Exploring simulated driving performance among varsity male soccer players.
Conclusion: Preventive driving measures should be enforced in this high-risk population to develop strategies for risk reduction in male team athletes. PMID: 31166121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tremblay M, Lavallière M, Albert WJ, Boudreau SR, Johnson MJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving under the influence of alcohol and the effects of alcohol prohibition-Case study in Serbia.
Conclusions: This study suggests that the required legal BAC limit for nonprofessional drivers should be the same. The prohibition of selling alcoholic drinks in Belgrade after 10 p.m. does not decrease the prevalence of DUI. PMID: 31157552 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pešić D, Antić B, Smailović E, Marković N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pediatric electric bicycle injuries and comparison to other pediatric traffic injuries.
The objective of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of demographics, injury characteristics and hospital resource utilization of significant pediatric electric bicycle (e-bike) injuries leading to hospitalization following an emergency department visit in comparison to pediatric injuries caused by other traffic related mechanisms. Methods: A retrospective review of all pediatric traffic injury hospitalizations following an emergency department visit to a level I trauma center between October 2014 and September 2016 was conducted. Data regarding age, sex, number of computed tomography (CT) scans obtained, nu...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zmora O, Peleg K, Klein Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Sleepy driving and risk of obstructive sleep apnea among truck drivers in Saudi Arabia.
Conclusions: Sleepy driving and a high risk of OSA was prevalent among the study population of male truck drivers in Saudi Arabia. Not getting good-quality sleep and driving experience from 6 to 10 years contributes to the accident risk among these truck drivers. PMID: 31120335 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Alahmari MD, Alanazi TM, Batawi AA, Al-Osaimi EA, Alrabeeah S, Jebakumar Z, Olaish AH, Almeneessier AS, BaHammam AS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A novel speed model for safety evaluation of freeway alignment in Euclidean 3D space.
CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that there is a clear correlation between velocity and spatial curvature, which is proved by variance analysis. The estimation results of the speed models are reliable as tested using a real engineering example. The study would provide a scientific basis for safety evaluation of freeway alignment. PMID: 31112395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang X, Pu H, Yao J, Yan Y, Li X, Zeng Z Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors associated with driving under the influence of alcohol.
CONCLUSIONS: Following the development of the logistic prediction models for DUI drivers, testing of the model was conducted for 3 control driver groups: Car, motorcycle, and bicycle. The prediction model with a probability greater than 50% showed that 77% of car drivers were under the influence of alcohol. Similarly, the prediction percentage for motorcyclists and bicyclists amounted to 71 and 67%, respectively. The recommendation of the study is that drivers whose DUI probability is above 50% should be potentially suspected of DUI. The results of this study can help to understand the problem of DUI among specific driver ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Smailović E, Lipovac K, Pešić D, Antić B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of cognitive distraction on speed control in curve negotiation.
CONCLUSIONS: The impairment due to cognitive distraction was confirmed in this study but was only significant at a high level of cognitive distraction. The highly distracted drivers failed to perceive the curve in advance, resulting in a slower response to changes in the roadway. The findings indicate that acceleration may be an indicator of cognitive distraction while negotiating curves. A driver is prone to cognitive distraction and the driving performance is affected when driving requires excessive attention such as curve negotiation. PMID: 31112415 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fu R, Zhou Y, Yuan W, Han T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving while impaired by alcohol: An analysis of drink-drivers involved in UK collisions.
CONCLUSIONS: The outcome is a more nuanced understanding of drivers contributing to drink-related crashes in the UK. The study concludes by discussing the implications for governments and other interested bodies for better targeting and delivery of public education campaigns and interventions. PMID: 31112416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Owen R, Ursachi G, Fosdick T, Horodnic AV Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Roadside design assessment in an urban, low-density environment in the Gulf Cooperation Council region.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant revision of the existing roadside design not only in the area studied but throughout the UAE is recommended. The authors propose measures that may be useful in making roadside design in the area studied better align with the benchmark requirements. PMID: 31112427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Albuquerque FDB, Awadalla DM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Abbreviated Injury Scale is well described: A letter to the Editor re: Loftis et  al., "Evolution of the Abbreviated Injury Scale: 1990-2015".
