Effect of traffic density on drivers' lane change and overtaking maneuvers in freeway situation - A driving simulator based study.
CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that as traffic density increases, drivers' intention for lane change and overtaking is enhanced. Both initial overtaking distance and headway decrease with traffic density, which might influence road safety. In addition, drivers do not show a preference on the directions of lane change or overtaking according to the frequency. However, drivers tend to be more decisive and reckless when conducting the right overtaking because of a smaller distance/headway before overtaking, higher instantaneous acceleration and also a more restricted field of view compared with left overtaking. PMID: 29...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 14, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yang L, Li X, Guan W, Zhang HM, Fan L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of Emergency Medical Services Times on Traffic Injury Severity: A Random-Effects Ordered Probit Approach.
CONCLUSIONS: The key findings from this study indicate that EMS times differ according to the urban/rural location and road functional classification, and that reporting-scene arrival and scene-hospital intervals have significant effects on the injury severity along with various factors. It is expected that the findings from this study can be used to develop effective and practical strategic plans to minimize EMS reporting, arrival time, and transport to hospital and, therefore, decrease the traffic injury severity. PMID: 29693416 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 25, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Lee J, Abdel-Aty M, Cai Q, Wang L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Attitudes on Technological, Social, and Behavioral Economic Strategies to Reduce Cellphone Use While Driving in Teens.
We examined teens' willingness to reduce cellphone use while driving and perceptions of potential strategies to limit this behavior. METHODS: Teen drivers (n = 153) aged 16-17 who owned smartphones and admitted to texting while driving completed an online survey. Survey instruments measured willingness to give up cellphone use and perceptions of technological and behavioral economic strategies to reduce cellphone use while driving. We used Chi-square tests to test the hypothesis that willingness to give up certain types of cellphone use while driving and the perceptions of strategies to reduce cellphone use while driv...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 13, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Delgado MK, McDonald CC, Winston FK, Halpern SD, Buttenheim AM, Setubal C, Huang Y, Saulsgiver KA, Lee YC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A comparison of safety benefits of pedestrian countdown signals with and without pushbuttons in Michigan.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (FHWA, 2009) requires the use of PCSs at new traffic signal installations, this study suggests a safety benefit of installing PCSs with pushbutton at signals where a PCS without a pushbutton is present. PMID: 29641260 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 11, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Boateng RA, Kwigizile V, Oh JS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Investigating factors influencing drivers' speed selection behavior under reduced visibility conditions.
CONCLUSION: Driving ability is directly associated with speed selection in reduced visibility conditions, and some demographic data indirectly influence speed selection. This study provides useful recommendations for drivers' training programs to reduce casualties from accidents in low visibility conditions. PMID: 29630395 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 9, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zhang W, Hu Z, Feng Z, Ma C, Wang K, Zhang X Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Crash safety concerns for out-of-position occupant postures: A look towards safety in highly automated vehicles.
CONCLUSION: While highly automated vehicles may eventually reduce the number of crashes and traffic fatalities in the future, there will be a transition period when these vehicles remain at risk from collisions with human driven vehicles. These crashes could cause higher than anticipated rates of injury if occupants are less likely to be belted, or tend to be in positions for which restraints are not optimized. This study highlights the need for future research on occupant response and countermeasure design for out-of-position occupants. PMID: 29630403 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 9, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: McMurry TL, Poplin GS, Shaw G, Panzer MB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Motorcycle crashes potentially preventable by three crash avoidance technologies on passenger vehicles.
DISCUSSION: Refining the ability of passenger vehicle crash avoidance systems to detect motorcycles represents an opportunity to improve motorcycle safety. Expanding the capabilities of these technologies represents an even greater opportunity. However, even fully realizing these opportunities can affect only a minority of motorcycle crashes and does not change the need for other motorcycle safety countermeasures such as helmets, universal helmet laws, and antilock braking systems. PMID: 29624413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 6, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Teoh ER Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

What is the relationship between self-reported aberrant driving behaviours, mindfulness and self-reported crashes and infringements?
