Management of residual disease after chemotherapy in germ cell tumors
Purpose of review Although testicular cancer remains a highly curable malignancy, challenges and uncertainty still remain in certain aspects of management. Residual disease after chemotherapy in patients with germ cell tumors (GCT) remains one of these challenges. We aim to highlight the recent literature on the management of residual disease after chemotherapy in GCT and the emerging innovations that may provide further guidance into this area. Recent findings A subset of patients with GCT will have residual disease after chemotherapy, and management of these patients involves highly skilled multidisciplinary experts...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Challenges and opportunities in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: combination therapy and the role of cytoreductive surgery
Purpose of review As the biology of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) continues to be elucidated, novel treatments focused around immunotherapies and targeted therapies will continue to emerge. In this review, we will highlight recent treatment advances and their implications for surgical and systemic therapy. Recent findings Several new treatments, including the tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib, the combination of a programmed cell death protein 1 antibody (nivolumab) with a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 antibody (ipilimumab), and the combination of axitinib with pembrolizumab or avelumab hav...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Emerging treatments in advanced urothelial cancer
Purpose of review Urothelial carcinoma is one of the 10 most common forms of cancer in the world with more than half a million cases diagnosed yearly. The past few years have witnessed a revolution in understanding the biology of urothelial carcinoma and the development of promising therapies. In this review, we summarize the emerging therapeutic approaches in the management of advanced urothelial carcinoma. Recent findings Since 2016, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved five checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs), a fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitor, and an antibody drug conjugate (ADC) for the...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Role of metabolic imaging in diagnosis of primary, metastatic, and recurrent prostate cancer
Purpose of review The present review describes the current role of metabolic imaging techniques such as multiparametric MRI (mpMRI), magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), hyperpolarized MRSI, and positron emission tomography (PET) in the diagnosis of primary prostate cancer, surveillance of low-grade disease, detection of metastases, and evaluation of biochemical recurrence after therapy. Recent findings The natural history of prostate cancer ranges from indolent disease that is optimally monitored by active surveillance, to highly aggressive disease that can be lethal. Current diagnostic methods remain imp...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Therapeutic targeting of the DNA damage response in prostate cancer
Purpose of review The present article highlights the most common DNA repair gene mutations, using specific examples of individual genes or gene classes, and reviews the epidemiology and treatment implications for each one [with particular emphasis on poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibition and PD-1 blockade]. Recent findings Genetic and genomic testing have an increasingly important role in the oncology clinic. For patients with prostate cancer, germline genetic testing is now recommended for all men with high-risk and metastatic disease, and somatic multigene tumor testing is recommended for men with metastatic ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Recent progress in treating advanced prostate cancer
We present recent series examining sequencing of approved therapies while searching for predictive biomarkers. Finally, we examine trials evaluating novel agents that target certain biological pathways to highlight the likely future directions for progress in the clinical management of advanced prostate cancer. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: GENITOURINARY SYSTEM: Edited by Arif Hussain Source Type: research

Immune escape mechanisms in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and implication for new immunotherapy approach
Purpose of review The aim of this review is to describe the major steps leading to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and to summarize some of the new immunotherapies that interfere with these mechanisms. Recent findings Immunotherapy has improved the outcome of relapsed/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, most patients still do not respond to treatment and median overall survival remains short with a modest rate of long-term survivors. There is a growing awareness that tumor immune-escape is a complex process that involves many redundant mechanisms other than immune check-poin...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

Combining immunotherapy and radiotherapy in head and neck squamous cell cancers: which perspectives?
Purpose of review The role of the immune system is important in both initiation and development of head and neck cancers. Various immune checkpoints have been discovered that can be exploited by cancer to evade immune mediated destruction. Therefore, immune checkpoint inhibitors have been developed to overcome cancer immune-evasion and are currently in clinical use in head and neck cancers. In addition, the immune system appears to play an important role in the response to radiotherapy. The combination of immunotherapy with radiotherapy may increase the ability to induce immunogenic death by removing the locks blocking t...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

