A framework for definition of logical scenarios for safety assurance of automated driving.
Conclusions: Defining a limited number of safety-relevant scenarios helps to realize a systematic safety assurance process for automated vehicles. Scenarios are defined based on the point of the potential collision of a challenging object with the subject vehicle and its initial position. This approach allows defining scenarios for different environments and different driving states of the subject vehicle using the same mechanisms. A next step is the generation of logical scenarios for other driving states of the subject vehicle and for other traffic environments. PMID: 31381437 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Weber H, Bock J, Klimke J, Roesener C, Hiller J, Krajewski R, Zlocki A, Eckstein L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of automated versus manual emergency braking on rear seat adult and pediatric occupant precrash motion.
Conclusions: Across all ages, head and trunk excursions were greater in MEB than AEB, despite increased muscle activity in MEB. This observation may suggest an ineffective attempt to brace the head or a startle reflex. The increased excursion in MEB compared to AEB may be attributed to differences in the acceleration pulses between the 2 scenarios. These results suggest that AEB systems can use specific deceleration profiles that have potential to reduce occupant motion across diverse age groups compared to sudden maximum emergency braking applied manually. PMID: 31381438 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Graci V, Douglas E, Seacrist T, Kerrigan J, Mansfield J, Bolte J, Sherony R, Hallman J, Arbogast KB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

THOR dummy chest deflection response in oblique and lateral far-side sled tests.
Conclusion: The chestbands provide a unique opportunity to compute peak deflections that parallel current IR-TRACC-type deflections and allow computation of peak deflections independent of the initial point of attachment to the rib. The differing locations of the peak deflection vectors along the rib contours for different test conditions suggest that a priori attachment is less effective. Further, varying magnitudes of the differences between ID and TD metrics underscore the difficulty in extrapolating ID outputs under different conditions: Pure lateral versus oblique, airbag presence, and thoracic levels. Deflection meas...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yoganandan N, Hauschild H, Humm J, Purushothaman Y, Pintar FA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Banging heads onboard buses: Assessment scheme to improve injury mitigation for bus passengers.
Conclusions: A novel analysis of CCTV footage has enabled a better understanding of injury mechanisms for bus passengers to be developed. In combination with inspection of current buses, this has been used to develop an assessment system to improve the safety of buses in London. PMID: 31381440 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Edwards M, Edwards A, Appleby J, Beaumont D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Posture and belt fit in reclined passenger seats.
Conclusions: Spine posture changes as the torso reclines in an automotive seat, and belt fit is altered by the change in posture. The results can be used to accurately position crash test dummies and computation human models and to guide the design of belt restraints. PMID: 31381441 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Reed MP, Ebert SM, Jones MLH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Residual road departure crashes after full deployment of LDW and LDP systems.
Conclusions: For LDP systems, which were assumed to have zero latency, no crashes were avoided if the time-to-collision (TTC) from lane crossing to impact was less than 0.55 s. Obstacles such as guardrails and traffic barriers, which tend to be very close to the road, were more common among the remaining crashes. The study shows that LDW/LDP systems are limited by two factors, driver reaction time and TTC to the roadside object. Thus, earlier driver response and longer TTC may help in these situations. PMID: 31381442 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Riexinger LE, Sherony R, Gabler HC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Functional decomposition-A contribution to overcome the parameter space explosion during validation of highly automated driving.
Conclusions: The reduction potential is a valuable contribution to overcome the parameter space explosion during the validation of highly automated driving. However, this study is based on assumptions and only a small set of exemplary scenarios. Thus, the findings have to be validated in further studies. PMID: 31381443 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Amersbach C, Winner H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Situational characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents involving vehicles traveling at low speeds in Japan.
This study aimed to investigate the situational characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents involving vehicles traveling at low speeds in Japan. We focused on vehicles with 4 or more wheels. Such characteristics included daytime or nighttime conditions, road type, vehicle behaviors preceding the accident, and vehicle impact locations. Methods: Pedestrian fatality data on vehicle-pedestrian accidents were obtained from the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan (ITARDA) from 2005 to 2014. Nine vehicle classifications were considered: Trucks with gross vehicle weight (GVW) ≥7.5 tons and
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matsui Y, Oikawa S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Test procedure for evaluating the human-machine interface of vehicles with automated driving systems.
