Crash rates of convertible cars
CONCLUSIONS: Safety concerns associated with convertibles' retractable roof structures were not supported by the results of this study.PMID:33709841 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1888084 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Eric R Teoh Source Type: research

Injury risk curves in far-side lateral motor vehicle crashes by AIS level, body region and injury code
The objective of this study was to develop injury risk curves as a function of change in vehicle velocity for occupants in far-side lateral motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) by AIS level, body region, and specific AIS codes that commonly occur in this crash mode.METHODS: The National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) years 2000-2015 database was queried, resulting in 4,495 non-weighted far-side crashes. For each case, occupant age, sex, and the following metadata were collected: vehicle model year, vehicle body type, lateral delta-v, normalized PDOF, multiple impacts, belt use, seat position, obj...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zachary S Hostetler Fang-Chi Hsu Ryan Barnard Derek A Jones Matthew L Davis Ashley A Weaver F Scott Gayzik Source Type: research

Field testing the applicability of motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB) during pre-crash avoidance maneuver
CONCLUSIONS: MAEB interventions with decelerations up to 0.3 g can be easily managed by motorcycle riders not only in straight-line conditions but also during an avoidance maneuver. Further investigations using higher deceleration values are now possible.PMID:33709844 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1884235 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cosimo Lucci Niccol ò Baldanzini Giovanni Savino Source Type: research

An overview of tram tracks related cycling injuries in Ghent, Belgium
Traffic Inj Prev. 2021 Mar 12:1-9. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2021.1888941. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of data on the incidence and severity of tram tracks related cycling injuries. The aim of this study is to get insight into the incidence, severity and characteristics of tram tracks related cycling injuries, potentially defining significant 'hotspots' in the Ghent city area.METHODS: A one-year, multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted. Patients presenting to the emergency departments of all 4 Ghent hospitals with tram tracks related cycling injury, were included. Data on pat...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: P Leune E Steen P De Paepe C Lyphout Source Type: research

Drug use and pattern of injuries sustained by drivers involved in road traffic crashes
CONCLUSIONS: Substance use, especially methadone, has undoubtedly a significant role in both road traffic crashes and resulted injuries. The high rate of injuries on drivers influenced by methadone in traffic crashes needs to be screened and prevented. It is recommended to not only authoritatively deal with the excessive supply of methadone in the community but also restricting the driving of people receiving methadone treatment.PMID:33709853 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1889528 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Parisa Divsalar Mehrnoosh Mohammadi Kouros Divsalar Source Type: research

Analysis of drink-driving behavior: Considering the subjective and objective factors of drivers
CONCLUSIONS: A more nuanced understanding of the influence of drivers to drink-driving behavior can be found in these results. These results about the influence mechanism of subjective and objective factors on drink-driving behavior of this study have implications for governments and other interested bodies for better targeting and delivery of public education campaigns and interventions.PMID:33709857 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1873301 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jin Jie-Ling Deng Yuan-Chang Source Type: research

Restraint systems considering occupant diversity and pre-crash posture
CONCLUSIONS: This study investigated the effects of occupant size and shape variability, posture, and restraint design on injury risk for high-speed frontal crashes. More forward initial postures due to active safety features may decrease head, neck, and lower extremity injury risk, but may also increase chest injury risk. Safety concerns observed for large occupants include head strike-through and a conflict between head and chest injuries. Obese occupants had higher knee-thigh-hip injury risk. New restraints that adapt to occupant size and body shape may improve crash safety for all occupants. Further investigation is ne...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kyle Boyle Abeselom Fanta Matthew P Reed Kurt Fischer Alex Smith Angelo Adler Jingwen Hu Source Type: research

Crash rates of convertible cars
CONCLUSIONS: Safety concerns associated with convertibles' retractable roof structures were not supported by the results of this study.PMID:33709841 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1888084 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Eric R Teoh Source Type: research

