Comparison of intraoperative and post-operative 3-T MRI performed at 24 –72 h following brain tumour resection in children
ConclusionThe final 3-T ioMRI scan may be used as a baseline post-operative scan provided standard imaging guidelines are followed and is evaluated jointly by the operating neurosurgeon and neuroradiologist. Advantages of final ioMRI as a baseline scan are identified. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 25, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Angiographic results of surgical or endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a systematic review and inter-observer reliability study
ConclusionA simple 3-point scale demonstrated sufficient reliability to be used in reporting aneurysm treatments or in evaluating treatment results in comparative randomized trials. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 24, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prevalence of brain MRI findings in children with nonacquired growth hormone deficiency: a systematic review and meta-analysis
AbstractPurposeTo verify and integrate the prevalence and phenotype of abnormalities in the sellar region in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) using MRI data.MethodsWe searched PubMed and EMBASE up to December 14, 2020. The inclusion criteria were as follows: (1) pediatric patients diagnosed with nonacquired GHD and (2) detailed data sufficient to assess the proportion of sellar and parasellar abnormalities on brain MRI scans. Finally, thirty-two studies with 39,060 children (mean or median age, 3.4 –14.1 years) were included. The number and type of MRI findings from all included studies were pooled by tw...
Source: Neuroradiology - February 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A 10-year longitudinal study of deep white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging
ConclusionThe results of this 10-year longitudinal study imply a positive correlation between long-standing hypertension and the progression of DWMLs. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Three-dimensional double-echo steady-state with water excitation magnetic resonance imaging to localize the intraparotid facial nerve in patients with deep-seated parotid tumors
ConclusionBy direct visualization of the facial nerve, the 3D-DESS-WE sequence improved the preoperative localization of the intraparotid facial nerve in deep-seated parotid tumors. This information may help better surgical planning for deep-seated parotid tumors. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 17, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Effects of age and sex on the distribution and symmetry of lumbar spinal and neural foraminal stenosis: a natural language processing analysis of 43,255 lumbar MRI reports
AbstractPurposeThe purpose of this study is to investigate relationship of patient age and sex to patterns of degenerative spinal stenosis on lumbar MRI (LMRI), rated as moderate or greater by a spine radiologist, using natural language processing (NLP) tools.MethodsIn this retrospective, IRB-approved study, LMRI reports acquired from 2007 to 2017 at a single institution were parsed with a rules-based natural language processing (NLP) algorithm for free-text descriptors of spinal canal stenosis (SCS) and neural foraminal stenosis (NFS) at each of six spinal levels (T12-S1) and categorized according to a 6-point grading sca...
Source: Neuroradiology - February 16, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Altered cerebral perfusion in response to chronic mild hypercapnia and head-down tilt Bed rest as an analog for Spaceflight
ConclusionCompared with baseline and recovery, HDT+CO2 resulted in reduced cerebral perfusion which varied based on SANS status. Further studies are needed to unravel the relative role of HDT vs hypercapnia, to determine if these perfusion changes are clinically relevant, and whether perfusion changes contribute to the development of SANS during spaceflight. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 15, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Validation of combined use of DWI and percentage signal recovery-optimized protocol of DSC-MRI in differentiation of high-grade glioma, metastasis, and lymphoma
ConclusionDifferent from CBV-optimized protocols (preload, intermediate FA), PSR derived from the PSR-optimized protocol seems to be the most important parameter in the differentiation of HGGs, metastases, and PCNSLs at initial diagnosis. This property makes PSR remarkable and carries the need for comprehensive DSC-MRI protocols, which provides PSR sensitivity and CBV accuracy together, such as the preload use of the PSR-optimized protocol before the CBV-optimized protocol. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Abusive head trauma: experience improves diagnosis
ConclusionMRI in cases of suspected AHT should be evaluated by neuroradiologists with experience in pediatric neuroimaging. Neuroradiologists looked beyond the subdural hemorrhage (SDH) and were more precise in the assessment of pAHT and its differential diagnosis than non-neuroradiologists were. It seems that non-neuroradiologists mainly assess whether or not a pAHT is present depending on the presence or absence of SDH. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Qualitative versus automatic evaluation of CT perfusion parameters in acute posterior circulation ischaemic stroke
ConclusionQualitative analysis of colour-coded maps resulted more sensitive and accurate in the detection of ischaemic changes than automatic quantitative analysis. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Estimation of radiation exposure of children undergoing superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for retinoblastoma treatment: assessment of local diagnostic reference levels as a function of age, sex, and interventional success
This study aims to determine local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) of intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC) procedures of pediatric patients with retinoblastoma (RB) to provide data for establishing diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in pediatric interventional radiology (IR).MethodsIn a retrospective study design, LDRLs and achievable dose (AD) were assessed for children undergoing superselective IAC for RB treatment. All procedures were performed at the flat-panel angiography systems (I) ArtisQ biplane (Siemens Healthineers) and (II) Allura Xper (Philips Healthcare). Patients were differentiated according to age (A1: 1 &...
