Active safety systems for powered two-wheelers: A systematic review.
Conclusions: Our systematic review shows that a multiplicity of active safety systems for PTWs were examined in the scientific literature, but the levels of development are diverse. A few systems are currently available in the series production, whereas other systems are still at the level of early-stage prototypes. Safety benefit assessments were conducted for single systems, however, organized comparisons between systems that may inform the prioritization of future research are lacking. Another area of future analysis is on the combined effects of different safety systems, that may be capitalized for better performance a...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Savino G, Lot R, Massaro M, Rizzi M, Symeonidis I, Will S, Brown J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Adapting load limiter deployment for frontal crash diversity.
Conclusions: The concept of an adaptive load limiter shows most promise in low-speed frontal crashes where it could lower the AIS 2+ chest injury risk for most front seat occupants, except the smallest of drivers. Generally, adaptive limiters show less potential effectiveness with increased crash severities. Overall, an intelligent adjustment of load limiting threshold could result in a reduction of at least a third of front seat occupants with AIS 2+ chest injuries associated with restraining loads and an overall reduction in AIS 2+ chest injury rate in frontal crashes from 6.4% to 4.8. PMID: 31906716 [PubMed - as su...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 5, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ekambaram K, Frampton R, Jackson L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors affecting injury severity of single-vehicle rollover crashes in the United States.
Conclusions: The study provides valuable insight for reducing injury severity in single-vehicle crashes where a rollover occurs. Several proven countermeasures may prevent rollovers or reduce injury severity. These strategies include increasing seatbelt use, posting lower speed limits and installing speed enforcement cameras in high-risk areas, flattening roadside embankments, and promoting in-vehicle stability enhancement systems such as electronic stability control and rollover-activated side curtain airbags. PMID: 31906717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 5, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Khan IU, Vachal K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Psychological predictors behind the intention to drink and drive among female drivers: Application of extended theory of planned behavior.
Conclusion: The study demonstrates the usefulness of TPB model which played a significant role in predicting the intention to drink and drive along with the utility of additional significant variables. The findings of this study may be useful while designing and implementing policy interventions to reduce risks associated with drinking and driving among female drivers. PMID: 31906719 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 5, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yadav AK Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Nighttime safety evaluation for signalized intersections at the signal cycle level based on rear-end conflict models considering lighting and traffic conditions.
Conclusions: Nighttime safety can be evaluated using the developed rear-end conflict models, which relate the number of rear-end conflicts to traffic and lighting variables. The number of rear-end conflicts can be calculated by the final conflict model with lighting level, traffic volume, and platoon ratio. The developed model can be potentially applied to provide further insights on the lighting management for intersection safety optimization with traffic conditions varying in signal cycles via vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. PMID: 31906720 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 5, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang Y, Li Z, Ye Z, Zhang Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Are you an ambitious cyclist? Results of the cyclist profile questionnaire in Germany.
Conclusion: The results produced by grouping different characteristics of cyclists can lead to policy recommendations or communal bicycle traffic planning. Policy planners can estimate reactions of the different types on interventions and adjust their decisions which can serve to support already passionate cyclists or, encourage normally under-represented infrequent cyclists to cycle more. The extent of perceived safety plays here an important role in the classification, e.g., the handling of high-risk areas for crashes. PMID: 31906722 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 5, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Francke A, Anke J, Lißner S, Schaefer LM, Becker T, Petzoldt T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Modeling head-on crash severity with drivers under the influence of alcohol or drugs (DUI) and non-DUI.
Conclusions: The results of this study identify various factors that significantly affect the severity of head-on crashes with drivers under and not under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Also, the mixed logit model examines the heterogeneous effects and correlation in unobserved factors by allowing coefficients to be randomly distributed. The findings of this study call for more attention to head-on crashes and provide a reference for planners and engineers when developing and selecting countermeasures to reduce and/or mitigate head-on crashes. PMID: 31846587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Liu P, Fan WD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Riding behavior and electric bike traffic crashes: A Chinese case-control study.
