neuroradiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Spontaneous intracranial hypotension: diagnostic and therapeutic workup
AbstractSpontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an orthostatic headache syndrome with typical MRI findings among which engorgement of the venous sinuses, pachymeningeal enhancement, and effacement of the suprasellar cistern have the highest diagnostic sensitivity. SIH is in almost all cases caused by spinal CSF leaks. Spinal MRI scans showing so-called spinal longitudinal extradural fluid (SLEC) are suggestive of ventral dural tears (type 1 leak) which are located with prone dynamic (digital subtraction) myelography. As around half of the ventral dural tears are located in the upper thoracic spine, additional prone d...
Source: Neuroradiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Bulbar watershed ischemic stroke: the comma-shaped sign —a case series
AbstractWatershed infarcts can involve the brainstem, with lesions distributed across the terminal supply from the vertebral and cerebellar arteries. Brain imaging can highlight a comma-shaped lesion at the edge of vertebral and posteroinferior cerebellar artery vascularization territory. Such peculiar MRI lesion shape might suggest a watershed hypoperfusion etiology and direct workup towards causes of hemodynamic impairment, including postural hypotension, cardiac failure, or vertebral artery origin occlusion. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neurosyphilis in disguise
ConclusionNeurosyphilis can present with an extensive variation and different patterns on the MRI, and clinicians must be aware of the wide variety in radiological presentations. Anterior temporal lobe involvement is a rare presentation and requires evaluating for neurosyphilis to prevent a missed diagnosis and treatment. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Rim lesions are demonstrated in early relapsing –remitting multiple sclerosis using 3 T-based susceptibility-weighted imaging in a multi-institutional setting
ConclusionWe demonstrate that rim lesions are detectable in early-stage RRMS on 3  T MRI across multiple centres, although their relationship to lesion enlargement is equivocal in this small cohort. Identification of SWI rims was subjective. Agreed criteria for defining rim lesions and their further validation as a biomarker of chronic inflammation are required for translation o f SWI into routine MS clinical practice. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Influence of renal impairment on neurologic outcomes following mechanical thrombectomy in acute vertebrobasilar stroke
ConclusionRI was an independent risk factor for poor 3-month neurologic outcomes and survival probability after MT in patients with acute vertebrobasilar stroke. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multiphase CTA-derived tissue maps aid in detection of medium vessel occlusions
ConclusionmCTA tissue maps can be used to reliably detect MeVO stroke and predict tissue fate. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical utility of arterial spin labeling perfusion images in the emergency department for the work-up of stroke-like symptoms
ConclusionIn patients presenting to the ED with acute stroke symptoms, ASL provides information not available with DWI alone. The NPV of ASL for evaluating patients with acute ischemia was 94%. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Automated subcortical volume estimation from 2D MRI in epilepsy and implications for clinical trials
ConclusionAutomated subcortical volume estimation of 2D images with a resolution of 0.4  × 0.4x3mm using a modified FIRST pipeline is consistent with volumes derived from 3D images, although this consistency decreases with an increased slice thickness. Thalamic and putamen atrophy has previously been reported in patients with IGE. Automated subcortical volume estimation from 2D im ages is feasible and most reliable at using in-plane acquisitions greater than 1 mm x 1 mm and provides an opportunity to perform quantitative image analysis studies in clinical trials. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Long-term neuroimaging follow-up of COVID-19-related leukoencephalopathy
AbstractMore than a year after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, long-term neurological manifestations of COVID-19 are increasingly being reported. The long-term sequelae of COVID-19-related leukoencephalopathy, however, remain unclear. Here, we present long-term neuroimaging follow-up in two cases of COVID-19-related leukoencephalopathy. The two cases demonstrate the utility of brain MRI for evaluating neurologic symptoms in critically ill patients with COVID-19, for diagnosis of underlying neural injury and prognostication of future recovery. The presence of leukoencephalopathy may result in chronic neurologic manifest...