Conclusions: Each can be used as a stand-alone method or in combination to generate objective, reliable, and valid evaluations of HMIs, focusing on whether they meet minimum requirements. However, we also emphasize that other evaluation aspects such as controllability, misuse, and acceptance are not within the scope of the evaluation protocol. PMID: 31381445 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Naujoks F, Hergeth S, Wiedemann K, Schömig N, Forster Y, Keinath A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safety assessment of automated vehicles: how to determine whether we have collected enough field data?
Conclusion: The presented case studies illustrate that the proposed method is able to quantify the degree of completeness of a small set of field data and can be used to deduce whether sufficient data have been collected for the purpose of the field study. Future work will focus on applying the proposed method to larger data sets. The proposed method will be used to evaluate the level of completeness of the data collection on Singaporean roads, aimed at defining relevant test cases for the autonomous vehicle road approval procedure that is being developed in Singapore. PMID: 31381446 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Tra...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: de Gelder E, Paardekooper JP, Op den Camp O, De Schutter B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Estimated benefit of automated emergency braking systems for vehicle-pedestrian crashes in the United States.
Conclusions: Though not all crashes could be avoided, AEB significantly mitigated risk to pedestrians. The longer the TTC of braking and the shorter the latency value, the higher benefits showed by the AEB system. All AEB models used in this study were estimated to reduce fatalities and injuries and were more effective when combined with driver braking. PMID: 31381447 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Haus SH, Sherony R, Gabler HC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Intersection AEB implementation strategies for left turn across path crashes.
Conclusions: Implementation strategy and safety zone definition strongly influence the real-life performance of intersection AEB. AEB should be applied not only for the turning vehicle but also for the straight-going vehicle to benefit from the full potential. Situationally appropriate safety zone definitions, in line with human hazard perception, need more attention and are a key to balance true positive and false positive performance. Remaining delta-V does not decrease broadly; hence, there is no evidence that future LTAP/OD crashes will be generally of lower severity. This highlights the need for continuous development...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sander U, Lubbe N, Pietzsch S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Improvement of driver active interventions during automated driving by displaying trajectory pointers-A driving simulator study.
This article proposes an HMI that constantly indicates the future position of the vehicle. Methods: This research used the Toyota Dynamic Driving Simulator to evaluate the effect of the proposed HMI and compares the proposed HMI with an HMI that notifies the driver when the vehicle trajectory changes. A total of 48 test subjects were divided into 2 groups of 24: One group used the HMI that constantly indicated the future position of the vehicle and the other group used the HMI that provided information when the vehicle trajectory changed. The following instructions were given to the test subjects: (1) to not hold the steer...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ono S, Sasaki H, Kumon H, Fuwamoto Y, Kondo S, Narumi T, Tanikawa T, Hirose M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The potential of vehicle and road infrastructure interventions in fatal bicyclist accidents on Swedish roads-What can in-depth studies tell us?
Conclusions: The majority of fatally injured bicyclists studied could potentially be saved with known techniques. A speedy implementation of important vehicle safety systems is recommended. A fast introduction of effective interventions in the road infrastructure is also necessary, preferably with a plan for prioritization. PMID: 31381450 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kullgren A, Stigson H, Ydenius A, Axelsson A, Engström E, Rizzi M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Frontal crash simulations using parametric human models representing a diverse population.
Conclusions: This study is the first to use a large set of diverse FE human models to investigate the combined effects of age, sex, stature, and BMI on injury risks in frontal crashes. The study demonstrated that parametric human models can effectively predict the injury trends for the population and may now be used to optimize restraint systems for people who are not similar in size and shape to the available anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). New restraints that adapt to occupant age, sex, stature, and body shape may improve crash safety for all occupants. PMID: 31381451 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hu J, Zhang K, Reed MP, Wang JT, Neal M, Lin CH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors contributing to serious and fatal injuries in belted rear seat occupants in frontal crashes.
Discussion: Rear seat occupants sustained serious and fatal injuries due to belt loading in crashes in which front seat occupants survived, suggesting a discrepancy in restraint performance between the front and rear rows. Restraint strategies that reduce loading to the chest should be considered, but there may be potential tradeoffs with increased head excursion, particularly in the absence of rear seat airbags. Any new restraint designs should consider the unique needs of the rear seat environment. PMID: 31381452 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jermakian J, Edwards M, Fein S, Maltese MR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Crash and injury prevention estimates for intersection driver assistance systems in left turn across path/opposite direction crashes in the United States.