Source: Neuroradiology - February 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diffusion tensor and postcontrast T1-weighted imaging radiomics to differentiate the epidermal growth factor receptor mutation status of brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer
ConclusionsRadiomics classifiers integrating multiparametric MRI parameters may have potential in differentiating the EGFR mutation status in brain metastases from NSCLC. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Conventional MRI features of adult diffuse glioma molecular subtypes: a systematic review
ConclusionConsistent trends have emerged indicating that conventional MRI is valuable for glioma genotyping, particularly in presumed lower grade glioma. However, due to limited interobserver testing, the reproducibility of qualitatively assessed visual features remains an area of uncertainty. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Semi-automated measurement of vascular tortuosity and its implications for mechanical thrombectomy performance
AbstractPurposeFew studies have examined the geometry of endovascular mechanical thrombectomy pathways. Here we examine the tortuosity and angulations of catheter pathways from the aortic arch to the termination of the internal carotid artery (ICA) and its association with thrombectomy performance.MethodsWe included 100 consecutive anterior circulation large vessel occlusion thrombectomy patients over 12 months. Computed tomography angiograms (CTA) were used for 3D segmentation of catheter pathway from the aortic arch to ICA termination. Tortuosity index (TI) and angulations of the catheter pathway were measured in a semi-...
Source: Neuroradiology - February 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

European Society of Neuroradiology (ESNR)
(Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 13, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Automated estimation of ischemic core prior to thrombectomy: comparison of two current algorithms
ConclusionThe ddSVD algorithm better correlates with DWI follow-up infarct volume than DISD processing. The DISD algorithm overestimated larger ischemic cores which may lead to patient exclusion from thrombectomy based on selection by core volume. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 12, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis in a COVID-19 patient —a case report with literature review
ConclusionHeightened awareness about the clinical and imaging presentation of COVID-19-related AHLE can positively alter the outcome in a select few by enabling early diagnosis and aggressive management. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 11, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A comparative study of transradial versus transfemoral approach for flow diversion
ConclusionsThe feasibility and efficacy of flow diversion with the PED via TRA for the treatment of intracranial aneurysms is comparable to TFA. Widespread adoption of this approach may be facilitated by improvements in device navigation and manipulation via radial-specific engineering. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Use of radial access sheaths for transfemoral neuroendovascular procedures in children
AbstractPurposePediatric neuroendovascular procedures require special considerations. Given small vessel sizes, risk for arterial injury must be weighed against use of larger devices, with the diameter of the sheath being a known association with arterial complications. We recently transitioned to using thin-walled radial sheaths for transfemoral angiography in children, given their lower profile. Here, we report on these sheaths ’ technical success and complications, comparing against a historical cohort where regular vascular sheaths were employed.MethodsWe retrospectively recorded patient and procedural data from ...
Source: Neuroradiology - February 9, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Angio-anatomical study of the pterygovaginal artery based on cone-beam computed tomography
ConclusionPtVA was often identified by CBCT even in normal anatomy. Its detailed angio-anatomy could be evaluated in the presence of parasellar or paraclival hypervascular lesions. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 8, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Abstracts of 30th Year Annual Meeting of Turkish Society of Neuroradiology with International Participation
(Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 6, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Semiautomated carotid artery plaque composition: are intraplaque CT imaging features associated with cardiovascular risk factors?
