Young age as a predictor of poor road safety practices of commercial motorcyclists in Oyo state, Nigeria.
This study examined the association between young age and poor road safety practices of commercial motorcyclists in Oyo state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 371 commercial motorcyclists selected via a multi-stage sampling technique was conducted. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and road safety practices (possession of a valid license, helmet use, number of passengers carried per trip and compliance with ten selected traffic signs) were obtained with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Individual road safety practice items were scored and a total score obtained giving m...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Olumide AO, Owoaje ET Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Investigation on deterrence effect of legal punishment measures on driving after drinking in chongqing, china.
Conclusions: The 4(th) edition of Chinese Traffic Safety Law which took effect on January 2013 coinciding with application of random breath testing and intensification of enforcement activity is effective in deterring driving after drinking according to the investigation. More measures should be implemented to change the decreasing tendency of perceived certainty of being caught for driving after drinking. The amount of monetary fine is suggested be raised up to a threshold. PMID: 25569129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Suo Q Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Mature Driver Laws and State Predictors of Motor Vehicle Crash Fatality Rates among the Elderly: A Cross-sectional Ecological Study.
Conclusions: Mature driver laws are not associated with lower state MVC fatality rates among the elderly. PMID: 25569273 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bell TM, Qiao N, Zarzaur BL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Using Enforcement and Adjudication Data to Assess the Impact of a Primary Safety Belt Law.
Discussion: Our analysis demonstrates that Kentucky's public safety and judicial systems took the new law seriously and enforced it effectively, and that the increased level of enforcement persisted for at least five years after implementation. We also find that data from judicial system administrative agency reports makes an important contribution to public policy analysis. In the face of persistent anti-regulatory forces and public sector budget cuts, it is critically important to document the relationship between enforcement activities and the achievement of legislative goals. PMID: 25569430 [PubMed - as supplied b...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Costich JF, Slavova SS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Finite Element Model Prediction of Pulmonary Contusion in Vehicle to Vehicle Simulations of Real-World Crashes.
Conclusions: A preliminary threshold for maximum crush was calculated to predict a clinically significant volume of pulmonary contusion. PMID: 25569549 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Danelson KA, Stitzel JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

General Motor Vehicle Drivers' Knowledge and Practices Regarding Drink Driving in Yinchuan and Guangzhou, China.
This study examined knowledge, drink driving practices and alcohol misuse problems among general drivers in Yinchuan. The objectives were to gain a better understanding of drink driving in Yinchuan, identify areas that need to be addressed, and compare the results with a similar study in Guangzhou. MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study with a survey designed to collect information of participants' demographic characteristics and their knowledge and practices in relation to drinking and driving. The survey was comprised of questions on knowledge and practices in relation to drink driving and was administered to a convenie...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Jia K, King M, Fleiter J, Sheehan M, Ma W, Lei J, Zhang J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

High risk driving attitudes and everyday driving violations of car and racing enthusiasts in Ontario, Canada.
Conclusion: The findings indicate that positive high risk driving attitudes may be transferring to driving violations in everyday traffic which mediate driving offense citations. PMID: 25569798 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Yıldırım-Yenier Z, Vingilis E, Wiesenthal DL, Mann RE, Seeley J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Erratum.
Authors: PMID: 25296766 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 12, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Editorial Board EOV.
Authors: PMID: 25025753 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 20, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 24924808 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 19, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prevalence of alcohol and drugs among car and van drivers killed in road accidents in norway: an overview from 2001 to 2010.
Conclusions: The findings confirm that a large number of fatally injured drivers, in particular among drivers involved in single-vehicle accidents, had concentrations of alcohol or drugs above the new legislative limits introduced in 2012. In many cases, concentrations of at least 5 times the limits were found. The proportion of drivers killed who tested positive for alcohol or other drugs did not change during the study period; however, the total number of drivers killed per year decreased by about 20 percent. Some changes were also observed with regard to the types of benzodiazepines and amphetamines detected during...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Christophersen AS, Gjerde H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characteristics of 1226 alcohol-positive drivers involved in nonfatal traffic crashes in shanghai, china.
Conclusions: The results indicated a notable need for more governmental attention that would prevent accidents caused by driving under the influence of alcohol. PMID: 24867564 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sun Y, Huang Z, Zhao Z, Jiang Y, Ye Y, Yu T, Rao Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Phone use while driving: results from an observational survey.