The emerging data on choice of optimal therapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Purpose of review We focus on the emerging data from randomized clinical trials for optimal integration of induction, concurrent, and/or adjuvant chemotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), and the use of plasma Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) DNA for risk stratification. Recent findings Several phase 3 trials have shown that induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemoradiation (CRT) improved overall survival or disease-free survival when compared to CRT alone in stage III/IV NPC who is at high risk of distant metastases. The benefit of adjuvant chemoth...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

Epidemiology of head and neck cancers: an update
Purpose of review This review attempts to give an update of epidemiological knowledge on head and neck cancers (HNC). Recent findings Worldwide, from 1990 to 2017, incidence rates for larynx and nasopharyngeal cancers decreased, whereas they increased for oro/hypopharyngeal cancers and lip/oral cavity cancers. They are still markedly higher among men than women. South Asia has the highest HNC incidence rate, followed by Europe, North America, and Australasia. Tobacco and alcohol remain the major risk factors. Rate of cancers attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV) among HNCs is highly depending on world region and...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

Editorial: Head and neck cancers: new perspectives in prevention and treatment
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEAD AND NECK: Edited by Joël Guigay Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - April 7, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

The microenvironment in myeloma
Purpose of review The aim of the review is to describe recent advances in our understanding of how multiple myeloma interacts with its cellular and molecular neighbours in the bone marrow microenvironment, and how this may provide targets for prognostication and prevention. Recent findings The bone marrow microenvironment in myeloma is beginning to yield targets that are amenable to therapy. A number of trials demonstrate some clinical efficacy in heavily pretreated disease. The challenge remains for how and when these therapeutic interventions are of particular benefit early in disease progression. Summary Multipl...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Sophie Park Source Type: research

Computational analysis of flow cytometry data in hematological malignancies: future clinical practice?
Purpose of review This review outlines the advancements that have been made in computational analysis for clinical flow cytometry data in hematological malignancies. Recent findings In recent years, computational analysis methods have been applied to clinical flow cytometry data of hematological malignancies with promising results. Most studies combined dimension reduction (principle component analysis) or clustering methods (FlowSOM, generalized mixture models) with machine learning classifiers (support vector machines, random forest). For diagnosis and classification of hematological malignancies, many studies have ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Sophie Park Source Type: research

Dissecting the spatial bone marrow microenvironment of hematopoietic stem cells
Purpose of review Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in specialized anatomical microenvironments within the bone marrow space, termed HSC niches. Different bone marrow imaging modalities have been utilized to visualize HSCs in situ, and unravel the cellular identity of bone marrow cell types located in their immediate proximity. However, despite extensive research, the exact identity of bone marrow populations that physically associate with HSCs remains controversial. Recent findings Recent advances in volumetric imaging enable precise identification of bone marrow populations and their spatial distribution both a...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Sophie Park Source Type: research

Single-cell and spatial transcriptomics approaches of the bone marrow microenvironment
Purpose of review The bone marrow is home to hematopoietic stem cells responsible for lifelong blood production, alongside mesenchymal stem cells required for skeletal regeneration. In the bone marrow, a unique combination of signals derived from a multitude of cell types results in the establishment of so-called niches that regulate stem-cell maintenance and differentiation. Recently, single-cell and spatially resolved transcriptomics technologies have been utilized to characterize the murine bone marrow microenvironment during homeostasis, stress and upon cancer-induced remodeling. In this review, we summarize the majo...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Sophie Park Source Type: research

Single-cell sequencing in hematology
Purpose of review In this review, we highlight key recent insights into hematopoiesis and hematological malignancies through the application of novel single-cell approaches. We particularly focus on biological insights made through the study of stem/progenitors cells in myeloid malignancy at single-cell resolution. Recent findings Bulk molecular profiling of hematological malignancies by next generation sequencing techniques has provided major insights into the molecular pathogenesis of blood cancers. This technology is now routinely implemented in advanced clinical diagnostics, leading to the development of novel tar...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Sophie Park Source Type: research

Editorial: Dissecting the pathological bone marrow niche through single-cell omics and artificial intelligence
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: CANCER BIOLOGY: Edited by Pierre Hainaut and Sophie Park Source Type: research

