The close interrelation between colorectal cancer, infection and microbiota
Purpose of review Evaluate the recent literature about the relation of clinical infection and colorectal cancer in terms of diagnosis of an occult infection and possible impact on oncological outcome and review the possible role of the gut microbiota in the role of colorectal cancer oncogenesis. Recent findings Data published within the 2 last years have been reviewed and the conclusions, mostly supporting previously published information, have been critically discussed. Summary Infection (bacteremia, cellulitis) might be a surrogate of occult colorectal cancer and postoperative infection complications might jeopar...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive digestive tumors
Purpose of review This manuscript aims at providing an update and overview on the role of Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing and HER2-directed therapies in digestive tumors. Recent findings Phase 3 trial data demonstrating a survival benefit of HER2-targeting treatments are limited to gastric cancer. However, HER2 positivity is also found in 5–6% of colorectal, 7% of pancreatic, and 16% of extrahepatic biliary cancers. Although phase 2 trial data support the use of the combination of trastuzumab and lapatinib with chemotherapy in HER2-positive colorectal cancer, the patient's benefit from ta...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Adjuvant treatment of pancreatic cancer
Purpose of review Pancreatic cancer will soon become one of the most common causes of cancer death. Early detection of pancreatic cancer remains impossible and only 20% of patients are suitable for surgery once diagnosed. Even in this specific subgroup of patients, and despite improvements in surgery, overall survival remains poor, with an 80% recurrence rate. Consequently, many attempts have been made to prevent recurrence by adding chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or both. Recent findings Here, we will focus on results of randomized trials evaluating the role of different postoperative treatments. Over 15 years ago, a tr...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Update on transarterial approaches to locoregional treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma
Purpose of review This review explores current knowledge and recent data about vascular-centered locoregional treatments and proposes alternate algorithms. Recent findings Hepatocellular carcinoma represents the sixth most common neoplasm worldwide. Currently, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging is the most commonly used in Europe for treatment allocation. According to this classification, European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) guidelines currently recommend transarterial chemoembolization for intermediate stage HCC and systemic treatments, such as, sorafenib in more advanced stages. However, strong...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Editorial: Adjuvant chemotherapy for rectal cancer: playing the devil's advocate
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Challenges of denosumab in giant cell tumor of bone, and other giant cell-rich tumors of bone
Purpose of review Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is an uncommon benign primary bone tumor, consisting of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) expressing reactive osteoclast-like giant cells and neoplastic spindle-shaped cells. Denosumab was approved by FDA in 2013 and by EMA in 2014 to treat adults and skeletally mature adolescents with unresectable GCTB or when resection is likely to result in severe morbidity. However, there is much discussion regarding the optimal applied treatment strategy. Recent findings Neoadjuvant treatment of GCTB with denosumab can effectively downstage tumors to facilitate l...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

New therapeutic agents in gastrointestinal stromal tumours
Purpose of review The aim of this study was to provide an update on the most recent developments regarding systemic treatments in the various molecular subtypes of gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). Recent findings Several novel direct inhibitors of KIT and PDGFRA have entered the advanced clinical development in later treatment lines based on promising early clinical trial experience. Both avapritinib and ripretinib are more potent and more specific against various KIT and PDGFRA mutations. For patients with PDGFRA D842V mutations, the next generation of drugs may become the first active treatment options. Comp...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Leiomyosarcomas: whole genome sequencing for a whole biology characterization
Purpose of review Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is among the more aggressive sarcomas and still suffers from the lack of efficient systemic treatment after, or before, surgery. During the last decades, one provider of therapeutic improvement has been the targeting of genome alterations. Efforts have thus been done to apply next-generation sequencing approaches to those tumours to decipher their oncogenesis and find out such targets. Recent findings Sequencing performed so far, based on exome, mostly confirmed that p53 and RB1 are the two main pathways altered in LMS oncogenesis. There are few point mutations in LMS genome, whi...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