Conclusions: The level of handheld phone use among drivers in South Australia appears to be low relative to other jurisdictions. The level of enforcement activity and severity of penalties do not offer a clear explanation for the higher levels of compliance with phone laws. Given the rate of increase in phone technology, it is important to conduct regular roadside surveys of phone use among drivers to monitor trends in usage over time. PMID: 24867565 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Wundersitz LN Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effectiveness of red light cameras in the United States-a literature review.
Conclusions: Despite limited peer-reviewed publications available in the literature, it appears that RLCs decrease violations, crashes, and injuries at intersections. Some studies, however, contained methodological shortcomings. Therefore, the apparent effectiveness should be confirmed with stronger methodological approaches. Although spillover effects appeared to be evident, many of the jurisdictions examined were small in area. Thus, it is unknown whether spillover resulting from RLCs would have similar effects in large metropolitan areas. To determine the full public health impact of RLC programs, crashes, injuries, and...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Llau AF, Ahmed NU Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Optimizing the passenger air bag of an adaptive restraint system for multiple size occupants.
Conclusions: According to the optimization results, 4 typical PABs could provide effective protection to 5th and 50th percentile dummies. However, due to the heavy and large torsos of the 95th percentile occupants, the current occupant restraint system does not demonstrate satisfactory protective function, particularly for the thorax. PMID: 24867567 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bai Z, Jiang B, Zhu F, Cao L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Estimating rear-end accident probabilities at signalized intersections: a comparison study of intersections with and without green signal countdown devices.
Conclusions: GSCDs helped shorten indecision zones and reduce rear-end collisions near the stop line during the yellow interval, but they easily resulted in risky car following behavior and much higher rear-end collision probabilities at indecision zones during both flashing green and yellow intervals. GSCDs are recommended to be cautiously installed and education on safe driving behavior should be available. PMID: 24867568 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Ni Y, Li K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Demonstrating a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents.
Conclusion: Road safety practices associated with enforcement of speed limits and promotion of alternative modes are the most significant road safety practices toward which mature countries have concentrated their efforts, resulting in a lower frequency of fatalities, injury rates, and property damage accidents. The authors argue that the use of gross domestic product (GDP) as a predictor of road safety incidents suffers from the presumptive assumption that the only criterion that matters is national income, therefore erroneously predicting that richer countries all perform approximately the same in fatalities and that dev...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Amador L, Willis CJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road safety forecasts in five European countries using structural time series models.
Conclusions: A concluding section providing perspectives and directions for future research is presented. PMID: 24867570 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Antoniou C, Papadimitriou E, Yannis G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A One Year Pay-as-You-Speed Trial With Economic Incentives for Not Speeding.
Conclusions: It was shown that a PAYS concept is an effective way to reduce speed violations. Hence, it has the possibility to reduce crash severity and thereby to save lives. This could be an important step toward a safer road transport system. The majority of the participants were in favor of the concept, which indicates the potential of a new insurance product in the future. PMID: 24867571 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Stigson H, Hagberg J, Kullgren A, Krafft M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Can anatomical morphomic variables help predict abdominal injury rates in frontal vehicle crashes?
In this study, abdominal injuries for occupants involved in frontal impacts were assessed using crash and medical data. Methods: Injury rates and patterns were first assessed with respect to thoracic injuries. A statistical analysis was then conducted to predict abdominal injury outcome using 18 covariate variables, including 4 vehicle, 4 demographic, and 10 morphomic, derived from computed tomography (CT) scans. More than 260,000 logistic regression models were fitted using all possible variable combinations. The models were ranked using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and combined through the model-averaging appro...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Parenteau CS, Zhang P, Holcombe S, Kohoyda-Inglis C, Wang SC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Raised crosswalks on entrance to the roundabout-a case study on effectiveness of treatment on pedestrian safety and convenience.
Conclusions: Preliminary results of the case study suggest positive safety and convenience outcomes. Implications for pedestrian safety include less exposure to traffic and lower risk of serious injury, particularly for elderly pedestrians; convenience outcomes include shorter waiting times to cross and greater compliance to the crossing. A larger study is required to substantiate the findings. PMID: 24867573 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Candappa N, Stephan K, Fotheringham N, Lenné MG, Corben B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effects of primary enforcement laws and fine levels on seat belt usage in the United States.
We examined law type and fine levels as predictors of seat belt use among fatally injured occupants of passenger vehicles from 1997 through 2008 using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Fine levels used were the statutory maximum base fines for a first offense. Results: Having a primary enforcement law was associated with a 9 to 10 percentage point increase in seat belt use. An increase in the fine amount, from the current median level of $25 to a level of $60, was associated with a 3 percentage point increase in usage. An increase in fine from $25 to $100 was associated with a 6- to 7-point increase....