Molecular prediction of metastasis in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma
Purpose of review Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is a highly prevalent malignancy frequently occurring on body surfaces chronically exposed to ultraviolet radiation. While a large majority of tumors remain localized to the skin and immediate subcutaneous tissue and are cured with surgical excision, a small subset of patients with cSCC will develop metastatic disease. Risk stratification for cSCC is performed using clinical staging systems, but given a high mutational burden and advances in targeted and immunotherapy, there is growing interest in molecular predictors of high-risk disease. Recent findings Rece...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Céleste Lebbe Source Type: research

Update on oncogenesis and therapy for Kaposi sarcoma
Purpose of review This review is an update of the recent findings on pathophysiology of Kaposi sarcoma, the role of HHV-8 in Kaposi sarcoma pathogenesis and to summarize the recent advances in the treatment of Kaposi sarcoma and the role of immunity to control the disease. Recent findings The causal agent of Kaposi sarcoma is HHV-8 and the mechanism by which HHV-8 drives the tumor development is unique. HHV-8 is not a classic oncogenic virus and the disease is an opportunistic tumor responding to immune restoration when it is possible. Summary Five epidemiologic types of Kaposi are recognized and HHV-8 is associate...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Céleste Lebbe Source Type: research

Immunobiology of Merkel cell carcinoma
Purpose of review Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer, which is associated in 80% of cases with the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). Advanced stages respond to immune checkpoint inhibitors in 50% of cases. Major issues remain unanswered regarding its oncogenesis and optimal treatment. Recent findings MCPyV-negative and MCPyV-positive MCCs have been hypothesized to derive from distinct cells, although the cell of origin remains a matter of debate. The crucial role the MCPyV small T oncoprotein was recently confirmed by its ability to inactivate p53, together with its contribution to the me...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Céleste Lebbe Source Type: research

Immune checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma in the metastatic, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant setting
Purpose of review Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) are now standards of care in metastatic melanoma. We highlight here the dramatic improvement that these drugs brought in the history of melanoma care. Recent findings The monoclonal antibody directed against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4, ipilimumab, was approved in 2011. Antiprogramed death cell protein 1 antibodies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab, were developed afterward and approved in 2014, demonstrating an improved efficacy/safety ratio as compared with ipilimumab. The association of ipilimumab and nivolumab now appears as the most efficient immunot...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Céleste Lebbe Source Type: research

Use of noninvasive imaging in the management of skin cancer
Purpose of review To evaluate noninvasive imaging techniques in the management of skin cancers. Recent findings In the last decades, a wide range of noninvasive imaging methods has been developed in the field of dermatooncology with the aim to detect and assess the several structural and molecular changes that characterize skin cancer development and progression. Summary In this review, we discuss the current and emerging applications of noninvasive imaging approaches in skin cancer management, such as digital photography, dermoscopy, ultrasound sonography, reflectance confocal microscopy, optical coherence tomogra...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Céleste Lebbe Source Type: research

Mechanisms of resistance and predictive biomarkers of response to targeted therapies and immunotherapies in metastatic melanoma
Purpose of review Thanks to mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitors (MAPKi) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), major progress has been made in the field of melanoma treatment. However, long-term success is still scarce because of the development of resistance. Understanding these mechanisms of resistance and identifying predictive genomic biomarkers are now key points in the therapeutic management of melanoma patients. Recent findings Multiple and complex mechanisms of resistance to MAPKi or ICI have been uncovered in the past few years. The lack of response can be driven by mutations and nonmutational events...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Céleste Lebbe Source Type: research

Targeting BRAF and MEK inhibitors in melanoma in the metastatic, neoadjuvant and adjuvant setting
Purpose of review Better understanding of the biology of BRAF-mutated melanoma has led to the development of highly effective therapy, BRAF and MEK inhibitors, targeting abnormally activated protein kinases for patient with BRAF-mutated melanoma. The purpose of this article was to review the recent published data on BRAF and MEK inhibitors in melanoma in the metastatic, adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting to facilitate the management of melanoma patients in clinical practice. Recent findings The spectacular outcomes of targeted therapy in advanced melanoma patients have led to their development in the adjuvant setting wi...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Céleste Lebbe Source Type: research

