Chordoma: update on disease, epidemiology, biology and medical therapies
Purpose of review Chordoma is an exceedingly rare subtype of bone sarcoma. This review aims to provide a comprehensive insight into chordoma epidemiology, and an update on the recent advances in disease, biology and medical therapies. Recent findings The incidence of chordoma is approximately 0.08/100 000 and the 5-year overall age-adjusted relative survival is 72% in the United States and 61% in Europe. Over the last years, significant steps forwards have been done in the comprehension of chordoma complexity, with insights gained into the biology and morphology of this disease. New entities have been described and ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Mosaicism, aging and cancer
Purpose of review Genetic mosaicism is the presence of a somatic mutation in a subset of cells that differs from the inherited germline genome. Detectable genetic mosaicism is attractive as a potential early biomarker for cancer risk because of its established relationship with aging, introduction of potentially deleterious mutations, and clonal selection and expansion of mutated cells. The aim of this review is to survey shared risk factors associated with genetic mosaicism, aging and cancer risk. Recent findings Studies have associated aging, cigarette smoking and several genetic susceptibility loci with increased r...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Post-transcriptional regulations of cancer stem cell homeostasis
Purpose of review Although extensively studied for over a decade, gene expression programs established at the epigenetic and/or transcriptional levels do not fully characterize cancer stem cells (CSC). This review will highlight the latest advances regarding the functional relevance of different key post-transcriptional regulations and how they are coordinated to control CSC homeostasis. Recent findings In the past 2 years, several groups have identified master post-transcriptional regulators of CSC genetic programs, including RNA modifications, RNA-binding proteins, microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs. Of particular in...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Targeting the interplay between metabolism and epigenetics in cancer
Purpose of review Metabolic perturbation is a hallmark of cancer favoring tumor progression. It is now demonstrated that cell metabolism has an impact on gene expression through epigenetic modifications. In this review, we expose recent evidences of metabolic-driven epigenetic perturbations in cancer and subsequent therapeutic opportunities. Recent findings The intimate link between metabolism and epigenetics and its rewiring in carcinogenesis is a hot topic. Chromatin-modifying enzymes involved in the dynamics of methylation or acetylation require small metabolites as cofactors or substrates, thus orchestrating the i...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

p53, stem cell biology and childhood blastomas
Purpose of review Childhood blastomas, unlike adult cancers, originate from developing organs in which molecular and cellular features exhibit differentiation arrest and embryonic characteristics. Conventional cancer therapies, which rely on the generalized cytotoxic effect on rapidly dividing cells, may damage delicate organs in young children, leading to multiple late effects. Deep understanding of the biology of embryonal cancers is crucial in reshaping the cancer treatment paradigm for children. Recent findings p53 plays a major physiological role in embryonic development, by controlling cell proliferation, differ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

New perspectives in Merkel cell carcinoma
Purpose of review Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rapidly progressing skin cancer, has poor prognosis. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of MCC, with a focus on recent therapeutic advancements. Recent findings Risk factors for MCC, such as old age, immunosuppression, polyomavirus infection and exposure to UV radiation have already been identified, but the underlying mechanisms leading to carcinogenesis still need clarification. On the basis of recent advances, immunotherapy – in particular, inhibition targeting the programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD1)/P...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Véronique del Marmol Source Type: research

Sunbeds and melanoma risk: time to close the debate
Purpose of review In spite of the established scientific evidence on the association of sunbed use with melanoma risk, some have recently expressed scepticism about the carcinogenicity of indoor tanning. This may have raised confusion among both physicians and patients. The purpose of this review is to make the point about the real impact of sunbed use on melanoma risk in light of the most recently published evidence. Recent findings Seven themes were covered: recent studies on age at first sunbed exposure and melanoma risk; sunbed use and melanoma at different body sites; sunbed use and development of additional prim...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Véronique del Marmol Source Type: research

Immune checkpoint blockade for organ transplant patients with advanced cancer: how far can we go?
Purpose of review Checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) provide impressive response rates among immunocompetent patients with various solid tumors. So far, organ transplant recipients have been excluded from clinical studies due to the putative risk of allograft rejection however 48 cases of liver and renal transplant patients treated with CPI were already described in literature. Recent findings Here we discuss 19 cases of liver and 29 cases of renal transplant patients who received CPI for advanced cancer. Disease control rate [stable disease, complete response (CR) and partial response (PR) together] was 35% (21% for liver ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Véronique del Marmol Source Type: research

