Evaluation of military helmets and roof padding on head injury potential from vertical impacts.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study provide initial quantitative findings which provide a better understanding of helmet-roof interactions in vertical impacts and the contributions of the military helmet and roof padding to mitigating head injury potential. Findings from this study will be used to inform further testing with the future aim of developing a new minimum head clearance standard for occupants of light armoured vehicles. PMID: 26901088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 22, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Franklyn M, Laing S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Design and Cognitive Evaluation of Six Dynamic Lane Departure Warning Symbols.
CONCLUSION: The most considerable result of the current study was the match between the symbol with the highest ratings and the ISO related icon in appearance. Since previous studies demonstrated a strong correlation between comprehension scores of the symbol and both semantic closeness and meaningfulness, high level comprehensibility of the best ranked symbol is expected. PMID: 26902543 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 22, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Maddahi H, Pouyakian M, Ghomsheh FT, Piri L, Osqueizadeh R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Cross-Sectional Study of Road Accidents and Related Law Enforcement Efficiency for Ten Countries: A Gap Coherence Analysis.
CONCLUSION: Efficient law enforcement and effective safety education without discounting cultural diversity are the key aspects to reduce traffic related injuries and fatalities in low-income countries like India. PMID: 26889569 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Urie Y, Velaga NR, Maji A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Development of cycling skills in 7 to 12-year-old children.
CONCLUSIONS: Next to age, age at onset of cycling also contributed to cycling skills. Therefore our results suggest cycling skills to be associated with physical and mental maturation. Subsequently age related reference values are provided to customize testing and training. PMID: 26889690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zeuwts L, Vansteenkiste P, Cardon G, Lenoir M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Swedish Joint Action Method against Drink Driving - A Study of Suspected Drink Drivers' Own Experiences.
Conclusions One conclusion from this paper is that SMADIT, as an innovative method that can be deployed more rapidly than other alcohol-impaired driving countermeasures, should be considered as a good complement to conventional methods to deal with drink driving. Based on the results we recommend a trial of the joint action method against drink driving in other jurisdictions. PMID: 26889697 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gustafsson S, Nyberg J, Hrelja R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Analysis of Influence of Individual and Environmental Factors on Two-Wheeled Users' Injuries.
CONCLUSIONS: It has been shown that there is a high degree of influence of individual factors on the occurrence of accidents involving two-wheelers (PTWs/bicycles), but with no statistically significant relation. Establishing the existence of such conditionalities enable identifying and defining of factors that have an impact on the occurrence of traffic accidents involving bicyclists or PTWs. Such a link between individual factors and the occurrence of accidents makes possible for system managers to take appropriate actions aimed at certain categories of two-wheelers in order to reduce their casualties in a particular are...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Marković N, Pešić D, Antić B, Vujanić M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road traffic accidents and self-reported Portuguese car driver's attitudes, behaviours and opinions: Are they related?
CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained with regard to behavioural factors meet the majority of the risk factors associated with car accidents referred to in literature. This study highlights the relation of relatively minor accidents (the majority with no injuries) with urban (or semi-urban) context and involving older drivers. These accidents are not usually the focus of road safety literature (mainly death and serious health loss) but, additionally to the economic costs involved, they can have a huge impact on road safety (e.g., pedestrian). Specifically the following interventions can be proposed: more detailed clinical exam...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: de Sousa TB, Santos C, Mateus C, Areal A, Trigoso J, Nunes C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Effect of Helmets on Motorcycle Outcomes in a Level I Trauma Center in Connecticut.
Abstract Objective The state of Connecticut has a partial motorcycle helmet law, which has been linked to one of the lowest helmet compliance rates in the Northeast. We examine the clinical and financial impact of low motorcycle helmet use in the state of Connecticut. Methods A retrospective cohort study comparing the outcomes between helmeted and non-helmeted motorcycle crash victims over a 12.5-year period, from July 2, 2002 to December 31, 2013. All patients who were admitted to the hospital after a motorcycle crash were included in the study. Patients were stratified into helmeted and non-helmeted cohorts. Gro...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wiznia DH, Kim CY, Dai F, Goel A, Leslie MP Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Child restraint use and parental perceptions of comfort.