This study set out to assess for any such associations.Materials and methodsA retrospective review was completed of consecutive patients that had CTA neck imaging prior to CEA. Body mass index (BMI), tobacco and/or alcohol use, and history of diabetes and/or hypertension were collected from patients ’ medical records. Lab values were dichotomized based on values: total cholesterol
Source: Neuroradiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Callosal angle in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: small angular mal-rotations of the coronal plane affect measurement reliability
ConclusionThis is the first demonstration of how small angular mal-rotations of the coronal plane used for CA measurement affect its value and inter-rater reliability, highlighting the importance of a standardized protocol when measuring the CA in NPH workup. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 5, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical safety of intracranial EEG electrodes in MRI at 1.5 T and 3 T: a single-center experience and literature review
ConclusionNo clinical or radiographic complications are seen when performing MRI scans at 1.5 or 3 T on patients with implanted intracranial EEG electrodes while avoiding high specific energy absorption rate sequences. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 4, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Collateral and permeability imaging derived from dynamic contrast material-enhanced MR angiography in prediction of PH 2 hemorrhagic transformation after acute ischemic stroke: a pilot study
ConclusionIndividual-based prediction of PH 2 hemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute ischemic stroke may be possible with multiphase collateral map and permeability imaging derived from dynamic contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Reliability and accuracy of 3-mm and 2-mm maximum intensity projection CT angiography to detect intracranial large vessel occlusion in patients with acute anterior cerebral circulation stroke
ConclusionThick (2 –3 mm) axial MIPs are not useful to detect proximal LVO in the anterior circulation. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Peritumoral brain edema volume in meningioma correlates with tumor fractional anisotropy but not apparent diffusion coefficient or cerebral blood volume
AbstractPurposePathogenesis of peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) in meningiomas remains unclear. Associations between PTBE volume and diffusion or perfusion properties of meningioma have not been studied. We aimed to investigate if diffusion and perfusion properties of meningioma correlate with its PTBE volume.MethodsSeventy consecutive patients (mean age, 58.9  ± 13.7 years; 37 women) with meningiomas who had preoperative DTI and DSC-PWI were retrospectively analyzed. PTBE volume, tumor volume, and mean T2 signal, ADC, FA, and CBV of the tumor were measured. Between meningiomas with and without PTBE...
Source: Neuroradiology - February 3, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

CT perfusion in hyper-acute ischemic stroke: the acid test for COVID-19 fear
AbstractPurposeThe fear of COVID-19 infection may discourage patients from going to the hospital even in case of sudden onset of disabling symptoms. There is growing evidence of the reduction of stroke admissions and higher prevalence of severe clinical presentation. Yet, no studies have investigated the perfusion pattern of acute strokes admitted during the lockdown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on hyper-acute stroke CT perfusion (CTP) pattern during the first months of the pandemic in Italy.MethodsIn this retrospective observational study, we analyzed CTP images and clinical data of ischemic ...
Source: Neuroradiology - February 2, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Clinical outcomes of isolated deep grey matter infarcts after endovascular treatment of large vessel occlusion stroke
ConclusionPredominantly deep grey matter infarct patterns were seen in 1/3rd of patients and were significantly associated with increased chances of excellent outcome, independent of patient baseline status and infarct size. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - February 2, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Direct puncture of the carotid artery as a bailout vascular access technique for mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke —the revival of an old technique in a modern setting
ConclusionMTE via DCP in these highly selected patients was reasonably safe, fast, and efficient. It thus represents a valuable technical extension of MTE, especially in patients with difficult access. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Feasibility of low-dose digital subtraction angiography protocols for the endovascular treatment of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas
ConclusionThe low-dose protocols were feasible by showing significant radiation dose reduction and acceptable procedural outcome. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Are modified Fisher Scale and bleeding pattern helpful predictors of neurological complications in non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage?
