Pseudoadjuvant chemotherapy in resectable metastatic colorectal cancer
Purpose of review In this article, we focus on the potential benefits and risks of chemotherapy administration before (perioperative) or after (pseudoadjuvant) a curative resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases. Recent findings In the published evidence, there is a lack of survival benefit from peri or postoperative chemotherapy in the context of resectable metastatic CRC. However, high-risk patients may have a certain benefit when receiving a postoperative cytotoxic treatment. Apart from, according to the published data, the administration of a preoperative chemotherapy has been associated with serious parenc...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

The concept of oligometastases in colorectal cancer: from the clinical evidences to new therapeutic strategies
Purpose of review The concept of oligometastases, defining cancers with limited metastatic capacity and attaining a limited number of secondary sites, is now widely accepted, particularly in colorectal cancer. Currently, however, accurate predictive markers for oligometastatic tumors are still lacking. For this reason, it remains challenging to translate this concept into clinical recommendations. In the present work, we review recent publications on oligometastases in colorectal cancer, showing the evidences for such presentation and underlying the need for the identification of biomarkers, necessary to further develop ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

The unbearable lightness of therapeutic algorithms in colorectal liver metastasis
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT: Edited by Alain Hendlisz Source Type: research

Current questions in bone sarcomas
Purpose of review Osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma, the most common primary bone tumours in young people, are curable in most patients. However, these tumours remain a significant challenge due to the complexity and intensity of treatment and its long-term morbidity and the significant proportion of patients in whom treatment is unsuccessful. This review addresses questions about current management and emerging therapeutic targets for patients with osteosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma and chondrosarcoma, the commonest bone sarcoma but more common in older patients. Recent findings The largest collaborative international study in...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Gynecological sarcomas: what's new in 2018, a brief review of published literature
Purpose of review In this article, we focus on recent published data (2017) on the management of gynecologic sarcomas. Recent findings The most significant data published in 2017 develop definition of a new molecular subtype of high grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) using molecular technics added to histological analysis. The identification of a new translocation on presumed uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS) points to refinement of nosological classification, with fragmentation of even rare tumors into distinct molecular entities: gynecologic sarcomas are now distinguished into distinct entities from a heterogeneous ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

What's new in systemic sarcoma treatments?
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

Management of sarcoma patients: centralization in reference centers to fragmentation of systemic treatment
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SARCOMAS: Edited by Jean-Yves Blay Source Type: research

The latest consensus on antiemetics
Purpose of review The present review summarizes and discuss the most recent updated antiemetic consensus. Recent findings Two new neurokinin (NK)1-receptor antagonists, netupitant and rolapitant, have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency and incorporated in the latest versions of the MASCC/ESMO, ASCO, and NCCN guidelines. Guidelines all recommend a combination of a serotonin (5-HT)3-receptor antagonist, dexamethasone, and a NK1-receptor antagonist in patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC) with the addition of the multireceptor targeting agent, olanzapine,...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Photobiomodulation or low-level laser therapy in the management of cancer therapy-induced mucositis, dermatitis and lymphedema
Purpose or review There is a large body of evidence supporting the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) also known as PhotoBioModulation (PBM) when used for the prevention and/or treatment of oral mucositis in patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, or high-dose chemotherapy regimens. This review aims at giving the state of the art of this technique in this indication. Recent findings Recent advances in LLLT/PBM technology, together with a better understanding of mechanisms involved and dosimetric parameters may lead to the management of a broader range of complications associated with cancer ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Fatigue, a major still underestimated issue
Purpose of review Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a frequent and distressing symptom present at any stage of the disease. However, it is still underreported, rarely properly assessed and undertreated. Recent findings There are international guidelines available, but also several barriers to their implementation into clinical practice. Summary According to guidelines, all patients should be clinically screened for CRF on regular basis, at the initial cancer visit and at intervals during every clinic visit, also at posttreatment follow-up visits. Generally, any treatable contributing factors should be identified and ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Spiritual care in cancer patients: a need or an option?
Purpose of review Because of cancer is generally perceived as a life-threatening illness, patients often develop spiritual needs upon the diagnosis. Spirituality impacts patient quality of life (QoL) and provides a context in which to derive hope and meaning to cope with illness. The goal of this review is to give an overview of the most relevant studies with a focus on the relationship between spiritual well being, QoL and hope in patients with cancer, in addition to exploring the importance of spiritual issues both for patients and healthcare professionals. Recent findings Spiritual well being with its dimensions of...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Are we ready for intercultural cancer care?
Purpose of review Migration is increasing worldwide, with accumulating evidence of health disparities. At the same time, oncology faces new challenges within a fast-changing care landscape. These two developments raise the question of integration of migrants and ethnic minorities (MEMs) and cultural influences in oncology. Recent findings Perceptions of health and disease differ substantially across and within societies and cultures. However, health needs of MEMs and cultural influences seem often out of the scope of cancer care. The purpose of this thematic review is to consider three major challenges of current and ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Supportive care in cancer: quo vadis
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: SUPPORTIVE CARE: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - June 7, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