CONCLUSIONS: Parent perceptions of comfort of children in child restraints do not appear to be associated with incorrect child restraint use, or age appropriate restraint choice. It is possible that the actual comfort of the child may be related to incorrect use but this remains to be tested. Further investigation of the relationship between parent perceived comfort and the actual comfort of the child, as well as the impact of child comfort on optimal child restraint use is warranted. PMID: 26890024 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fong CK, Bilston L, Brown J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysing the relationships between travel mode indicators and the number of passenger transport fatalities at the city level.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results imply that the percentage of daily trips by public transport, the percentage of daily trips on foot and by bicycle and the GDP per inhabitant have negative relationships with the number of passenger transport fatalities, while the motorway's length and the number of motorcycles have positive relationships with the number of passenger transport fatalities. PMID: 26890058 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Asadi-Shekari Z, Moeinaddini M, Sultan Z, Zaly Shah M, Hamzah A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Spatial Patterns of Off the System Traffic Crashes in Miami-Dade County, FL during 2005-2010.
CONCLUSION: This understanding of patterns can help the county target high risk areas and help to reduce crash fatalities to create a safer environment for motorists and pedestrians. PMID: 26890148 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Scott MC, Roy SS, Prasad S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Potentially Preventable Pre-Hospital Deaths from Motor-Vehicle Collisions.
Abstract BACKGROUND: In 2011, about thirty thousand people died in motor vehicle collisions (MVC) in the United States. We sought to evaluate the causes of pre-hospital deaths related to MVCs, and to assess whether these deaths were potentially preventable. METHODS: Miami-Dade Medical Examiner records for 2011 were reviewed for all pre-hospital deaths of occupants of 4-wheeled motor vehicle collisions. Injuries were categorized by affected organ and anatomic location of the body. Cases were reviewed by a panel of two trauma surgeons to determine cause of death, and whether the death was potentially preventabl...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ray JJ, Meizoso JP, Satahoo SS, Davis JS, Van Haren, Dermer H, Graygo J, Bahouth GT, Blackbourne, Schulman CI Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Modeling Level-of-safety for Bus Stops in China.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated the method was well validated and could be practically used for the analysis and evaluation of bus stop safety in China. The proposed model was relatively easy to implement without the requirement of traffic crash data and/or traffic conflict data. In addition, with the proposed method, it was feasible to evaluate countermeasures to improve bus stop safety (e.g., exclusive bus lanes). PMID: 26890306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ye Z, Wang C, Yu Y, Shi X, Wang W Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Can new passenger cars reduce pedestrian lower extremity injury? A review of geometrical changes of front-end design before and after regulatory efforts.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study reviewed the geometrical changes of car front-end along with the regulatory concern on pedestrian safety. A preliminary quantitative benefit of the lower extremity injury reduction was estimated based on these geometrical features. Towards a comprehensive understanding of the role that car designs play in pedestrian protection, further investigation is recommended on the structural changes and inclusion of more accident scenarios. PMID: 26890318 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nie B, Zhou Q Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driver's Obesity and Road Crash Risks in the United States.
CONCLUSION: The rising national prevalence of obesity extends to US drivers involved in fatal crashes and indicates the need to improve seatbelt use, vehicle design, and post-crash care for this vulnerable population. PMID: 26890412 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bhatti JA, Nathens AB, Redelmeier DA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road traffic mortality in the Slovak Republic in 1996-2014.
Conclusions The implementation of the new traffic regulations may have contributed significantly to the observed decrease in mortality rates of road users in the Slovak Republic. A significant decrease in mortality was observed in all population groups and in all groups of road users. The introduction of a new comprehensive road traffic law may have expedited the decrease of road fatalities, especially in the age group 25-64 years old. This type of evidence-based epidemiology data can be used for improved targeting of future public health measures for road traffic injury prevention. PMID: 26890575 [PubMed - as su...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Brazinova A, Majdan M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A data-driven allocation tool for in-kind resources distributed by a state health department.
CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that making an in-kind public health resource like car seats universally available results in a less equitable distribution of that resource compared to deliberate allocation according to public health need. Public health agencies can use local data to allocate in-kind resources consistent with health objectives; that is, in a manner offering the greatest potential health impact. Future analysis can determine whether the change to a more equitable allocation of resources is also more efficient, resulting in measurably improved public health outcomes. PMID: 26890693 [PubMed - as supplied b...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Peterson C, Kegler SR, Parker W, Sullivan D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Useful Field of View Assessment Predicts Simulated Commercial Motor Vehicle Driving Safety.
