Emergency braking is affected by the use of cruise control.
CONCLUSIONS: In male subjects, driving in a CC/ACC condition significantly delays the active emergency braking response to vehicle collision. This could result from higher amplitude of leg motion in the CC/ACC condition and/or by the age-related changes in motor control. Car and truck drivers must take account of the significant increase in the braking distance in a CC/ACC condition. PMID: 28118033 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 23, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jammes Y, Behr M, Llari M, Bonicel S, Weber JP, Berdah S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Roadside survey on alcohol and drug use among drivers in the arctic county of Finnmark (Norway).
CONCLUSION: The total prevalence of alcohol and drugs among the general driving population in Finnmark was low and similar to previous Norwegian roadside surveys. Illicit drugs were significantly more often detected in samples from drivers with citizenship other than Russian and Norwegian, and among young, male drivers. PMID: 28112544 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 22, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jamt RE, Gjerde H, Normann PT, Bogstrand ST Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Probabilistic risk assessment for pedestrian-vehicle collision considering uncertainties of pedestrian mobility.
CONCLUSIONS: This paper presents an effective and efficient algorithm to estimate the collision probability by using UT method to solve the nonlinear transformation of uncertainties in pedestrian motion. Simulation results show that UT-based method achieves accurate collision probability estimation and higher computation efficiency than MC, and provides more valuable information concerning collision avoidance than the deterministic methods in the design of a pedestrian collision avoidance system. PMID: 28112561 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 22, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Huang Z, Liu X, Song X, He Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Calling, texting, and searching information while riding a motorcycle: A study of university students in Vietnam.
CONCLUSIONS: Mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle is highly prevalent among university students. Educational programs should focus on the crash and economic risk of all types of mobile phone use while riding, including calling, texting, and searching information. In addition, they should consider targeting the influence of social norms and peers on mobile phone use while riding. PMID: 28112978 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 22, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Truong LT, De Gruyter C, Nguyen HT Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Head Injuries (TBI) to Adults and Children in Motor-Vehicle Crashes.
CONCLUSIONS: The annual, national incidence of motor-vehicle related head injury (TBI) was estimated using 1997-2010 NASS-CDS from the Department of Transportation and NHAMCS (ED visits), NHDS (hospitalizations) and NVSS (deaths) from the Department of Health and Human Services. The transportation and health databases use different definitions and coding, which complicate direct comparisons. Future work is need where ICD to AIS translators are used if comparisons of serious head injuries in NASS and health datasets are to be made. PMID: 28112983 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 22, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Viano DC, Parenteau CS, Xu L, Faul M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Drinking and driving and perceptions of arrest risk among California drivers: Relationships with DUI arrests in their city of residence.
CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that perceptions are correlated with one aspect of DUI efforts in one's community. Those who were more likely to drink outside the home could be behaviorally influenced by these efforts. PMID: 28107033 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 19, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: MacLeod KE, Karriker-Jaffe KJ, Satariano WA, Kelley-Baker T, Lacey JH, Ragland DR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of a Responsible Beverage Service and Enforcement Program: Effects on Bar Patron Intoxication and Potential Impaired Driving by Young Adults.
CONCLUSIONS: Of the 14 outcome measures that were analyzed in each community, most indicated positive changes associated with the intervention, but others showed negative associations. About half of the measures showed no significance, the sample sizes were too small or the data were unavailable. Therefore, at best, the results of these demonstration programs were mixed. There were, however, some positive indications from the intervention. It appears that when bar managers and owners are aware of the program and its enforcement and when servers are properly trained in RBS, fewer patrons may become intoxicated and greater e...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 19, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fell JC, Fisher DA, Yao J, McKnight AS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Effect of Pre-Crash Velocity Reduction on Occupant Response Using a Human Body Finite Element Model.
The objective of this study is to use a validated finite element model of the human body and a certified model of an ATD to evaluate the effect of simulated pre-crash braking on driver kinematics, restraint loads, body loads and computed injury criteria in four commonly-injured body regions. METHODS: The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant (M50-O) and the Humanetics Hybrid-III 50(th) percentile models were gravity settled in the driver position of a generic interior equipped with an advanced three point belt and driver airbag. Fifteen simulations per model (30 total) were conducte...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 18, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Guleyupoglu B, Schap J, Kusano KD, Gayzik FS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The influence of personal protection equipment, occupant body size, and restraint system on the frontal impact responses of Hybrid III ATDs in tactical vehicles.