AbstractPurposeNon-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (NA-SAH) is a clinical-radiological entity with a different prognosis than aneurysmal SAH (A-SAH). The purpose of this study is to assess the predictive value of the modified Fisher Scale (mFS) for neurological complications in patients with this diagnosis.MethodsWe recruited patients admitted at our hospital services between 2009 and 2017 who were diagnosed with spontaneous SAH, with either perimesencephalic (PM-SAH) or diffuse pattern (D-SAH), an initial negative angio-CT, and at least one digital subtraction angiography of brain vessels discarding underlying brain an...
Source: Neuroradiology - January 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Endovascular treatment of anterior cranial fossa dural arteriovenous fistula: a multicenter series
ConclusionOur experience suggests that endovascular treatment for ACF DAVFs has an acceptable safety profile with high rates of complete occlusion, particularly with transvenous approach. Whenever possible, transvenous approach should be preferred over transarterial approach as first line strategy. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition in subtraction-based magnetic resonance angiography to assess saccular unruptured intracranial aneurysms at 3  Tesla
AbstractPurposeTo investigate the clinical utility of pointwise encoding time reduction with radial acquisition in subtraction-based magnetic resonance angiography (PETRA-MRA) and time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF-MRA) to evaluate saccular unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs).MethodsA total of 49 patients with 54 TOF-MRA –identified saccular UIAs were enrolled. The morphologic parameters, contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs), and sharpness of aneurysms were measured using PETRA-MRA and TOF-MRA. Two radiologists independently evaluated subjective image scores, focusing on aneurysm signal homogeneities ...
Source: Neuroradiology - January 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Morphological parameters of middle cerebral arteries associated with aneurysm formation
The objective of this work was to investigate the correlation between morphological parameters of the MCA and the formation of aneurysms.MethodsMCA aneurysms were diagnosed in 122 cases using CT angiography (including 30 cases of M1 proximal aneurysms, 70 cases of M1 bifurcation aneurysms, and 22 cases of distal aneurysms). Images from these cases were retrospectively compared with images from 50 healthy controls. Morphological parameters including the angle of the MCA with the ICA (α) and the ACA (β) were evaluated in the three aneurysm groups and the control group; parent-daughter angles (γ1,γ2), b...
Source: Neuroradiology - January 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

European Society of Neuroradiology (ESNR)
(Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 30, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Ultra-low radiation dose protocol for CT-guided intrathecal nusinersen injections for patients with spinal muscular atrophy and severe scoliosis
In this study, we present the results of CT-guided intrathecal nusinersen injections with an ultra-low radiation dose protocol.MethodsEighteen patients (15 adults and three children) in whom standard lumbar puncture was not feasible due to severe scoliosis or spinal stabilization were included in this retrospective study. The first 23 injections were performed with a standard radiation dose protocol and the next 42 injections with an ultra-low-dose protocol. The radiation doses, measured as total dose length product (DLP), were acquired and compared between the protocols.ResultsInjections were successful in 100% of patient...
Source: Neuroradiology - January 29, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantification of pial collateral pressure in acute large vessel occlusion stroke: basic concept with patient outcomes
ConclusionQPCP measurements related best with the pretreatment CTA Maas collateral grading scale but were more strongly associated with patient outcomes than any of the four widely accepted collateral grading scales. Greater QPCP was significantly associated with better overall patient outcomes as defined by mRS at 30 days. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 28, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Perfusion-weighted techniques in MRI grading of pediatric cerebral tumors: efficiency of dynamic susceptibility contrast and arterial spin labeling
ConclusionDSC and ASL show moderate abilities to distinguish low- and high-grade brain tumors in an unselected cohort. Absolute value of K2, TMAX, tMIP, and normalized value of TMAX of the DSC appear as an alternative to conventional parameters for infratentorial tumors. Three Tesla evaluation should be favored over 1.5-Tesla. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 27, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Application of deep learning for automatic segmentation of brain tumors on magnetic resonance imaging: a heuristic approach in the clinical scenario
ConclusionThe DL model could use available MRI sequences to optimize glioma segmentation and adopt transfer learning to segment non-glioma tumors, thereby serving as a useful tool to improve treatment planning and personalized surveillance of patients. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 26, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Effective connectivity alteration according to recurrence in transient global amnesia
ConclusionOur study revealed significant alterations in structural covariance network and disruption of the intrahippocampal circuit in patients with TGA compared to healthy controls, which is more prominent when amnestic events recurred. It could be related to the pathogenesis of TGA. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 23, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Parkinson ’s disease: deep learning with a parameter-weighted structural connectome matrix for diagnosis and neural circuit disorder investigation
AbstractPurposeTo investigate whether Parkinson ’s disease (PD) can be differentiated from healthy controls and to identify neural circuit disorders in PD by applying a deep learning technique to parameter-weighted and number of streamlines (NOS)–based structural connectome matrices calculated from diffusion-weighted MRI.MethodsIn this prospective study, 115 PD patients and 115 healthy controls were enrolled. NOS-based and parameter-weighted connectome matrices were calculated from MRI images obtained with a 3-T MRI unit. With 5-fold cross-validation, diagnostic performance of convolutional neural network (CNN)...