New research strategies in retroperitoneal sarcoma. The case of TARPSWG, STRASS and RESAR: making progress through collaboration
Purpose of review Retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) is a rare disease, and until recently, its natural history and outcome were poorly understood. Recently, collaborations between individual centers have led to an unprecedented collection of retrospective and prospective data and successful recruitment to the first randomized trial as described here. Recent findings A debate about the beneficial role of extended surgery in RPS triggered an initial collaboration between Europe and North America, the TransAtlantic RetroPeritoneal Sarcoma Working Group (TARPSWG). This collaboration has been instrumental in harmonizing the su...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Immunotherapy of heterogenous sarcomas: questions and strategies
Purpose of review Development of immune therapy in sarcoma faces the rarity and heterogeneity of the disease. This review analyses the data available from published clinical trials, and the new clinical strategies under assessment, developed in parallel to the exploration of biological mechanisms underlying the efficacy of immune therapy. Recent findings Published data of four clinical trials assessing the efficacy of immune therapy in metastatic bone and soft-tissue sarcoma and associated translational programs are available. Response rate and progression-free survival with single-agent immune check point blockade in...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Editorial: Customizing sarcoma management and treatment
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Current opinion about antimicrobial therapy in palliative care: an update
Purpose of review The review englobes the latest studies published regarding the problem of antimicrobial usage with palliative intent. Recent findings In the advanced stages of illness like cancer, dementia, or neurodegenerative diseases, important decisions have to be made concerning the global treatment plan. Infections are very common among this kind of patients as they typically have multiple comorbidities and are incapacitated. These infections, in a majority of the cases, will be treated with antimicrobial therapy because this is a standard medical procedure. For a health professional, the decision of whether t...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Photobiomodulation therapy for acute radiodermatitis
Purpose of review The number of clinical trials on the use of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for the management of cancer therapy-related complications is growing steadily. One of the side-effects that is under investigation is acute radiodermatitis (ARD), an inflammatory skin reaction caused by radiotherapy. In this review, an overview is given on the state of art of the application of PBMT for the prevention and management of ARD. Recent findings Up to now about seven clinical trials have been performed, investigating the use of PBMT in the prevention and/or management of ARD. Results demonstrate that PBMT can ef...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Cancer cachexia, a clinical challenge
Purpose of review The aim of this article is to review the metabolic background of the cachectic syndrome and to analyze the recent therapeutic approaches designed to counteract the wasting suffered by the cancer patient with cachexia. Recent findings The main changes associated with the development of this multiorganic syndrome are glucose intolerance, fat depletion and muscle protein hypercatabolism. Among the most promising approaches for the treatment of cachexia include the use of ghrelin agonists, beta-blockers, beta-adrenergic agonists, androgen receptor agonists and antimyostatin peptides. The multitargeted ap...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Side effects of immunotherapy: a constant challenge for oncologists
Purpose of review Immunotherapeutic strategies have become the new paradigm of cancer care, through their new targeting and safety profile approach, and, de facto, their new monitoring and safety management challenges. Recent findings Generalities and specificities of the toxicity management related to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are highlighted. Predictive factors of safety are issue of research and the challenge of prevention as well as monitoring are huge to alleviate toxicities and enhance safety and efficacy. Particular situations like steroids association and cost-effectiveness approach are summarized. ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Cannabinoids: a new approach for pain control?
Purpose of review To analyze available data related to the use of cannabinoids in medicine, with a special focus on pain management in cancer. The use of cannabis for medical purposes is growing but there are still numerous questions to be solved: effectiveness, safety, and specific indications. Recent findings There is considerable variation between countries in the approaches taken, reflecting a variety of historical and cultural factors and despite few randomized controlled studies using natural cannabinoids, there is a trend to state that the use of cannabis should be taken seriously as a potential treatment of ca...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Multicultural approaches of cancer pain
The objective of this thematic review is to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and cancer pain experience, assessment and management. Recent findings Cancer pain is not only a biophysiological construct but is rather a multidimensional concept of physiological and psychosocial responses, including the biocultural dimension. Culture can significantly affect patients’ cancer pain-related beliefs and behaviors and patient's ethnicity may influence the experience of pain. We found a scarcity of data and an inconsistent literature that highlights gaps in knowledge, research and clinical practice concerning...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Fertility, sexuality and cancer in young adult women
Purpose of review To provide an up-to-date overview on indications, efficacy and safety of the existing fertility preservation strategies as well as on the features and management of sexual dysfunction in young adult women with newly diagnosed cancer. Recent findings Because of the improved life expectancy of cancer survivors, a growing attention should be given to the side effects of anticancer treatments. Among young cancer patients, risk of infertility and sexual dysfunction are of great concern. Summary As advocated by guidelines, patients need to be thoroughly informed of potential side effects of treatment be...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Editorial: Supportive care in cancer patients: a constantly evolving field
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Integrating poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in the treatment of early breast cancer
Purpose of review Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors were recently approved for the treatment of patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline pathogenic variants and metastatic breast cancer. PARP inhibitors have also demonstrated activity in early stage breast cancer, and this review discusses completed and ongoing trials of PARP inhibitors in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting. Recent findings A recent phase II trial of neoadjuvant talazoparib monotherapy in patients with BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline pathogenic variants and early stage breast cancer demonstrated a pathological complete response in 10/19 (53%) patie...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Screening in adrenal tumors
Purpose of review Adrenal tumors are mostly encountered as incidentalomas in patients undergoing imaging not performed for suspected adrenal disease; although the majority are benign and nonfunctioning, malignant tumors and functioning tumors need to be excluded. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in the evaluation of adrenal tumors. Recent findings As a consequence of increased use of technologically improved imaging techniques, the detection of adrenal incidentalomas has continued to increase. The vast majority of adrenal tumors are adrenocortical adenomas. To discriminate malignant from beni...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Christiane Jungels Source Type: research