Abstract Objective: The present case-control study sought to explore at-risk riding behaviors associated with e-bike related traffic crashes among e-bike riders in China.Methods: Cases were recruited from residents aged 16 years and over in communities which stated "selected e-bikes as travel tools and experienced traffic crashes in the last year". Two controls for each case were randomly selected from a population of e-bike riders who had not experienced a traffic crash in the past year. The cases and controls were matched by gender, age (within 5 years) and school education level. Data we...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Qian Y, Sun Q, Fei G, Li X, Stallones L, Xiang H, Zhang X Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characteristics of bicycle crashes among children and the effect of bicycle helmets.
Conclusions: This study indicated that bicycle helmets effectively reduce injuries to the head and face. The results thus point to the need for actions aimed at increasing helmet use, especially among teenagers. Protective measures are necessary to further reduce injuries, especially to the upper extremities. PMID: 31834816 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Axelsson A, Stigson H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluating the influence of knee airbags on lower limb and whole-body injury.
Conclusions: Knee airbags may be protective for knee to hip injuries and above waist injuries. If KABs continue to be widely implemented in the vehicle fleet, the field should continue to monitor and evaluate below knee injuries. PMID: 31834822 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: McMurry TL, Forman JL, Shaw G, Crandall JR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Real-world risk exposure in older drivers with cognitive and visual dysfunction.
Conclusions: Results successfully mapped driver cognitive and visual profiles onto contemporaneous, real-world behavior and risk loci. Results link age-related dysfunction to real-world vehicle control and show that drivers may not sufficiently reduce exposure to higher-risk driving environments. Employing naturalistic observation to monitor and measure patterns of driver behavior can inform methods for early detection of age-related risk, fitness-to-drive assessments, and interventions to preserve safety, mobility, and quality of life in aging or other at-risk populations. PMID: 31821019 [PubMed - as supplied by publ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 9, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Merickel J, High R, Dawson J, Rizzo M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

THC-influenced drivers in the new Danish 3-level offense system.
Conclusion: We found that more than two-thirds of the THC offenders faced milder sanctions compared to before the new legislation, suggesting that the new graduated legislation has had a significant impact. The current trend is a steadily increasing number of DUID cases. We believe that the continual increase is caused by a combination of factors, including increased police awareness and training of police personnel along with improved roadside screening abilities. PMID: 31821026 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 9, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hermansen SK, Pedersen TR, Christoffersen DJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Frontal crash seat belt restraint effectiveness and comfort accessories used by older occupants.
Conclusions: Accessories placed between the seat back and the lumbar region of an occupant have the potential to increase the risk of submarining due to a change in posture and should be avoided if such a change in posture when seated with an accessory is excessive. Sitting on seat cushions resulted in the greatest increase in seat belt anchor to hip distances and hence largest increase in sternal deflection. Given the fragility, frailty and particular importance of chest injuries among older vehicle occupants, further investigation is needed to determine whether these changes in ATD sternal deflection observed with seat c...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Whyte T, Kent N, Keay L, Coxon K, Brown J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Simulated single-bicycle crashes in the VTI crash safety laboratory.
Conclusions: The study implies that it is possible to examine single-bicycle crashes using crash tests, even though the setup is sensitive to minor input differences and the random variation in the resulting head impact values can be large. Sideway falls with the bicycles standing still were easier to perform with a good repeatability and indicated an influence of seating height on the head impact. PMID: 31800324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Niska A, Wenäll J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effect of speed limit reductions in urban areas on cyclists' injuries in collisions with cars.
Conclusions: This study is an important follow-up on the implementation of measures that can influence bicycle safety. The insurance data used, made it possible to quantify a positive effect on injury severity for cyclists in passenger car-to-cyclist collisions when the speed limit was reduced in urban areas. Insurance claims cover collisions of all crash severity, so they include data covering all types of injuries-not just the most severe/fatal ones. This aspect is especially important in the speed intervals evaluated here, since moderate (MAIS 2) injuries are very frequent in lower-speed crashes and even these injuries ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Isaksson-Hellman I, Töreki J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparison across vehicles of passenger head kinematics in abrupt vehicle maneuvers.
Abstract Objective: Studies of vehicle occupant motions in response to abrupt vehicle maneuvers have demonstrated movements that may result in changes in the level of protection for the occupant if a crash subsequently occurs. The previous studies have typically used a single vehicle. The current study assesses whether the patterns of occupant head movement are different across passenger vehicle types.Method: Data collection was conducted on a closed test track with the same driver for all trials. A passenger sedan, a minivan, and a pickup truck were equipped with inertial measurement units to quantify vehicle dyn...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Reed MP, Ebert SM, Jones MLH, Park BD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 31800330 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Seasonal patterns of traumatic brain injury deaths due to traffic-related incidents in the Slovak Republic.