The evolving genomic landscape in urothelial cancer
Purpose of review Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have allowed for detailed molecular analysis of urothelial carcinomas, with potentially significant clinical implications for personalized treatment. Our objective in this review is to highlight studies from the past year that have furthered the understanding of urothelial cancer genomics. Recent findings Recent studies by The Cancer Genome Atlas consortium further characterized urothelial carcinomas via molecular subtyping, and a schema was proposed to match each subtype with potential therapeutic implications. Molecular subtyping was also utilized in a ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Advances in prostate-specific membrane antigen PET of prostate cancer
Purpose of review In recent years, a large number of reports have been published on prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)/PET in prostate cancer (PCa). This review highlights advances in PSMA PET in PCa during the past year. Recent findings PSMA PET/computed tomography (CT) is useful in detection of biochemical recurrence, especially at low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. The detection rate of PSMA PET is influenced by PSA level. For primary PCa, PSMA PET/CT shows promise for tumour localization in the prostate, especially in combination with multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). For primary staging, PSMA PET/CT ca...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Managing seminomatous and nonseminomatous germ cell tumors
Purpose of review In the present review, we summarize the recent developments in the management of germ cell tumors (GCTs). Recent findings Treatment-related acute and late-onset toxicity remains a key challenge in the management of GCTs, with recent evidence showing that the adverse health outcomes of etoposide and cisplatin for four cycles in comparison to bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin for three cycles appear to be similar. Recent data showed that multidisciplinary clinic approach and management in experienced academic centers were associated with improved overall survival in GCT patients. There are currently ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

The emerging role of immunotherapy in advanced urothelial cancers
Purpose of review Recent Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of five new immune checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of metastatic urothelial cancer represents the first major treatment breakthrough for this disease since the introduction of combination chemotherapy over 30 years ago. This review examines the recent clinical trials leading to FDA approval of these agents, the current challenges facing immunotherapy and areas that require further research. Recent findings The programmed death 1 receptor (PD-1) and its ligand programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1) are important negative regulators of immune activi...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Recent advances in radiation oncology: multimodal targeting of high risk and recurrent prostate cancer
Purpose of review The overview summarizes recent developments in radiation oncology for high risk and recurrent prostate cancer. Recent findings A number of well known phase III prostate hypofractionated radiation therapy (HFxRT) trials were finally published with long-term follow-ups. These trials demonstrate patterns of equivalent tumor control with several showing worse toxicity rates. The ASCENDE-RT randomized trial demonstrated the superiority of brachytherapy boost in intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer. Important randomized trials show a clear benefit to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in both interme...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Recent advances in the management of metastatic prostate cancer: optimizing use of existing therapies, while searching for novel interventions
We present recent series examining sequencing of approved therapies as well as trials evaluating novel biomarkers and genomic analyses designed to help choose from among approved therapies or evaluate drugs in development. Lastly, we review ongoing trials examining novel immunotherapy combinations in advanced prostate cancer. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Tobacco and alcohol-induced epigenetic changes in oral carcinoma
Purpose of review The present review aims to describe the epigenetic alterations observed in oral cancer linked to the exposure to alcohol and/or tobacco. Recent findings Recent findings emphasize the importance of epigenetics in oral cancer progression and in how risk factors (as tobacco and alcohol) affect the basal epigenetic profiles. Deeper techniques and detailed approaches allowed the perception that individual CG changes and even subtle changes may represent important epigenetic alterations resulting in expression changes and other carcinogenic consequences. New classes of epigenetic alterations including nonc...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Gilberto de Castro Junior Source Type: research

De-escalation treatment of human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: an evidence-based review for the locally advanced disease
Purpose of review Oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) incidence is increasing worldwide, especially in developed countries where it seems to be etiologically related to the elevating rates of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Considered a distinct disease because of its weak correlation with the traditional risk factors (tobacco use and alcohol), it has different patterns of survival outcomes, locoregional and distant failure, generally with better prognosis independently of the treatment. The standard therapeutic approach for locally advanced (LA) OPCs includes radiation therapy with concurrent chemotherapy, result...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Gilberto de Castro Junior Source Type: research