Conclusions: This study presents the simulated effectiveness of a hypothetical intersection active safety system on real crashes that occurred in the United States. This work shows that there is a strong potential to reduce crashes and injuries in the United States. PMID: 31381453 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bareiss M, Scanlon J, Sherony R, Gabler HC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Relationship between frontal car-to-car test result and vehicle crash compatibility evaluation in mobile progressive deformable barrier test.
Conclusions: The currently proposed compatibility evaluation method of the MPDB test showed some tendency to overestimate the effect of SD change and resulted in quantitatively inconsistent outcomes regarding occupant injury in the partner car in C2C impact conditions. PMID: 31381454 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Watanabe T, Kuroda I, Nakajima T, Masuda M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prediction of probability of fatality due to brain injury in traffic accidents.
Conclusions: Prediction of the probability of fatality by means of a combination of simulations of the primary brain deformation and subsequent ICP increase was found to be more distinct compared to the prediction of primary injury alone combined with the injury probability function from a past study in the select 12 head impact cases. PMID: 31381455 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Takahashi Y, Yanaoka T, Sugaya H, Basilio AV, Xu P, Ateshian G, Morrison B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Rates and types of injuries during the three consecutive years 2016 to 2018 of the V ätternrundan-One of the world's largest and longest bicycle races.
Rates and types of injuries during the three consecutive years 2016 to 2018 of the Vätternrundan-One of the world's largest and longest bicycle races. Traffic Inj Prev. 2019 Aug 05;:1-4 Authors: Sillén K, Wallenius V Abstract Objective: The present study was performed during 3 consecutive years of the Vätternrundan in Sweden, one of the world's longest and largest bicycle races. The aim was to examine the rates and types of injuries to participating cyclists in order to identify the reasons and mechanisms for injury, with the purpose of decreasing the risk of injury. Method: A retrosp...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sillén K, Wallenius V Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Neurologic injuries following road traffic accidents in the Dominican Republic: Examining causes and potential solutions.
This study examines RTA-related TBIs in the Dominican Republic, a country in the Caribbean with the highest RTA fatality rate in the Western Hemisphere. Methods: We interviewed 117 adult patients or medical guardians of patients admitted to Hospital Traumatológico Dr. Ney Arias Lora in Santo Domingo following an RTA. Information regarding the type of accident, patient demographics, and injuries sustained was collected for each patient. Results: Most study participants were males (79.5%), and the most common method of transportation was motorized 2-wheeled vehicle (MTW; 74.4%). Of the 69 patients who suffered a TBI, ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Reddy SP, Walsh MS, Paulino-Ramirez R, Florenzán J, Fernández J, Nwariaku FE, Abdelnaby A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Fatal side impact crash scenarios for rear seat and seat belt-restrained occupants from vulnerable populations.
Conclusions: Older adults suffered thoracic injuries at a higher rate than older children-who suffered predominately head injuries-and most vehicles did not have torso SABs installed, which could have mitigated thoracic injuries. Side impacts in which younger occupants were killed were more severe than impacts that resulted in the death of an older occupant; however, vehicle damage and intrusion in many fatal impacts for both age cohorts appeared similar to that of consumer information testing. Large pickups and heavy vehicles were the striking vehicle in over half of all fatalities; vehicle designs and crash tests should ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fein SM, Jermakian JS, Arbogast KB, Maltese MR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Speeding behavior and speed limits for heterogeneous bicycle flow.
Conclusions: The suggested speed limit values for different bicycle traffic flow can help to improve speed limit laws and policies for bicycle traffic. PMID: 31381427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Xu C, Guo H, Xu L, Jin S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Validated thoracic vertebrae and costovertebral joints increase biofidelity of a human body model in hub impacts.
Conclusions: Deformable T-spine and CV joint validation has not been previously published and yielded high biofidelity in rear impact and notable improvement in lateral impact at the full body level. Future work will focus on localized T-spine injury criteria made possible by the introduction of this fully deformable representation of the anatomy. PMID: 31364878 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Aira J, Guleyupoglu B, Jones D, Koya B, Davis M, Gayzik FS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors affecting use and nonuse of child safety car seats in Gorgan, Iran.