Conclusions The UFOV subtest 3 may be a promising measure to identify CMV drivers who may be at risk for MVCs or in need of cognitive training aimed at improving speed of processing. Subtest 3 may also identify CMV drivers who are particularly at-risk when engaged in secondary tasks while driving. PMID: 26890935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: McManus B, Heaton K, Vance DE, Stavrinos D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Motorcycle fuel tanks and pelvic fractures: A motorcycle fuel tank syndrome.
Conclusion Overall improvements in road safety have not been replicated in the amelioration of pelvic injuries in motorcyclists and improvements in the design of crashworthy motorcycle fuel tanks appear to be required. PMID: 26891030 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Meredith L, Baldock M, Fitzharris M, Duflou J, Dal Nevo R, Griffiths M, Brown J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Repeatability of a dynamic rollover test system.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite those issues, kinetic and deformation measures showed a high degree of repeatability which is necessary for assessing injury risk in rollover as roof strength positively correlates with injury risk (Brumbelow, 2009). Improvements of the test equipment and matching mass properties will ensure highly repeatable initial conditions, vehicle kinematics, kinetics, and deformations. PMID: 26891186 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Seppi J, Toczyski J, Crandall JR, Kerrigan J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Misuse of booster cushions among children and adults in Shanghai - an observational and attitude study during buckling up.
CONCLUSIONS: Education is needed to ensure frequent and correct use of booster cushions in China, and to raise safety awareness among children and adults. Furthermore, it is important that the booster cushions offer intuitively correct usage to a population with limited experience of booster cushions. This is the first study published on the handling of and attitude toward booster cushions after child restraints laws were introduced in Shanghai 2014. PMID: 26891340 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bohman K, JorlÖv S, Zhou S, Zhao C, Sui B, Ding C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Predominance of Alcohol and Illicit Drugs among Traffic Accidents Fatalities in an Urban Area of Brazil.
CONCLUSIONS: For the effective reduction of traffic accidents related to driving under influence of drugs (DUID), we suggest the intensification of enforcement actions against the use of alcohol by drivers, the definition of which illicit drugs should be surveyed as well the cut-off values, the promotion of changing legislation to obligate drivers to provide samples for toxicological testing, the establishment of public information programs and specific actions aimed at young drivers to promote behavioral changes. PMID: 26891425 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pelição FS, Peres MD, Pissinate JF, de Paula DM, de Faria MD, Nakamura-Palacios EM, De Martinis BS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Observed Activation Status of Lane Departure Warning and Forward Collision Warning of Honda Vehicles at Dealership Service Centers.
CONCLUSIONS: Observations found that the activation rate was much higher for forward collision warning than lane departure warning. The observation method worked well and appears feasible for extending to other manufacturers. PMID: 26891465 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 18, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Reagan IJ, McCartt AT Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Understanding traffic crash under-reporting: Linking police and medical records to individual and crash characteristics.
CONCLUSIONS: This study adds significantly to the literature about under-reporting by recognizing that understanding the heterogeneity in the reporting rate of a road crash may lead to devising policy measures aimed at increasing the reporting rate by targeting specific road user groups (e.g., males, young road users) or specific situational factors (e.g., slight injuries, arm injuries, leg injuries, weekend). PMID: 26786061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 19, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Janstrup KH, Kaplan S, Hels T, Lauritsen J, Prato CG Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A Virtual Test System Representing the Distribution of Pedestrian Impact Configurations for Future Vehicle Front-End Optimization.
CONCLUSIONS: Injury predictions derived from the Virtual Test System (VTS) give a good representation of the distribution of injuries observed in the Pedestrian Crash Data Study and distinguishing ability on the aggressivity of vehicle front-end designs to pedestrians. The VTS can be considered as an effective approach for assessing pedestrian safety performance of vehicle front-end designs at the generalized level. However, the absolute injury number is substantially underpredicted by the VTS and this needs further development. PMID: 26786188 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 19, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li G, Yang J, Simms C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

IIHS Head Restraint Ratings and Insurance Injury Claim Rates.
CONCLUSIONS: Seats/head restraints with better IIHS ratings are associated with lower injury rates in rear-impact collisions than seats rated poor. The reductions in injury rates were strongest for females and for young-to-middle-age drivers. The strong reductions in injury rates for these groups are encouraging given their high initial injury rates. PMID: 26765782 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 14, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Trempel RE, Zuby DS, Edwards MA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Traffic Accident Reconstruction and An Approach for Prediction of Fault Rates Using Artificial Neural Networks: A case study in Turkey.