Conclusions: The results show that Slovakia, like many countries, suffers a considerable burden of TBI and that RTIs are a major contributor to this, especially among young adults. Rates of TBI vary by season in Slovakia, and users of different modes of transport appear more or less likely to suffer such injury during different seasons. Considerable variability in rates of injury exists between road users and times of year. Improved understanding of the timing and sufferers of injuries may allow better planning of response and care services. Further research into transport modes and policies aimed at safer driving should b...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Taylor MS, Zelinkova V, Plancikova D, Melichova J, Sivco P, Rusnak M, Majdan M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Accuracy of algorithms to predict injury severity in older adults for trauma triage.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that it is more difficult to accurately predict severe injury in older adults involved in MVCs, which has the potential to result in significant overtriage. This decreased accuracy is likely due to variations in fragility in older adults. These findings indicate that special care should be taken when using regression-based prediction models to determine the appropriate hospital destination for older occupants. PMID: 31774698 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 26, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hartka T, Gancayco C, McMurry T, Robson M, Weaver A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of a Japanese drug alert pictogram on medication-taking/driving behavior.
Conclusion: A pictogram is a potentially useful and effective tool for communicating risk and supporting decision-making by supplying drivers with tailored information. However, we assume that some people who drive frequently must drive for work, go to the hospital, etc. It is essential, in these cases, for medical professionals to be more deeply involved with the patients and to maintain lines of communication by listening to patients' descriptions of their everyday life. By adding these pictograms to the labeling of potentially driver-impairing medications (such as by putting them on the outer packaging, package inserts,...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fukuda Y, Ando S, Saito M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prediction of pedestrian brain injury due to vehicle impact using computational biomechanics models: Are head-only models sufficient?
Conclusions: This study suggests that the FE head-only models may be deficient for car-to-pedestrian impact accident reconstruction and estimation of risk of the pedestrian brain injury. In particular, this applies to the models that simplify the pedestrian skull as a rigid body. PMID: 31770038 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang F, Yu C, Wang B, Li G, Miller K, Wittek A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pelvis injury risk curves in side impacts from human cadaver experiments using survival analysis and Brier score metrics.
Conclusion: This study underscores the importance of using impulse to describe pelvis injury criteria in lateral impacts. These findings are applicable to anthropomorphic test devices, as matched pair tests are done to determine dummy-based injury criteria/injury assessment risk curves (IARCs). Although IRCs have been developed for WorldSID, it may be appropriate to use impulse-based IARCs. Because THOR is a potential device for automated vehicle environments, it may be appropriate to develop THOR-based IARCS. The present IRCs act as fundamental human-based injury criteria. These responses can also be used in human body an...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yoganandan N, Humm JR, DeVogel N, Banerjee A, Pintar FA, Somers JT Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effect of vehicle countermeasures and age on human volunteer kinematics during evasive swerving events.
Conclusion: A pre-pretensioner was an effective vehicle countermeasure during evasive swerving maneuvers as it substantially reduced lateral head and trunk displacement for all age groups. Providing lateral restraint via a sculpted vehicle seat was less effective as the geometry of the torso bolsters when inflated did not provide substantial lateral support. PMID: 31750733 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Holt C, Seacrist T, Douglas E, Graci V, Kerrigan J, Kent R, Balasubramanian S, Arbogast KB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prospective assessment of the effectiveness of autonomous emergency braking in car-to-cyclist accidents in France.
Conclusions: This study illustrates the potential benefits and limits of AEB-cyclist systems. High-end systems show acceptable effectiveness rates, but road safety performance strongly depends on external factors such as road surface conditions or has to be tuned in order to avoid unnecessary activations and driver discomfort. Limits of the system's everyday use (lack of maintenance, driver reaction time to collision warnings, etc.) were not taken into account, thus resulting in optimistic evaluations of AEB-cyclist effectiveness. PMID: 31750740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chajmowicz H, Saadé J, Cuny S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Relations between adolescent sensation seeking and traffic injury: Multiple-mediating effects of road safety attitudes, intentions and behaviors.