Injury risk curves in far-side lateral motor vehicle crashes by AIS level, body region and injury code
The objective of this study was to develop injury risk curves as a function of change in vehicle velocity for occupants in far-side lateral motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) by AIS level, body region, and specific AIS codes that commonly occur in this crash mode.METHODS: The National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) years 2000-2015 database was queried, resulting in 4,495 non-weighted far-side crashes. For each case, occupant age, sex, and the following metadata were collected: vehicle model year, vehicle body type, lateral delta-v, normalized PDOF, multiple impacts, belt use, seat position, obj...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zachary S Hostetler Fang-Chi Hsu Ryan Barnard Derek A Jones Matthew L Davis Ashley A Weaver F Scott Gayzik Source Type: research

Field testing the applicability of motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB) during pre-crash avoidance maneuver
CONCLUSIONS: MAEB interventions with decelerations up to 0.3 g can be easily managed by motorcycle riders not only in straight-line conditions but also during an avoidance maneuver. Further investigations using higher deceleration values are now possible.PMID:33709844 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1884235 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cosimo Lucci Niccol ò Baldanzini Giovanni Savino Source Type: research

An overview of tram tracks related cycling injuries in Ghent, Belgium
Traffic Inj Prev. 2021 Mar 12:1-9. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2021.1888941. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of data on the incidence and severity of tram tracks related cycling injuries. The aim of this study is to get insight into the incidence, severity and characteristics of tram tracks related cycling injuries, potentially defining significant 'hotspots' in the Ghent city area.METHODS: A one-year, multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted. Patients presenting to the emergency departments of all 4 Ghent hospitals with tram tracks related cycling injury, were included. Data on pat...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: P Leune E Steen P De Paepe C Lyphout Source Type: research

Drug use and pattern of injuries sustained by drivers involved in road traffic crashes
CONCLUSIONS: Substance use, especially methadone, has undoubtedly a significant role in both road traffic crashes and resulted injuries. The high rate of injuries on drivers influenced by methadone in traffic crashes needs to be screened and prevented. It is recommended to not only authoritatively deal with the excessive supply of methadone in the community but also restricting the driving of people receiving methadone treatment.PMID:33709853 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1889528 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Parisa Divsalar Mehrnoosh Mohammadi Kouros Divsalar Source Type: research

Analysis of drink-driving behavior: Considering the subjective and objective factors of drivers
CONCLUSIONS: A more nuanced understanding of the influence of drivers to drink-driving behavior can be found in these results. These results about the influence mechanism of subjective and objective factors on drink-driving behavior of this study have implications for governments and other interested bodies for better targeting and delivery of public education campaigns and interventions.PMID:33709857 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1873301 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jin Jie-Ling Deng Yuan-Chang Source Type: research

Restraint systems considering occupant diversity and pre-crash posture
CONCLUSIONS: This study investigated the effects of occupant size and shape variability, posture, and restraint design on injury risk for high-speed frontal crashes. More forward initial postures due to active safety features may decrease head, neck, and lower extremity injury risk, but may also increase chest injury risk. Safety concerns observed for large occupants include head strike-through and a conflict between head and chest injuries. Obese occupants had higher knee-thigh-hip injury risk. New restraints that adapt to occupant size and body shape may improve crash safety for all occupants. Further investigation is ne...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kyle Boyle Abeselom Fanta Matthew P Reed Kurt Fischer Alex Smith Angelo Adler Jingwen Hu Source Type: research

Crash rates of convertible cars
CONCLUSIONS: Safety concerns associated with convertibles' retractable roof structures were not supported by the results of this study.PMID:33709841 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1888084 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Eric R Teoh Source Type: research

Injury risk curves in far-side lateral motor vehicle crashes by AIS level, body region and injury code
The objective of this study was to develop injury risk curves as a function of change in vehicle velocity for occupants in far-side lateral motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) by AIS level, body region, and specific AIS codes that commonly occur in this crash mode.METHODS: The National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) years 2000-2015 database was queried, resulting in 4,495 non-weighted far-side crashes. For each case, occupant age, sex, and the following metadata were collected: vehicle model year, vehicle body type, lateral delta-v, normalized PDOF, multiple impacts, belt use, seat position, obj...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zachary S Hostetler Fang-Chi Hsu Ryan Barnard Derek A Jones Matthew L Davis Ashley A Weaver F Scott Gayzik Source Type: research