Targeted therapies in melanoma beyond BRAF: targeting NRAS-mutated and KIT-mutated melanoma
Purpose of review Melanoma treatment have been revolutionized since 2010 by the development of immune checkpoint inhibitors, and, for BRAF-mutated melanoma, targeted therapies based on BRAF and MEK inhibitors, which is a model of effective targeted therapy in cancer. However, patients with BRAF wild type cannot benefit for such treatments. In this review, we will focus on the current clinical development of targeted therapies beyond BRAF, in NRAS-mutated and KIT-altered melanoma. Recent findings In NRAS-mutated melanoma, targeted therapies based on MEK inhibition are being developed as monotherapy or in combination wi...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: MELANOMA AND OTHER SKIN NEOPLASMS: Edited by Céleste Lebbe Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - February 6, 2020 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Beyond tissue biopsy: a diagnostic framework to address tumor heterogeneity in lung cancer
The objective of this review is to discuss the strength and limitations of tissue and liquid biopsy and functional imaging to capture spatial and temporal tumor heterogeneity either alone or as part of a diagnostic framework in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recent findings NSCLC displays genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity – a detailed knowledge of which is crucial to personalize treatment. Tissue biopsy often lacks spatial and temporal resolution. Thus, NSCLC needs to be characterized by complementary diagnostic methods to resolve heterogeneity. Liquid biopsy offers detection of tumor biomarkers and for ex...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Chemotherapy remains a cornerstone in the treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer
Purpose of review The purpose of the review is to summarize the current and future role of chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Recent findings Chemotherapy has been established in early-stage, locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC. Patients with driver mutation-positive NSCLC receive tyrosine kinase inhibitors as first-line therapy and chemotherapy later during the course of their disease. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have entered clinical practice as single agents or in combination with chemotherapy. These novel treatments will supplement chemotherapy in all tumor stages ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Local treatment of stage IIIA-N2 nonsmall cell lung cancer: surgery and/or radiotherapy
Purpose of review Controversy exists regarding the optimal treatment of patients with stage IIIA-N2 nonsmall cell lung cancer because of its heterogeneity. Patients are at risk for both local and distant disease relapse after primary local treatment. However, there may be a window of opportunity for surgery, if mediastinal downstaging has been obtained after induction therapy. This manuscript reviews the outcome of patients treated by neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NA-C) followed by surgery, compared with patients treated with either definitive sequential or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (cCRT), illustrated by a single-centre...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Angiogenesis inhibition in non-small cell lung cancer: a critical appraisal, basic concepts and updates from American Society for Clinical Oncology 2019
Purpose of review Recently, the combination of antiangiogenic agents, chemotherapy and immunotherapy has shown synergistic anticancer effects in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The future for this approach appears bright in lung cancer treatment; however, many challenges remain to be overcome regarding its true potential, optimal sequence and timing of therapy, and safety profile. In this review, we will discuss the current status and future direction of antiangiogenic therapy for the treatment of NSCLC, and highlight emerging strategies, such as tumor vessel normalization (TVN). Recent findings Bevacizumab was th...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Novel molecular targets for the treatment of lung cancer
Purpose of review The mutational landscape in lung adenocarcinoma (LADC) is broadly recognized, particularly regarding the presence of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation in non-smokers. However, even in the EGFR canonical-mutant LADC, other accompanying alterations surface which may have a major impact in prognosis and open possibilities to explore new therapeutic approaches. Recent findings Complex genomic rearrangements, including chromothripsis and chromoplexy, are the origin of most-known fusion oncogenes, including echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase, Clus...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Editorial: Individualizing treatment of nonsmall cell lung cancer
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: LUNG AND MEDIASTINUM: Edited by Robert Pirker Source Type: research

Adrenal tumours: open surgery versus minimally invasive surgery
Purpose of review The aim of this article is to focus on state-of-the-art minimally invasive adrenalectomy (MIA) and the most recent role of open adrenalectomy for adrenal tumours, respect to MIA and open adrenalectomy for adrenocortical cancer (ACC). Recent findings The laparoscopic (both transperitoneal and retroperitoneal) approach is the first-choice treatment in cases of small-to-medium benign adrenal tumours. This approach is feasible and well tolerated even for larger lesions without radiological signs of malignancy. Robotic adrenalectomy has recently increased in popularity, although the results appear to be f...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Christiane Jungels Source Type: research