CONCLUSIONS: The changes that have been successively introduced to the AIS since 1990 have been well documented, and validated strategies to enable registries to adjust for AIS change are well established. However, further research into the effects of adopting the latest (2015) AIS version is encouraged. PMID: 31095419 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Palmer CS, Tohira H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

In response to: A letter to the Editor re: Loftis et al, 'Evolution of the Abbreviated Injury Scale: 1990-2015' from Mr. Palmer.
PMID: 31095427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Loftis KL, Price J, Gillich PJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluating the impact of criminalizing drunk driving on years of life lost due to road traffic deaths in one megacity, China.
CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights that the law can lead to a reduction in YLL due to RTDs in Tianjin, China. Large immediate public health benefits resulted from the new road traffic law in China. YLL provides a complementary measure for examining the effect of criminalization on drunk driving RTDs. PMID: 31081701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 12, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Xiong X, Wang Z, Xu R, Li G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Exploring relationships between observed activation rates and functional attributes of lane departure prevention.
CONCLUSION: The study identified functional characteristics (i.e., timing of steering input, prevention of departures more than 35 cm) of lane departure prevention systems that were strongly associated with observed activation of these systems in privately owned vehicles. Although this relationship does not imply causation, the findings support the hypothesis that functional characteristics of lane departure prevention systems affect their use. Designers may be able to use these results to maximize driver acceptance of future implementations of lane departure prevention. PMID: 31074631 [PubMed - as supplied by ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 9, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Reagan IJ, Cicchino JB, Montalbano CJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A clustering approach to integrate traffic safety in road maintenance prioritization.
CONCLUSIONS: We find that focusing solely on road maintenance and crash severity does not provide clear guidance of how to prioritize between road maintenance efforts from a traffic safety perspective. However, when combined with geographical location and crash characteristics, a more nuanced picture appears that allows consideration of different target groups and perspectives. PMID: 31074635 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 9, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Janstrup KH, Møller M, Pilegaard N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Low-velocity motor vehicle collision characteristics associated with claimed low back pain.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this investigation provide knowledge of collision characteristics that can be employed in future studies on the mechanisms of low back injury in low-speed motor vehicle collisions. PMID: 31074647 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 9, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fewster KM, Parkinson RJ, Callaghan JP Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A semi-automated tool for identifying agricultural roadway crashes in crash narratives.
CONCLUSION: This article provides information on how crash narratives can supplement structured crash data. It also provides an easy-to-implement method to facilitate incorporating narratives into safety research along with keyword lists for identifying agricultural crashes. PMID: 31074650 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 9, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Trueblood AB, Pant A, Kim J, Kum HC, Perez M, Das S, Shipp EM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Motorcycle active safety systems: Assessment of the function and applicability using a population-based crash data set.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings demonstrate that ABS, alone and in combination with other safety systems, has the potential to mitigate or possibly prevent a high percentage of PTW crashes in the considered setting. Other safety systems can influence different crash scenarios and are also recommended. Given the high cost of motorcycle crashes and the increasing number of PTW safety technologies, the proposed approach can be used to inform the process of selection of the most suitable interventions to improve PTW safety. PMID: 31059290 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Savino G, Pierini M, Fitzharris M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of a hospital-based injury surveillance system for monitoring road traffic deaths in Phuket, Thailand.
CONCLUSION: An efficient and comprehensive road traffic injury and death surveillance system is critical for monitoring Phuket's road traffic burden. The hospital-based IS system is a useful system for monitoring road traffic deaths and assessing risk behaviors. However, the complexity of data collection and limited coverage hinders the ability of IS to fully represent road traffic deaths in Phuket Province. Combining data sources could improve coverage and should be considered. PMID: 31050566 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nittayasoot N, Peterson AB, Thammawijaya P, Parker EM, Sathawornwiwat A, Boonthanapat N, Chantian T, Voradetwitaya L, Jiraphongsa C, Sagarasaeranee O, Sansilapin C, Rattanathamsakul T, Ketgudee L, Tantiworrawit P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A safety analysis of roundabouts and turbo roundabouts based on Petri nets.