Field testing the applicability of motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB) during pre-crash avoidance maneuver
CONCLUSIONS: MAEB interventions with decelerations up to 0.3 g can be easily managed by motorcycle riders not only in straight-line conditions but also during an avoidance maneuver. Further investigations using higher deceleration values are now possible.PMID:33709844 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1884235 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cosimo Lucci Niccol ò Baldanzini Giovanni Savino Source Type: research

An overview of tram tracks related cycling injuries in Ghent, Belgium
Traffic Inj Prev. 2021 Mar 12:1-9. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2021.1888941. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: There is a paucity of data on the incidence and severity of tram tracks related cycling injuries. The aim of this study is to get insight into the incidence, severity and characteristics of tram tracks related cycling injuries, potentially defining significant 'hotspots' in the Ghent city area.METHODS: A one-year, multicenter, prospective, observational study was conducted. Patients presenting to the emergency departments of all 4 Ghent hospitals with tram tracks related cycling injury, were included. Data on pat...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: P Leune E Steen P De Paepe C Lyphout Source Type: research

Drug use and pattern of injuries sustained by drivers involved in road traffic crashes
CONCLUSIONS: Substance use, especially methadone, has undoubtedly a significant role in both road traffic crashes and resulted injuries. The high rate of injuries on drivers influenced by methadone in traffic crashes needs to be screened and prevented. It is recommended to not only authoritatively deal with the excessive supply of methadone in the community but also restricting the driving of people receiving methadone treatment.PMID:33709853 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1889528 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Parisa Divsalar Mehrnoosh Mohammadi Kouros Divsalar Source Type: research

Analysis of drink-driving behavior: Considering the subjective and objective factors of drivers
CONCLUSIONS: A more nuanced understanding of the influence of drivers to drink-driving behavior can be found in these results. These results about the influence mechanism of subjective and objective factors on drink-driving behavior of this study have implications for governments and other interested bodies for better targeting and delivery of public education campaigns and interventions.PMID:33709857 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1873301 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jin Jie-Ling Deng Yuan-Chang Source Type: research

Restraint systems considering occupant diversity and pre-crash posture
CONCLUSIONS: This study investigated the effects of occupant size and shape variability, posture, and restraint design on injury risk for high-speed frontal crashes. More forward initial postures due to active safety features may decrease head, neck, and lower extremity injury risk, but may also increase chest injury risk. Safety concerns observed for large occupants include head strike-through and a conflict between head and chest injuries. Obese occupants had higher knee-thigh-hip injury risk. New restraints that adapt to occupant size and body shape may improve crash safety for all occupants. Further investigation is ne...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kyle Boyle Abeselom Fanta Matthew P Reed Kurt Fischer Alex Smith Angelo Adler Jingwen Hu Source Type: research

Injury patterns within clusters of seriously injured occupants comparing real-world crashes in the United States and the European Union
CONCLUSIONS: Remarkably similar injury patterns at the MAIS 3+ level have been found in U.S. and German accident data sets after controlling for nine different parameters. This research provides evidence to indicate that how belted vehicle occupants are severely injured in the U.S. and in the EU is not necessarily different.PMID:33688752 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2020.1862805 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rocio Suarez-Del Fueyo Mirko Junge Francisco Lopez-Valdes Hampton Clay Gabler Lukas Woerner Stefan Hiermaier Source Type: research

Investigating the effects of driving environment and driver characteristics on drivers' compliance with speed limits
CONCLUSION: This is the first exploratory study which investigated the speed compliance behavior of Indian drivers. Findings of the present study may assist the road safety strategies and policy interventions in reducing the speed-related crashes.PMID:33688753 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1893699 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ankit Kumar Yadav Nagendra R Velaga Source Type: research