Management of treatment-related toxicities in advanced medullary thyroid cancer
Purpose of review Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), predominantly vandetanib and cabozantinib, are increasingly used for management of advanced medullary thyroid cancer. This review aims to discuss the major and serious adverse events associated with TKI. Recent findings The choice of TKI depends on the patient's existing comorbidities. Patients who have long QT interval should avoid vandetanib and those at risk of gastrointestinal perforation should avoid cabozantinib. Hypertension is common during the first 3 months. Treatments include ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers (avoiding verapamil and diltiazem, which...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Christiane Jungels Source Type: research

Adrenal tumors: when to search for a germline abnormality?
Purpose of review Over the last 20 years, the genetic landscape of adrenal tumours has been transformed by the identification of multiple susceptibility genes for the various tumour types. We review these recent developments here, and describe current recommendations for genetic testing in patients with tumours of the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal paraganglia or the adrenal cortex. Recent findings Phaeochromocytomas (adrenal medulla tumours) and paragangliomas, aldosterone-producing adenomas, primary macronodular adrenal hyperplasia, primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease and adrenocortical carcinoma (ad...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Christiane Jungels Source Type: research

The evolving role of diet in prostate cancer risk and progression
Purpose of review This overview examines the rationale for dietary interventions for prostate cancer by summarizing the current evidence base and biological mechanisms for the involvement of diet in disease incidence and progression. Recent findings Recent data have further solidified the association between insulin resistance and prostate cancer with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Data also show that periprostatic adipocytes promote extracapsular extension of prostate cancer through chemokines, thereby providing a mechanistic explanation for the association observed between obesity and high-g...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

