Investigation of the safety effects of knee bolster air bag deployment in similar real-world crash comparisons.
Conclusions: The current study presents a preliminary in-depth qualitative and quantitative assessment of KBAB safety benefits. However, further investigation is recommended to provide conclusive evidence of KBAB effectiveness. PMID: 23343026 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 4, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Weaver AA, Loftis KL, Stitzel JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Rebound after rear impacts.
Abstract Objective: A number of field accident studies have found that rebound is a source for occupant injury after rear impacts. Sled tests were run to investigate occupant kinematics and rebound, including head velocity and displacement with 3 different seats, 2 conventional seat designs, and 1 all belts to seat (ABTS). Methods: Nine rear-end sled tests were run with a belted 50th Hybrid III dummy on a Taurus, Mustang, or Sebring ABTS seat in nominally 16.5, 24.1, and 32.5 km/h rear-end delta Vs. There was no sled braking after the rear acceleration to study rebound from the seat. Dummy kinematics were an...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 4, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Viano DC, Parenteau CS, Burnett R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evidence-based review on interventions and determinants of driving performance in teens with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or autism spectrum disorder.
Conclusion: Class I studies with Level A recommendations, currently lacking in the literature, are urgently needed to make clear the mechanism underlying driving performance outcomes in ADHD and ASD. Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention for the following supplemental resource: Table: Evidence-based Synopsis of ADHD, ASD and Driving Performance: Variables, Sample, Findings & Rationale. PMID: 23343028 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 4, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Classen S, Monahan M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Child restraint safety practices among arab children in Israel.
Conclusions: The low rates of CRS use may explain to some degree the high rates of injury and mortality of Arab children in car crashes. These low rates indicate that previous interventions have not been successful in increasing restraint use in the Arab community in Israel and there is a need to plan targeted interventions specifically for this population. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 23343029 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 4, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Baron-Epel O, Magid A, Bord S, Assi N, Klein M, Levi S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Rear seat child safety in near-side impacts: a modeling study of common sitting positions.
Conclusions: Studies that investigate the injury mitigation effects in common sitting positions, beyond the nominal ATD position, are essential to highlight means to provide improved and robust safety for child occupants. This study was based on the SID-IIs 5th percentile female, which has very similar anthropometry to a 50th percentile 12-year-old. Therefore, the conclusions of this study are applicable to many 11-year-olds up to young adolescents, as well as to small females. The outboard and inboard positions of this study resulted in the highest head injury measures. Although all of the injury measures were only sligh...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 4, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Andersson M, Pipkorn B, Lövsund P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Child passenger restraints in relation to other second-row passengers: an analysis of the 2007-2009 national survey of the use of booster seats.
This study provides the first assessment of the seating positions occupied by child passengers and the relationship between CRS and other second-row passengers in a national sample of vehicles transporting children. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of data from the 2007-2009 National Survey of the Use of Booster Seats (NSUBS), a direct in-vehicle observational study of child passenger restraint use. Passengers riding in the same vehicle were identified and passenger position was determined. Vehicles with second-row child passengers were included in analyses of seat positions occupied by child passengers with an...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 4, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Macy ML, Freed GL, Reed MP Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characteristics of DUI Offenders With a High Versus Low Perceived Risk of Arrest.
Conclusions: The social context of drinking and the relationship they have to their social network have important implications for influencing first DUI offenders and preventing them from recidivating. PMID: 23259512 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Beck KH, Ahmed AU, Farkas ZA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A Preliminary Estimation of Motorcyclist Fatal Injury Risk by BAC Level Relative to Car/Van Drivers.
Conclusions: Interventions focused on reducing the alcohol consumption of motorcycle riders are clearly required when the degree of risk even at low alcohol levels is as disturbingly high as estimated in the current study. PMID: 23259513 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Keall MD, Clark B, Rudin-Brown CM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Does a medicinal dose of kava impair driving? A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study.
Abstract Overview: Increasing concerns over the potentially impairing effects of prescriptive sedative drugs such as benzodiazepines on driving have been raised. However, other alternatives such as natural medicines may also carry similar risks with respect to driving safety. Kava (Piper methysticum) is a psychotropic plant commonly used both recreationally and medicinally in the United States, Australia, and the South Pacific to elicit a physically tranquilizing effect. To date no controlled study has tested a medicinal dose of kava versus placebo and a standard sedative drug on driving ability and driving safety...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sarris J, Laporte E, Scholey A, King R, Pipingas A, Schweitzer I, Stough C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Hospital outpatients' responses to taking medications with driving warnings.
Conclusion: This study involved persons who should have had a very high level of knowledge and awareness of medication warning labeling. Even in this group there was a lack of informed response to potential impairment. A review of the Australian warning system and wider dissemination of information on medication treatment effects would be useful. Clarifying the importance of potential risk in the general community context is recommended for consideration and further research. PMID: 23259515 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Smyth T, Sheehan M, Siskind V Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Can patients receiving opioid maintenance therapy safely drive? A systematic review of epidemiological and experimental studies on driving ability with a focus on concomitant methadone or buprenorphine administration.