CONCLUSIONS: This study focuses on exhibiting new aspect and scientific approach for determining fault rates of involvements in most frequent PDO accidents occurring in Turkey by implying some deficiencies in THTA and without regarding to initiative and/or experience of experts. This study yields judicious decisions to be made especially on forensic investigations and events involving insurance companies. Referring to this approach, injury/fatal and/or pedestrian related accidents may be analyzed as future work by developing new scientific models. PMID: 26759925 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 13, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yilmaz AC, Aci C, Aydin K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Dangerous student car drop-off behaviours and child pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions: an observational study.
Conclusions Dangerous student car drop-off behaviours were associated with historical non-fatal child PMVC rates during school travel times near schools. Some caution must be taken in interpreting these results due small number of events, and limitations in the data collection, as collision data were collected historically over a 12 year period, whereas driving behaviour was only observed on a single day in 2011. Targeted multifaceted intervention approaches related to the built environment, enforcement and education could address dangerous drop-off behaviours near schools to reduce child PMVCs and promote safe walkin...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 13, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rothman L, Howard A, Buliung R, Macarthur C, Macpherson A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

How do children learn to cross the street? The process of pedestrian safety training.
CONCLUSIONS: Repeated practice in a simulated pedestrian environment helps children learn aspects of safe and efficient pedestrian behavior. Six twice-weekly training sessions of 45 crossings each were insufficient for children to reach adult pedestrian functioning, however, and future research should continue to study the trajectory and quantity of child pedestrian safety training needed for children to become competent pedestrians. PMID: 26760077 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 13, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Schwebel DC, Shen J, McClure LA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Personal injury recovery cost of pedestrian-vehicle collisions in New South Wales, Australia.
CONCLUSIONS: Personal injury recovery costs following pedestrian-vehicle collisions where a pedestrian is injured are substantial in NSW. The PIRC equation enables the economic cost burden of road traffic injury to be calculated using hospital separation data. The PIRC enables comprehensive personal injury recovery costs to be estimated and would aid in economic evaluations of preventive strategies in road safety. PMID: 26760113 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 13, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mitchell RJ, Bambach MR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Does the improved stability offered by Motorcycle Antilock Brakes (ABS) make sliding crashes less common? In-depth analysis of fatal crashes involving motorcycles fitted with ABS.
Conclusions While this research was based on a limited material, it confirmed that sliding fatal crashes are significantly decreased by ABS. Considering that ABS will be soon mandatory in the EU on all new motorcycles with engine displacement over 125cc, these findings should be kept into account in the future design and testing of motorcycle-friendly road barriers and integrated protection systems. PMID: 26760265 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 13, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rizzi M, Strandroth J, Holst J, Tingvall C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of Naturalistic Driving Videos of Fleet Services Drivers to Estimate Driver Error and Potentially Distracting Behaviors as Risk Factors for Rear-end versus Angle Crashes.
Abstract Objective To estimate the prevalence and odds of fleet driver errors and potentially distracting behaviors just prior to rear-end versus angle crashes. Methods Analysis of naturalistic driving videos among fleet services drivers for errors and potentially distracting behaviors occurring in the six seconds before crash impact. Categorical variables were examined using the Pearson Chi-square test and continuous variables, such as eyes-off-road time, were compared using the Student's t-test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of a driver error or potentially distracting behavior ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 13, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Harland KK, Carney C, McGehee D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Injury Prevention Programs Against Distracted Driving: Are They Effective?
CONCLUSION: There was 32% reduction in the incidence of distracted driving post-intervention which remained low even at 6 month follow up. Implementation of an effective injury prevention campaign could reduce the incidence distracted driving nationally. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II, interventional study. PMID: 26760495 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 13, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bellal J, Zangbar B, Bains S, Kulvatunyou N, Khalil M, Mahmoud D, Friese RS, O'Keeffe T, Pandit V, Rhee P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Influence of Lower Extremity Postures on Kinematics and Injuries of Cyclists in Vehicle Side Collisions.