PET imaging in renal cancer
Purpose of review Worldwide, over 400 000 new cases of kidney cancer were diagnosed and over 175 000 deaths anticipated in 2018. It is ranked as the 14th most common cancer in women and 9th most common in men. Imaging is important for initial detection, staging, and monitoring to assist treatment planning, but conventional anatomic imaging is limited. Although functional PET/CT has proven helpful in the diagnosis and management of many cancers, its value in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is still in evolution. Recent findings FDG is probably the most useful radiotracer in RCC, although CAIX imaging can be helpful in c...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Targeting advanced urothelial carcinoma-developing strategies
Conclusion The development of novel therapies targeting the immune and molecular pathways of advanced urothelial carcinoma is promising for the improvement of outcomes in this lethal disease. Ongoing efforts are poised to optimize therapeutic options in the post-chemotherapy arena. In the era of precision medicine, the future of urothelial carcinoma lies in using less cytotoxic chemotherapy, more targeted therapy and immunotherapy, and possibly a combination of these therapeutic approaches. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Contemporary treatments in prostate cancer focal therapy
Purpose of review Radical treatments for prostate cancer are associated with significant morbidity, including incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Advances in the field of prostate MRI and desire to reduce treatment morbidities have led to a rapid growth in focal treatments for prostate cancer. Here, we review novel focal prostate cancer treatments and their associated recent clinical data, with a particular focus on data reported within the last 24 months. Recent findings High-intensity focal ultrasound, focal laser ablation, irreversible electroporation, focal cryotherapy, and photodynamic therapy have been used a...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

The tumor microenvironment in renal cell cancer
Purpose of review In addition to the provision of nutrients and growth factors that facilitate tumor cell proliferation and metastasis, the tumor microenvironment (MEV) restricts immune surveillance of tumor-associated antigens and limits the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors, tumor vaccines, and other immune therapies. This review will focus on the immunosuppressive mechanisms operative within the tumor MVE of renal cell carcinoma. Recent findings Several of the immunosuppressive mechanisms within the tumor MEV have been identified and are potentially druggable. Clinical trials with agents that target several ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Optimization of therapies for men with advanced prostate cancer: a review of recent developments with a look toward the future
Purpose of review Summarizes the rapid progress being made in treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Recent findings Debate remains regarding the optimal sequencing of therapies in metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer with attention focused on the use of abiraterone versus docetaxel. Randomized trials now show a potential advantage to next-generation antiandrogens in the setting of nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Patient-specific genomic anomalies, in particular DNA repair defects, provide targets for therapy with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors alone and in combination with other...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Immunotherapy in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: current and emerging treatments
Purpose of review There is a significant unmet need for efficacious second-line treatment options for patients who have failed bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy for nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma (NMIBC). Recent advances in our understanding of systemic immunotherapy have transformed the management of advanced urothelial carcinoma and have led to the development of multiple novel agents. Using this insight, these agents are now being investigated for use in NMIBC. Recent findings Although BCG has been used to treat high-risk NMIBC for decades, new applications of immunotherapy include the use of exogenou...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Targeting the androgen receptor and overcoming resistance in prostate cancer
Purpose of review Prostate cancer (PCa) is diagnosed in one out of every nine men and is the second leading cause of cancer death among men. Although therapies targeting the androgen receptor (AR) are highly effective, development of resistance is universal and remains a major therapeutic challenge. Nonetheless, signaling via AR is frequently maintained despite standard androgen-signaling inhibition. We review the current understanding of mechanisms of resistance as well as therapeutic approaches to improving treatment of PCa via targeting of the AR. Recent findings Resistance to AR-targeting therapies may be mediated...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

New approaches in salivary gland carcinoma
We report here the few available data in SGCs. Summary A strategy based on molecular screening and targeted therapy seems to be the best approach for treating patients with SGCs, in the future. More data on ICI's efficacy and biomarkers of response are required to define the place of immunotherapy in the management of SGCs. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

The emergence of long-term survivors in recurrent and metastatic squamous cell head and neck cancer
Purpose of review The systemic therapies available in recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to date are palliative-intent treatments in most cases. However, a small subgroup of patients derives unconventional benefit and become long-term survivors, achieving cure in some cases. This review focusses on this group of patients, discusses recent literature and suggests plausible molecular hypothesis. Recent findings Human papillomavirus-related disease is known to confer a better prognosis in metastatic patients, probably because of its greater sensitivity to systemic therapies. This group of pati...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