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Nichols JL, Tippetts AS, Fell JC, Eichelberger AH, Haseltine PW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Mild to moderate dehydration combined with moderate alcohol consumption has no influence on simulated driving performance.
Conclusions: Overall, it appears that dehydration does not exacerbate impairment in driving performance caused by mild-moderate alcohol intoxication. Further research is required to clarify the effects of alcohol and dehydration at various alcohol doses. PMID: 24867575 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Irwin C, Leveritt M, Shum DH, Desbrow B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Head and Spine Injuries Sustained by Motorcyclists in Head-Leading Collisions with Fixed Roadside Objects.
Conclusions The study results were used to suggest possible crash test protocols for motorcyclists sliding into fixed objects and/or safety devices designed to reduce the injury risk of fixed objects. The predominant orientation of lying prone with head extension led the authors to suggest a crash test using the motorcycle anthropomorphic test device (MATD) sliding prone. However, the occurrence of the supine orientation, albeit less frequently, indicates the utility of a crash test with an ATD sliding supine. The two options are discussed, particularly with regard to appropriate injury assessment reference values. PM...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bambach MR, Mattos GA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

New Method for Distance-based Close Following Safety Indicator.
Conclusions: It is envisaged that this new distance-based safety indicator would provide a more realistic depiction of the real traffic situation for safety analysis. PMID: 24827899 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sharizli AA, Rahizar R, Karim MR, Saifizul AA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of increasing child restraint use in reducing occupant injuries among children aged 0-5 years in Japan.
Conclusions: The present study used comparative indicators relative to age groups that were not covered by the legislation, and showed that a decrease in trend of occupant morbidity among children aged 0-5 years started before the introduction of compulsory restraint use. This change probably reflects the pre-legislative voluntary increase in child restraint use. PMID: 24827976 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Nakahara S, Ichikawa M, Nakajima Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Influence of Drinking, Texting and Eating on Simulated Driving Performance.
Conclusions: Distracting behaviours such as eating and texting whilst driving appear to negatively impact driving measures of lane position control and reaction time. These findings may have direct implications for motorists that engage in these types of distracting behaviours behind the wheel and for the safety of other road users. PMID: 24828121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Irwin C, Monement S, Desbrow B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian Injuries in the most densely populated city in Nigeria-an epidemics calling for control.
Conclusions This study suggests high incidence, and significant underreporting, of pedestrian injury. Morbidity and mortality reduction is possible (from head and lower limb injuries) by traffic calming techniques in crossing the highway especially from the motorcycles, cars and buses. PMID: 24828258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Solagberu BA, Balogun RA, Mustafa IA, Ibrahim NA, Oludara MA, Ajani AO, Idowu OE, Osuoji RI Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Road Traffic Crashes As A Neglected Public Health Concern; An Observational Study From Iranian Population.
Conclusions: The public health strategies and preventive policies should be focused on more common human risk factors such as disregarding traffic rules and regulations, driver rush and alcohol consumption due to their greater population attributable fraction and more intuitive impacts on society. PMID: 24761776 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 24, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bakhtiyari M, Delpisheh A, Monfared AB, Kazemi-Galougahi MH, Mehmandar MR, Riahi M, Salehi M, Mansourni MA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Reconsidering the Safety in Numbers Effect for Vulnerable Road Users: An Application Of Agent-Based Modeling.
Conclusions: Agent-based modeling may provide a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms underpinning the relationships previously observed between volume and risk under the assumptions of SiN. The SiN effect may apply only under circumstances in which bicycle density also increases over time. Additional mechanisms underpinning the SiN effect, independent of behavioural adjustment by drivers, are explored. PMID: 24761795 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 24, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Thompson J, Savino G, Stevenson M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The prevalence of distraction among passenger vehicle drivers: a roadside observational approach.
Conclusions: When using similar methodology, roadside observational studies generate comparable prevalence estimates of driver distraction as naturalistic driving studies. Driver distraction is a common problem among passenger vehicle drivers. Despite the increased awareness on the dangers of texting and cell phone use while driving, these specific activities were two of the most frequently observed distractions. There is a continued need for road safety education about the dangers of distracted driving, especially for younger drivers. PMID: 24761827 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 24, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Huisingh C, Griffin R, McGwin G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Motorcyclists' Perceptions and Experiences of Riding and Risk, and Their Advice For Safety.