Source: Neuroradiology - January 22, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Enhancing cyst-like lesions of the white matter in tuberous sclerosis complex: a novel neuroradiological finding
We describe 2 TSC patients with CLLWM showing contrast enhancement after Gadolinium injection, a previously unreported entity. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 22, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A retrospective longitudinal study of age-related shifts and deformations in the basilar artery bifurcation
This study evaluated age-related positional changes in the basilar artery (BA) bifurcation based on longitudinal computed tomography angiography (CTA) data.MethodsThis retrospective study evaluated clinical and imaging data from 72 subjects who underwent two CTA scans between July 2011 and August 2019. Three-dimensional (3D) models were reconstructed for each subject based on the two CTA scans with the longest separating interval. Skull landmarks were used to fuse the two models, and the fused model was used to evaluate positional changes in the BA bifurcation. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify v...
Source: Neuroradiology - January 21, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Cerebral superb microvascular imaging in preterm neonates: in vivo evaluation of thalamic, striatal, and extrastriatal angioarchitecture
AbstractPurposeTo explore the potential of superb microvascular imaging (SMI) in visualizing brain microvessels in preterm neonates of different gestational ages (GA).MethodsIn this retrospective, observational pilot study, 15 preterm newborns were equally divided into GA groups: extremely (GA  
Source: Neuroradiology - January 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Novel in vivo depiction of optic nerves hemorrhages in child abuse: a 3D-SWI pilot study
ConclusionThis research shows that dedicated MRI with volumetric SWI of the orbits can depict hemorrhages in the ON, ONS, and ONS injury, in AHT victims. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 20, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Comparative evaluation of intracranial oligodendroglioma and astrocytoma of similar grades using conventional and T1-weighted DCE-MRI
ConclusionWe conclude that conventional MR features except calcification and the quantitative T1-weighted DCE-MRI parameters fail to discriminate between oligodendroglioma and astrocytoma. The SVM could not further aid in their differentiation. The study also suggests that the presence of more than 50% T2-FLAIR mismatch may be considered as a more conclusive sign for differentiation of IDH mutant astrocytoma. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 19, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Intraosseous contrast administration for emergency stroke CT
AbstractComputed tomography (CT) imaging in acute stroke is an established and fairly widespread approach, but there is no data on applicability of intraosseous (IO) contrast administration in the case of failed intravenous (IV) cannula placement. Here, we present the first case of IO contrast administration for CT imaging in suspected acute stroke providing a dedicated CT examination protocol and analysis of achieved image quality as well as a review of available literature. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dural-based lesions: is it a meningioma?
ConclusionThe prevalence of meningioma mimics is not negligible. It is important to have awareness on main radiological findings suggestive of differential diagnosis due to a wide range of differentials which lead to different prognosis and treatment strategies. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 18, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Spatial correspondence of spinal cord white matter tracts using diffusion tensor imaging, fibre tractography, and atlas-based segmentation
ConclusionDTI tractography produced good spatial correspondence with anatomic white matter tracts, superior to the agreement between multiple manual tract segmentations (DSC ~ 0.5). This supports further development of spinal cord tractography for computer-assisted neurosurgery. (Source: Neuroradiology)
Source: Neuroradiology - January 14, 2021 Category: Radiology Source Type: research