Source: Neuroradiology - October 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

High-resolution intracranial vessel wall imaging in cerebral viral infections evaluations
ConclusionVWI can be useful in the detection of vascular involvement in various viral infections of CNS which show a relatively higher cerebrovascular complication rate like varicella, HIV encephalopathy, and COVID-19. However, VWI may not be useful in the routine evaluation of other viral infections like herpes, dengue, and Japanese encephalitis, which have a very low rate of cerebrovascular complication rate. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 16, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

European Society of Neuroradiology (ESNR)
(Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 16, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the neonatal brain
AbstractJ-difference-edited spectroscopy is a valuable approach for the detection of low-concentration metabolites with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Currently, few edited MRS studies are performed in neonates due to suboptimal signal-to-noise ratio, relatively long acquisition times, and vulnerability to motion artifacts. Nonetheless, the technique presents an exciting opportunity in pediatric imaging research to study rapid maturational changes of neurotransmitter systems and other metabolic systems in early postnatal life. Studying these metabolic processes is vital to understanding the widespread and rapid str...
Source: Neuroradiology - October 15, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT in recurrent high-grade gliomas: evaluating PSMA expression in vivo
ConclusionGa-68 PSMA has potential utility for evaluating recurrence in HGG and its potential for theranostics would encourage its use in the evaluation of these patients. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 14, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MRI versus CT in the detection of brain lesions in patients with infective endocarditis before or after cardiac surgery
AbstractPurposeImaging of brain involvement in infective endocarditis can drive the clinical management of this serious condition. MRI is very sensitive, but CT is more readily available. In this retrospective study, we compared the detection rates of CT and MRI.MethodsAfter Ethics Committee approval, we retrospectively reviewed a series of 20 patients (13 males, median age 64  years) who underwent both CT and MRI either before or after cardiac surgery for definite infective endocarditis. Plain CT and MRI were evaluated for acute ischemic lesions, both punctuate and large, intraparenchymal hemorrhages, cerebral microb...
Source: Neuroradiology - October 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A multicenter prospective registry of Borden type I dural arteriovenous fistula: results of a 3-year follow-up study
ConclusionIn this 3-year prospective study, patients with Borden type I DAVF showed benign clinical course; none of these patients experienced conversion to higher type of Borden classification or intracranial hemorrhage. The restrictive changes of the draining sinuses at initial diagnosis might be an imaging biomarker for future shunt flow reduction. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 10, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

“Within a minute” detection of focal cortical dysplasia
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate a MRI postprocessing tool for the enhanced and rapid detection of focal cortical dysplasia (FCD).MethodsMP2RAGE sequences of 40 consecutive, so far MRI-negative patients and of 32 healthy controls were morphometrically analyzed to highlight typical FCD features. The resulting morphometric maps served as input for an artificial neural network generating a FCD probability map. The FCD probability map was inversely normalized, co-registered to the MPRAGE2 sequence, and re-transferred into the PACS system. Co-registered images were scrolled through “within a minute” to determine whether a...
Source: Neuroradiology - October 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Validation of an artificial intelligence solution for acute triage and rule-out normal of non-contrast CT head scans
ConclusionWe show our algorithm can provide effective triage of ICH and Acute Infarct to prioritise acutely unwell patients. AI can also benefit clinical accuracy, with the algorithm identifying 91.3% of radiologist false negatives for ICH and 69.1% for Acute Infarct. Rule-out of Normal scans has huge potential for workload management in busy EDs, in this case removing 27.4% of all scans with no acute findings missed. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The Tigertriever 13 for mechanical thrombectomy in distal and medium intracranial vessel occlusions
ConclusionMechanical thrombectomy in DMVOs using the Tigertriever 13 leads to high recanalization rates. The incidence of mostly asymptomatic hemorrhagic events appears higher compared to MTE procedures in LVOs. Further studies will help to identify anatomic and clinical criteria to define a guideline for MTE in DMVOs. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Reduced myelin in patients with isolated hippocampal sclerosis as assessed by SyMRI
AbstractPurposeSynthetic MRI (SyMRI) enables to quantify brain tissue and morphometry. We aimed to investigate the WM and myelin alterations in patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) with SyMRI.MethodsAdult patients with isolated unilateral HS and age-matched control subjects (CSs) were included in this study. The SyMRI sequence QRAPMASTER in the coronal plane perpendicular to the hippocampi was obtained from the whole brain. Automatic segmentation of the whole brain was processed by SyMRI Diagnostic software (Version 11.2). Two neuroradiologists also performed quantitative analyses independently from symmetri...