Patients’ choices, quality of life and treatment selection in head and neck cancer
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Gilberto de Castro Junior Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 13, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Novel therapeutic strategies and targets in advanced uveal melanoma
Purpose of review Currently, there are no U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved or effective treatment options for advanced-stage uveal melanoma. In this article, we focus on therapeutic targets in pathways/mechanisms associated with common mutations in uveal melanoma. We review the challenges associated with targeting of these pathways and novel treatment strategies. Recent findings Common mutations that promote uveal melanoma initiation and progression include alterations in G protein subunit alpha q/11 (GNAQ/GNA11) and breast cancer gene 1-associated protein 1 (BAP1). Mutant GNAQ/GNA11 induces constitutive act...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

Development of encorafenib for BRAF-mutated advanced melanoma
Purpose of review To describe the pharmacological properties, preclinical and clinical data of the novel V-Raf Murine Sarcoma Viral Oncogene Homolog B (BRAF)-inhibitor encorafenib (LGX818) and to compare these with established BRAF-inhibitors in the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic melanoma. Recent findings Encorafenib has shown improved efficacy in the treatment of metastatic melanoma in comparison with vemurafenib. Combination with the MEK inhibitor (MEKi) binimetinib allows for higher dose intensities of encorafenib further improving response rates (RRs). Summary Combination therapy with BRAF and MEKi...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

Update on adjuvant melanoma therapy
Purpose of review We review the results from relevant clinical trials and discuss current strategies in the melanoma adjuvant setting. Recent findings The favorable therapeutic efficacy and the significant less toxicity of nivolumab compared with ipilimumab, fully substitutes today‘s approval of ipilimumab, regardless mutation status, whereas in BRAF-mutated patients, dabrafenib and trametinib seem to confirm their high efficacy also in adjuvant setting. The use of interferon is restricted to patients with ulcerated melanoma and countries with no access to the new drugs. Summary Systemic adjuvant treatment af...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

Medical bioinformatics in melanoma
Purpose of review Bioinformatic insights from next-generation sequencing has been integral in understanding melanoma biology, resistance to treatment and provided new avenues for melanoma treatment. Whole-genome sequencing, whole-exome sequencing and RNA sequencing has redefined the molecular classification of melanoma, revealed distinct genetic aberrations that define clinical subtypes of melanoma and uncovered the diverse heterogeneity that resides in an individual tumor. Recent findings In this review, we will summarize the recent whole-genome study that catalogs the genomic landscape across many melanoma subtypes,...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

Cutaneous angiosarcoma: update on biology and latest treatment
Purpose of review The present review aims to provide readers with the latest updates on the biology and clinical management of cutaneous angiosarcoma (cAS). Recent findings The genomic alteration of cAS is heterogeneous. Mutations are enriched in the mitosis-activated kinase (MAPK) pathway. Functional analysis has identified molecules that may serve as potential markers and therapeutic targets of angiosarcoma. These molecules include survivin, HSP90, FOXM1, miR-497-5p, KCa3.1, and miR210. This body of knowledge has not yet transferred to clinical practice. The mainstay of treatment for cAS remains surgery followed by...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

The dynamics of medical care in skin cancers
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Reinhard Dummer Source Type: research