Editorial: New Frontiers in Skin Cancer
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Véronique del Marmol Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Revisiting tumor patterns and penetrance in germline TP53 mutation carriers: temporal phases of Li–Fraumeni syndrome Erratum
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ERRATUM Source Type: research

Impact of ovarian function suppression in premenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer
Purpose of review This manuscript aims at providing an updated overview on the role of adding ovarian function suppression to tamoxifen or an aromatase inhibitor as adjuvant endocrine therapy in premenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive early breast cancer. Recent findings Until recently, tamoxifen alone was the only recommended adjuvant treatment option for premenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive disease. However, recent important evidence has contributed to significantly modify the endocrine treatment landscape in this setting. Summary With the only exception of patients with low-risk clinic...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Escalation and de-escalation in HER2 positive early breast cancer
Purpose of review Current standard for HER2+ early breast cancer patients includes chemotherapy and trastuzumab for 1 year. The purpose of this article is to review available evidence on escalated treatment strategies for high-risk patients and de-escalated treatments for patients at low risk of relapse or high risk of cardiac toxicity. Recent findings Recent results have led to the approval of two adjuvant escalated treatment strategies: pertuzumab and trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy for up to 1 year for high-risk patients; extension of adjuvant anti-HER2 treatment with 1 year of neratinib. However, these trea...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Risk stratification in early breast cancer in premenopausal and postmenopausal women: integrating genomic assays with clinicopathological features
Purpose of review There is growing consensus that genomic assays provide useful complementary information to clinicopathological features in oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. Here, ongoing research with multigene tests used for postmenopausal breast cancer and new emerging prognostic and predictive markers for pre and postmenopausal women are summarised. Recent findings Results of the TAILORx trial have shown that women with an intermediate risk score do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Prosgina has been further investigated in a contemporary patient population in postmenopausal women and its use has ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BREAST CANCER: Edited by Giuseppe Curigliano Source Type: research

Biomarkers for immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer
Purpose of review Immune checkpoint inhibitors have been established as a new class of anticancer drugs for patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer. Predictive biomarkers might help to select those patients who will derive the greatest benefit from these expensive drugs. This review summarizes the current status of predictive biomarkers for immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer. Recent finding Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) staining on tumor cells and immune cells has been studied as a predictive biomarker for immune checkpoint inhibitors. Higher PD-L1 levels appeared to be ass...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Role of immunotherapy in stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer
Purpose of review Despite aggressive treatment based on definitive chemoradiotherapy, 5-year overall survival in unresectable stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer remains poor (15–20%). The novel immunotherapy based on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) presents as the therapeutic ‘Holly Grail’ in lung cancer treatment. Recent findings Preclinical models provide evidence of immunotherapy–radiotherapy (IM-RT) synergy. The exposure to ionizing radiation turns tumor in an in-situ vaccine, primes the innate immune system, increases immunotherapy efficacy by overcoming the immunosuppressive microenv...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Immunotherapy in patients with early stage resectable nonsmall cell lung cancer
Purpose of review ‘Early-stage’ nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) refers to stage I and stage II disease, and selected cases of stage IIIA disease where complete tumor resection is feasible. Surgery is the standard treatment for early NSCLC, but the overall 5-year survival remains below 50%. The addition of adjuvant cisplatin-based chemotherapy to surgery improved 5-year survival rates by 5–10%, but no significant therapeutic innovation has been established thereafter. We review recent and ongoing studies looking how immunotherapy may improve the outcome of these patients. Recent findings Antigen-spe...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Treatment of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer: update and perspectives
We describe recent developments in the rapidly evolving field of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-targeting agents. Recent findings Five targeted drugs are currently available in the clinic via regular approval or named patient programs, including crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib, brigatinib and lorlatinib. Further drugs are tested in clinical trials. This review summarizes published data, together with drug-specific information on dosing and toxicity. Moreover, we discuss different clinical scenarios and potential treatment options in patients with tumor progression, based on current literature and our own experience. Summa...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: what is the preferred first-line therapy?
Purpose of review Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mt+ nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were the first molecularly described NSCLC with an established ‘targeted’ therapy inhibiting mutated EGFR [EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)]. EGFR TKI of first and second generation have led to an unprecedented improvement in objective response rate, progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared with chemotherapy with a significantly reduced toxicity and improved quality of life. Fast elucidation of the most frequent resistance mechanism against first and second-generation TKI, T790M, led t...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 30, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