This study investigated the relationship between self-reported aberrant driving behaviours, mindfulness and self-reported crashes and infringements. METHODS: Three hundred and eighteen participants (M = 46.0 years, SD = 13.7 years; Female: 81.8%) completed an online survey that assessed aberrant driving behaviours, mindfulness (including regular mindfulness meditation [MM]) and self-reported crashes and infringements across the past two years. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) was used to examine the relationship between self-reported aberrant driving behaviours and mindfulness simultaneously, as well as w...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 26, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Koppel S, Stephens AN, Young KL, Hua P, Chambers R, Hassed C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Application of energy derivative method to determine the structural components' contribution on the deceleration in crashes.
CONCLUSIONS: Using the two-dimensional energy derivative method, it is possible to analyze an oblique impact or a pedestrian headform impact with large rotations. This method has advantages compared to the conventional approach using cross-sectional forces because the contribution of each component on the system deceleration can be determined. PMID: 29580101 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 26, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nagasaka K, Mizuno K, Thomson R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Risk of Motor Vehicle Crash for Older Adults after Receiving a Traffic Charge: A Case-Crossover Study.
CONCLUSIONS: A traffic-related charge for an adult over the age of 50 indicates an increased risk of experiencing a crash in the 30 days following the charge. The risk for crashes occurring in adverse conditions or outside of daylight hours was also increased in the 30 days after receiving a traffic-related charge. The risk of experiencing a crash decreases with the more time that passes after receiving a charge. Measures to restrict or increase the safety of driving during these conditions could help reduce the crash risk for older adults who receive a traffic-related charge. PMID: 29557681 [PubMed - as sup...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 20, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Davis J, Casteel C, Hamann C, Peek-Asa C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Severe Injury in Multiple Impacts: Analysis of 1997-2015 NASS-CDS.
Abstract PURPOSE: This is a descriptive study of the incidence and risk for severe injury in a single impact and multi-impact crashes by belt use and crash type using NASS-CDS. METHODS: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS was used to determine the distribution of crashes by the number of impacts and severe injury (MAIS 4+F) to>15 year old non-ejected drivers by seatbelt use in 1997+ MY vehicles. It compares the risk for severe injury in a single impact and in crashes involving two, three or four+ impacts in the collision with focus on a frontal crash followed by other impacts. RESULTS: Most vehicle crashes involve a s...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 19, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Viano DC, Parenteau CS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Transdermal alcohol monitoring combined with contingency management for driving while impaired offenders: A pilot randomised controlled study.
CONCLUSIONS: TAM is a viable adjunct to CM with DWI offenders, though the TAM device used here may influence both study recruitment and adherence. These findings can guide the design of future studies into CM and TAM for DWI remediation. PMID: 29543499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 15, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Averill F, Brown TG, Robertson RD, Tchomgang A, Berbiche D, Nadeau L, Ouimet MC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of Geometrically Personalized THUMS Pedestrian Model Response against Sedan-Pedestrian PMHS Impact Test Data.
CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the need to control for pedestrian anthropometry when validating pedestrian human body models against PMHS data. The information provided in the current study could be useful for improving model biofidelity for vehicle-pedestrian impact scenarios. PMID: 29537888 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 14, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chen H, Poulard D, Forman J, Crandall J, Panzer MB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A Descriptive Analysis of Drugged Driving Among Rural DUI Offenders.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that rural DUI offenders have extensive illicit drug use histories and frequently engage in drugged driving, posing a significant threat to public safety. Additional research on the characteristics of rural drugged drivers and their drug use and driving patterns is needed to inform the development of targeted interventions. PMID: 29537897 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 14, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Webster JM, Dickson MF, Staton M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Injury Risk Functions for Frontal Oblique Collisions.
CONCLUSIONS: The risk of obtaining MAIS2+-injuries is significantly higher in oblique crashes than in non-oblique crashes. In the real-world, most of the MAIS2+ injuries occur in an oEES range from 30░km/h to 60░km/h. PMID: 29521535 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 9, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Andricevic N, Junge M, Krampe J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Abdominopelvic injuries due to road traffic accidents: Characteristics in a registry of 162,695 victims.
Conclusions Abdominopelvic injuries concern a minority of road traffic injuries, but they are responsible for a significant overmortality. Large solid organs are the most frequently affected. Women car users, wearing the seat belt, driving in town during the day appear to be more protected against API. PMID: 29509045 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 6, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Monchal T, Ndiaye A, Gadegbeku B, Javouhey E, Monneuse O Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Thoracic and Lumbar Spine Responses in High-Speed Rear Sled Tests.