Supportive care in the era of immunotherapies for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer
Purpose of review The therapeutic armamentarium for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer has evolved considerably over the past years. Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting programmed cell death-1 such as pembrolizumab and nivolumab or programmed cell death ligand 1 such as atezolizumab, durvalumab and avelumab have shown favorable efficacy results in this patient population in the first-line and second-line setting. These immunotherapies are associated with a distinct toxicity profile based on autoimmune organ toxicity which is a new challenge for supportive care during treatment with these drugs. Recent findings The...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Master protocols in lung cancer: experience from Lung Master Protocol
Purpose of review Contemporary advances in the understanding of the molecular and immunologic basis of metastatic lung cancer have firmly changed its treatment paradigm to a personalized, biomarker-driven approach. However, the majority of lung-cancer patients [especially lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC)] still do not have effective targeted therapeutic options. Master protocols, such as Lung-MAP, represent an innovative clinical trial approach designed to accelerate evaluation of novel biomarker-driven therapies. Recent findings Lung-MAP is an umbrella trial for advanced LUSC and has been active since 2014. Cumula...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Treatment of ALK-positive nonsmall cell lung cancer: recent advances
Purpose of review The review will highlight recent advances in development of ALK-TKIs and management of patients with ALK-positive nonsmall cell lung cancer. Recent findings There has been rapid progress in the use of targeted therapies for ALK-positive NSCLC. Since the discovery, development and approval of crizotinib in 2011, three second-generation ALK-TKIs, ceritinib, alectinib and brigatinib have been approved by the FDA. A range of newer generation ALK inhibitors with improved potency against ALK and against mutations that confer resistance to crizotinib are in clinical development. Summary Our review will d...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Advanced PET imaging in oncology: status and developments with current and future relevance to lung cancer care
Purpose of review This review highlights the status and developments of PET imaging in oncology, with particular emphasis on lung cancer. We discuss the significance of PET for diagnosis, staging, decision-making, monitoring of treatment response, and drug development. The PET key advantage, the noninvasive assessment of functional and molecular tumor characteristics including tumor heterogeneity, as well as PET trends relevant to cancer care are exemplified. Recent findings Advances of PET and radiotracer technology are encouraging for multiple fields of oncological research and clinical application, including in-dep...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Molecular pathology of lung cancer: current status and perspectives
Purpose of review In this article, we summarize the current knowledge on molecular alterations in lung cancer that are targets for therapy, and provide an outlook on the future development of molecular pathology in precision oncology. Recent findings Lung cancer has become a paradigm for the success of molecular targeted therapies in solid tumors. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are effective treatment options in adenocarcinoma patients with an EGFR, ALK, ROS1 or B-Raf Proto-Oncogene, Serine/Threonine kinase mutation. Additional molecular targets that are addressed in clinical trials include ERBB2, MET, RET, NTRK1 and FGFR...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Mutational and epigenetic signatures in cancer tissue linked to environmental exposures and lifestyle
Purpose of review In this article, we describe how recent advances in the study of mutational and epigenetic signatures in tumours provide new opportunities to understand the role of the environment and lifestyle in cancer development. Recent findings Cancer-related mutational events have been investigated for decades but only recently the wide availability of genomic sequences and epigenomic data from thousands of cancer genomes has made it possible to identify numerous distinct mutational and epigenetic signatures through the application of advanced mathematical models. Some of these signatures have been linked to e...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Targeting the perivascular niche in brain tumors
Purpose of review Brain tumors are composed of primary tumors of the central nervous system, such us glioblastoma (GBM), and secondary metastatic tumors, such as melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as lung and breast cancers. Brain tumors are highly deadly, and unfortunately not many improvements have been achieved to improve the survival of patients with brain tumors. Chemoradiation resistance is one of the most clinically relevant challenges faced in patients with brain tumors. The perivascular niche is one of the most relevant microenvironment hubs in brain tumors. The understanding of the cellular crosstalk establ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Paracrine interactions of cancer-associated fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells: tumor allies and foes
Purpose of review Tumor stroma is composed of many cellular subtypes, of which the most abundant are fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells. During the process of tissue injury, these three cellular subtypes must coordinate their activity to efficiently contribute to tissue regeneration. In tumor, this mechanism is hijacked by cancer cells, which rewire the interaction of stromal cells to benefit tumor development. The present review aims at summarizing most relevant information concerning both pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic actions implicating the three stromal cell subtypes as well as their mutual interac...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

