Adaptive Response Criteria in Road Hazard Detection Among Older Drivers.
CONCLUSIONS: Older drivers adopt compensatory strategies on hazard detection during driving. Our findings showed that, in the driving context, even at an old age our attentional functions are still adaptive according to environmental conditions. This leads to considerations on potential training methods to promote adaptive strategies which may help older drivers maintain performance in road hazard detection. PMID: 28898116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 12, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Feng J, Choi H, Craik FIM, Levine B, Moreno S, Naglie G, Zhu M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Young Females' Attention towards Road Safety Images: An ERP Study of the Revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide some preliminary objective support for the use of negative emotion-based road safety advertisements for young females. Further, this study provides support for using psychophysiological measures to enhance understanding of traffic injury persuasion. PMID: 28837359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 24, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kaye SA, White MJ, Lewis I Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Investigation of Hit-and-run Crash Occurrence and Severity Using Real-time Loop Detector Data and Hierarchical Bayesian Binary Logit Model with Random Effects.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the potential traffic conditions of HR and severe HR occurrence, which refer to relatively congested upstream traffic conditions with high upstream speed and significant speed deviations on long segments. The above findings suggest that traffic enforcement should be directed towards mitigating the risky driving under the aforementioned traffic conditions. Moreover, the enforcement agencies may employ alcohol checkpoints to counter DUI during the night time. As per the engineering improvements, wider inner shoulders may be constructed to potentially reduce HR cases and the street lights shou...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 24, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Xie M, Cheng W, Gill GS, Zhou J, Jia X, Choi S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prevalence of alcohol among non-fatally injured road accident casualties in two level III trauma centres in Nothern Ghana.
Conclusion There was a high prevalence of alcohol use among non-fatally injured casualties in Northern Ghana and injury severity increased with BAC. AUDIT screening in the hospital, alcohol consumption guideline, road safety education with an emphasis on minimizing or eliminating alcohol consumption, and enhanced enforcement of the BAC limit among motorists are recommended. PMID: 28829627 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 22, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Damsere-Derry J, Palk G, King M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An Evaluation Scheme for Assessing the Effectiveness of Intersection Movement Assist (IMA) on Improving Traffic Safety.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, IMA is promising to effectively reduce angle crashes related to sight obstruction, and has potential to reduce not only crash frequency but also crash severity. PMID: 28812374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 16, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wu KF, Ardiansyah N, Ye WJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Classification of Driving Workload Affected by Highway Alignment Conditions Based on Classification and Regression Tree Algorithm.
CONCLUSION: Heart rate variability was a direct and effective index for measuring driving workload despite being affected by multiple highway alignment elements. The driving workload model and the thresholds of driving workload classifications can be used to evaluate the quality of highway geometric design. A higher quality of highway geometric design could keep driving workload within a safer and more comfortable range. This study provided insight into reducing traffic injuries from the perspective of disciplinary integration of highway engineering and human factor engineering. PMID: 28771038 [PubMed - as supplied by...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 3, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hu J, Wang R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Helmet retention system types as a risk factor to properly attach the chin strap.
This study aimed to determine the factors associated with the incorrect use of a helmet retention system (loose or open) and how often this happens. METHODS: This was an observational transversal study conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. Trained observers positioned at traffic lights collected information about the helmet fixation mode, the helmet model (full-face, open-face, modular, half) and the helmet retention system model (micrometric, double-D, fast-release). Additional data including the position on motorcycle, gender and function of the motorcycle (as a work vehicle) were collected. The observers, collection site ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 31, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Freitas CA, Furtado AM, Petterle RR, Pimentel SK, Carvalho FH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS: RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the road system to fully accommodate RU errors. Initiatives related to safer roads and roadsides, vehicles, speed zones as well as behavioral approaches are key areas of priority for targeted activity to prevent fatal ORU crashes in the future. PMID: 28758801 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 31, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Koppel S, Bugeja L, Smith D, Lamb A, Dwyer J, Fitzharris M, Newstead S, D'Elia A, Charlton J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Relationship between neuropsychological tests and driver's licence renewal tests in Parkinson's disease.