CONCLUSIONS: The reduced complexity of the turbo roundabout is due to the strict limitations in lane changes, turning turbo roundabouts into a safer model: A lower number of possible movements that can be performed by drivers and a smaller number of trajectories with collision risk. Petri nets have proven to be perfectly applicable to the representation of traffic circular systems (such as roundabouts and turbo roundabouts) and to measure the complexity and security of the system. PMID: 31039035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Balado J, Díaz-Vilariño L, Arias P, Novo A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Organizational networks in road safety: Case studies of U.S. Vision Zero cities.
CONCLUSIONS: Organizational network analyses, enriched with coalition member interviews, can elucidate key aspects of coalition creation, attributes, and relationship structure. The case studies of leading VZ coalition networks presented here highlight the use of these tools. Ultimately, understanding associations between VZ network structures and attributes and road safety outcomes could help inform effective coalition adoption, implementation, and maintenance to optimize safety outcomes. PMID: 31039036 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Naumann RB, Heiny S, Evenson KR, LaJeunesse S, Cooper JF, Doggett S, Marshall SW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Gap acceptance behavior at unsignalized intersections: Effects of using a phone and a music player while driving.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results suggest that drivers are more likely to adopt a compensatory measure in complex driving situations only if they perceive a high risk. Hence, drivers are exposed to a greater risk while operating a music player, because this is not perceived as risky behavior. PMID: 31039038 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Choudhary P, Velaga NR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of alcohol use on accelerating and braking behaviors of drivers.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study revealed that drivers tend to be more aggressive and impulsive under the influence of alcohol, which deteriorates their driving performance. Impairment in accelerating and braking behaviors of drivers under the influence of alcohol leads to increased crash probabilities. The conclusions may provide reference in making countermeasures against drinking and driving and contribute to traffic safety. PMID: 31039040 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yadav AK, Velaga NR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

First evaluation of the possibility of testing for drugged driving using exhaled breath sampling.
CONCLUSION: The promising results from this study provide support to exhaled breath as a viable specimen for testing of drugged driving. The rapid, easy, and convenient sampling procedure offers the possibility to collect a drug test specimen at the roadside. The analytical investigation must be done in a laboratory at present because of the need for a highly sensitive instrument, which is already in use in forensic laboratories. The analytical work is not more challenging than for blood or oral fluid and should not cause an increase in cost. However, more studies need to be done before exhaled breath drug testing can be a...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Beck O, Ullah S, Kronstrand R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Quantifying driver cell phone use at signalized intersections using software-defined radio.
CONCLUSIONS: Once characterized, the frequency of driver cell phone use can be used to justify changes to signal timing protocols. These adjustments could include extending the signal's "all-red time" or holding "yellow time" longer in order to properly clear the intersection. These data can also be used to identify locations that may require more enforcement measures to dissuade driver cell phone use. Furthermore, the impact of anti-cell phone campaigns or new laws can be quantified by measuring before and after cell phone use in the near term rather than waiting for crash studies at intersections to b...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Brennan TM, Jesson JE, Furlanetto PGA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of the effectiveness of traffic calming measures on vehicle speeds and pedestrian injury severity in Ghana.
CONCLUSION: It was clearly evident that traffic calming devices reduce vehicular speeds and, thus, the incidence and severity of pedestrian injuries in built-up areas in Ghana. However, the fact that they are deployed on arterial roads is increasingly becoming a road safety concern. Given the emerging safety challenges associated with speed calming measures, we recommend that their use be restricted to residential streets but not on arterial roads. Long-term solutions for improving pedestrian safety proposed herein include bypassing settlements along the highways to reduce pedestrians' exposure to traffic collisions and ad...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 28, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Damsere-Derry J, Ebel BE, Mock CN, Afukaar F, Donkor P, Kalowole TO Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Identifying the crash characteristics on freeway segments based on different ramp influence areas.