Source: Neuroradiology - October 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A deep learning algorithm for white matter hyperintensity lesion detection and segmentation
ConclusionDeepWML was successfully applied to a wide spectrum of MRI data in the three white matter disease types, which has the potential to improve the practical workflow of white matter lesion delineation. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 2, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical applications of diffusion-weighted sequence in brain imaging: beyond stroke
AbstractDiffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a well-established MRI sequence for diagnosing early stroke and provides therapeutic implications. However, DWI yields pertinent information in various other brain pathologies and helps establish a specific diagnosis and management of other central nervous system disorders. Some of these conditions can present with acute changes in neurological status and mimic stroke. This review will focus briefly on diffusion imaging techniques, followed by a more comprehensive description of the utility of DWI in common neurological entities beyond stroke. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - October 1, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Small ruptured cerebral aneurysms —do they rupture on formation or not?
ConclusionThe theory that nearly all cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage due to small aneurysms occur as a result of aneurysm formation, and rupture over a short time period is incorrect. Our findings indicate that at least half of all subarachnoid haemorrhage cases arise from the population harbouring small aneurysms as a pre-existing condition. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiation exposure in the endovascular therapy of cranial and spinal dural arteriovenous fistula in the last decade: a retrospective, single-center observational study
This study aims to determine local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in the endovascular therapy (EVT) of patients with cranial and spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF).MethodsIn a retrospective study design, DRLs and achievable dose (AD) were assessed for all patients with cranial and spinal dAVF undergoing EVT (I) or diagnostic angiography (II). All procedures were performed at the flat-panel angiography-system Allura Xper (Philips Healthcare). Interventional procedures were differentiated according to the region of fistula and the type of procedure.ResultsIn total, 264 neurointerventional procedures of 131 patient...
Source: Neuroradiology - September 27, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Semiautomated carotid artery plaque composition: are intraplaque CT imaging features associated with cardiovascular risk factors?
This study set out to assess for any such associations.Materials and methodsA retrospective review was completed of consecutive patients that had CTA neck imaging prior to CEA. Body mass index (BMI), tobacco and/or alcohol use, and history of diabetes and/or hypertension were collected from patients ’ medical records. Lab values were dichotomized based on values: total cholesterol
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impaired intrinsic functional connectivity among medial temporal lobe and sub-regions related to memory deficits in intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula
ConclusionThis pilot study gives insights into significant intrinsic functional connectivity changes in the memory regions of the dAVF brain. The results may have clinical implications in the choice of interventional management of dAVF and can impact clinical decision making for realizable prevention of progressive memory impairment and irreversible brain damage in such patients. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A 10-year longitudinal study of deep white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging
ConclusionThe results of this 10-year longitudinal study imply a positive correlation between long-standing hypertension and the progression of DWMLs. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cortical spectral matching and shape and volume analysis of the fetal brain pre- and post-fetal surgery for spina bifida: a retrospective study
ConclusionsFollowing fetal myelomeningocele repair, brain volume, shape and SI were significantly different from normal in most cerebral layers. Morphological brain changes after fetal surgery are not limited to hindbrain herniation reversal. These findings may have neurocognitive outcome implications and require further evaluation. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Perivascular spaces and brain waste clearance systems: relevance for neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular pathology
AbstractPerivascular spaces (PVS) of the brain, often called Virchow-Robin spaces, comprise fluid, cells and connective tissue, and are externally limited by astrocytic endfeet. PVS are involved in clearing brain waste and belong to the “glymphatic” system and/or the “intramural periarterial drainage” pathway through the basement membranes of the arteries. Related brain waste clearance systems include the blood–brain barrier, scavenger cells, cerebrospinal fluid, perineural lymphatic drainage pathways and the newly charac terised meningeal lymphatic vessels. Any functional abnormality of PVS o...