Conclusion: Special instructions should be developed to create incentive strategies for using a child safety seat. Mandating the use of a child safety seat, equipping cars with a child safety seat, encouraging children to use it, and providing continuous education and training are important factors for increasing the use of child safety seats. PMID: 31356109 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tavakoli Z, Davoodi SR, Azimmohseni M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The utility of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) measures obtained from oral fluid samples in traffic safety.
Conclusions: The findings of this study are based on THC measures obtained in a laboratory, which may not be the same as those conducted by police using point-of-care devices. However, this study is unique due to its large sample of drivers obtained in similar roadside locations and times to actual law enforcement activities. Though a positive THCOF may assist law enforcement in probable cause for a blood draw, efforts to develop reliable methods to detect drug impairment based on OF should continue. PMID: 31356118 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Romano E, Moore C, Kelley-Baker T, Torres-Saavedra PA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of finite element human body models for use in a standardized protocol for pedestrian safety assessment.
Conclusions: All simulations normal terminated. For each of the simulations, sagittal plane coordinate histories of the center of the head, 12th thoracic vertebrae, and center of acetabulum were compared with standard corridors and did not exceed the tolerance of 50 mm deviation. Head contact time was also compared with the reference values and did not exceed the tolerance interval of +3.5% and -7%. Comparison of contact forces was required for monitoring purposes only. The head contact time of the models for each simulation was recorded and compared by model size, impact speed, and vehicle geometry. Head contact ti...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Decker W, Koya B, Pak W, Untaroiu CD, Gayzik FS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Social distance and texting while driving: A behavioral economic analysis of social discounting.
Conclusion: The findings indicate that social distance of the sender is an important factor involved in the decision to text while driving. Participants were more likely to reply to a text while driving if the sender was less socially distant. When they were closer to their destination, they were less likely to reply to socially distant people than those closer to them. The roles that social consequences play in drivers' decision making to text while driving are discussed. PMID: 31356123 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Foreman AM, Hayashi Y, Friedel JE, Wirth O Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Associations between driving under the influence or riding with an impaired driver and future substance use among adolescents.
Conclusions: RWID and DUI are significantly associated with greater alcohol and marijuana use over time. This study highlights that teens may be at higher risk for problem substance use in the future even if they ride with someone who is impaired. Prevention and intervention efforts for adolescents need to address both driving under the influence and riding with an impaired driver to prevent downstream consequences. PMID: 31356125 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 29, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Osilla KC, Seelam R, Parast L, D'Amico EJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A simulator study of driving behavior and mental workload in mixed-use arterial road environments.
Conclusion: The findings provide insight into the interaction of road design elements in mixed-use urban road environments and demonstrate that increasingly complex environments increase driver demand. This has important road design implications for mixed-use arterial roads, which are often characterized by complex interactions between multiple road user groups. PMID: 31339360 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: O'Hern S, Stephan K, Qiu J, Oxley J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Suicide by crashing into a heavy vehicle: Focus on professional drivers using in-depth crash data.
Conclusions: Suicides by crashing into heavy vehicles can have an impact on drivers' well-being; however, it is difficult to see how heavy-vehicle drivers could avoid a suicide attempt involving their vehicle. PMID: 31329464 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Radun I, Parkkari I, Radun J, Kaistinen J, Kecklund G, Olivier J, Tervo T, Theorell T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Can real-life driving ability be predicted by the Maintenance of Wakefulness Test?
Conclusions: MWT results correlate poorly with driving performance in a 2-h test irrespective of sleep latency cutoff or added alpha/microsleep latency data. Better diagnostic tools are needed to evaluate driving performance in patients with EDS. PMID: 31329466 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Virtanen I, Järvinen J, Anttalainen U Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

How safe are standard certified motorcycle safety helmets? Malaysian postal delivery riders scenario.
The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of motorcycle safety helmets (MSHs) used by postal delivery riders (PDRs) that comply with the Standards and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia's (SIRIM) MSH standard guidelines and identify factors that contribute toward compliance of used MSHs with the standards. Methods: The presence of SIRIM certification label, the status of MSH, type of chinstrap, MSH crash history, and duration of MSH use were observed. The dependent variable was the results of the SIRIM testing procedures (SIRIM tests). MSHs that passed the SIRIM tests were considered "standard...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yellappan K, K C Mani K, Md Tamrin SB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving safety improves after individualized training: An RCT involving older drivers in an urban area.