Conclusions: There were direct effects of Disinhibition sensation seeking, road safety attitudes, and road user behaviors on adolescent traffic injury. Sensation seeking also indirectly affected adolescent traffic injury through multiple mediating roles of road safety attitudes, intentions, and behaviors. Implications for traffic injury prevention and training are discussed. PMID: 31738575 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang H, Shi L, Schwebel DC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Suicide by crashing into a heavy vehicle: Professional drivers' views.
Conclusion: Heavy vehicle drivers perceive road suicides as an occupational risk in their profession. We discuss possible preventive measures against suicide attempts by crashing into a heavy vehicle. PMID: 31738579 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Radun I, Radun J, Kaistinen J, Olivier J, Parkkari I, Kecklund G, Theorell T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving risk assessment using driving behavior data under continuous tunnel environment.
Conclusions: It can be concluded that driving behaviors significantly vary in different tunnel risk feature points and the combined effect of high speed and luminance variation may result in high driving risk. The performance validation indicted that the risk assessment level determined by the proposed approach is consistent with the real safety situations. The study provides an effective and generally acceptable method for identifying driving risk criteria that can also be applied for traffic management and safety countermeasures with a view to possible implementation in continuous tunnels. PMID: 31738591 [PubMed - a...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 17, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yan Y, Dai Y, Li X, Tang J, Guo Z Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Systematic review of child restraint system interventions (2007-2018).
Conclusions: This review included a wide range of articles of heterogeneous methodologies, sample sizes, and outcomes measured. Although different approaches to CRS interventions were effective in increasing awareness and knowledge, the effects on CRS use behaviors - whether self-reported or observed - were mixed. Future research is needed to increase appropriate CRS use and reduce the burden of motor vehicle crash-related injuries among children. PMID: 31725324 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Glerum KM, Zonfrillo MR, Fleisher L, McDonald CC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Suitability of enhanced head injury criteria for vehicle rating.
Conclusions: While preliminary, the results of this study demonstrate that more evaluation of the most suitable brain injury criteria is necessary before consideration into a consumer evaluation program. Convergence of the head injury criteria risks for individual cases should be part of the validation process for enhanced head injury criteria, since identical head signals should yield similar injury risks. PMID: 31725327 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: van Slagmaat M, Panzer MB, Pipkorn B, Mueller B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of Swedish and Dutch accident data on cyclist injuries in cyclist-car collisions.
Conclusions: For the virtual assessment of cyclist protection, injury predictors for long bone, skull and pelvic fractures as well as brain injuries are required in Human Body Models. PMID: 31725328 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Leo C, Klug C, Ohlin M, Bos NM, Davidse RJ, Linder A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of alcohol intoxication goggles (fatal vision goggles) with a concurrent cognitive task on simulated driving performance.
Conclusions: Wearing FVG negatively impacted simulated driving performance. However, effects were isolated to specific performance outcomes and were dependent on complexity of the driving task. Addition of a secondary cognitive task exacerbates the effects of FVG on select driving outcomes (i.e. lane position, SDSP), influences the effect direction on other measures (i.e. distance headway), and has a detrimental effect on reaction time to stimuli embedded in the scenario, that is not observed with FVG alone. Future studies using FVG as a surrogate means to alcohol intoxication should consider these results, informing metho...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Irwin C, Desbrow B, McCartney D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Investigating the effect of personality on left-turn behaviors in various scenarios to understand the dynamics of driving styles.
Conclusions: The driving style is dynamic and influenced by personality and driving conditions. Not only the wrong assessment of driving scenarios may lead to danger, but also the driver's personality characteristics such as self-interest, impulsively, and lack of self-confidence will lead to decision-making mistakes even when the judgment of driving scenarios is correct. PMID: 31725336 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fan X, Pan G, Mao Y, He W Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Responses of the scaled pediatric human body model in the rear- and forward-facing child seats in simulated frontal motor vehicle crashes.
Conclusions: The study shows the potential benefit of rear-facing orientation compared to forward-facing for children up to 4 years of age in a controlled environment. PMID: 31725355 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Belwadi A, Sarfare S, Tushak S, Maheshwari J, Menon S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Predictors of fatal outcomes in pedestrian accidents in Tabriz Metropolis of Iran: Application of PLS-DA method.