Treatment of inoperable elderly head and neck cancer patients
Purpose of review Elderly head and neck cancer (HNC) patients are very rarely enrolled in clinical trials, and even more so in dedicated trials in curative or palliative setting. As a result, no standards of treatment exist for this population and thus, adaptation of standard treatments is commonly used. Recent findings The choice between a monotherapy and a platinum–cetuximab combination is based on the performance status, which is not suitable and/or sufficient to evaluate the patient ability to receive a systemic treatment combined or not with radiotherapy. The evaluation of functional age using geriatric ass...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

Immunotherapy in recurrent and or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck
Purpose of review Checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) are revolutionizing the treatment of advanced cancers including recurrent and or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (RM-SCCHN). Recent findings In this review, we will summarize the results of prospective trials evaluating CPI and particularly antiprogrammed death 1 (PD-1)/antiprogrammed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in RM-SCCHN. Summary Nivolumab and Pembrolizumab, two anti-PD-1 CPI, were associated with longer overall survival than standard chemotherapy in pretreated RM-SCCHN in two randomized phase 3 trials (respectively CHECKMATE-141 and KEYNOTE-040). ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

Current role of primary surgical treatment in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
The objective of this review article is to discuss the current role of surgery as the primary treatment modality in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Recent findings HNSCC represents one of the cancer locations where the primary treatment modality is the most under discussion. Indeed, the respective roles of primary surgical resection followed, as necessary, by adjuvant radiotherapy or definitive chemoradiotherapy remain controversial. The results of organ preservation trials and the drastic rise in the incidence of human papillomavirus-induced oropharyngeal tumors, which are known to be highl...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

Molecular genetics of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the genomic characterization of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) and discusses how these abnormalities could be incorporated into a therapeutic approach. Recent findings Tobacco and HPV infection, the two main risk factors of HNSCC, allow the definition of two groups with distinct anatomoclinical and genetic features. As tobacco and HPV infection are not exclusive, exposure to both risk factors is associated with an intermediate prognostic. HPV-positive, nontobacco-related HNSCCs are associated with a better prognosi...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

Potential role of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck
Purpose of review Human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is mainly driven by genetic aberrations involved in the cell cycle pathway resulting in cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6 activation. This supports the investigation of the activity of CDK4/6 inhibitors in this disease. We review the therapeutic potential of CDK4/6 inhibitors in SCCHN. Recent findings CDK4/6 inhibitors in monotherapy have demonstrated cytostatic activity in HPV-negative SCCHN. Combination with epidermal growth factor inhibitors, with phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian ta...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

Things are changing for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - May 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

p53, stem cell biology and childhood blastomas
Purpose of review Childhood blastomas, unlike adult cancers, originate from developing organs in which molecular and cellular features exhibit differentiation arrest and embryonic characteristics. Conventional cancer therapies, which rely on the generalized cytotoxic effect on rapidly dividing cells, may damage delicate organs in young children, leading to multiple late effects. Deep understanding of the biology of embryonal cancers is crucial in reshaping the cancer treatment paradigm for children. Recent findings p53 plays a major physiological role in embryonic development, by controlling cell proliferation, differ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - March 1, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Chordoma: update on disease, epidemiology, biology and medical therapies
Purpose of review Chordoma is an exceedingly rare subtype of bone sarcoma. This review aims to provide a comprehensive insight into chordoma epidemiology, and an update on the recent advances in disease, biology and medical therapies. Recent findings The incidence of chordoma is approximately 0.08/100 000 and the 5-year overall age-adjusted relative survival is 72% in the United States and 61% in Europe. Over the last years, significant steps forwards have been done in the comprehension of chordoma complexity, with insights gained into the biology and morphology of this disease. New entities have been described and ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SPECIAL COMMENTARY Source Type: research