T lymphocytes as therapeutic arsenal for patients with hematological malignancies
We present an overview of the clinically available immunotherapeutic platforms centered on T cell lymphocytes for the treatment of hematological malignancies with a special focus on the advances achieved since 2017. Recent findings The most promising strategies of T cell therapies are based on the infusion of unmanipulated donor lymphocytes, antigen-specific T cells, ex-vivo genetically modified T cells or in-vivo manipulation of T cells using antibodies (bispecific and checkpoint inhibitors). To select the most appropriate option for a specific patient, is important to understand not only each platform-specific biologi...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors in acute leukaemia
Purpose of review To summarize the past and current knowledge of the use of unrelated donors (URDs) in allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients with acute leukaemia. Recent findings The outcome of URD stem cell transplants in terms of treatment-related mortality, relapse rates, disease free survival and overall survival is comparable to sibling donors. Summary Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the therapy of choice in many haematological malignant diseases but only one-third of the patients will have an HLA-matched sibling. The possibility of finding a matched URD is more than 70% because ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Current management of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia
Purpose of review The present review focuses on the current management of patients with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) and the most recent developments in the field. Recent findings CMML is a heterogeneous malignant myeloid disorder sharing features of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms and characterized by peripheral blood monocytosis and increased risk of progression to acute leukemia. Its natural course is highly variable and use of CMML-specific prognostic scoring systems is strongly recommended for tailoring treatment. Multiple recent studies have showed that somatic mutation...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Myelodysplastic syndromes in children
Purpose of review Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are rare disorders in children, showing peculiar clinical manifestations and biological features. This review will summarize biological, genetic and clinical features of childhood MDS and will provide an update of the algorithm of treatment of the different disease variants. Recent findings The most recent classification of MDS includes refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC), advanced and therapy-related MDS. Importantly, in children, these clonal hematopoietic disorders may be often associated with inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, this representing a challen...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation from haploidentical donors using ‘ex-vivo’ T-cell depletion in pediatric patients with hematological malignancies: state of the art review
Purpose of review Nowadays, T-cell-depleted haploidentical transplantation is considered a valid approach for children lacking a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical donor for allogeneic transplantation. This kind of allogeneic transplant is now widely used especially for pediatric patients with high-risk hematological malignancies. However, relapsing disease and life-threatening viral infections are still relevant clinical problems as a consequence of delayed immune reconstitution. Adoptive cell therapies have been proposed to overcome this problem. Recent findings After initial clinical approach using CD34+ selec...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

The role of surgical resection in patients with brain metastases
Purpose of review Treatment of brain metastases represent a critical issue and different options have to be considered according to patients and tumour characteristics; in recent years, new therapeutic strategies have been proposed. In this review, we discuss the role of surgical resection on the basis of patient selection, new surgical techniques and the use of intraoperative adjuncts. The integration with postoperative whole brain radiotherapy will be also outlined because alternative treatment options are currently available. Recent findings Surgical removal has been considered the mainstay in the treatment of brai...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Diffuse low-grade glioma, oncological outcome and quality of life: a surgical perspective
Purpose of review Because diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG) is constantly migrating in the brain until malignant transformation, the historic wait-and-watch attitude was replaced by an early therapeutic management. Moreover, advances in cognitive neurosciences allowed an improved understanding of neuroplasticity reactional to DLGG growth. Here, the aim is to reevaluate the role of surgery regarding both oncological and functional outcomes. Recent findings Recent data evidenced the significant benefit of maximal well tolerated resection on survival and quality of life (QoL). By removing a diffuse neoplastic disease up to...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Molecular classification of adult gliomas: recent advances and future perspectives
Purpose of review This review summarizes recent advances in the molecular classification of adult gliomas. Recent findings According to the 2016 WHO classification, five main molecular subgroups of adult diffuse gliomas can be distinguished based on the 1p/19q codeletion, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), and histone H3.3 mutation status. In the future, this classification may be further refined based on the integration of additional biomarkers, in particular CDKN2A/B homozygous deletion in IDH-mutant astrocytomas, TERT promoter mutations, EGFR amplification, chromosome 7 gain and chromosome 10 loss in IDH-wildtype astr...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Perspectives of immunotherapy in isocitrate dehydrogenase-mutant gliomas
Purpose of review The present review introduces recent progress in eliciting the role of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in gliomas, especially regarding its mode of action as a modulator of antitumor immune response, and provides rationales for targeting mutant IDH in glioma immunotherapy. Both the development of small molecule inhibitors repressing the enzymatic activity of mutant IDH and novel, mechanism-led combination immunotherapies are discussed. Recent findings Since the discovery of highly frequent IDH mutations in low-grade gliomas and nonsolid malignancies, its tumor cell-intrinsic effects have been i...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Neurological paraneoplastic syndromes: an update
Purpose of review To describe recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS). Recent findings PNS are rare complications of cancer caused by an immune cross-reaction between antigens expressed by tumor cells and neurons. The target of the immune attack can be an intracellular antigen or a cell-surface antigen. Although both types of autoimmunity are ‘paraneoplastic’, as indirectly triggered by the presence of a tumor, they profoundly differ in terms of clinical profile, pathogenesis and outcome. PNS associated with antibodies to intracellular antigens (icPNS) ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Reappraisal of eligibility criteria in cancer clinical trials
Purpose of review We aimed to summarize the recent reflections and collaborative initiatives pertaining to the definition of more appropriate eligibility criteria in cancer clinical trials. Recent findings There is an intrinsic tension between two opposite purposes when it comes to defining eligibility criteria: on the one hand, participants must be protected, and on the other, the study population must be defined as accurately as possible. However, stringent eligibility criteria jeopardize the feasibility of trials, and, consequently, the generalizability of trial results. Therefore, interdisciplinary working groups ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada and Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