Conclusions: The results show that predictors of a fatal outcome in pedestrian accidents in Tabriz can be attributed to the pedestrian characteristics (which notably account for differences in vulnerability in case of an accident), the car and driver features, and weather (which may all notably influence the amount of energy involved in the collision, through the car mass, speed, and conditions delaying the braking response or reducing the braking effectiveness). Regarding the statistical method, the PLS-DA is a powerful method which can be used to analyze high dimension data with multicollinearity issue. PMID: 317141...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jamali-Dolatabad M, Sadeghi-Bazargani H, Sarbakhsh P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Catalyzing traffic safety advancements via data linkage: Development of the New Jersey Safety and Health Outcomes (NJ-SHO) data warehouse.
Conclusions: The resulting NJ-SHO data warehouse will be one of the most comprehensive and rich traffic safety data warehouses to date. The warehouse has already been utilized for numerous studies and will be fully primed to support a host of rigorous studies, both in and beyond the field of traffic safety. PMID: 31714800 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Curry AE, Pfeiffer MR, Carey ME, Cook LJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Can a unique appearance of e-bikes, coupled with information on their characteristics, influence drivers' gap acceptance?
Conclusions: Overall, the results indicate that informing about e-bikes characteristics in combination with a unique appearance can lead to a more cautious behavior among car drivers. PMID: 31710238 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Schleinitz K, Petzoldt T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Compliance of commercial motorcyclists with road safety measures in a Nigerian metropolitan city.
Conclusion: Commercial motorcycle ownership and training contributed to knowledge and compliance with road safety measures and consequently low reporting of motorcycle crash. There is therefore the need to encourage ownership, conduct training, and create stringent laws to guide road safety. PMID: 31710254 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ogunkeyede OS, Osungbade K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Human factors related to major road traffic accidents in China.
Conclusions: The generic HFACS failure types were interpreted and applied successfully to the road safety context, and such examination of major accidents has provided significant findings concerning the main contributing factors of those accidents. Using the OR technique, this study has demonstrated a number of associations between the upper level and adjacent lower levels in the entire system and has found the routes to failure, which is particularly important for developing countermeasures and remediation strategies, as it ensures that these countermeasures are targeted to a wider range of systems. Furthermore, these fi...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zhang Y, Jing L, Sun C, Fang J, Feng Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effectiveness of centerline rumble strips (CLRS) on two-lane carriageways in Sweden on injury accident risk for cars equipped with electronic stability control (ESC) and cars without ESC.
Conclusions: Contemporary effectiveness estimates may have important implications for the short and medium-term national road safety management. CLRS remains an important countermeasure to consider for reducing the number of real-world injury crashes. From a systematic safety perspective, it is important to accentuate that CLRS and ESC essentially address different crash scenarios. Still, both CLRS and ESC have the potential to avoid crashes involving unintentional lane drifting resulting in loss of control. When the CLRS alerts a driver of unintentional lane drifting, the ESC can be essential in supporting the driver to s...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sternlund S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Adult moped-related injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments.
Conclusions: Moped injuries increased in all adult age groups during the study period. However, there were significant differences in contributing factors, crash mechanism, and outcomes by sex, race, and age. These findings suggest the need for targeted injury prevention interventions. PMID: 31697571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Johnson NK, Johnson BM, Denning GM, Jennissen CA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Who is more vulnerable in crashes between motorized 2-wheelers and pedestrians?
Conclusions: This study shows that M2Ws pose a considerable risk to pedestrians in terms of causing fatal and serious injuries in such inter-vulnerable road user (VRU) crashes. Though helmet enforcement could aid in mitigating injuries among M2W riders, proper infrastructure planning would benefit both. Further study is warranted to explore other dimensions of inter-VRU crashes. PMID: 31674801 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jayaraman A, Soni J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Neurocognitive and behavioral markers in DUI recidivists.