CONCLUSION: The knee height of the cyclist relative to the hood leading edge affected the global kinematics and the head impact location against the car. The loading mode of the lower extremities was also dependent on the initial positions of the lower extremities relative to the car structures. In the foot up and front posture, the knee was loaded in a lateral shear direction by the hood leading edge and as a result the ACL ruptured. The bicycle frame and the struck side lower extremity interacted and could influence the loadings on lower extremities. PMID: 26760737 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 13, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mizuno K, Yamada H, Mizuguchi H, Ito D, Han Y, Hitosugi M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Ankle Fracture Patterns in Drivers are Associated with Femoral Fracture, Higher BMI and Advanced Age.
CONCLUSIONS: Efforts to reduce the risk of driver ankle injury should focus on right foot and pedal interaction. The range of injury patterns identified here suggest that efforts to minimize driver ankle fracture risk will likely need to consider injury tolerances for flexion, pronation/supination, and axial loading in order to capture the full range of injury mechanisms. In the clinical environment, physicians examining drivers after a frontal crash should consider those who are older, obese or who have severe femoral injury without concurrent head injury, as highly suspicious for an ankle injury. PMID: 26760948 [Pub...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 13, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wynkoop A, Ndubaku O, Fras A, Walter N, Eekhoff J, Atkinson T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characteristics and Predictors of Recidivist Drink-Drivers.
CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that identification of drivers at increased risk of recidivism may be possible at first program attendance by examining indicators of increased alcohol-related problems. Also recidivists appear to show a greater readiness to change at second attendance. Implications for remedial program development and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID: 26761189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 13, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wickens CM, Flam-Zalcman R, Mann RE, Stoduto G, Docherty C, Thomas RK Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Blood alcohol concentration in fatally injured drivers and the efficacy of alcohol policies of the new law on road traffic safety - a retrospective 10-year study in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was primarily to evaluate inebriated fatally injured drivers (FIDs) according to blood alcohol concentration (BAC), in 10-year period (2004-2013) in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Republic of Serbia, to analyse the efficacy alcohol polices in new law on road traffic safety through the changes of number of inebriated FIDs before and after the law implementation, as well as to identify factors that influence the occurrence of FIDs with BAC above legal limit. METHODS: All the data for this retrospective study were obtained from Centre of Forensic Medicine, Toxicology ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 13, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Petković S, Palić K, Samojlik I Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Reducing the risk of rear-end collisions with infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) integration of variable speed limit control and adaptive cruise control system.
CONCLUSIONS: Compared with VSL-only and ACC-only scenarios, this integrated I2V system is more effective on reducing rear-end collision risks. The findings of this study provide useful information for traffic agencies to implement novel techniques to improve safety on freeways. PMID: 26761633 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 13, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li Y, Wang H, Wang W, Liu S, Xiang Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Difference in Dummy Responses in Matched Side Impact Tests of Vehicles with and without Side Airbags.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: IIHS high-hooded side impacts were analyzed for matched vehicle tests with and without side airbags. The comparison provides a measure of the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing biomechanical responses for near-side occupants struck by trucks, SUVs and vans at 50 km/h. METHOD: The IIHS Moving Deformable Barrier (MDB) uses a high-hooded barrier face. It weighs 1,500 kg and impacts the driver-side perpendicular to the vehicle at 50 km/h. SID-IIs dummies are placed in the driver and left 2(nd) row seats. They represent 5(th) female occupants. IIHS tests were reviewed for ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 23, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Viano DC, Parenteau CS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Etiology of fatal thoracic aortic injuries: Secondary data analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The increased prevalence of fatal thoracic aortic injury in nearside crashes, increasing age, and vehicle type provide some insight into the current US fleet. Important factors, including model year, had significantly lower levels of the injury in univariate analysis, demonstrating the effect of safety improvements in newer model vehicles. Further study of this fatal injury is warranted, including comparisons of those who survive the injury. PMID: 26605433 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 25, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sznol JA, Koru-Sengul T, Graygo J, Murakhovsky D, Bahouth G, Schulman CI Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

EOV Editorial Board.
Authors: PMID: 26391342 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 25, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Simulator Study of Young Driver's Instinctive Response of Lower Extremity to a Collision.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: A driver's instinctive response of the lower extremity in braking movement consists of two parts, including reaction time and braking reaction behaviour. It is critical to consider these two components when conducting studies concerning driver's brake movement intention and injury analysis. The purposes of this study were to investigate the driver reaction time to an oncoming collision and muscle activation of lower extremity muscles at the collision moment. The ultimate goal is to provide data that aid in both the optimization of intervention time of an active safety system and the improvement...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gao Z, Li C, Hu H, Zhao H, Chen C, Yu H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Key aspects of successful rehabilitation after repeated or serious driving offenses.