Female kinematics and muscle responses in lane change and lane change with braking maneuvers
This article quantifies the head center of gravity and T1 vertebra body (T1) linear and rotational displacements. This article also includes surface electromyography (EMG) data collected from 38 muscles in the neck, torso, and upper and lower extremities, all normalized by maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The raw EMG data were filtered, rectified, and smoothed. Separate Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed on EMG onset and amplitude as well as peak displacements of head and T1 considering 2 paired samples with the belt configuration as an independent variable.RESULTS: Significantly smaller lateral and forward disp...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ghazaleh Ghaffari Johan Davidsson Source Type: research

Comparison of injuries in multiple and single event crashes
Traffic Inj Prev. 2021 Mar 10:1-10. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2021.1878161. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTObjective: Compare injuries for occupants in multiple event (ME) crashes where a less severe event preceded a more severe event to occupants in similar single event (SE) crashes.Methods: Occupants in ME crashes from NASS-CDS years 2000-2015 where the most severe event occurred subsequent to a less severe event were matched to occupants in SE crashes where the SE was similar to the most severe event in the ME crash. Occupants were matched based on occupant, vehicle, and crash characteristics and were compared across 21 deta...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sophia K Tushak Timothy L McMurry Sang-Hyun Lee Seok-Ho Hong Jason R Kerrigan Source Type: research

Driving errors that predict simulated rear-end collisions in drivers with multiple sclerosis
This study examines whether adjustment to stimuli errors can detect the occurrence of collisions in a driving simulator in drivers with MS.METHODS: As part of a quasi-experiment, 38 participants with MS and 21 participants without MS completed visual-cognitive and driving simulator assessments, which also recorded their adjustment to stimuli maneuvers. We quantified participants' adjustment to stimuli maneuvers via initial pedal reaction time (seconds), time to collision (seconds), mean speed (meters per second), and the occurrence of rear-end collisions (collide vs. did not collide) when a simulated vehicle cut across the...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sarah Krasniuk Sherrilene Classen Sarah A Morrow Source Type: research

Evaluating disparities in child occupant protection using a proportion-eliminated approach to mediation
CONCLUSION: A proportion-eliminated approach to mediation may be particularly useful in child passenger safety research aiming to inform the development of interventions tailored for racial minority populations.PMID:33688773 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1885652 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Emma B Sartin D Leann Long Catherine C McDonald Despina Stavrinos Olivio J Clay Jessica H Mirman Source Type: research

Injury patterns within clusters of seriously injured occupants comparing real-world crashes in the United States and the European Union
CONCLUSIONS: Remarkably similar injury patterns at the MAIS 3+ level have been found in U.S. and German accident data sets after controlling for nine different parameters. This research provides evidence to indicate that how belted vehicle occupants are severely injured in the U.S. and in the EU is not necessarily different.PMID:33688752 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2020.1862805 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rocio Suarez-Del Fueyo Mirko Junge Francisco Lopez-Valdes Hampton Clay Gabler Lukas Woerner Stefan Hiermaier Source Type: research

Investigating the effects of driving environment and driver characteristics on drivers' compliance with speed limits
CONCLUSION: This is the first exploratory study which investigated the speed compliance behavior of Indian drivers. Findings of the present study may assist the road safety strategies and policy interventions in reducing the speed-related crashes.PMID:33688753 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1893699 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ankit Kumar Yadav Nagendra R Velaga Source Type: research

Female kinematics and muscle responses in lane change and lane change with braking maneuvers
This article quantifies the head center of gravity and T1 vertebra body (T1) linear and rotational displacements. This article also includes surface electromyography (EMG) data collected from 38 muscles in the neck, torso, and upper and lower extremities, all normalized by maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The raw EMG data were filtered, rectified, and smoothed. Separate Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed on EMG onset and amplitude as well as peak displacements of head and T1 considering 2 paired samples with the belt configuration as an independent variable.RESULTS: Significantly smaller lateral and forward disp...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ghazaleh Ghaffari Johan Davidsson Source Type: research