Conclusions: Both methadone and buprenorphine were confirmed as having impairing potentials in opioid-naïve subjects. At least some opioid maintenance therapy patients are observed having only slight impairments of relevance to driving. Knowing this when approaching the question of ability to drive, an individual evaluation of the driving performance, pertaining to the opioid maintained patient, may be the most useful and conclusive procedure. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 23259516 [Pub...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Strand MC, Fjeld B, Arnestad M, Mørland J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Feasibility of a computer-delivered driver safety behavior screening and intervention program initiated during an emergency department visit.
Conclusions: Overall, patients were very satisfied receiving educational information about these behaviors via computer during their ED visits and found the program easy to use. We found a high prevalence of self-reported risky driving behaviors in our ED population. At 1-month follow-up, patients reported a significant decrease in these behaviors. This study indicates that a low-intensity, computer-based educational intervention during an ED visit may be a useful approach to educate patients about safe driving behaviors and safe drinking limits and help promote behavior change. Supplemental materials are available for th...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Murphy M, Smith L, Palma A, Lounsbury D, Bijur P, Chambers P, Gallagher EJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Secondary collisions revisited: real-world crash data and relationship to crash test criteria.
Conclusions: Consistent with previous research, collisions following a barrier impact are not an infrequent event and substantially increase driver injury risk. The results suggest that using exit-angle based crash test criteria alone to assess secondary collision risk is not sufficient to predict second collision occurrence for real-world barrier crashes. PMID: 23259518 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Gowat RC, Gabauer DJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Bicyclist-bicyclist crashes-a medical and technical crash analysis.
Conclusion: The prevalence of bicycle-to-bicycle crashes is high. Most of these accidents occur in urban areas. Bicyclists should be considered as minimally or unprotected road users, with an unsatisfactorily low rate of helmet use. Though the average level and patterns of injuries is moderate, most of the severe injuries involved the head and extremities. However, there was no significant correlation between frequent helmet use and sustained injuries to the head of major AIS. PMID: 23259519 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Brand S, Otte D, Petri M, Müller C, Stübig T, Krettek C, Haasper C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of the frequency and severity of rear-end crashes in work zones.
Conclusions: Major findings related to the frequency of rear-end crashes include the following: (1) work zones for capacity and pavement improvements have the highest frequency compared to other types of work zones; (2) work zones controlled by flaggers are associated with more rear-end crashes compared to those controlled by arrow boards; and (3) work zones with alternating one-way traffic tended to have more rear-end crashes compared to those with lane shifts. Major findings related to the severity of the rear-end crashes include the following: (1) rear-end crashes associated with alcohol, night, pedestrians, and roadway...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Qi Y, Srinivasan R, Teng H, Baker R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Situations of Car-to-Pedestrian Contact.
Conclusions: We propose that the specifications of the safety device for pedestrian detection and automatic braking should reflect the severe approach situation for a pedestrian and car including the TTC observed for near-miss incidents. PMID: 23259521 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Matsui Y, Hitosugi M, Takahashi K, Doi T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) on the Road: A Serious Traffic Safety and Public Health Concern.
The objective of our study was to determine whether there were differences between on- and off-road ATV crashes in their demographics and/or mechanisms and outcomes of injuries. Methods: Data were derived from our statewide ATV injury surveillance database (2002-2009). Crash location and crash and injury mechanisms were coded using a modification of the Department of Transportation (DOT) coding system. Descriptive analyses and statistical comparisons (chi-square test) of variables were performed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine relative risk. Results: 976 records were included in the final...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Denning G, Jennissen C, Harland K, Ellis D, Buresh C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Traffic crashes and alcohol outlets in a brazilian state capital.
Conclusions: Density of alcohol outlets was high all over the city and both alcohol- and non-alcohol-related crashes occurred near an outlet. The study helps to better understand the relationship between alcohol availability and traffic crashes in a middle-income country where licensing/zoning is absent and suggests that measures for restricting the physical availability of alcohol are necessary, even though further studies are still needed. PMID: 23259523 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: De Boni R, Cruz OG, Weber E, Hasenack H, Lucatelli L, Duarte P, Gracie R, Pechansky F, Bastos FI Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Kinematics of child volunteers and child anthropomorphic test devices during emergency braking events in real car environment.
Conclusions: The forward displacement was within the same range for all children regardless of stature and restraint system. However, the maximum forward position depended on the initial seated posture and shoulder belt position on the shoulder. Differences could also be seen in the curvature of the neck and spine. Short children exhibited a greater flexion motion of the head, whereas a more upright posture at maximum forward position was exhibited by the tall children. The ATDs displayed less forward displacement compared to the children. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Stockman I, Bohman K, Jakobsson L, Brolin K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Truck drivers' opinion on road safety in Tanzania-a questionnaire study.
Conclusions: The results indicate that countermeasures should be implemented in an integrated fashion, taking into account aspects such as driver, vehicle, infrastructure, legislature, and other road users. PMID: 23259525 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kircher K, Andersson J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research