CONCLUSION: The results clearly indicate that the provision of relevant information at an early stage combined with counseling has a beneficial influence on success rates for the rehabilitation process (an increase from 37.1% to 81%). As such, we recommend the introduction of obligatory license consultations, offered by MPA experts, involving a status assessment to customize offenders' rehabilitation and thereby provide more or less intensive guidance or coaching depending on offenders' characteristics throughout their progression through the MPA system. PMID: 26375797 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traf...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Glitsch E, Knuth D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of Car-to-Bicycle Approach Patterns for Developing Active Safety Devices.
CONCLUSIONS: When considering the TTC in the test protocol of evaluation for safety performance of active safety devices, we propose individual TTCs for evaluation of cyclist and pedestrian detections, respectively. In the test protocols, the following two scenarios should be employed: bicycle emerged from behind unobstructed views and bicycle emerging from behind obstructions. PMID: 26375916 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matsui Y, Oikawa S, Hitosugi M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Experimental investigation of the effect of occupant characteristics on contemporary seatbelt payout behavior in frontal impacts.
CONCLUSIONS: The analysis indicated that the PMHS characteristics showed significant influence on the belt response, while the belt response obtained with the ATDs were more reproducible. The potentialcause included the occupant anthropometry, the body mass distribution and the relative motion among body segments specific to the population variance. This study provided a primary data source to understand the biomechanical interaction of the occupant with the restraint system. Further research is necessary to consider these effects in the computational studies and optimized design of the restraint system in a more realistic...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nie B, Poulard D, Subit D, Donlon JP, Forman JL, Kent RW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Effect of Posture on Forces and Moments Measured in a Hybrid III ATD Lower Leg.
CONCLUSIONS: The range of postures tested herein spanned published injury criteria, and thus would have made the difference between pass and fail in a safety evaluation. In/eversion had the largest influence on injury metrics, likely due to the change in axial stiffness and altered impact durations in these postures. Results suggest increased injury risk at neutral or near neutral postures, whereas previous cadaveric studies have suggested that in/eversion does not influence injury risk. It is unclear whether the ATD appropriately represents the natural lower leg for impacts in out-of-position testing. Great care must be t...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Van Tuyl J, Burkhart TA, Quenneville CE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Validation of quasi-induced exposure representativeness assumption among young drivers.
Conclusions It appears that the representativeness assumption holds among the population of NJ young drivers. We encourage young driver studies utilizing QIE methods to conduct internal validation studies to ensure appropriate application of these methods and we propose utilization of QIE methods to address broader foundational and applied questions in young driver safety. PMID: 26376230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Curry AE, Pfeiffer MR, Elliott MR, Durbin DR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Exploring the Association between Working Memory and Driving Performance in Parkinson's disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the conclusions drawn from this study are tentative, the evidence presented here is encouraging with regard to the use of a driving simulator to examine isolated cognitive functions underlying driving performance in PD. With an understanding of its limitations, such driving simulation in combination with functional assessment batteries measuring physical, visual and cognitive abilities could comprise one component of a multi-tiered system to evaluate medical fitness to drive. PMID: 26376369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Vardaki S, Devos H, Beratis I, Yannis G, Papageorgiou SG Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Young drivers' responses to anti-speeding advertisements: Comparison of self-report and objective measures of persuasive processing and outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into how psychophysiological and GPS devices could be used as objective measures in conjunction with self-report measures to further understand the persuasive processes and outcomes of emotion-based anti-speeding advertisements. PMID: 26302428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 24, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kaye SA, Lewis I, Algie J, White MJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws in the United States: a national survey of state and local agencies.
CONCLUSIONS: Recommended enforcement strategies to detect and prevent alcohol-impaired driving are employed in some jurisdictions and underutilized in others. Future research should explore the relationship of enforcement with drinking and driving behavior and alcohol-involved motor vehicle fatalities. PMID: 25802970 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 26, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Erickson DJ, Farbakhsh K, Toomey TL, Lenk KM, Jones-Webb R, Nelson TF Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research