Malignant pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: management options
Purpose of review Although the majority of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are benign, 15–17% develop metastatic disease, being present at the initial diagnosis in about 11–31% of cases. The natural course of metastasized disease is highly heterogeneous, with an overall 5-year survival rate varying between 40% and 85%. For individual patients, overall survival, progression-free survival, and clinical outcome are difficult to predict. Management of metastasized pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma is challenging. Currently available therapeutic options are surgical debulking, treatment with radiopharmaceutica...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Christiane Jungels Source Type: research

Novel therapeutic options for radioiodine-refractory thyroid cancer: redifferentiation and beyond
Purpose of review Radioiodine-refractory thyroid cancers represent the main cause of thyroid cancer-related death. At present, targeted therapies with multikinase inhibitors represent a unique therapeutic tool, though they have limited benefit on patient survival and severe drug-associated adverse events. This review summarizes current treatment strategies for radioiodine-refractory thyroid cancer and focuses on novel approaches to redifferentiate thyroid cancer cells to restore responsiveness to radioiodine administration. Recent findings We summarize and discuss recent clinical trial findings and early data from rea...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Christiane Jungels Source Type: research

Circulating biomarkers for the detection of tumor recurrence in the postsurgical follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma
Purpose of review To discuss advances and challenges in thyroglobulin and Tg-antibody (TgAb) measurement and their impact on clinical management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). Recent findings Basal high-sensitive Tg (hsTg) measurement avoids the need for stimulation and greatly simplifies DTC patients’ management. In addition, patients with undetectable hsTg after thyroid ablation are at a very low risk of recurrence and can be safely managed by periodic hsTg measurement alone. When TgAb is present, its trend over time serves as primary (surrogate) tumor marker. However, an undetectable hsTg measurem...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Christiane Jungels Source Type: research

Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma: optimal management versus overtreatment
This article summarizes the major conclusions of landmark trials that launched active surveillance as a viable treatment option for selected patients. We discuss patient factors such as age and tumor size, the assessment of candidates for active surveillance, barriers to acceptance of active surveillance, quality of life issues, and economic considerations. Summary Active Surveillance is a viable first-line treatment option for select papillary microcarcinomas. (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: ENDOCRINE TUMORS: Edited by Christiane Jungels Source Type: research

Editorial introductions
No abstract available (Source: Current Opinion in Oncology)
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - November 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: EDITORIAL INTRODUCTIONS Source Type: research

Adoptive cell therapies for posttransplant infections
Purpose of review Viral and fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality following hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT), primarily due to the prolonged and complex immunodeficient state that results from conditioning chemo-radiotherapy and subsequent prophylaxis of graft vs. host disease. Although currently available antimicrobial pharmacotherapies have demonstrated short-term efficacy, their toxicities often preclude long-term use, and cessation if frequently associated with recurrent infection. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) offers the potential to more rapidly reconstitute antimicrobial immune re...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

The evolving treatment landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Purpose of review This review provides guidance in the rapidly changing scenario of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treatment. New studies as well as updates of other seminal ones have been recently presented and are likely to change the management of patients with CLL in everyday clinical practice. Recent findings Kinase inhibitors (e.g. ibrutinib and idelalisib) have transformed the treatment paradigm in CLL in both front-line and relapsed/refractory patients. Longer follow-up data are now available supporting the safety of ibrutinib and the continuous administration required per current label. Novel studies show...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Neurofibromatosis type 2 and related disorders
Purpose of review Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a schwannoma predisposition syndrome, alongside schwannomatosis related to germline LZTR1 and SMARCB1 pathogenic variants. This review highlights their overlapping phenotypes, new insight into NF2 phenotype and treatment outcomes. Recent findings Mosaic NF2 is more prevalent than previously thought. Use of next-generation sequencing and tumour testing is needed to differentiate mosaic NF2 and schwannomatosis. Developing NF2 phenotypic insights include vasculopathy with brainstem infarction and vessel stenosis; focal cortical dysplasia in severe phenotypes; swallowing...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES: Edited by Miguel A. Sanz Source Type: research