Abstract Objective: Driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol recidivism may be a risk-taking behavior motivated by a change in decision-making capacity. Decision-making capacity has been investigated by event-related potentials (ERPs) acquisition and specifically by analyzing feedback-related negativity (FRN) reflecting the activity of medial prefrontal cortex. Thus, the aim of our study was to test the role of FRN as a possible neurophysiological marker of underestimation of risk associated with DUI recidivism to provide novel insights into the influence of neurocognitive aspects of driving ability.Methods: T...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Terranova C, Tagliabue M, Cona G, Gianfranchi E, Di Pietra L, Vidotto G, Montisci M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Crash patterns in two Chinese secondary cities, with comparisons to crash patterns in the United States.
Conclusions: Compared to published data, crash rates are similar among licensed drivers in the United States and these Chinese cities. The percentage of crashes that involved injury did not differ significantly between the 2 countries. Injury crashes were well reported in both. Crashes involving property damage only were significantly less likely to be reported to the police in the Chinese cities. Alcohol involvement rates in crashes were similar. Although our crash sample was small, some crash parameters appear to be transferable between these 2 countries. PMID: 31674807 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: T...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Miller TR, Ringwalt C, Kaner E, Paschall MJ, Grube JW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Feasibility study of a safe sled environment for reclined frontal deceleration tests with human volunteers.
Conclusions: A maximum speed of 7.1 km/h and peak deceleration of 3.0 g was found to be a safe pulse for volunteer testing in frontal impacts with a rigid reclined seat. Larger soft tissue deformations were observed when reclined, possibly associated with higher shear loads within the soft tissue. Preliminary results highlight trade-offs between the degree of seat angulation, friction force, and restraint capability of a 3-point seat belt, thus causing forward translation and/or axial spinal compression of the occupant that may need to be addressed in the future. PMID: 31674808 [PubMed - as supplied by p...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Muehlbauer J, Schick S, Draper D, Lopez-Valdes FJ, Symeonidis I, Peldschus S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Sarcopenia and osteosarcopenia in seriously injured motor vehicle crash occupants.
Conclusions: Sarcopenia and osteosarcopenia may be associated with more serious injuries and fractures in MVCs. PMID: 31674830 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Weaver AA, Costa C, Ambrosini A, Tan J, Maez L, Ye X, Stitzel JD, Lenchik L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Low speed limits in residential areas in Melbourne, Australia.
Conclusions: These findings give support to the expectation that lower speed limits on local streets may be possible with good community support. PMID: 31674839 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fildes B, Lawrence B, Oxley J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Variability of baseline vehicle control among sober young adult cannabis users: A simulator-based exploratory study.
Conclusions: Young adult drivers who use cannabis in our study drove slower and produced significantly less frequent steering and accelerator pedal inputs than drivers who did not use cannabis. This suggests that lasting effects of cannabis use persist and may lead to detrimental driving behaviors even after intoxication has subsided. These findings have implications for legislation in support of legalizing cannabis because sober cannabis-using drivers may still be a public health concern. Further study is needed to evaluate whether these differences persist even with longer term abstinence and whether differences are foun...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Brown T, Banz B, Li K, Camenga D, Vaca F, Gaffney G, Milavetz G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Compression-based injury variables from chestbands in far-side impact THOR sled tests.
Conclusions: Though the present study is limited in scope, the predetermined placement of the internal sensors in the THOR dummy underpredicted chest deflection-related injury variables, and the viscous criterion was the least reliable variable in these lateral and oblique far-side impact sled tests. PMID: 31674854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Purushothaman Y, Humm J, Jebaseelan D, Yoganandan N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safer vehicles and technology for older adults.
Conclusions: The findings showed an overall low awareness and acceptance of in-vehicle safety features; however, where there was some awareness, there was greater interest in purchasing vehicles with safety features. More effort should be undertaken to develop and prioritize a set of recommendations to increase use of safe vehicles by older drivers. PMID: 31674855 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Oxley J, Charlton J, Logan D, O'Hern S, Koppel S, Meuleners L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Correlation of EEG biomarkers of cannabis with measured driving impairment.
Conclusions: These results, combined with our prior reported results, suggest that EEG and electrocardiogram (ECG) acquired concurrent with neuropsychological tests hold potential to provide a highly sensitive, specific, and dose-dependent profile of cannabis intoxication and level of impairment. PMID: 31674856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Brown T, McConnell M, Rupp G, Meghdadi A, Richard C, Schmitt R, Gaffney G, Milavetz G, Berka C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research