This study analyzed thoracic and lumbar spine responses with "in position" and OOP (out-of-position) seated dummies in 40.2 km/h (25 mph) rear sled tests with conventional and ABTS (all belts to seat) seats. Occupant kinematics and spinal responses were determined with modern (≥2000 MY), older (
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 1, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Viano DC, Parenteau CS, Burnett R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Alcohol policy and fatal alcohol-related crashes in Finland 2000-2016.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between annual alcohol consumption per capita/alcohol price index and the number of alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle accidents (AFMVAs). We were particularly interested in whether a tax reduction in 2004 increased the number of alcohol-related accidents. METHOD: The data consisted of all fatal motor vehicle accidents (FMVAs) during the years 2000-2016 obtained from a database maintained by the Finnish Crash Data Institute (OTI). The data included all fatally injured drivers. We compared the OTI data to official statistics on annu...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 27, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Juhani K, Tuomas S, Timo T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Validation of Auditory Detection-Response Task Method for Assessing the Attentional Effects of Cognitive Load.
CONCLUSIONS: The results from this study show that the auditory DRT version, using the signal implementation suggested in this paper, is sensitive to the effects of cognitive load on driver's attention, and is significantly better than the remote visual and tactile version, for auditory-vocal cognitive (n-back) secondary tasks. PMID: 29461865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 20, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Stojmenova K, Sodnik J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of Give Kids a Boost: A School-based Program to Increase Booster Seat Use among Urban Children in Economically-disadvantaged Areas.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of a series of one-year, multi-faceted, school-based programs aimed at increasing booster seat use among urban children 4-7 years of age in economically-disadvantaged areas. Methods During four consecutive school years, 2011-2015, the Give Kids a Boost (GKB) program was implemented in a total of 8 schools with similar demographics in Dallas County. Observational surveys were conducted at project schools before project implementation (P0), 1-4 weeks after the completion of project implementation (P1), and 4-5 months later (P2). Changes in booster seat use for the three t...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 12, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yellman MA, Rodriguez MA, Colunga MI, McCoy MA, Stephens-Stidham S, Brown LS, Istre GR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Validation of a Booted Finite Element Model of the WIAMan ATD Lower Limb in Component and Whole-Body Vertical Loading Impacts with an Assessment of the Boot Influence Model on Response.
CONCLUSION: The booted lower-limb model is accurate in its ability to articulate and transfer loads similar to the physical dummy in simulated under-body loading experiments. The performance of the model leads to the recommendation to use it appropriately as an alternative to costly ATD experiments. PMID: 29381394 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 30, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Baker WA, Chowdhury MR, Untaroiu C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Surveillance of Traffic Incident Management- Related Occupational Fatalities in Kentucky, 2005-2016.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiple data sources are needed to comprehensively identify TIM fatalities and to examine the circumstances surrounding TIM fatalities, since no one data source in itself was adequate and undercounted the total number of TIM fatalities. The motor vehicle towing industry, in particular, is at elevated risk for occupational mortality, and targeted mandatory TIM training for the motor vehicle towing industry should be considered. Also, enhanced law enforcement roadside safety training during vehicle pursuit and apprehension of suspects is recommended. PMID: 29381397 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Sour...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 30, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bunn TL, Slavova S, Chandler M, Hanner N, Singleton M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of the influence of passenger vehicles front-end design on pedestrian lower extremity injuries by means of the LLMS model.
CONCLUSIONS: The behavior of a vehicle front-end in the impact against a pedestrian can be improved optimizing its design. The work indicates potential strategies for improvement. In this work, each parameter was changed independently one at a time: in future works the interaction between the design parameters could be also investigated. Moreover, a similar parametric analysis can be carried out using a standard mechanical legform model in order to understand potential diversities or correlations between standard tools and human models. PMID: 29381438 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 30, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Scattina A, Mo F, Masson C, Avalle M, Arnoux PJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs in the eastern part of Denmark in 2015 and 2016: Abuse patterns and trends.