Conclusions: Riders identified risks that have been recognised in the road safety literature, and also risks for which there are no engineering or scientific solutions. To effectively increase motorcyclist safety, recognition of the commonalities and the differences between motorcyclists' perspectives and proposed strategies is needed. This approach is more likely to engage riders, and thus support positive behaviour change among riders and drivers. PMID: 24761932 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 24, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Simpson JC, Wilson S, Currey N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian Fatalities Resulting from Train-Person Collisions.
Conclusions: Differences from other European studies were found, which may be related to the different cultures of the countries/regions, as well as to the differences of the railway systems. More extensive studies must be performed, in order to develop strategies to prevent train-person collisions. PMID: 24761944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 24, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sousa S, Santos L, Dinis-Oliveira RJ, Magalhães T, Santos A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Experiences of teen drivers and their advice for the Learner licence phase.
Conclusions The wealth of experiences and advice shared by the Learner drivers should be considered in refining the content and process of the Learner licence phase. Moreover, the non-use of Learner resources suggests that alternative mechanisms of engagement and information dissemination need to be explored. PMID: 24730571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Scott-Parker B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Problem of Suspended and Revoked Drivers who Avoid Detection at Checkpoints.
Conclusion. The fact that many SR drivers are able to pass through DUI/License checkpoints undetected weakens both the specific and general impacts of checkpoints for deterring SR driving, and may diminish the effectiveness of suspension and revocation actions for reducing the crash risk posed by problem drivers. Using license card readers that can quickly identify SR drivers in real time during routine traffic stops and at DUI/License checkpoints warrants further consideration. PMID: 24730601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Parrish KE, Masten SV Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving during alcohol hangover among dutch professional truck drivers.
Abstract Objectives: Alcohol hangover may impair potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. The purpose of the present study was to determine (1) whether driving during alcohol hangover is a problem of concern among professional Dutch truck drivers and (2) to what extent they think their hangover state affects driving performance. Methods: Three hundred forty-three professional truck drivers were interviewed at a Dutch trucker festival. In addition to demographics, data were gathered on normal driving, alcohol consumption and hangover, and driving style during alcoho...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Verster JC, Van Der Maarel MA, McKinney A, Olivier B, De Haan L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Meta-Analysis of On-the-Road Experimental Studies of Hypnotics: Effects of Time After Intake, Dose, and Half-Life.
Conclusions: These analyses indicate that the half-life, dose of the hypnotic, as well as time between treatment and driving, as measured by SDLP, all significantly impact the ability to drive a car after taking hypnotic drugs. PMID: 24678565 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Roth T, Eklov SD, Drake CL, Verster JC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Compliance with traffic laws by traffic police officers, non-traffic police officers, and civilian drivers.
Conclusions: Our findings supported the notion that on-duty police officers, and traffic police officers in particular, adhere more closely to traffic laws compared to civilian drivers. As the general public compliance with traffic laws is affected by the police perceived legitimacy, the publication of these results can both boost public cooperation with the police and encourage police officers to continue providing positive role models to the public. PMID: 24678566 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Rosenbloom T, Pereg A, Perlman A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of passenger presence on older drivers' risk of fatal crash involvement.
Conclusion: Older drivers' crash risk is lower with almost every combination of passenger age group and gender. It is unclear whether the presence of passengers lowers older driver crash risk or whether safer drivers tend to ride with passengers. PMID: 24678567 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Braitman KA, Chaudhary NK, McCartt AT Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Light-vehicle occupancy and severe injury by vehicle and crash type.
Conclusions: On average, there were 1.35 occupants involved in a crash per vehicle. Severely injured occupants were uncommon in 5+ occupancy vehicles. There was a trend for increased injury risks with occupancy. The risk was 1.65 times higher in vehicles with 7+ occupants compared to those with a driver only. PMID: 24678568 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Parenteau CS, Viano DC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Scope and Nature of Injuries to Rear Seat Passengers in NSW Using Linked Hospital Admission and Police Data.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that there is a need for enhanced protection for rear seat passengers, because they have proportionally more fatal injuries than front-seated occupants. The frequency of abdominal injury and the differences between injury patterns observed in front seat passengers suggests a potential benefit from adding abdominal injury risk assessment to rear seat occupant protection test protocols. There is also scope to improve chest protection for older rear seat passengers. PMID: 24678569 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Brown J, Bilston LE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Elevated risk of sleepiness-related motor vehicle accidents in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a case-control study.