Comparison of injuries in multiple and single event crashes
Traffic Inj Prev. 2021 Mar 10:1-10. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2021.1878161. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTObjective: Compare injuries for occupants in multiple event (ME) crashes where a less severe event preceded a more severe event to occupants in similar single event (SE) crashes.Methods: Occupants in ME crashes from NASS-CDS years 2000-2015 where the most severe event occurred subsequent to a less severe event were matched to occupants in SE crashes where the SE was similar to the most severe event in the ME crash. Occupants were matched based on occupant, vehicle, and crash characteristics and were compared across 21 deta...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sophia K Tushak Timothy L McMurry Sang-Hyun Lee Seok-Ho Hong Jason R Kerrigan Source Type: research

Driving errors that predict simulated rear-end collisions in drivers with multiple sclerosis
This study examines whether adjustment to stimuli errors can detect the occurrence of collisions in a driving simulator in drivers with MS.METHODS: As part of a quasi-experiment, 38 participants with MS and 21 participants without MS completed visual-cognitive and driving simulator assessments, which also recorded their adjustment to stimuli maneuvers. We quantified participants' adjustment to stimuli maneuvers via initial pedal reaction time (seconds), time to collision (seconds), mean speed (meters per second), and the occurrence of rear-end collisions (collide vs. did not collide) when a simulated vehicle cut across the...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sarah Krasniuk Sherrilene Classen Sarah A Morrow Source Type: research

Evaluating disparities in child occupant protection using a proportion-eliminated approach to mediation
CONCLUSION: A proportion-eliminated approach to mediation may be particularly useful in child passenger safety research aiming to inform the development of interventions tailored for racial minority populations.PMID:33688773 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1885652 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Emma B Sartin D Leann Long Catherine C McDonald Despina Stavrinos Olivio J Clay Jessica H Mirman Source Type: research

Injury patterns within clusters of seriously injured occupants comparing real-world crashes in the United States and the European Union
CONCLUSIONS: Remarkably similar injury patterns at the MAIS 3+ level have been found in U.S. and German accident data sets after controlling for nine different parameters. This research provides evidence to indicate that how belted vehicle occupants are severely injured in the U.S. and in the EU is not necessarily different.PMID:33688752 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2020.1862805 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rocio Suarez-Del Fueyo Mirko Junge Francisco Lopez-Valdes Hampton Clay Gabler Lukas Woerner Stefan Hiermaier Source Type: research

Investigating the effects of driving environment and driver characteristics on drivers' compliance with speed limits
CONCLUSION: This is the first exploratory study which investigated the speed compliance behavior of Indian drivers. Findings of the present study may assist the road safety strategies and policy interventions in reducing the speed-related crashes.PMID:33688753 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1893699 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ankit Kumar Yadav Nagendra R Velaga Source Type: research

Female kinematics and muscle responses in lane change and lane change with braking maneuvers
This article quantifies the head center of gravity and T1 vertebra body (T1) linear and rotational displacements. This article also includes surface electromyography (EMG) data collected from 38 muscles in the neck, torso, and upper and lower extremities, all normalized by maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The raw EMG data were filtered, rectified, and smoothed. Separate Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were performed on EMG onset and amplitude as well as peak displacements of head and T1 considering 2 paired samples with the belt configuration as an independent variable.RESULTS: Significantly smaller lateral and forward disp...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ghazaleh Ghaffari Johan Davidsson Source Type: research

Comparison of injuries in multiple and single event crashes
Traffic Inj Prev. 2021 Mar 10:1-10. doi: 10.1080/15389588.2021.1878161. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTObjective: Compare injuries for occupants in multiple event (ME) crashes where a less severe event preceded a more severe event to occupants in similar single event (SE) crashes.Methods: Occupants in ME crashes from NASS-CDS years 2000-2015 where the most severe event occurred subsequent to a less severe event were matched to occupants in SE crashes where the SE was similar to the most severe event in the ME crash. Occupants were matched based on occupant, vehicle, and crash characteristics and were compared across 21 deta...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sophia K Tushak Timothy L McMurry Sang-Hyun Lee Seok-Ho Hong Jason R Kerrigan Source Type: research

