Harnessing dendritic cells for innovative therapeutic cancer vaccines
Purpose of review The clinical activity of new immunotherapies in cancer, such as anti-Programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/Programmed death-ligand 1, has revealed the importance of the patient's immune system in controlling tumor development. As in infectious diseases, dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for inducing immune responses in cancer. Unfortunately, autologous DC-based vaccines have not yet demonstrated their clinical benefit. Here, we review recent research using allogeneic DCs as alternatives to autologous DCs to develop innovative therapeutic cancer vaccines. Recent findings A novel approach using an allo...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 4, 2022 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Immunomodulation for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy: current challenges
Purpose of review The emergence of novel immunotherapies, such as immune-checkpoint inhibitors has changed the landscape of systemic cancer treatment. In hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, despite initial enthusiasm, the proportion of responders to immune-checkpoint inhibitors remains low. We provide a brief update of this rapidly evolving field, with specific focus on the development in the field of predictive factors and the immunomodulation induced by locoregional therapies. Recent findings Even if the immune contexture of HCC before the treatment remains the most promising predictive marker for respons...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 4, 2022 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Transcriptional and epigenetic control of early life cell fate decisions
Purpose of review Global epigenetic reprogramming of the parental genomes after fertilization ensures the establishment of genome organization permissive for cell specialization and differentiation during development. In this review, we highlight selected, well-characterized relationships between epigenetic factors and transcriptional cell fate regulators during the initial stages of mouse development. Recent findings Blastomeres of the mouse embryo are characterized by atypical and dynamic histone modification arrangements, noncoding RNAs and DNA methylation profiles. Moreover, asymmetries in epigenomic pattern...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 4, 2022 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

The multiple molecular dimensions of long noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression and tumorigenesis
Purpose of review LncRNAs are emerging as key regulators of gene expression and they ensure homeostasis during cell differentiation and development, replication, and adaptation to the environment. Because of their key central role in regulating the biology of living cells, it is crucial to characterize how lncRNAs function at the genetic, transcriptomic, and mechanistic level. Recent findings The low endogenous abundance and high molecular complexity of lncRNAs pose unique challenges for their characterization but new methodological advances in biochemistry, biophysics and cell biology have recently made it poss...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 4, 2022 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Editorial: Chromatin dynamics and immunosurveillance – two sides of the cancer ‘cell identity crisis’
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 4, 2022 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut Source Type: research

Recent advances in radiosensitivity determinants in melanoma
Purpose of review Radiotherapy has been proven to be useful but insufficient in melanoma management due to the intrinsic radioresistance of melanoma cells. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms and pathways related to resistance/sensitivity to radiotherapy in melanoma is of paramount importance. In this review, we will summarize and discuss the recent ‘discoveries’ and advances in radiosensitivity determinants in melanoma. Recent findings The different levels of radiosensitivity among the various melanoma tumors could be attributed to the DNA damage signaling and repair proteins, tumor microenvironment, hy...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 4, 2022 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky and Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Management of metastatic melanoma with new immunotherapy approaches beyond PD-1/CTLA-4 inhibitors
Purpose of review If we may cure metastatic melanoma patients thanks to immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), it is fair to say that around 2/3 of the patients present primary or secondary resistance to ICI. Therefore, progresses are needed and numerous new treatments are tested either alone or in combination with cytolytic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) or (PD)-1 blockade to overcome this resistance. In this review, we focused on new immunotherapeutic approaches studied in advanced melanoma previously treated by anti-PD-1 (Programmed cell Death 1 receptor) or anti-CTLA-4 antibodies. Recent findings Th...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 4, 2022 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky and Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Melanoma with genetic alterations beyond the BRAFV600 mutation: management and new insights
Purpose of review Molecular-targeted therapy with BRAF-/MEK-inhibitors has shown impressive activity in patients with advanced BRAFV600 mutant melanoma. In this review, we aim to summarize recent data and possible future therapeutic strategies involving small-molecule molecular-targeted therapies for advanced BRAFV600 wild-type melanoma. Recent findings In patients with NRASQ61 mutant melanoma, downstream MEK-inhibition has shown some albeit low activity. MEK-inhibitors combined with novel RAF dimer inhibitors, such as belvarafenib, or with CDK4/6-inhibitors have promising activity in NRAS mutant melanoma in ear...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 4, 2022 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Jean A. Klastersky and Ahmad Awada Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 4, 2022 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Angiogenesis inhibition in lung cancer: emerging novel strategies
Purpose of review In the current review, we will explore the molecular bases that have determined the design of clinical trials exploring the efficacy of antivascular agents in combination with chemotherapy, immune check point inhibitors and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in patients with advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer. Recent findings Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the synergistic effect of antivascular agents with immune checkpoint inhibitors and EGFR-TKIs, despite no molecular marker has been identified yet to select patients. Summary Lung cancer...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker and Caicun Zhou Source Type: research

Recent advances in primary resistance mechanisms against immune checkpoint inhibitors
Purpose of review The resistance of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has become an obstacle to further improve the survival of patients with advanced cancer. This review provides an overview of recent advances in primary resistance mechanisms of ICIs. Recent findings With the improvement of study approach, new characteristics and trends have emerged in the classification of tumor immune subtypes. The effects of germline genetic on tumor microenvironment and the efficacy of immunotherapy have been further studied. Exosomal programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is an increasing focus of research in primary resistan...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker and Caicun Zhou Source Type: research

Novel immunotherapeutic drugs for the treatment of lung cancer
Purpose of review Cancer cells evade immune surveillance partly due to the immunosuppressive features of the tumor microenvironment (TME). Currently approved immuno-oncology drugs for the treatment of lung cancer are aimed to inhibit immune checkpoints, such as programmed death protein-1 (PD-1), PD ligand-1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4. Despite these, researchers are currently racing to create the optimal cancer immunotherapy treatments. Recent findings Novel immunotherapeutic drugs mainly act on activated immune cells and exert their therapeutic effects by enhancing antitumor response...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker and Caicun Zhou Source Type: research

Treatment of small cell lung cancer: recent advances
Purpose of review In this article, we aimed to summarize the recent progress being made in treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Recent findings SCLC is characterized by strong invasiveness, easy recurrence and early metastasis. In recent years, the emergence of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) therapy has broken the deadlock in the treatment field of SCLC. Combination strategies, such as the addition of ICIs to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are actively underway. Some of these strategies have yielded significant survival benefits and tolerable adverse events, whereas several of them have failed with n...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker and Caicun Zhou Source Type: research

Rare driver alterations in nonsmall cell lung cancer: novel targeted drugs
Purpose of review The current review presents clinically relevant driver alterations in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the targeted treatments currently available for clinical use as well as those in clinical trials and advanced stages of drug development. Recent findings Mesenchymal–epithelial transition factor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, proto-oncogene B-RAF (BRAF), proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase ROS (ROS1), rearranged during transfection (RET) and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase are rare genetic driver alterations, each present in a small subset of patients with NSCLC. Treatments ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker and Caicun Zhou Source Type: research

Kirsten rat sarcoma inhibitors in clinical development against nonsmall cell lung cancer
Purpose of review The unique structure made Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) ‘undruggable’ for quite an extended period. The functional mechanism of this small protein is well illustrated. However, there is no precision medicine for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients burden with KRAS mutation. The attempts made by scientists to make challenge history against KRAS mutation and their druggable targets are worth elucidating. Recent findings The appearance of orphan drug AMG510 in the market specifically targeting KRASG12C is a tremendous breakthrough. Several KRAS inhibitors are under development now. More st...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - December 5, 2021 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker and Caicun Zhou Source Type: research