p53, stem cell biology and childhood blastomas

Purpose of review Childhood blastomas, unlike adult cancers, originate from developing organs in which molecular and cellular features exhibit differentiation arrest and embryonic characteristics. Conventional cancer therapies, which rely on the generalized cytotoxic effect on rapidly dividing cells, may damage delicate organs in young children, leading to multiple late effects. Deep understanding of the biology of embryonal cancers is crucial in reshaping the cancer treatment paradigm for children. Recent findings p53 plays a major physiological role in embryonic development, by controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and responses to cellular stress. Tumor suppressor function of p53 is commonly lost in adult cancers through genetic alterations. However, both somatic and germline p53 mutations are rare in childhood blastomas, suggesting that in these cancers, p53 may be inactivated through other mechanisms than mutation. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about p53 pathway inactivation in childhood blastomas (specifically neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma and Wilms’ tumor) through various upstream mechanisms. Laboratory evidence and clinical trials of targeted therapies specific to exploiting p53 upstream regulators are discussed. Summary Despite the low rate of inherent TP53 mutations, p53 pathway inactivation is a common denominator in childhood blastomas. Exploiting p53 and its regulators is likely to translate into more effective targeted th...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

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U.S. News&World Report ’s newly released ranking of the nation's best children’s hospitals once again placed St. Louis Children’s Hospital in the top 50 in all 10 specialties it analyzes. The 13th annual ranking highlights the top hospitals in 10 pediatric specialties: cancer, cardiology and heart surgery, diabete s and endocrinology, gastroenterology and GI surgery, neonatology, nephrology, neurology and neurosurgery, orthopedics, pulmonology, and urology. St. Louis Children’s Hospital…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: news
Johns Hopkins Children's Center has been ranked as the best pediatric hospital in the state, and once again as one of the 10 best in the country, according to U.S. News&World Report. The annual Best Children’s Hospitals rankings are intended to help families of children with complex and rare conditions find the best medical care. The rankings highlight the top 50 hospital centers in 10 pediatric specialties: cancer, cardiology and heart surgery, diabetes and endocrinology, g astroenterology and…
Source: bizjournals.com Health Care:Physician Practices headlines - Category: American Health Authors: Source Type: news
We report the application of RNA sequencing technology for high-throughput profiling of mRNA expression in breast cancer cell line
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Contributors : Chaima Cherif ; Julien Vernerey ; Nadine Carbuccia ; Palma Rocchi ; Estelle DuprezSeries Type : Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensMenin protein is encoded by the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene. It remains an enigmatic protein, known as a tumor suppressor but its roles in cancer development have attracted significant attention in recent years. The goals of this study is to understand how the Menin tumor suppressor can be oncogenic in Prostate, we have profiled Menin chromatin occupancy by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throug...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Contributors : Manish Aghi ; Jordan SpatzSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensCancer Fibroblasts Isolated from 2 GBM Cases.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
Contributors : Rebecca A Helmer ; Gurvinder Kaur ; Lisa A Smith ; Beverly S ChiltonSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Mus musculusThe helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) gene – a tumor suppressor in human colorectal cancer (CRC) - is regulated by alternative splicing and promoter hypermethylation. The detection of hypermethylated HLTF DNA in fecal occult blood tests is an indicator of disease recurrence and poor survival. Hltf-deficiency in the ApcMin/+ mouse strain in creased the formation of intestinal adenocarcinoma with a high incidence of gross chromosomal instabilit...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Mus musculus Source Type: research
Contributors : Ana Cuadrado ; Daniel Gim énez-Llorente ; Aleksandar Kojic ; Miriam Rodrígez-Corsino ; Yasmina Cuartero ; François Le Dily ; Marc A Marti-Renom ; Ana LosadaSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing ; Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencing ; OtherOrganism : Mus musculusCohesin complex, a main organizer of mammalian genomes, exists in two versions that differ in the identity of the STAG/SA subunit, which can be SA1 or SA2. Mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) provide a useful system to address the specific contributions of each variant to genome...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencing Other Mus musculus Source Type: research
Contributors : Jing Li ; Wei Sun ; Wenge Zhu ; Wei ZhengSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Homo sapiensOvarian cancer IGROV1 cells were studied to profile the expression of wild type (WT, Cisplatin Susceptible) cells and Cisplatin Resistant (CR) cells. The goal was to gain insights or to build hypotheses into the mechanisms of Cisplatin resistance in this cell-based model.
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Homo sapiens Source Type: research
ur GM Abstract Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common intraocular malignancy in childhood. Approximately 40% of retinoblastomas are hereditary and due to germline mutations in the RB1 gene. Children with hereditary RB are also at risk for developing a midline intracranial tumor, most commonly pineoblastoma. We recommend intensive ocular screening for patients with germline RB1 mutations for retinoblastoma as well as neuroimaging for pineoblastoma surveillance. There is an approximately 20% risk of developing second primary cancers among individuals with hereditary RB, higher among those who received radiotherapy f...
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS embryonal tumors occur principally in children and are rarely seen in adults. The incidence rates for rare entities such as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) or primitive neuroectodermal tumors in the CNS are rarely published. Incidence rates for certain subgroups, such as hepatoblastomas, have been increasing in some countries. METHODS: Data of 8337 embryonal tumors, registered in children (0–14 years) between 1991 and 2012 (for AT/RT 2000–2012) in the population-based German Childhood Cancer Registry with complete national coverage were analyzed fo...
Source: PEDIATRICS - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Hematology/Oncology, Cancer/Neoplastic, Public Health Article Source Type: research
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