Driving errors that predict simulated rear-end collisions in drivers with multiple sclerosis
This study examines whether adjustment to stimuli errors can detect the occurrence of collisions in a driving simulator in drivers with MS.METHODS: As part of a quasi-experiment, 38 participants with MS and 21 participants without MS completed visual-cognitive and driving simulator assessments, which also recorded their adjustment to stimuli maneuvers. We quantified participants' adjustment to stimuli maneuvers via initial pedal reaction time (seconds), time to collision (seconds), mean speed (meters per second), and the occurrence of rear-end collisions (collide vs. did not collide) when a simulated vehicle cut across the...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sarah Krasniuk Sherrilene Classen Sarah A Morrow Source Type: research

Evaluating disparities in child occupant protection using a proportion-eliminated approach to mediation
CONCLUSION: A proportion-eliminated approach to mediation may be particularly useful in child passenger safety research aiming to inform the development of interventions tailored for racial minority populations.PMID:33688773 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1885652 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Emma B Sartin D Leann Long Catherine C McDonald Despina Stavrinos Olivio J Clay Jessica H Mirman Source Type: research

So much nuance: A qualitative analysis of parental perspectives on child passenger safety
CONCLUSION: From a parent perspective, there are several identified barriers and facilitators of optimal CRS use. Although car seat checks were identified as a resource, in-person accessibility was an issue, and there were mixed opinions on technology-assisted remote car seat checks. These results provide a foundation for additional study on targeted interventions, including remote interventions for which there is an increased need due to the COVID-19 pandemic.PMID:33661063 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1877276 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 4, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sadiqa Kendi Mary Beth Howard Mohamed A Mohamed Samuel Eaddy James M Chamberlain Source Type: research

Composite performance indicators for helmet and seat-belt enforcement as imprecise data
CONCLUSIONS: Both RSPIs are applicable with slight differences that were in the order of countries and the ease of reading the results. We also found that each method has different strengths and that the FDEA-based CIs method is more accurate and more in line with the inputs than the IDEA-based CIs method.PMID:33661065 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1877277 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 4, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Azdasheer Barhoum Hamid Reza Behnood Source Type: research

Rear-seat occupant demographics in rear impacts: Analysis of NASS-CDS
CONCLUSIONS: The height and weight of a 10-year old and 5th Hybrid III ATD are representative of the average rear-seat occupant involved in rear crashes based on NASS-CDS. Crash tests with a delta V of between 30 and 37 km/h represent the typical collision causing serious-to-fatal injury.PMID:33661075 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2020.1871474 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 4, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chantal S Parenteau David C Viano Edmund C Lau Source Type: research

The association between the score of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity traits and risky driving behaviors with alcohol intake and narcotics consumption among Iranian motorcyclists
CONCLUSIONS: Considering the potential dangers of driving after AI and NC, appropriate measures should be adopted before certifying a driving license to screen ADHD as a predisposing factor for substance abuse and RDB. Furthermore, it is essential to equip traffic police with adequate diagnosis kits and establish heavy penalties for the offenders. In this regard, all interventions aimed to reduce traffic accidents among motorcycle drivers should be done considering the interrelationship between ADHD, RDB, and substance abuse.PMID:33661079 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1877278 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 4, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Maryam Akabri Yaser Sarikhani Kiana Khatami Arash Ardalan Heidar Safarpour Mohammad Hadi Imanieh Tahereh Ostovar Reza Tabrizi Arash Mani Seyed Taghi Heydari Kamran Bagheri Lankarani Source Type: research

Orthopedic injuries associated with use of electric scooters in the UK: A dangerous trend? Case series and review of the literature
CONCLUSION: This case series demonstrates an increasing frequency of significant orthopedic injury associated with e-scooter use treated at our center over the course of two years. This small series highlights an important problem given that this increase has occurred despite electric scooter usage in public spaces being illegal. Legalization might result in further increase in the incidence of injury.PMID:33661080 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1882676 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 4, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: George J M Hourston Albert Ngu James Hopkinson-Woolley Kuldeep St öhr Source Type: research