CONCLUSIONS: Investigation of crash types and factors contributing to crashes on different freeway segments is based on multiple ramp influence segments, which can promote a better understanding of the safety performance of various freeway segments. PMID: 31021664 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yang B, Liu P, Chan CY, Xu C, Guo Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Psychotropic substance abuse and fitness to hold a driving license in Italy.
CONCLUSION: Cocaine and cannabinoids were the most used substances in the analyzed population, alone and in combination. Benzodiazepines were the most commonly detected prescription medication, raising questions about prescribed medication and driving risk that are not addressed by current legislation. PMID: 31013165 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pascali JP, Vaiano F, Palumbo D, Umani Ronchi F, Mari F, Bertol E Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Population-based assessment of a vehicle fleet with seat belts providing lower shoulder belt forces than today.
CONCLUSIONS: Because the number of fatal injuries rises dramatically due to lower belt force, the reduction in the number of MAIS 2+ injuries comes at a very high cost. Therefore, whether reducing the belt force limit is the right approach is questionable. PMID: 31013169 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Krampe J, Junge M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characterizing trunk muscle activations during simulated low-speed rear impact collisions.
CONCLUSIONS: Results from this investigation demonstrate that during an unanticipated low-speed rear-end collision, the peak activation of muscles in the lumbar spine are low in magnitude. As such, muscle activation likely has minimal contribution to the internal joint loads that are experienced in the lumbar intervertebral joints during low-speed rear impact collisions. These findings justify the use of simplified joint models in estimating the joint loads in the lumbar spine during low-speed rear impact collisions and support the application of cadaveric and anthropomorphic test device (ATD) testing in understanding the ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fewster KM, Viggiani D, Gooyers CE, Parkinson RJ, Callaghan JP Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Hazard perception of stroke drivers in a video-based Japanese hazard perception task.
CONCLUSIONS: Firstly, HP in stroke patients is low compared to age-matched drivers. Secondly, even if stroke patients notice hazards, their response may be delayed in a BP situation, due to a slower visual information processing speed. Thirdly, the lesion side does not appear to affect HP. PMID: 31013171 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sasaki T, Nogawa T, Yamada K, Kojima T, Kanaya K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Crash risk of ESC-fitted passenger cars.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that modern passenger cars provide a significant crash risk reduction, which depends on both ESC and passive safety features introduced. Results also show that exposure evaluation in terms of registration years (or vehicle population) instead of true mileage can provide an overly pessimistic view of the crash risk. PMID: 31013176 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Koisaari T, Kari T, Vahlberg T, Sihvola N, Tervo T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Motorcycle helmet visor-related facial injury and its potential mechanism of injury: Evidence-based case study.
CONCLUSION: This injury affects facial aesthetics and early referral to the facial surgery team is advocated. Documentation of the mechanism of injury, the patient's helmet and visor is obligatory, so that this information can be delivered to the regional road safety authority for preventive measures. PMID: 30995129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ramli R, Oxley JA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The need to improve information on road user type in National Vital Statistics System mortality data.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the unspecified road user MVC deaths in NVSS look similar to those of MVC occupants according to selected characteristics. Additional study is needed to identify documentation and reporting challenges in individual states and over time and to identify opportunities for improvement in the coding of road user type in NVSS. PMID: 30985191 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mack KA, Hedegaard H, Ballesteros MF, Warner M, Eames J, Sauber-Schatz E Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Adaptation of a Canadian culpability scoring tool to Alberta police traffic collision report data.
The objective of this study was to adapt a previously validated Canadian Culpability Scoring Tool (CCST) to Alberta police report data. METHODS: Police traffic collision reports from motor vehicle (MV) collisions in Calgary and Edmonton (Alberta, Canada) from 2010 to 2014 were used. Adaptation of the CCST was completed with input from personnel within Alberta Transportation, contributing to face and content validity. Two research assistants, given only the information necessary for scoring, evaluated 175 randomly selected MV-MV collisions. Interrater agreement was estimated using kappa (k) and reported with 95% confid...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pitt TM, Aucoin J, Nettel-Aguirre A, McCormack GR, Howard AW, Graff P, Rowe BH, Hagel BE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characterizing the child passenger safety workforce in Michigan: A statewide survey in 2015.