Conclusions At early stages of the disease about 19% of PD patients showed difficulties that may affect their driving capabilities. Line Orientation and Figure Recall are useful to alert clinicians to the risk of unsafe driving. For this reason, patients with PD should be evaluated for driving abilities more regularly to determine the extent of deficits that may influence driving performance. PMID: 28759268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 31, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Badenes D, Garolera M, Casas L, Cejudo JC, Zaragoza S, Calzado N, Aguilar M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Ticketing Aggressive Cars and Trucks (TACT): How does it work on city streets?
Conclusions Although designed for reducing crashes on highways, the TACT program can be an effective approach for improving driver behavior on city streets. PMID: 28750169 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 27, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Telford R, Cook LJ, Olson LM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Investigating Factors Influencing Pedestrian Injury Severity at Intersections.
CONCLUSIONS: The independent variables significant to PIS at intersections for young, middle-aged, and older driver groups were identified; while the marginal effect of each variable to the likelihood of PIS were assessed. PMID: 28737957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 24, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ma Z, Lu X, Chien SI, Hu D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Belted Driver Fatalities: Time of Death and Risk by Injury Severity.
CONCLUSIONS: The risk for belted driver deaths exponentially increased with MAIS. A majority of deaths occurred within 2.5 hours of the crash. On average, fatally injured drivers experienced 2.64 AIS 4+ injuries, primarily to the head and thorax. PMID: 28738161 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 24, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Viano DC, Parenteau CS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Role of age and injury mechanism in cervical spine injury tolerance under head contact loading.
This study analyzed data from previously conducted experiments using Post Mortem Human Subject specimens (PMHS). Group A tests used the upright intact head-cervical column experimental model. The inferior end of the specimen was fixed, head was balanced by a mechanical system, and natural lordosis was removed. Specimens were placed on a testing device via a load cell. The piston applied loading at the vertex region. Spinal injuries were identified using medical images. Group B tests used the inverted head-cervical column experimental model. In one study, head-T1 specimens were fixed distally, and C7-T1 joints were oriented...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 24, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yoganandan N, Chirvi S, Voo L, Pintar FA, Banerjee A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Impact of Helmet Use on Traumatic Brain Injury from Road Traffic Accidents in Cambodia.
CONCLUSIONS: Helmets demonstrate a protective effect and may be an effective public health intervention to significantly reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury in Cambodia and other developing countries with increasing rates of motorization across the world. PMID: 28699848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 12, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gupta S, Klaric K, Sam N, Din V, Juschkewitz T, Iv V, Shrime MG, Park KB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Rail Height Effects on Safety Performance of Midwest Guardrail System.
CONCLUSIONS: A mounting height of 914 mm (36 in.) was determined to be the maximum guardrail height that would safety contain and redirect 1100C vehicles and not allow underride or excessive vehicle snag on support posts. Recommendations were also provided regarding the safety performance of the increased-height MGS. PMID: 28696773 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 11, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Asadollahi Pajouh M, Julin RD, Stolle CS, Reid JD, Faller RK Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Impact of Retail Beverage Service Training and Social Host Laws on adolescents' DUI rates in San Diego Co, California.
CONCLUSIONS: At the county level, although RBS, SH laws, and media efforts were found to contribute to a significant reduction in DUI rates, the largest significant contributors to reducing DUI rates were alcohol and gas taxation rates. Policy makers interested in reducing DUI rates among teenagers, should examine these variables within their specific communities and consider conducting community-specific research to determine the best way to do so. Future efforts should be made to develop models that represent specific communities who are interested in reducing DUI rates among drivers aged 16-20 years. PMID: 28696779...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 11, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Scherer M, Romano E, Caldwell S, Taylor E Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Toe Board Energy Absorbing Material for Foot, Ankle and Lower Leg Injury Reduction.
CONCLUSION: A polyurethane energy absorbing (EA) foam was found to be effective in limiting axial tibia force and foot accelerations when subjected to frontal impacts using the NASCAR motorsport restraint system. PMID: 28696780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 11, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Patalak JP, Stitzel JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Occupant Responses in Conventional and ABTS Seats in High-Speed Rear Sled Tests.