Brake response time between male drivers with and without paraplegia: Association between sociodemographic, motor and neurological characteristics
The objective of this study was to compare the brake response time of drivers with paraplegia (who use hand control) with drivers without paraplegia (who use their feet) in a virtual driving simulator brake test. Additionally, we aimed to predict and evaluate the association of virtual brake response time with sociodemographic, motor and cognitive variables.Methods: 40 male adult drivers, with paraplegia (n = 20, mean age 38.1 ± 3.6 years) and without paraplegia (n = 20, mean age 38.0 ± 5.8 years), with valid driver licenses, had their brake response time evaluated in an automatic transmission car simulator. ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 4, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sileno Santos Guilherme Carlos Brech Ang élica Castilho Alonso Julia Maria D'Andr éa Greve Source Type: research

So much nuance: A qualitative analysis of parental perspectives on child passenger safety
CONCLUSION: From a parent perspective, there are several identified barriers and facilitators of optimal CRS use. Although car seat checks were identified as a resource, in-person accessibility was an issue, and there were mixed opinions on technology-assisted remote car seat checks. These results provide a foundation for additional study on targeted interventions, including remote interventions for which there is an increased need due to the COVID-19 pandemic.PMID:33661063 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1877276 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 4, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sadiqa Kendi Mary Beth Howard Mohamed A Mohamed Samuel Eaddy James M Chamberlain Source Type: research

Composite performance indicators for helmet and seat-belt enforcement as imprecise data
CONCLUSIONS: Both RSPIs are applicable with slight differences that were in the order of countries and the ease of reading the results. We also found that each method has different strengths and that the FDEA-based CIs method is more accurate and more in line with the inputs than the IDEA-based CIs method.PMID:33661065 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1877277 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 4, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Azdasheer Barhoum Hamid Reza Behnood Source Type: research

Rear-seat occupant demographics in rear impacts: Analysis of NASS-CDS
CONCLUSIONS: The height and weight of a 10-year old and 5th Hybrid III ATD are representative of the average rear-seat occupant involved in rear crashes based on NASS-CDS. Crash tests with a delta V of between 30 and 37 km/h represent the typical collision causing serious-to-fatal injury.PMID:33661075 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2020.1871474 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 4, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chantal S Parenteau David C Viano Edmund C Lau Source Type: research

The association between the score of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity traits and risky driving behaviors with alcohol intake and narcotics consumption among Iranian motorcyclists
CONCLUSIONS: Considering the potential dangers of driving after AI and NC, appropriate measures should be adopted before certifying a driving license to screen ADHD as a predisposing factor for substance abuse and RDB. Furthermore, it is essential to equip traffic police with adequate diagnosis kits and establish heavy penalties for the offenders. In this regard, all interventions aimed to reduce traffic accidents among motorcycle drivers should be done considering the interrelationship between ADHD, RDB, and substance abuse.PMID:33661079 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1877278 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 4, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Maryam Akabri Yaser Sarikhani Kiana Khatami Arash Ardalan Heidar Safarpour Mohammad Hadi Imanieh Tahereh Ostovar Reza Tabrizi Arash Mani Seyed Taghi Heydari Kamran Bagheri Lankarani Source Type: research

Orthopedic injuries associated with use of electric scooters in the UK: A dangerous trend? Case series and review of the literature
CONCLUSION: This case series demonstrates an increasing frequency of significant orthopedic injury associated with e-scooter use treated at our center over the course of two years. This small series highlights an important problem given that this increase has occurred despite electric scooter usage in public spaces being illegal. Legalization might result in further increase in the incidence of injury.PMID:33661080 | DOI:10.1080/15389588.2021.1882676 (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 4, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: George J M Hourston Albert Ngu James Hopkinson-Woolley Kuldeep St öhr Source Type: research