CONCLUSIONS: ATD injury response and kinematics are influenced by the size of the ATD, military gear, and restraint system. This study has provided important data for validating FE models of military occupants, which can be used for design optimization of military vehicle restraint systems. PMID: 28095025 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zaseck LW, Orton NR, Gruber R, Rupp J, Scherer R, Reed M, Hu J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Self-regulation of driving speed among distracted drivers: An application of driver behavioural adaptation theory.
CONCLUSION: This research confirmed that behavioural adaptation models are suitable for explaining speed adaptation of mobile phone distracted drivers, and future research could be focused on further theoretical refinement. PMID: 28095026 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Oviedo-Trespalacios O, Haque MM, King M, Washington S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The role of drug and alcohol use and the risk of motor vehicle crashes in Shiraz, Iran 2014: A case-crossover study.
CONCLUSION: Drug and alcohol use are increasing the risk of traffic crashes in Iran. Risk-reducing programs must be designed and implemented. PMID: 28095031 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Khanjani N, Mousavi M, Dehghanian A, Jahani Y, Souri H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Detection of the toughest: Pedestrian injury risk as a smooth function of age.
CONCLUSIONS: The obtained age-wise risk functions can be aggregated and adapted straightforwardly to any population. The presented approach is formulated in such general terms that in can be directly used for other data sets or additional parameters as e.g. the pedestrian's sex. So far, no other study using age as a plug-in parameter can be found. PMID: 28095033 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Niebuhr T, Junge M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Self-reported Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol and Cannabis Among Ontario Students: Associations with Graduated Licensing, Risk Taking and Substance Abuse.
CONCLUSIONS: While much attention has been paid to drinking and driving among adolescents, this research shows that more Ontario students now report driving after cannabis use than after drinking alcohol. The results identify important correlates of both behaviours that may be useful for prevention purposes. PMID: 28095034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cook S, Shank D, Bruno T, Turner NE, Mann RE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Validation of a Parametric Finite Element Human Femur Model.
Conclusions Impactor forces from simulations, on average, matched experimental values at the time of failure. In addition, the simulations were able to match the trends in the experimental dataset. PMID: 28095035 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Klein KF, Hu J, Reed MP, Schneider LW, Rupp JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Airbag deployment-related eye injuries.
CONCLUSIONS Airbag-related eye injuries occurred very rarely in car accidents in cases where the occupant survived and the restraint system was appropriately used. Spectacle use did not appear to increase the risk of eye injury in restrained occupants. PMID: 28055229 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 4, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Koisaari TA, Leivo T, Sahraravand A, Haavisto AK, Sulander P, Tervo TM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Assessment of Patients' Medical Fitness-to-drive by Primary Care Physicians: A Cross-Sectional Study.
CONCLUSIONS: PCPs did not adequately assess their patients' driving history and eligibility. Efforts are needed to improve awareness among PCPs regarding the effects of chronic medical conditions on driving. PMID: 28055233 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 4, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Alkharboush GA, Al Rashed FA, Saleem AH, Alnajashi IS, Almeneessier AS, Olaish AH, Bhatti JA, BaHammam AS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Estimating young novice drivers' compliance with graduated driver licensing restrictions: A novel approach.
CONCLUSION: Studies can practically apply proposed methods to estimate population-level compliance with GDL passenger and night restrictions; examine how compliance varies by relevant driver, vehicle, and environmental factors; and evaluate the implementation of a GDL provision or other intervention aimed at increasing compliance with these restrictions. Important considerations and potential limitations and challenges are discussed. PMID: 27064815 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Curry AE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Examination of factors associated with use rates after transition from a universal to partial motorcycle helmet use law.
CONCLUSIONS: The study results demonstrate the short-term reduction in helmet use following transition from a universal to partial motorcycle helmet law. The reduction in use is somewhat less pronounced than has been experienced in other states, which may be reflective of general differences among Michigan motorcyclists because the state has also generally exhibited higher use rates of seat belts and other forms of occupant protection. The study results also highlight potential target areas for subsequent education and public awareness initiatives aimed at increasing helmet use. PMID: 27074388 [PubMed - in process] (S...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Russo BJ, Barrette TP, Morden J, Savolainen PT, Gates TJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and texting while driving behavior in college students.