This study compared biomechanical responses of a normally seated Hybrid III dummy on conventional and ABTS (all belts to seat) seats in 40.2 km/h (25 mph) rear sled tests. It determined the difference in performance with modern (≥2000 MY) seats compared to older (
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 5, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Viano DC, Parenteau CS, Burnett R, Prasad P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Wrong-Way Driving Crashes: A Multiple Correspondence Approach to Identify Contributing Factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite many other methods that identify only the contributing factors, this method can identify possible associations between various contributing factors. This is an inherent advantage of the MCA method, which can provide a major opportunity for state DOTs to select safety countermeasures that are associated with multiple safety benefits. PMID: 28657352 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jalayer M, Pour-Rouholamin M, Zhou H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Burden of road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing safety belt laws in low- and lower middle-income countries.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited data availability in low- and middle-income countries, the avoidable part of the burden related to delayed intervention is measurable. These results can be used to convince countries to avoid delaying the provision of better protection to road users. PMID: 28657368 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Martin A, Lagarde E, Salmi LR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driver and Front-Passenger Injury in Frontal Crashes: Update on the Effect of Unbelted Rear Occupants.
Abstract PURPOSE: This is a study of the influence of an unbelted rear occupant on the risk for severe injury to the front-seat occupant ahead of them in frontal crashes. It provides an update to earlier studies. METHODS: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data was used to investigate the risk for severe injury (MAIS 4+F) to belted drivers and front passengers in frontal crashes by the presence of a belted or unbelted passenger seated directly behind them or without a rear passenger. Frontal crashes were identified with GAD1 = 'F' without rollover (rollover ≤ 0). Front- and rear-outboard occupants were included without ej...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Parenteau CS, Viano DC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors associated with prehospital death among traffic accident patients in Osaka City, Japan: a population-based study.
CONCLUSIONS: In this population, the factors associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents were elderly people, nighttime, and pedestrian as the type of patient. The proportion of prehospital death due to traffic accidents was also high when the collision component was an automobile. PMID: 28658590 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Katayama Y, Kitamura T, Kiyohara K, Iwami T, Kawamura T, Hayashida S, Ogura H, Shimazu T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of countermeasures for red light running by traffic-simulator-based surrogate safety measures.
CONCLUSIONS: Although increasing the yellow signal interval duration is advantageous because this reduces the total conflicts (a possibility of total RLR-related crashes), each countermeasure has shown different effects by RLR-related conflict types which can be referred to when making a decision. Given that each intersection has different RLR crash issues, evaluated countermeasures are directly applicable to enhance the cost and time effectiveness, according to the situation of the target intersection. Also, the proposed methodology is replicable in any site, which has a dearth of affluent crash data and/or comparison sit...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 21, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Lee C, So JJ, Ma J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Emergency Department Visits by Pediatric Patients Sustained as a Passenger on a Motorcycle.
CONCLUSION: Although there were only about 9,700 visits to US EDs for motorcycle crashes involving passengers less than 16 years old for 2006 to 2011, the total cost of visits that resulted in either ED discharge or hospital admission surmounted to over $71 million. PMID: 28613096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 14, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tadros A, Owen S, Hoffman SM, Davis SM, Sharon MJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Influence of Pedestrians' Age and Gender types on Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Pedestrian Crashes.
CONCLUSIONS: This research reveals that temporal and spatial distributions of vehicle-pedestrian crashes vary for different pedestrians' age groups and gender types. Therefore, specific safety measures should be placed during the high crash times at different locations for different age groups and gender types to increase the effectiveness of the countermeasures in preventing and reducing the vehicle-pedestrian crashes. PMID: 28605251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 12, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Toran Pour A, Moridpour S, Tay R, Rajabifard A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

On the selection of stimulus for the Auditory Variant of the Detection Response Task Method for driving experiments.