Abstract Objectives: The present case-control study aimed to determine whether obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients are at an increased risk for sleepiness-related motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) than controls and to identify disease-related factors associated with accident risk. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and polysomnographic parameters of 312 OSAS patients were compared with 156 age- and sex-matched primary snoring subjects. Results: The rate of OSAS patients reporting accident was higher than snoring subjects (21.2% vs. 11.5%, P = .011), and OSAS was associated with an increase i...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Basoglu OK, Tasbakan MS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Buckle up safely (shoalhaven): a process and impact evaluation of a pragmatic, multifaceted preschool-based pilot program to increase correct use of age-appropriate child restraints.
Conclusions: This was a pragmatic study reflecting the real-life issues of implementing a program in preschools where 57 percent of families had a low income and turnover of staff was high. Despite these issues, impact evaluation showed that the integrated educational program showed promise in increasing correct use of age-appropriate restraints. The findings from this pilot study support the use of an integrated educational program that includes access to subsidized restraints to promote best practice child restraint use among communities that include a high proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families in ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Hunter K, Keay L, Clapham K, Lyford M, Brown J, Bilston L, Simpson JM, Stevenson M, Ivers RQ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The use of self-report exposure measures among novice motorcyclists: appropriateness and best practice recommendations.
Conclusions: If self-reported odometer readings are used, questions on whether the respondents share their own bike or ride more than one bike, and a built-in process to ensure respondents report the exact odometer reading on their bike are recommended. It is recommended that self-report riding exposure questions ask about the hours of riding for the current average week, and data on riding purposes, locations, and experience are also collected. PMID: 24678572 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sakashita C, Senserrick T, Boufous S, De Rome L, Elkington J, Ivers R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Distribution and Type of Crash Damage to Motorcyclists' Clothing: Validation of the Zone Approach in the European Standard for Motorcycle Protective Clothing, EN13595.
Conclusions: The results are in agreement with the general concept of the zones used in the EU Standard. However, these results indicate that minor adjustments may be warranted. In particular, the number of impacts to the forearm and lower leg suggest that these regions might be better protected by considering the whole regions as zone 1or 2 rather than the multiple regions as currently indicated in the EU Standard. However, the subjective nature of determining the zone in which damage (and/or injury) occurred limits these findings and any others that attempt to validate the zone principles using real-world data. Further v...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Meredith L, Brown J, Ivers R, De Rome L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Involvement of unendorsed motorcycle operators in fatal crashes in cuyahoga county, ohio, 2005-2011.
Conclusion: The large proportion of unendorsed motorcyclists involved in fatal crashes in northeast Ohio highlights the need for more stringent licensing requirements that make it more difficult to ride without an endorsement and limit learner's permit renewals. PMID: 24678574 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Connor SM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A numerical investigation on the variation in hip injury tolerance with occupant posture during frontal collisions.
Conclusions: The stability and biofidelity response of the pelvis-lower limb (PLEX) model indicates its potential application in future frontal and lateral impact FE simulations. PMID: 24678575 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Yue N, Untaroiu CD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Increased inequality in mortality from road crashes among Arabs and Jews in Israel.
Conclusions: The reduction in road crashes in the last decade is a positive achievement. However, the reductions are not equal in Arabs and Jews in Israel. Therefore an increase in the disparities in mortality from road crashes is apparent. Public health efforts need to focus specifically on decreasing road crashes in the Arab community. PMID: 24679219 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 28, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Magid A, Leibovitch-Zur S, Baron-Epel O Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Normative Misperceptions of Peer Seatbelt Use among High School Students and Their Relationship to Personal Seatbelt Use.
Conclusions: Peer influences are a strong predictor of behavior, especially among adolescents. Ironically, adolescents' behaviors are often influenced by inaccurate perceptions of their peers. This research establishes the presence of a misperception related to seatbelt use and suggests that misperception is associated with own behaviors. This research provides a foundation for social norms based interventions designed to increase seatbelt use by correcting normative misperceptions among adolescents. PMID: 24628560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Litt D, Lewis MA, Linkenbach JW, Lande G, Neighbors C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Alcohol-related Road Traffic Injuries in Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates.
Conclusion: Self reported alcohol-related car collisions in Al-Ain City had a low incidence. It affected older Emirati male nationals and was associated with lower revised trauma score, mainly due to head injury. There is a need for a national registry with data on alcohol abuse so as to assess its effects and strategies for its prevention. PMID: 24617582 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 11, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Osman OT, Abbas AK, Eid HO, Salem MO, Abu-Zidan FM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research