CONCLUSION: Overall, alcohol was the most frequent compound detected above the legal limit in both years, followed by the well-known illicit drugs THC, cocaine and amphetamine. NPS were seldom seen. One consequence of the increased focus on drugs in traffic has been an immense increase in drug traffic cases sent for analysis since 2006 in the eastern part of Denmark. Although this survey revealed only minimal changes compared to earlier investigations, surveys like this are invaluable for monitoring abuse patterns and trends in drugged and drunken driving. PMID: 29370543 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tr...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 25, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Simonsen KW, Linnet K, Rasmussen BS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Cross-correlation between the controlled collision environment and real-world motor vehicle collisions: Evaluating the protection of the thoracic side airbag.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Thoracic side airbags (tSAB) were integrated into the vehicle fleet to attenuate and distribute forces on the occupant's chest and abdomen, dissipate the impact energy, and move the occupant away from the intruding structure, all of which reduce the risk of injury. The research piece investigates and evaluates the safety performance of the airbag unit by cross-correlating data from a controlled collision environment with field data. METHOD: We focus exclusively on vehicle-vehicle lateral impacts from the NHTSA's Vehicle Crash Test Database and NASS-CDS database, which are replicated in the...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 23, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gaylor L, Junge M, Abanteriba S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Local vs. National: Epidemiology of Pedestrian Injury in a Mid-Atlantic City.
CONCLUSIONS: As the urban landscape and associated pedestrian behavior transform, continued investigation of local pedestrian injury trends and evolving public health prevention strategies are necessary for ensuring pedestrian safety. PMID: 29341801 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 17, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nesoff ED, Pollack KM, Knowlton AR, Bowie JV, Gielen AC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Developing a theoretical foundation to change road user behavior and improve traffic safety: Driving under the influence of cannabis (DUIC).
CONCLUSIONS: This study explored a theoretical model to understand road user behavior involving drug (cannabis) impaired driving as a significant risk factor for traffic safety. By understanding the cultural factors that increase DUIC behavior, we can create strategies to transform this culture and sustain safer road user behavior. PMID: 29337600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ward NJ, Schell W, Kelley-Baker T, Otto J, Finley K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Parental supervision and discomfort with children walking to school in low-income communities in Cape Town, South Africa.
Conclusions Many South African schoolchildren have to navigate the roads without adult supervision from a young age. Caregivers, especially in low-income settings, often have limited options with regard to getting their child to school safely. Regardless of the child's age and gender, the time that they spend on the roads is an important factor for parents in terms of pedestrian safety. PMID: 29333865 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 15, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Simons A, Koekemoer K, van Niekerk A, Govender R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Survey Regarding the .05 Blood Alcohol Concentration Limit for Driving in the United States.
CONCLUSION: While the .05 limit offers promise in saving lives, the following issues associated with changing the limit to .05 need to be resolved prior to implementation: validating the sobriety tests for the .05 limit; if needed, modifying the sobriety tests to make them effective and valid at the .05 limit; and training law enforcement personnel and educating the public regarding the .05 limit. PMID: 29333873 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 15, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fiorentino DD, Martin BD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road Traffic Injuries among Riders of Electric Bike/Electric Moped in Southern China.
Conclusion Traffic safety related to electric bikes/moped is becoming more problematic with growing popularity compared with other two wheeled vehicles. Programs need to be developed to prevent electric bike/mopedrelated road traffic injuries in this emerging country. PMID: 29333874 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 15, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zhang X, Yang Y, Yang J, Hu J, Li Y, Wu M, Stallones L, Xiang H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Effects of Breath Alcohol Concentration on Postural Control.
CONCLUSION: The current study did not directly address the issue of whether the sobriety tests are sensitive to BrACs of .05 g/210 L or above; rather, it provides additional evidence that postural control, one of the components of those tests, is relatively unaffected by BrACs lower than .08 g/210 L. Additional research is needed on the diagnostic characteristics of the sobriety tests at BrACs lower than .08 g/210 L. PMID: 29323932 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 11, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fiorentino DD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safe speed limits for a safe system: The relationship between speed limit and fatal crash rate for different crash types.
Conclusions The positive exponential relationship between speed limit and fatal crash rate is consistent with prior research into speed and crash risk. The results indicate that speed zones of 100 km/h or more only meet the objectives of the Safe System, with regard to fatal crashes, where all crash types except rear end crashes are exceedingly rare, such as on a high standard restricted access highway with a safe roadside design. PMID: 29323934 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 11, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Doecke SD, Kloeden CN, Dutschke JK, Baldock MRJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Compatibility of booster seats and vehicles in the US market.