CONCLUSIONS: Consistent significant differences in response times for all tested stimuli prove that the auditory DRT variant is also sensitive to changes in cognitive load. The mean increase in response times of more than 25% for 4 kHz and 8 kHz signals for trials with a cognitive task compared to trials without one indicates that one of these signals could be used as a potential auditory stimulus for the auditory DRT variant. PMID: 28594238 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 8, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Stojmenova K, Policardi F, Sodnik J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Differences in the kinematics of booster-seated pediatric occupants using two different car seats.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the overall response of the booster-seated occupant exposed to the same impact conditions was different depending on the seat used regardless of the size of the ATD. The differences observed in the response of the occupants between the two seats can be attributed to the differences in cushion stiffness, seat pan geometry and the different belt geometry. However, these results were obtained for two particular seat models and a specific CRS and therefore, it cannot be directly extrapolated to the generality of vehicle seats and CRS. PMID: 28594247 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 8, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Juste-Lorente O, Maza M, Lorente AI, Lopez-Valdes FJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Features of fatal injuries in older cyclists in vehicle-bicycle accidents in Japan.
CONCLUSIONS: For cyclists aged 75 years and over, wearing a helmet may be helpful to prevent head injuries in vehicle-to-cyclist accidents. It may also be helpful to introduce some safety measures to prevent hip injuries, given the higher level of fatality following these among all cyclists aged 75 and over, but especially women. PMID: 28581829 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 5, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matsui Y, Oikawa S, Hitosugi M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Efficacy of Seat Mounted Thoracic Side Airbags in the German Vehicle Fleet.
CONCLUSION: The reduction in occupant HFN injury risk associated with the coupled tSAB and curtain airbag may be attributable to its ability to provide coverage over previously-causing mechanism of injury. Yet, the sole presence of the tSAB showed no ability to provide additional benefit for the occupant's thoracic region. Future work should identify mechanisms of injury in the tSAB cases and attempt to quantify improvements in the vehicle ability to resist intrusion. PMID: 28557622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 30, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gaylor L, Junge M, Abanteriba S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian fatality and impact speed squared: Cloglog modeling from French national data.
CONCLUSIONS: For impact speeds below 60 km/h, the shape of the curve relating probability of death to impact speed was very similar to those reported in recent rigorous studies. For higher impact speeds, the present model allows the curve to rise ever more steeply, giving a much better fit to observed data. The present results confirm that, when a pedestrian is struck by a car, impact speed is a major risk factor, thus providing a supplementary argument for strict speed limits in areas where pedestrians are highly exposed. PMID: 28557669 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 30, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Martin JL, Wu D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A novel method for quanitifying comfort in child passengers demonstrates an association between child restraint comfort and errors in use of booster seats.
In this study we examine the reliability and sensitivity of a newly developed observational method for assessing comfort in children in vehicles. We then use this method to examine the relationship between comfort and errors in use of booster seats. METHODS: A novel method was developed for assessing comfort by counting fidgeting and postural adjustment behaviors to derive a Discomfort Avoidance Behavior (DAB) score. The sensitivity of the DAB score was examined by observing children in four different seating conditions designed as "comfortable" and "uncomfortable" (Part 1). Paired-samples t-tests ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fong CK, Bilston LE, Paul G, Brown J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of biofidelity of THUMS pedestrian model under a whole-body impact conditions with a generic sedan buck.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the data considered, the THUMS PFEM was considered to be biofidelic for this pedestrian impact condition and vehicle. Given the capability of the model to reproduce biomechanical responses, it shows potential as a valuable tool for developing novel pedestrian safety systems. PMID: 28548920 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wu T, Kim T, Bollapragada V, Poulard D, Chen H, Panzer MB, Forman JL, Crandall JR, Pipkorn B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Repeatability testing of a new Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD lower extremity.
CONCLUSIONS: The above work has demonstrated that the repeatability of the ATD-LE was excellent for tibia force, bending moment, and ankle ROM. The ATD-LE has the ability to provide new information to engineers and researchers due to its ability to directly evaluate the crash response of the ankle and leg. New information on injury mechanism and injury tolerance may lead to injury reduction and thus help advance the safety of children. PMID: 28548921 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Boucher LC, Ryu Y, Kang YS, Bolte JH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Modeling Crash Injury Severity by Road Feature to Improve Safety.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this research help identify critical road features that need to be given priority. As an example, additional advanced warning signs and providing enlarged or highly retroreflective signs that grab the attention of older drivers may help in making locations such as end or beginning of a divided highway much safer. Educating drivers about the necessary skill sets required at critical road features in addition to engineering solutions may further help them adopt safe driving behavior on roads. PMID: 28548581 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 26, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Penmetsa P, Pulugurtha SS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The sex disparity in risky driving: A survey of Colombian young drivers.