Neurological malignancies in neurofibromatosis type 1
Purpose of review The current review summarizes recent advances on three important issues in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) management: the identification of specific NF1 gene mutations predicting the risk for developing neurological malignancies; the molecular features of NF1-associated tumors and their differences from sporadic neoplasms; genetic, epigenetic, or microenviromental factors leading benign tumors to a malignant transformation in NF1. Recent findings The association between the risk of developing optic pathway glioma and specific germiline NF1 mutations is still debated and further studies are needed wit...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Palliative care in glioma management
Purpose of review The concept of palliative care is becoming increasingly important in the management of glioma patients. However, the right time for implementation, as well as the individual degree of integration of palliative care aspects, are still a matter of debate. This review updates recent evidence of palliative care in glioma and raises questions for future developments. Recent findings According to the disease-specific aspects of palliative care in glioma management, there is an increasing need for a specialized ‘neurooncological’ palliative care approach. The implementation of palliative care f...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Treatment of cognitive deficits in brain tumour patients: current status and future directions
Purpose of review Increased life expectancy in brain tumour patients had led to the need for strategies that preserve and improve cognitive functioning, as many patients suffer from cognitive deficits. The tumour itself, as well as antitumor treatment including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, supportive treatment and individual patient factors are associated with cognitive problems. Here, we review the recent literature on approaches that preserve and improve cognitive functioning, including pharmacological agents and rehabilitation programs. Recent findings Minimizing cognitive dysfunction and improving cogni...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Emerging mechanistic underpinnings and therapeutic targets for chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment
Purpose of review Modern innovations in cancer therapy have dramatically increased the number of cancer survivors. An unfortunately frequent side-effect of cancer treatment is enduring neurological impairment. Persistent deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and speed of information processing afflict a substantial fraction of cancer survivors following completion of these life-saving therapies. Here, we highlight chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) and discuss the current understanding of mechanisms underlying CRCI. Recent findings New studies emphasize the deleterious impact of chemotherapeutic ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: molecular landscape and emerging therapeutic targets
Purpose of review Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a fatal childhood brainstem malignancy. Despite advances in understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the tumor in the past decade, the dismal prognosis of DIPG has thus far remained unchanged. This review seeks to highlight promising therapeutic targets within three arenas: DIPG cell-intrinsic vulnerabilities, immunotherapeutic approaches to tumor clearance, and microenvironmental dependencies that promote tumor growth. Recent findings Promising therapeutic strategies from recent studies include epigenetic modifying agents such as histone deacetylase ...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Current strategies for vaccination in glioblastoma
Purpose of review Immunotherapy is viewed as a promising approach for glioblastoma and, in particular, therapeutic vaccines are being intensively studied. Here, we review results provided by recent clinical trials of glioblastoma vaccination and discuss the required strategies to optimize such approaches. Recent findings Two studies showed the feasibility of generating mutation-derived personalized vaccines in the short time frame given by the fast course of disease in glioblastoma. However, one of these demonstrated lack of mutation-derived cell surface presented MHC class I or II peptides in tumors with low mutation...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Management of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis and challenges of trial design
Purpose of review Highlight recent data in lung and breast cancer leptomeningeal disease and address clinical trials that are open for patients. Recent findings Patients with lung and breast cancer leptomeningeal disease have survival outcomes of less than 1 year, despite advances in treatment strategy. Efforts to develop liquid biopsy biomarkers of disease progression from cerebrospinal fluid and plasma are underway. There are over 10 clinical trials open for patients with leptomeningeal disease, half of which use immunotherapy. Summary Consortium-based, multicenter clinical trials for patients with leptomeningeal...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research

Integrated treatment of brain metastases
Purpose of review Optimal treatment of brain metastases has been limited to local treatment with few systemic options. Increasing use of systemic targeted therapies, chemotherapy and immunotherapy and combination of local and systemic treatments has resulted in plethora of publications. We review the existing evidence for individual treatments and new evidence for the integration of systemic and combination of local treatments. Recent findings Encouraging efficacy of systemic therapies supports combination of systemic and local treatment albeit with little randomized trial data. Efficacy particularly of targeted agent...
Source: Current Opinion in Oncology - October 10, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM: Edited by Marc Sanson Source Type: research