Immunotherapy-based combinations: an update
Purpose of review The advent of immunotherapy significantly improved clinical outcomes in cancer patients, although immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) still lack of efficacy in a consistent proportion of treated patients. The purpose of this article is to review the most innovative and clinically promising ICB-based combinations designed to improve the efficacy of cancer immunotherapy. Recent findings First-line combinatorial treatment with ipilimumab and nivolumab has recently shown to be superior to the standard of care in a subset of metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The com...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada and Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

Targeting cancer metabolism through synthetic lethality-based combinatorial treatment strategies
Purpose of review Targeting cancer metabolism for therapy has received much attention over the last decade with various small molecule inhibitors entering clinical trials. The present review highlights the latest strategies to target glucose and glutamine metabolism for cancer therapy with a particular emphasis on novel combinatorial treatment approaches. Recent findings Inhibitors of glucose, lactate, and glutamine transport and the ensuing metabolism are in preclinical to clinical trial stages of investigation. Recent advances in our understanding of cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic factors that dictate dependence ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada and Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

Targeting CD47 as a cancer therapeutic strategy: the cutaneous T-cell lymphoma experience
Purpose of review To describe the relevance of CD47 in the tumor microenvironment and summarize data on anti-CD47 therapies, including its role in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Recent findings CD47 is expressed on all normal cells and targets SIRPα on the surface of myeloid cells. However, CD47 is found to be overexpressed on cancer cells. CD47–SIRPα interaction inhibits macrophage phagocytosis, allowing cancer cells to escape immune surveillance. Current focus in immunotherapy has been targeted toward inhibiting CD47–SIRPα interaction via anti-CD47 antibodies. This activates innate i...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada and Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

Tackling the challenges of brain metastases in solid tumors
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: INNOVATIVE AGENTS AND TREATMENT MODALITIES: Edited by Ahmad Awada and Steven T. Rosen Source Type: research

The management of locally advanced cervical cancer
Purpose of review Cervical cancer is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women worldwide. Surgery and chemoradiation are widely utilized treatments for cervical cancer. Despite the available standard treatment of choice, outcome is suboptimal among patients with LACC. It is vital to integrate the evidence generated from high-quality research work for effective management of these cases. This review intends to critically evaluate the latest evidence supporting the available treatment modalities and to provide a comprehensive overview of recent advances and ongoing research in the management of LACC. Rece...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Inherited gynaecological cancers
Purpose of review There is an increasing interest in the role of routine testing for germline mutations in the management and outcome of gynaecological cancers as the therapeutic options for these patients develop, and knowledge about specific gene risks increase. This review focuses on recent literature assessing these areas of interest. Recent findings Systemic treatment options continue to increase, with two recent studies (SOLO2 and ARIEL-3) of the use of PARP inhibitors in the maintenance setting; and approval of pembrolizomab for mismatch repair deficient/microsatellite unstable tumours. Several studies have add...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GYNECOLOGIC CANCER: Edited by Martin Gore Source Type: research

Hodgkin lymphoma in elderly patients
In conclusion, the goal of treatment in newly diagnosed elderly Hodgkin lymphoma patients is curative whenever possible and prospective and retrospective evidence has shown that this is feasible for all disease stages with a variety of multiagent chemotherapy regimen. Relapsed and refractory elderly Hodgkin lymphoma patients can mostly only be treated with the goal of palliation. However, it remains to be seen if novel substances and new combination regimen are able to change that. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Dominique Bron Source Type: research