CONCLUSION: Young drivers in Colombia appear to engage in the same risky driving behaviours as young drivers in developed nations. In addition, young male drivers in Colombia reported greater engagement in risky driving behaviour than young female drivers; a finding again consistent with the behaviours of young male drivers in developed nations. As such, the research findings suggest that general interventions such as education, engineering, and enforcement should target transient rule violations such as speeding and using a handheld mobile phone while driving for young drivers in Colombia. Future research should investiga...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 26, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Oviedo-Trespalacios O, Scott-Parker B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A spectral power analysis of driving behavior changes during the transition from non-distraction to distraction.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that driver state detection needs to consider the behavior changes during the pre-starting periods, instead of only focusing on periods with physical presence of distraction, such as cell phone use. Lateral control measures can be a better indicator of distraction detection than longitudinal controls. In addition, frequency domain analyses proved to be a more robust and consistent method in assessing driving performances, when compared to time domain analyses. PMID: 28534644 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 23, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang Y, Bao S, Du W, Ye Z, Sayer JR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modelling pedestrian injury severity.
CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasises the need for thinking about traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity. Often, these areas have in common a larger pedestrian mass that is more likely to make other road users more aware and attentive, while the same does not seem to apply to areas with lower pedestrian density. PMID: 28534647 [PubMed - as supplied by publishe...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 23, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Prato CG, Kaplan S, Patrier A, Rasmussen TK Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to child safety restraint in citizens of Shenzhen Municipality, China and the associations between these factors.
Conclusions-This observational study found that although the majority of respondents had fair levels of knowledge and positive attitudes, they had lower rates of CSR ownership and use. Therefore, efforts at developing opportunities to expand public awareness of CSR use should be made to improve child passenger safety practices and eliminate child injury caused by traffic collisions. PMID: 28534715 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 23, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Liu S, Zhou H, Ma J, Wang C, Chen Z, Chen S, Yang Y, Liu X, Peng J, Duan L, Deng X Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

German Taxi Drivers' Experience and Expression of Driving Anger: Are the Driving Anger Scale and the Driving Anger Expression Inventory Valid Measures?
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the STAXI can be applied to professional German taxi drivers. In contrast, for the DAS and the DAX we found particular shorter versions for professional taxi drivers. Especially for the DAX most statements were too strong for German drivers to agree to. They do not show behaviors related to driving anger expression as they are described in the DAX. These problems with the original American DAX items are in line with several other studies in different countries. Future investigations should examine whether (professional) drivers from further countries express their anger as proposed by the DAX....
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 19, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Brandenburg S, Oehl M, Seigies K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 28350267 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 31, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Epidemiology and patterns of facial fractures due to road traffic accidents in Taiwan. A 15  years retrospective study.