Conclusion: This study adds to the growing evidence base in support of individualized older driver training to optimize older drivers' safety and promote continued safe driving. PMID: 31329470 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gagnon S, Stinchcombe A, Curtis M, Kateb M, Polgar J, Porter MM, Bédard M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparison of epidemiology and injury profile between vulnerable road users and motor vehicle occupants in road traffic fatalities.
This study aimed to compare VRUs and motor vehicle occupants (MVOs) in terms of epidemiology and injury profile. Methods: We utilized a nationwide, prospective database of RTI-related mortality cases for patients who visited 23 emergency departments between January 2011 and December 2015. All fatalities due to RTIs in the prehospital phase or in-hospital were eligible, excluding patients with unknown mode of transport and those admitted to general wards. The primary and secondary outcomes were fracture injuries and visceral injuries diagnosed using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10). We c...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kim SC, Lee HJ, Kim JM, Kong SY, Park JS, Jeon HJ, In YN, Kim H, Lee SW, Kim YT Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Implications of head and neck restraint test repeatability for specification improvement.
Conclusion: With the addition of common test setup constraints, which do not violate the specification, the SFI 38.1 test protocol produced a repeatable test process for determining performance capabilities of HNRs within a single sled lab. A limited study using polyester webbing seat belt assemblies versus the nylon material called for in SFI 38.1 indicates that the material likely has less effects on ATD upper neck axial force and flexion extension bending moment time histories than the test setup freedom currently available within the specification. The additional test setup constraints are discussed and were shown to i...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Patalak JP, Harper MG, Stitzel JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Spatial analysis of mortality rate of pedestrian accidents in Iran during 2012-2013.
Conclusions: According to the cluster pattern of accidents in the 3 provinces and the presence of hot spots in 9 provinces, it is necessary to identify factors that increase the risk of death in the study provinces in order to reduce the mortality rate among pedestrians due to traffic accidents. Therefore, to reduce the pedestrian mortality rate, especially in high-risk provinces, some studies need to be conducted to determine the risk factors in pedestrian mortality. PMID: 31283359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hasani J, Erfanpoor S, Rajabi A, Barzegar A, Khodadoost M, Afkar M, Hashemi Nazari SS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Automobile injury trends in the contemporary fleet: Belted occupants in frontal collisions.
Conclusions: For belted occupants in frontal collisions, substantial reductions in injury risk have been realized in many body regions in recent years. Risk reduction in the thorax has lagged other body regions, resulting in increasing prevalence among skeletal injuries in newer model year vehicles (especially in the elderly). Injuries also remain common in the arm and hand/wrist for all age ranges studied. These results provide insight into where advances in the field have made gains in occupant protection and what injury types remain to be addressed. PMID: 31283362 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Forman J, Poplin GS, Shaw CG, McMurry TL, Schmidt K, Ash J, Sunnevang C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Trends and patterns in fatal US motorcycle crashes, 2000-2016.
Conclusion: Motorcycle fatality rates increased overall and across all age groups between 2000 and 2016. Fatalities for the oldest riders showed the steadiest increasing trends. Results highlight the continued public health burden of motorcyclist fatalities and, by extension, the importance of improving motorcycle safety. PMID: 31283363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chaudhuri U, Ratnapradipa KL, Shen S, Rice TM, Smith GA, Zhu M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving difficulties as reported by older drivers with mild cognitive impairment and without neurological impairment.
Conclusions: Though both group analyses show difficulties with switching from automatic to decision making, the difficulties are different. For the control group, the difficulty in switching involves switching in new or unexpected situations associated with high-information-load conditions, whereas this switching difficulty for the MCI group is associated with divided attention between easier tasks requiring switching. These findings underline the ability of older drivers (with MCI and without cognitive impairment) to indicate probable impairments in various driving skills. The patterns of difficulties perceived by the MCI...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Vardaki S, Dickerson AE, Beratis I, Yannis G, Papageorgiou SG Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Improving pedestrian safety using combined HOG and Haar partial detection in mobile systems.