Conclusions This study quantifies some of the common interferences between boosters and vehicles which may complicate booster usage. Data are useful for design and to prioritize specific problem areas. PMID: 29271665 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 22, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bing JA, Agnew AM, Bolte JH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Is there a link between motor vehicle collisions and being a cigarette smoker in Canada? Analysis of survey data from Ontario from 2002-2014.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that despite a substantial reduction in overall prevalence of smoking in Canada, smokers still have a significantly increased odds of collision involvement, even when controlling for alcohol and exposure. Additionally, the results are consistent with the increased odds /risks of motor vehicle collisions found in other countries. PMID: 29265880 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 21, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Vingilis E, Pederson LL, Seeley J, Ialomiteanu AR, Wickens CM, Ferrence R, Mann RE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Independent factors associated with bicycle helmet use in a Korean population: a cross-sectional study.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Although identification of factors that influence helmet use during bicycle riding is necessary for the selection of groups that require safe cycling education, limited baseline data are available. The aim of the present study was to analyze the rate of helmet use and the demographic factors that were independently associated with helmet use among Korean bicycle riders. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we used public data from the Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted in 2013 and 2014. Helmet users were defined as subjects who always, usually, or fr...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 21, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Son SH, Oh SH, Kang SH, Kim DK, Seo KM, Lee SU, Lee SY Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Safety Performance of Highway Alignments based on Fault Tree Analysis and Safety Boundaries.
CONCLUSION: The proposed method has the potential to be used in practical engineering applications to identify crash-prone locations and alignment deficiencies on highways in the planning and design phases, as well as those in service. PMID: 29265933 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 21, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chen Y, Wang K, Xu C, Shi Q, He J, Li P, Shi T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of Maryland's State Police Impaired Driving Reduction Effort (SPIDRE).
CONCLUSIONS: The SPIDRE program appeared able to prevent a downward trend in DUI arrests, experienced by the rest of the state, and achieved higher quality arrests resulting in more positive adjudicative outcomes. The way in which the SPIDRE team was deployed may have lacked sufficient duration and intensity (e.g., only 2-3 months of activity in any given county) to achieve a reduction in alcohol-impaired driving crashes. It is recommended that the SPIDRE team increase its enforcement activities for at least 9-12 consecutive months in the county where they are employed. PMID: 29252001 [PubMed - as supplied by pub...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 18, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Beck KH, Fell JC, Kerns TJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Autonomous emergency braking systems adapted to snowy road conditions improve drivers' perceived safety and trust.
CONCLUSIONS: Drivers notice the adaptation of the autonomous braking strategy on snowy roads with reduced friction. On snowy roads they feel safer and trust more the adaptive than the non-adaptive automation. PMID: 29227692 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 11, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Koglbauer I, Holzinger J, Eichberger A, Lex C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prevalence of Alcohol Impairment and Odds of a Driver Injury or Fatality in On-Road Farm Equipment Crashes.
CONCLUSION: On-road farm equipment crashes involving alcohol result in greater odds of an injury or fatality. The risk of injury or fatality is higher among the non-farm equipment vehicle drivers who are also more likely to be alcohol-impaired. Further studies are needed to measure the impact of alcohol impairment in on-road farm equipment crashes. PMID: 29211499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 6, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Harland KK, Bedford R, Wu H, Ramirez M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A comparison of overtime patrol stops made inside and out of cluster identified hotspots.
PMID: 29190131 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 30, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Maistros A, Schneider WH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparison of recidivism rates for a Teenage Trauma Prevention Program after the addition of high fidelity patient simulation.
CONCLUSIONS: Adding simulation is well-received by participants, leads to positive reflections regarding changes in risk-taking behaviors but resulted in no changes to the high recidivism rates This may be due to the often ineffectiveness of fear appeals. PMID: 29185783 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 29, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: White ML, Zinkan JL, Smith G, Peterson DT, Youngblood AQ, Dodd A, Parker W, Strachan S, Sloane P, Tofil N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Functional outcomes of motor vehicle crash thoracic injuries in pediatric and adult occupants.