The Smurf transition: new insights on ageing from end-of-life studies in animal models
Purpose of review Over the past 5 years, many articles were published concerning the prediction of high risk of mortality in apparently healthy adults, echoing the first description in 2011 of the Smurf phenotype, a harbinger of natural death in drosophila. Recent findings These recent findings suggest that the end-of-life is molecularly and physiologically highly stereotyped, evolutionarily conserved and predictable. Summary Taken altogether, these results from independent teams using multiple organisms including humans draw the lines of future directions in ageing research. The ability to identify and study indiv...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Lysine methylation signaling in pancreatic cancer
Purpose of review Despite better knowledge of its genetic basis, pancreatic cancer is still highly lethal with very few therapeutic options. In this review, we discuss the potential impact of epigenetic therapies, focusing on lysine methylation signaling and its implication in pancreatic cancer. Recent findings Protein lysine methylation, a key mechanism of posttranslational modifications of histone proteins, has emerged as a major cell signaling mechanism regulating physiologic and pathologic processes including cancer. This finely tuned and dynamic signaling mechanism is regulated by lysine methyltransferases (KMT),...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Revisiting tumor patterns and penetrance in germline TP53 mutation carriers: temporal phases of Li–Fraumeni syndrome
Purpose of review Germline pathogenic TP53 mutation may predispose to multiple cancers but penetrance and cancer patterns remain incompletely documented. We have analyzed international agency for research on cancer TP53 database to reevaluate age and variant-dependent tumor patterns. Recent findings Genome-wide studies suggest that germline variants are more frequent than estimated prevalence of Li–Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), suggesting that many carriers of potentially pathogenic mutations may not develop the syndrome. Carriers of a germline TP53 mutation who are detected in a clinical context have a penetrance of...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Advances in understanding the molecular underpinnings of adrenocortical tumors
Purpose of review Adrenocortical tumors are divided into benign adenomas and malignant carcinomas. The former is relatively common and carries a favorable prognosis, whereas the latter is rare and frequently presents at an advanced stage, with poor outcomes. Advances in next-generation sequencing, genome analysis, and bioinformatics have allowed for high-throughput molecular characterization of adrenal tumorigenesis. Recent findings Although recent genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic studies in large tumor cohorts have confirmed the central roles of aberrant Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, constitutive protein kina...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

An update on the status of molecular testing for the indeterminate thyroid nodule and risk stratification of differentiated thyroid cancer
Purpose of review Correct identification of malignancy in cytologically indeterminate thyroid nodules is a diagnostic challenge, leading to potentially unnecessary surgery in patients for whom final histology is benign. Similarly, many patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) undergo aggressive surgical management of tumors, which may ultimately have low-risk histologic features. Use of molecular testing strategies can aid in both the diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid nodules and preoperative risk stratification of DTC. Recent findings Validation studies of both the Afirma Gene Expression Classifier and Thyr...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

An update on noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features
Purpose of review Noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been established in the literature as a clinically indolent tumor. Despite this, it was traditionally treated like all other PTCs. In an attempt to reduce overtreatment of this entity, a panel of experts reclassified this entity as noninvasive follicular neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). This reclassification has led to a flurry of literature elucidating the molecular, cytologic and clinical parameters of this ‘new’ entity and the implications for patient management. The purpose of this ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Julie Ann Sosa Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - January 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Editorial Introductions Source Type: research

Mutational and epigenetic signatures in cancer tissue linked to environmental exposures and lifestyle
Purpose of review In this article, we describe how recent advances in the study of mutational and epigenetic signatures in tumours provide new opportunities to understand the role of the environment and lifestyle in cancer development. Recent findings Cancer-related mutational events have been investigated for decades but only recently the wide availability of genomic sequences and epigenomic data from thousands of cancer genomes has made it possible to identify numerous distinct mutational and epigenetic signatures through the application of advanced mathematical models. Some of these signatures have been linked to e...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Targeting the perivascular niche in brain tumors
Purpose of review Brain tumors are composed of primary tumors of the central nervous system, such us glioblastoma (GBM), and secondary metastatic tumors, such as melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma as well as lung and breast cancers. Brain tumors are highly deadly, and unfortunately not many improvements have been achieved to improve the survival of patients with brain tumors. Chemoradiation resistance is one of the most clinically relevant challenges faced in patients with brain tumors. The perivascular niche is one of the most relevant microenvironment hubs in brain tumors. The understanding of the cellular crosstalk establ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Paracrine interactions of cancer-associated fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells: tumor allies and foes
Purpose of review Tumor stroma is composed of many cellular subtypes, of which the most abundant are fibroblasts, macrophages and endothelial cells. During the process of tissue injury, these three cellular subtypes must coordinate their activity to efficiently contribute to tissue regeneration. In tumor, this mechanism is hijacked by cancer cells, which rewire the interaction of stromal cells to benefit tumor development. The present review aims at summarizing most relevant information concerning both pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic actions implicating the three stromal cell subtypes as well as their mutual interac...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

The Smurf transition: new insights on ageing from end-of-life studies in animal models
Purpose of review Over the past 5 years, many articles were published concerning the prediction of high risk of mortality in apparently healthy adults, echoing the first description in 2011 of the Smurf phenotype, a harbinger of natural death in drosophila. Recent findings These recent findings suggest that the end-of-life is molecularly and physiologically highly stereotyped, evolutionarily conserved and predictable. Summary Taken altogether, these results from independent teams using multiple organisms including humans draw the lines of future directions in ageing research. The ability to identify and study indiv...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2017 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research