In this study, we assessed the number of child passenger safety technicians (CPSTs) in Michigan over 4 years and characterized the CPST workforce in 2015 to identify factors associated with high productivity and longevity in the field. METHODS: We determined the number of CPSTs and those newly certified using lists from the Michigan Office of Highway Safety Planning (OHSP) from 2012 to 2015. We conducted a statewide survey of Michigan CPSTs in October 2015. Analyses were conducted in 2016. The survey assessed demographic characteristics, reasons to enter the field and maintain certification, and motivations to conduct...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Macy ML, Manary MA, Klinich KD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Alcohol and risky behavior in traffic among motorcyclists involved in accidents in a city in northeastern Brazil.
CONCLUSION: This study showed that, in the population studied, riding a motorcycle under the effects of alcoholic drinks was associated with other risky forms of behavior in traffic: speeding, not using a helmet, and not having a motorcycle driver's license. We believe that the interaction between these behaviors may lead to greater occurrence and greater severity of accidents. PMID: 30985213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Dos Santos WJ, Coêlho VMDS, Bonfim CVD, de Ceballos AGDC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An assessment of child passenger safety levels of service in Michigan.
CONCLUSIONS: Child passenger safety resources in Michigan are not evenly distributed yet most regions and counties meet intermediate levels of service. Reallocating resources to areas that are providing basic levels of service could help reduce disparities in child passenger safety behaviors. PMID: 30985220 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Macy ML, Brines SJ, Gebremariam A, Manary MA, Olaniyan H, Klinich KD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of the zero-tolerance drinking and driving law on mortality due to road traffic accidents according to the type of victim, sex, and age in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: An interrupted time series study.
The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of the Brazilian zero-tolerance drinking and driving law on mortality rates due to road traffic accidents according to the type of victim, sex, and age. METHODS: An interrupted time series design was used to compare yearly mortality rates due to road traffic accidents in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, before and after the zero-tolerance drinking and driving law came into effect on June 19, 2008. Yearly mortality rates were compared according to the type of victim: pedestrian, cyclist, motorcyclist, and vehicle occupant. We used the Prais-Winsten procedure of autoregressi...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jomar RT, Ramos DO, Fonseca VAO, Junger WL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Deriving heart rate variability indices from cardiac monitoring-An indicator of driver sleepiness.
CONCLUSIONS: The association of HRV indices to KSS did not depend on the preprocessing strategy. No preprocessing method showed superiority for HRV association to driver sleepiness. This was also true for combinations of methods for frequency domain HRV indices. The results prove clear relationships between HRV indices and perceived sleepiness. Thus, HRV analysis shows promise for driver sleepiness detection. PMID: 30978124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Buendia R, Forcolin F, Karlsson J, Arne Sjöqvist B, Anund A, Candefjord S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safety evaluation of cable barriers installation on rural highways in British Columbia.
CONCLUSIONS: Cable barriers were successful in reducing the frequency of serious collisions on provincial highways in British Columbia. PMID: 30971131 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: El Esawey M, Sowers C, Sengupta J, Jain R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Behavioral influences on driver crash risks in Ghana: A qualitative study of commercial passenger drivers.
CONCLUSION: The findings have implications for building a research base to support the development of road safety policy and interventions in developing countries. PMID: 30971137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Dotse J, Nicolson R, Rowe R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian crashes at priority-controlled junctions, roundabouts, and signalized junctions: The UK case study.
CONCLUSIONS: In terms of indicative blame, the coding frequencies of subjectively determined pedestrian actions and behaviour factors which might have contributed to pedestrian casualty crashes were found to be between 1.6 and 2.8 times the frequencies of driver actions and behavioural factors. Substantial social gradients were found in pedestrian casualty rates per miles walked and in the driver involvement rates per mile driven with those from the most deprived quintile having higher rates. In addition, it was found that female pedestrians, aged 60 years and over, had higher pedestrian casualty rates, per billion miles w...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Downey LT, Saleh W, Muley D, Kharbeche M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safety effects of street lighting on roadway segments: Development of a crash modification function.