CONCLUSION: Older adults had significantly greater overall disability than each of the other age groups for thoracic injuries. The developed disability metrics are important in quantifying the significant burden of injuries and loss of quality life years. Such metrics can be used to better characterize severity of injury and further the understanding of age-related differences in injury outcomes, which can influence future age-specific modifications to AIS. PMID: 29185785 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 29, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Schoell SL, Weaver AA, Talton JW, Barnard RT, Baker G, Stitzel JD, Zonfrillo MR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Risk factors for motorcycle loss-of-control crashes.
CONCLUSION: The LOC crash factors related to riders, vehicles and road infrastructure identified here were expected, but were rarely identified and taken simultaneously into account in previous studies. They could be targeted by countermeasures to improve motorcyclist safety. PMID: 29185788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 29, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wu D, Hours M, Martin JL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Effect of Correct Cross-Chest Clip Use on Injury Outcomes in Young Children during Motor Vehicle Crashes.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cross-chest clip use and injury outcomes in children between 0-4 years of age. METHODS: Child passengers between 0-4 years of age were selected from the Crashworthiness Data System of the US National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) datasets (2003-2014). Multiple regression analysis was used to model injury outcomes while controlling for age, crash severity, crash direction and restraint type. The primary outcomes were overall Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) 2+ injury, and the presence of any neck injury. RESULTS: Across all children aged 0-4 ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 29, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Woodford E, Brown J, Bilston LE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Discordance between Age and Size Based Criteria of Child Passenger Restraint Appropriateness.
In this study we sought to accomplish the following objectives: 1) to calculate the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained across eight criteria of increasing restrictiveness; 2) to examine agreement between age- and size-based appropriateness criteria; 3) to assess for changes in the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained by the eight criteria between 2011 (shortly after updates to United States (U.S.) guidelines) and 2015. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys of 928 parents of children younger than 12 years old (n = 591 in 2011, n = 337 in 2015) were analyzed in 2017....
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 17, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Smiley ML, Bingham CR, Jacobson PD, Macy ML Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Traffic Injury Prevention.
Authors: PMID: 29035084 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 18, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A Study of Fatal Pedestrian Crashes at Rural Low Volume Road Intersections in Southwest China.
CONCLUSIONS: Accident prevention treatments are suggested based on their suitability for rural areas in Southwest China. These countermeasures include introducing better access management and traffic calming treatments, providing more opportunities for pedestrian education and enhancing the quality of driver training and traffic law enforcement. PMID: 28981367 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 5, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Xie X, Nikitas A, Liu H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

State Helmet Laws and Helmet Use Among Fatally Injured Moped Riders in the United States, 2011-2015.
This study investigated this association among a census of fatally injured moped riders in the United States. METHODS: A logistic regression model was constructed to analyze data extracted from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) to examine risk factors for helmet non-use among 572 moped riders fatally injured between 2011 and 2015. RESULTS: Moped riders fatally injured in states with universal helmet laws had 69 times the odds of wearing a helmet (p
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 27, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Boone EM, Rossheim ME, Krall JR, Weiler RM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Unintentional nontraffic injury and fatal events: threats to children in and around vehicles.
Conclusions Nontraffic injuries and fatalities present an important threat to the safety and lives of very young children. Future efforts should consider complimentary surveillance mechanisms to systematically and comprehensively capture of all nontraffic incidents. Continued education, engineering modifications, advocacy, and legislation can help continue to prevent these incidents and must be incorporated in overall child vehicle safety initiatives. PMID: 28933560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 21, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zonfrillo MR, Ramsay ML, Fennell JE, Rollins A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of Mechanics of Side Impact Test Defined in UN/ECE Regulation 129.
CONCLUSIONS: It is demonstrated that an artificial anchorage in the Regulation 129 test does not account for a rotation of the CRS, which should appear in the case of a realistic anchorage. Therefore, the adopted procedure generates the smallest HIC value, which is at the level of the far side impact scenario where there are no obstacles. It is also shown that the presence of non-lateral acceleration components challenges the quality of a CRS and its headrest much more than a pure lateral set-up. PMID: 28910537 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 14, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Baranowski P, Damaziak K, Mazurkiewicz L, Malachowski J, Muszynski A, Vangi D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research