Mosaicism, aging and cancer
Purpose of review Genetic mosaicism is the presence of a somatic mutation in a subset of cells that differs from the inherited germline genome. Detectable genetic mosaicism is attractive as a potential early biomarker for cancer risk because of its established relationship with aging, introduction of potentially deleterious mutations, and clonal selection and expansion of mutated cells. The aim of this review is to survey shared risk factors associated with genetic mosaicism, aging and cancer risk. Recent findings Studies have associated aging, cigarette smoking and several genetic susceptibility loci with increased r...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Post-transcriptional regulations of cancer stem cell homeostasis
Purpose of review Although extensively studied for over a decade, gene expression programs established at the epigenetic and/or transcriptional levels do not fully characterize cancer stem cells (CSC). This review will highlight the latest advances regarding the functional relevance of different key post-transcriptional regulations and how they are coordinated to control CSC homeostasis. Recent findings In the past 2 years, several groups have identified master post-transcriptional regulators of CSC genetic programs, including RNA modifications, RNA-binding proteins, microRNAs and long noncoding RNAs. Of particular in...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Targeting the interplay between metabolism and epigenetics in cancer
Purpose of review Metabolic perturbation is a hallmark of cancer favoring tumor progression. It is now demonstrated that cell metabolism has an impact on gene expression through epigenetic modifications. In this review, we expose recent evidences of metabolic-driven epigenetic perturbations in cancer and subsequent therapeutic opportunities. Recent findings The intimate link between metabolism and epigenetics and its rewiring in carcinogenesis is a hot topic. Chromatin-modifying enzymes involved in the dynamics of methylation or acetylation require small metabolites as cofactors or substrates, thus orchestrating the i...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

p53, stem cell biology and childhood blastomas
Purpose of review Childhood blastomas, unlike adult cancers, originate from developing organs in which molecular and cellular features exhibit differentiation arrest and embryonic characteristics. Conventional cancer therapies, which rely on the generalized cytotoxic effect on rapidly dividing cells, may damage delicate organs in young children, leading to multiple late effects. Deep understanding of the biology of embryonal cancers is crucial in reshaping the cancer treatment paradigm for children. Recent findings p53 plays a major physiological role in embryonic development, by controlling cell proliferation, differ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

New perspectives in Merkel cell carcinoma
Purpose of review Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a rapidly progressing skin cancer, has poor prognosis. We reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of MCC, with a focus on recent therapeutic advancements. Recent findings Risk factors for MCC, such as old age, immunosuppression, polyomavirus infection and exposure to UV radiation have already been identified, but the underlying mechanisms leading to carcinogenesis still need clarification. On the basis of recent advances, immunotherapy – in particular, inhibition targeting the programmed cell death protein 1/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD1)/P...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Véronique del Marmol Source Type: research

Sunbeds and melanoma risk: time to close the debate
Purpose of review In spite of the established scientific evidence on the association of sunbed use with melanoma risk, some have recently expressed scepticism about the carcinogenicity of indoor tanning. This may have raised confusion among both physicians and patients. The purpose of this review is to make the point about the real impact of sunbed use on melanoma risk in light of the most recently published evidence. Recent findings Seven themes were covered: recent studies on age at first sunbed exposure and melanoma risk; sunbed use and melanoma at different body sites; sunbed use and development of additional prim...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Véronique del Marmol Source Type: research

Immune checkpoint blockade for organ transplant patients with advanced cancer: how far can we go?
Purpose of review Checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) provide impressive response rates among immunocompetent patients with various solid tumors. So far, organ transplant recipients have been excluded from clinical studies due to the putative risk of allograft rejection however 48 cases of liver and renal transplant patients treated with CPI were already described in literature. Recent findings Here we discuss 19 cases of liver and 29 cases of renal transplant patients who received CPI for advanced cancer. Disease control rate [stable disease, complete response (CR) and partial response (PR) together] was 35% (21% for liver ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Véronique del Marmol Source Type: research