CONCLUSIONS: Horizontal illuminance characteristics have a significant impact on nighttime crash risk on roadway segments. An increase in the mean of horizontal illuminance, indicating an improvement in average lighting level, tends to decrease nighttime crash risk; an increase in the standard deviation, representing a poor uniformity of lighting pattern on a roadway segment, is more likely to raise nighttime crash risk. Because the 2 measures are strongly correlated in a low mean range (
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yang R, Wang Z, Lin PS, Li X, Chen Y, Hsu PP, Henry A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road risk behaviors: Pedestrian experiences.
CONCLUSIONS: All subjects in this study performed several risky actions as pedestrians, at least occasionally, and at least one fifth had been involved in a road accident as a pedestrian. It is known that the surroundings can positively or negatively influence individuals' behaviors; therefore, once prevention measures are identified, it is possible to influence risk behaviors. Therefore, road safety education and the physical environment must be considered together, and efforts focused on optimum infrastructure also need to consider road safety education. PMID: 30971147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tr...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 10, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Narváez YV, Parra Sierra V, Peña Cárdenas F, Ruíz Ramos L, Zamorano González B, Vargas Martínez JI, Monreal Aranda O Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian risky behavior and safety at zebra crossings in a Ghanaian metropolitan area.
CONCLUSION: The majority of the pedestrian crashes in the metropolis resulted in injuries resulting in hospitalization or fatalities and occurred at a midblock. Pedestrians largely exhibited risky behaviors predisposing the occurrence of RTCs at zebra crossings despite the fact that they are a pedestrian right-of-way. There is therefore the need for the National Road Safety Commission to carry out campaigns to educate pedestrians on the safer use of zebra crossings. PMID: 30951398 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ojo T, Adetona CO, Agyemang W, Afukaar FK Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors associated with motorcycle traffic crash fatalities among active duty U.S. Army personnel.
CONCLUSIONS: Among U.S. Army motorcycle operators, alcohol use and not wearing a helmet increased the odds of fatality, given that a crash occurred, and additional modifiable risk factors were identified. Results will help inform U.S. Army motorcycle policies and training. PMID: 30946596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rappole C, Canham-Chervak M, Taylor B, Jones BH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Trauma demography and clinical epidemiology of motorcycle crash-related head injury in a neurosurgery practice in an African developing country.
CONCLUSIONS: Motorcycle crashes are now a significant threat to the heads, limbs, and lives of vulnerable road users in developing countries. PMID: 30946601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Adeleye AO, Clark DJ, Malomo TA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Predicting categories of drugs used by suspected drug-impaired drivers using the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program tests.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study suggest that drug recognition experts (DREs) should be careful to review a set of key signs and symptoms when determining the category of drug used by suspected drug-impaired drivers. Drug use indicators related to the appearance and physiological response of the eye were found to contribute the most to the prediction of the drug category responsible for the impairment. These results could help form the basis of a core set of indicators that DREs could initially consult to form their opinion of drug influence. This in turn may enhance the validity, effectiveness, and efficiency of ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Porath AJ, Beirness DJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Miss-and-run: Factors contributing to two-vehicle phantom vehicle crashes in Florida.
CONCLUSIONS: Several conclusions for better understanding the occurrence of PVCs are proposed for traffic management departments and car insurers. Cautious driving behavior including concentrated attention and deliberate lane changes should be encouraged for motorists to engage in appropriate levels of driving freedom, and drunk driving should be strictly supervised to keep motorists behind the wheel conscious. Car insurance is encouraged to compensate for economic loss resulting from roadway crashes. Road monitoring systems with well-performing illumination devices are recommended to help drivers provide potent testimony ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jiang C, Lu L, Peng Y, Xing Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Overestimation of self-reported driving exposure: Results from the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that although self-reported annual mileage is heavily relied on for research, such estimates of driving distance may be an overestimate of current or future mileage and can influence the validity of prior research that has utilized estimates of driving exposure. PMID: 30938546 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Friedrich TE, Duerksen KN, Elias LJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research