The role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in T-cell lymphoma
Purpose of review T – and natural killer (NK) cell neoplasms are a heterogeneous group of rare diseases with often inferior outcome. Only few studies exist, clarifying the role of allogeneic transplantation in different clinical scenarios. Larger prospective randomized studies are largely missing even for the more frequent entities. Mostly retrospective analysis and anecdotal reports of patients with advanced disease are available, hampering direct conclusions on the significance of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT). Recent findings Looking at recent data for T and NK cell neoplasm, it becomes evide...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Dominique Bron Source Type: research

New insights into breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma
Purpose of review Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BI-ALCL) is a rare form of lymphoma arising adjacent to a breast implant. We aim to review the pathogenesis and clinico-biological features of BI-ALCL. Recent findings BI-ALCL is a new provisional entity in the 2017 updated WHO classification. Among several hypotheses, BI-ALCL development seems to be determined by the interaction of immune response related to implant products and additional genetic events. Summary BI-ALCL is an uncommon T-cell lymphoma which is increasingly diagnosed since its first description in 1997 with 500 estimated ca...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Dominique Bron Source Type: research

New perspectives in the therapeutic approach of peripheral T-cell lymphoma
Purpose of review Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is a heterogeneous group of mature T-cell and natural killer (NK)-cell neoplasms in the WHO 2016 classification. Patient prognosis is poor when treated with CHOP, and there is an unmet need for new drugs. Several agents have been developed for PTCL, and their use is the subject of this review. Recent findings Phase 2 studies demonstrated the activity of new drugs in Relapsed/refractory PTCL. Only four compounds were approved by the food and drug administration: romidepsin and belinostat, which are epigenetic modifiers, the antifolate agent pralatrexate, the immuno-co...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Dominique Bron Source Type: research

New insights in the pathogenesis of T-cell lymphomas
Purpose of review Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) represent diverse and aggressive malignancies, with few recent therapeutic improvements. Recent high-throughput genomic studies have revealed the complex mutational landscape of these rare diseases. These novel findings provide the grounds to a more comprehensive classification of these diseases, reflected in the 2017 WHO classification. Recent findings Our review is focused on selected PTCL entities. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma and other lymphomas derived from T follicular helper cells feature a rather homogeneous mutational landscape. These neoplasms recap...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LYMPHOMA: Edited by Dominique Bron Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - August 10, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Pseudoadjuvant chemotherapy in resectable metastatic colorectal cancer
Purpose of review In this article, we focus on the potential benefits and risks of chemotherapy administration before (perioperative) or after (pseudoadjuvant) a curative resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases. Recent findings In the published evidence, there is a lack of survival benefit from peri or postoperative chemotherapy in the context of resectable metastatic CRC. However, high-risk patients may have a certain benefit when receiving a postoperative cytotoxic treatment. Apart from, according to the published data, the administration of a preoperative chemotherapy has been associated with serious parenc...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

The concept of oligometastases in colorectal cancer: from the clinical evidences to new therapeutic strategies
Purpose of review The concept of oligometastases, defining cancers with limited metastatic capacity and attaining a limited number of secondary sites, is now widely accepted, particularly in colorectal cancer. Currently, however, accurate predictive markers for oligometastatic tumors are still lacking. For this reason, it remains challenging to translate this concept into clinical recommendations. In the present work, we review recent publications on oligometastases in colorectal cancer, showing the evidences for such presentation and underlying the need for the identification of biomarkers, necessary to further develop ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

The unbearable lightness of therapeutic algorithms in colorectal liver metastasis
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Current questions in bone sarcomas
Purpose of review Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, the most common primary bone tumours in young people, are curable in most patients. However, these tumours remain a significant challenge due to the complexity and intensity of treatment and its long-term morbidity and the significant proportion of patients in whom treatment is unsuccessful. This review addresses questions about current management and emerging therapeutic targets for patients with osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and chondrosarcoma, the commonest bone sarcoma but more common in older patients. Recent findings The largest collaborative international study in...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Gynecological sarcomas: what's new in 2018, a brief review of published literature
Purpose of review In this article, we focus on recent published data (2017) on the management of gynecologic sarcomas. Recent findings The most significant data published in 2017 develop definition of a new molecular subtype of high grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) using molecular technics added to histological analysis. The identification of a new translocation on presumed uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) points to refinement of nosological classification, with fragmentation of even rare tumors into distinct molecular entities: gynecologic sarcomas are now distinguished into distinct entities from a heterogeneous ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

What's new in systemic sarcoma treatments?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research