CONCLUSION: Most facial injuries in Taiwan occur in young males and typically result from RTAs, particularly involving motorcycles. However, with increasing age, there is an increase in the proportion of facial injuries due to falls. PMID: 28340303 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 24, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yang CS, Chen SC, Yang YC, Huang LC, Guo HR, Yang HY Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Opportunities for Crash and Injury Reduction: A Multi-Harm Approach for Crash Data Analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The developed methods represent a new approach to crash data mining that is expected to be useful for the identification of research priorities and opportunities for reduction of crashes and injuries. As the pace of crash safety improvement accelerates with innovations in both active and passive safety, these techniques for combining outcome measures for insights beyond fatality and serious injury will be increasingly valuable. PMID: 28340317 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 24, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mallory A, Kender A, Moorhouse K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Occupant-to-Occupant Contact Injury in Motor Vehicle Crashes.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: This is a descriptive study of the frequency and risk of occupant-to-occupant contact injury by crash type and occupant age. It focused on rear impacts because of a recent Senate inquiry. METHODS: 1994-2013 NASS-CDS data was used to investigate the effects of occupant-to-occupant contact on the risk of serious-to-fatal injury (AIS 3+) by crash type and age group. NASS-CDS in-depth cases were analyzed to identify crash circumstances for AIS 3+ occupant-to-occupant contact injury in rear crashes. RESULTS: Serious injury (AIS 3+) due to occupant-to-occupant contact was uncommon. It repre...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 23, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Viano DC, Parenteau CS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Male and female WorldSID and post mortem human subject responses in full-scale vehicle tests.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to compare the responses of PMHS and male and female dummies in MDB and pole tests, done using the same recent model year vehicles with side airbag and head curtain restraints. The differences between the dummy and PMHS torso accelerations suggest the need for design improvements in the WorldSID dummy. The translation-based metrics suggested low probability of head injury. As the dummy internal sensor under-recorded the peak deflection, multi-point displacement measures are therefore, needed for a more accurate quantification of deflection to improve the safety assessment of occupants. ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 23, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yoganandan N, Humm J, Pintar F, Rhule H, Moorhouse K, Suntay B, Stricklin J, Rudd R, Craig M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Age-related changes in thoracic skeletal geometry of elderly females.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new geometric data regarding the variability in anthropometry of adult females with age and has utility in advancing the veracity of current human body models. A simplified scaffold representation of underlying 3-dimensional bones within the thorax is presented, and the reported young and old female parameter sets can be used to characterize the anatomic differences expected with age and to both validate and drive morphing algorithms for aged human body models. The modular approach taken allows model parameters to hold inherent and intuitive meaning, offering advantages over more generalize...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 23, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Holcombe SA, Wang SC, Grotberg JB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Perceived Enjoyment, Concentration, Intention and Speed Violation Behavior: Using Flow Theory and Theory of Planned Behavior.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that safety interventions for preventing speed violation behaviors should be aimed at underlying beliefs influencing the speeding behaviors of drivers of advanced vehicles. Furthermore, perceived enjoyment is of equal importance to the driver's intention, influencing speed violation behavior. PMID: 28332869 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 23, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Atombo C, Wu C, Zhang H, Wemegah TD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Identifying Factors Affecting the Safety of Mid-block Bicycle Lanes Considering Mixed Two-wheeled Traffic Flow.
CONCLUSIONS: The conflict frequency in mid-block bike lanes can be modeled using generalized linear regression models. The factors that significantly affected the frequency of rear-end conflicts included the operating speeds of e-bikes, the speed difference of the e-bikes and regular bikes, the volume of e-bikes, the volume of bikes and the width of bike lanes. The safety performance model can help better understand the causes of crash occurrences in mid-block bike lanes. PMID: 28326809 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 22, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bai L, Chan CY, Liu P, Xu C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Development of potential methods for testing congestion control algorithm implemented in vehicle to vehicle communications.
Conclusions The potential test procedures for congestion control algorithm are developed based on the simulation results of channel busy percentage and the GPS data generation algorithm. The test tools can examine the requirement compliance automatically and objectively. The required number of reference units should be further validated using real OBEs before implementing these potential test procedures. PMID: 28323434 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 21, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hsu CJ, Fikentscher J, Kreeb R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An investigation of Human Body Model morphing for the assessment of abdomen responses to impact against a population of test subjects.
CONCLUSIONS: While the methodology could be further improved, it shows the feasibility of using model scaling methodologies to compare human models of different sizes and to evaluate scaling approaches within the context of human model validation. PMID: 28323442 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 21, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Beillas P, Berthet F Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluating Driver Drowsiness Countermeasures.
Conclusions The results indicate that simple in-vehicle countermeasures, such as an auditory-visual coffee cup icon, can reduce the frequency of drowsy lane departures in the context of relatively short drives. An important next step is to evaluate the impact of drowsiness countermeasures in the context of longer, multiple-hour drives. In these cases, it may not be possible to keep drivers awake via feedback warnings and it is important to understand whether countermeasures prompt drivers to stop to rest. The next phase of this research project will examine role of drowsiness countermeasures over longer drives using a prot...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 21, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gaspar JG, Brown TL, Schwarz CW, Lee JD, Kang J, Higgins JS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research