Conclusions: Performance improvement of the algorithm is compared with respect to state-of-the-art detectors/algorithms. Based on the detection rate and detection speed performance, it can be concluded that the proposed algorithm is suitable to be used for mobile systems to warn drivers about the possibility of collision with a pedestrian. PMID: 31246101 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mihçioğlu ME, Alkar AZ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Seating configuration and position preferences in fully automated vehicles.
Conclusions: This study has provided valuable insight regarding seating configuration and position preferences in an FAV, as well as predicted activities and restraint use. Future research will use this information to simulate likely injury outcomes of these preferences in the event of a motor vehicle crash and provide a basis for the design of occupant protection systems for FAVs. PMID: 31246512 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Koppel S, Jiménez Octavio J, Bohman K, Logan D, Raphael W, Quintana Jimenez L, Lopez-Valdes F Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Fatal motorcycle crashes in wide urban area of Zagreb, Croatia-A 10-year review.
Conclusions: Alcohol intoxication has a major role in motorcycle crash-related mortality. A significant difference in BAC between fatally injured riders responsible for the accident and those who were not responsible implies that measures directed toward prevention of drinking and driving behavior could lower the number of fatal motorcycle crashes. Weekend measures, especially during spring and summer, could have particularly significant effects. PMID: 31237793 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bakovic M, Mažuranić A, Petrovecki V, Mayer D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Epidemiology of alcohol and drug screening among pedestrian fatalities in the United States, 2014-2016.
Conclusions: Preventive strategies become more important as pedestrian crashes and fatalities increase. Risk reduction in the form of policy change, alterations to the built environment, or interdisciplinary approaches to injury prevention is dependent upon best evidence supported in part by more deliberate and consistent screening. PMID: 31225741 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Thomas M, Riemann B, Jones J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of bicycle crashes in Sweden involving injuries with high risk of health loss.
Conclusions: The types of crashes leading to health loss do not substantially differ from those that do not result in health loss. Two thirds of injuries leading to health loss occur in single bicycle crashes. In addition to separating cyclists from motorized traffic, other preventive strategies are needed. PMID: 31225743 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ohlin M, Algurén B, Lie A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving anger among motor vehicle drivers in China: A cross-sectional survey.
Conclusion: Driving anger is a common emotion among Chinese drivers and has a strong correlation with aggressive driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID: 31225746 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fei G, Zhang X, Yang Y, Yao H, Yang J, Li X, Gao L, Zhou Y, Ming W, Stallones L, Xiang H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Social environment versus cycling competency predicting risk-taking in 11- to 13-year-old cyclists in The Netherlands.
Conclusions: At least 20% of children sometimes or more often take risks in traffic. Children who feel peer pressure to behave in a risky manner, observe parents and friends behaving in a risky manner in traffic, and have been exposed as passengers to risky driving more often take risks in traffic themselves. These results provide support for including items on risky road behavior in health monitors and to design interventions that address the risk factors in the child's perceived social environment. PMID: 31199691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Twisk D, Vlakveld W Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Trends in bicycle-related injuries, hospital admissions, and deaths in the USA 1997-2013.
Conclusion: On a per participant basis, the rate of cycling-related injuries and hospital admissions increased between 1997 and 2013. This trend likely reflects a combination of shifting demographics among cyclists with an increase in older cyclists who are at increased risk of severe injury. PMID: 31199704 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fergus KB, Sanford T, Vargo J, Breyer BN Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A multinomial logit analysis of factors associated with severity of motorcycle crashes in Ghana.
Conclusions: This study provides further empirical evidence to support motorcycle crash modeling research, which is lacking in developing countries. The ability to understand the various factors that influence motorcycle crash severity is a step forward in providing an appropriate basis upon which informed motorcycle crash policies can be developed. Particular attention should be given to the provision of road signage at junctions and speed humps and controlling traffic during the weekend. In addition, road maintenance should be carried out periodically to address motorcycle safety in Ghana. PMID: 31194580 [PubMed - a...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wahab L, Jiang H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Marijuana trajectories and associations with driving risk behaviors in Canadian youth.
Conclusions: Harm reduction strategies and legislative approaches targeting impaired driving risks associated with marijuana use should include approaches to target these high-risk groups and to reduce simultaneous use of alcohol. PMID: 31194581 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sukhawathanakul P, Thompson K, Brubacher J, Leadbeater B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research