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical safety of intracranial EEG electrodes in MRI at 1.5 T and 3 T: a single-center experience and literature review
ConclusionNo clinical or radiographic complications are seen when performing MRI scans at 1.5 or 3 T on patients with implanted intracranial EEG electrodes while avoiding high specific energy absorption rate sequences. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

MR vessel wall imaging in tubercular meningitis
ConclusionTubercular vasculitis can be detected by VWI in the form of nodular or smooth segmental enhancement of vessel wall with or without stenosis. Incorporation of VWI in routine MR imaging can play a greater role in early detection and management of cerebrovascular complications which can help to improve prognosis of the disease. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains diffusion-weighted imaging in differentiating parotid gland tumors
ConclusionThe combination of quantitative DCE-MRI and RESOLVE-DWI is beneficial for characterizing four histological types of PTs. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Reliability and accuracy of 3-mm and 2-mm maximum intensity projection CT angiography to detect intracranial large vessel occlusion in patients with acute anterior cerebral circulation stroke
ConclusionThick (2 –3 mm) axial MIPs are not useful to detect proximal LVO in the anterior circulation. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Automated estimation of ischemic core prior to thrombectomy: comparison of two current algorithms
ConclusionThe ddSVD algorithm better correlates with DWI follow-up infarct volume than DISD processing. The DISD algorithm overestimated larger ischemic cores which may lead to patient exclusion from thrombectomy based on selection by core volume. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Distinct pattern of microsusceptibility changes on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation/oxygenation
ConclusionWe showed distinct patterns of diffuse brain SWI susceptibilities in critically-ill patients who underwent mechanical ventilation/ECMO. The etiology of these foci remains uncertain, but the association with mechanical ventilation, prolonged respiratory failure, and hypoxemia seems probable explanations. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Stellate ganglion block combined with intra-arterial treatment: a “one-stop shop” for cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage—a pilot study
ConclusionAdjuvant SGB may be coupled to endovascular therapy to treat refractory cerebral vasopasm within the same session. To guide needle placement, using a roadmap of the supra-aortic arteries may decrease the risk of complications. More prospective data is needed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, durability, and safety of SGB compared with the established standard of care. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The topology of ventricle surfaces and its application in the analysis of hydrocephalic ventricles: a proof-of-concept study
ConclusionNPH ventricles deform non-uniformly. The pattern of surface distortion may be used as an additional tool to differentiate between these hydrocephalic conditions. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The diagnostic contribution of intracranial vessel wall imaging in the differentiation of primary angiitis of the central nervous system from other intracranial vasculopathies
AbstractPurposeThe aim of this study is to demonstrate the diagnostic effect of VWI in differentiating PACNS from other vasculopathies and its role in post-treatment follow-up in PACNS patients in this study.MethodsIn this prospective study, we included patients with clinical suspicion of PACNS who presented with new-onset ischemic events and had significant intracranial large vessel stenosis on DSA or MRA. VWI was performed on all patients. The imaging findings and final diagnoses were recorded. Control VWI was performed on patients with PACNS diagnosis after at least 3 months of treatment, and the change in findings was ...
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Callosal angle in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: small angular mal-rotations of the coronal plane affect measurement reliability
ConclusionThis is the first demonstration of how small angular mal-rotations of the coronal plane used for CA measurement affect its value and inter-rater reliability, highlighting the importance of a standardized protocol when measuring the CA in NPH workup. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Narrow dural base as an imaging sign for the differential diagnosis of intracranial meningiomas
(Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ectopic thyroid tissue at the skull base: a case report
We report a case of ectopic thyroid tissue at the skull base in a 19-year-old man with multimodality imaging findings. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Rare presentation of intradural calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition
We present a rare, intradural manifestation of CPPD requiring surgical intervention, with a review of pertinent differential diagnoses on imaging. A 48-year-old male presented with urinary retention, and was found to have an intradural lesion with peripheral enhancement on gadolinium T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Due to the patient ’s progressive neurological deterioration, he was taken for a minimally invasive approach for resection of the lesion. Histopathological analysis revealed crystal deposits with rhomboidal birefringence consistent with CPPD. The imaging features of this lesion were atypical for an...
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

European Society of Neuroradiology (ESNR)
(Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - September 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Perivascular spaces and brain waste clearance systems: relevance for neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular pathology
AbstractPerivascular spaces (PVS) of the brain, often called Virchow-Robin spaces, comprise fluid, cells and connective tissue, and are externally limited by astrocytic endfeet. PVS are involved in clearing brain waste and belong to the “glymphatic” system and/or the “intramural periarterial drainage” pathway through the basement membranes of the arteries. Related brain waste clearance systems include the blood–brain barrier, scavenger cells, cerebrospinal fluid, perineural lymphatic drainage pathways and the newly charac terised meningeal lymphatic vessels. Any functional abnormality of PVS o...
Source: Neuroradiology - September 24, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research