CONCLUSION: Attitude was found to be the strongest predictor of intention. In addition, intention was found to mediate the relationship of willingness to TWD on perceived behavioral control. These findings highlight potential factors that could be targeted in behavioral change interventions seeking to prevent TWD. PMID: 27088534 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bazargan-Hejazi S, Teruya S, Pan D, Lin J, Gordon D, Krochalk PC, Bazargan M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Risk drivers pose to themselves and other drivers by violating traffic rules.
CONCLUSIONS: Drivers often perceive that violating traffic rules will not result in a crash or severe injury. However, the results from this study show that a majority of the traffic violations lead to severe injury to the violator as well as to other drivers. The findings from this study serve as documented evidence to educate drivers about the risk they pose to themselves and to other drivers by violating traffic rules and encourage the adaptation of safe driving behavior in order to contribute toward reaching the "zero traffic deaths" vision. They also help make policy changes pertaining to penalty points and ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Penmetsa P, Pulugurtha SS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road traffic crashes among farm vehicle drivers in southern China: A cross-sectional survey.
CONCLUSION: Findings of this study suggest that farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes have become a burgeoning public health problem in China. Programs need to be developed to prevent farm vehicle-related road traffic crashes in this emerging country. PMID: 27257936 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zhang X, Yang Y, Chen Y, Yao H, Wu M, Cui M, Li Y, Hu J, Zhang C, Li Z, Stallones L, Xiang H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Traffic accidents and heavy episodic drinking among university students.
ira F PMID: 27258209 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Caamaño-Isorna F, Moure-Rodriguez L, Corral Varela M, Cadaveira F Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Motorists' knowledge, attitudes and practices toward alcohol-impaired driving/riding in Ghana.
CONCLUSION: The volumes of alcohol that motorists typically consume per drinking occasion were very high and their estimates of the number of drinks required to reach the legal BAC limit was also very high. Provision of authoritative information advising motorists about safe, responsible, or low-risk levels of alcohol consumption is imperative. Many traffic violations including drink driving were reported, thus suggesting a need for enhanced policing and enforcement. However, given the low level of knowledge of the legal BAC limit, educating motorists about how many drinks will approximate the legal BAC should be intensifi...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Damsere-Derry J, Palk G, King M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An observational study of child safety seat use in an international safe community: Tehran, Iran.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of child safety seat use in Tehran as a most populous member of the international safe community was very low and most children commuted in insecure situations in the vehicle. Therefore, it is proposed that plans should be made to increase the use of child safety seats in international safe communities. PMID: 27258595 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Moradi M, Khanjani N, Nabipour AR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Small female rib cage fracture in frontal sled tests.
CONCLUSIONS: The small elderly test subjects sustained a higher number of rib cage fractures than expected in what was intended to be a minimally injurious frontal crash test condition. Neither field studies nor prior laboratory frontal sled tests conducted with 50th percentile male PMHS predicted the injury severity observed. Although this was a limited study, the results justify further exploration of the risk of rib cage injury for small elderly female occupants. PMID: 27260566 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shaw G, Lessley D, Ash J, Poplin J, McMurry T, Sochor M, Crandall J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Using alcohol intoxication goggles (Fatal Vision ® goggles) to detect alcohol related impairment in simulated driving.
CONCLUSIONS: FVGs may have some utility in replicating alcohol-related impairment on specific driving performance measurements. Hence, the equipment may offer an alternative approach to researching the impact of alcohol intoxication on simulated driving performance among populations where the provision of alcohol would otherwise be unethical (e.g., prelicensed drivers). PMID: 27260944 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: McCartney D, Desbrow B, Irwin C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Improved recovery of repeat intoxicated drivers using fingernails and blood spots to monitor alcohol and other substance abuse.
CONCLUSION: These findings demonstrate the benefits of more individualized interventions with repeat OWI offenders and calls for further development of multimodal approaches in traffic medicine including those that use direct alcohol biomarkers as evidence-based practices to reduce recidivism. PMID: 27285956 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bean P, Brown G, Hallinan P, Becerra S, Lewis D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Influence of light zones on drivers' visual fixation characteristics and traffic safety in extra-long tunnels.
CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the special light zones can help relieve drivers' vision fatigue to some extent and further develop certain visual stimulus that can enhance drivers' attention. The study would provide a scientific basis for safety measurement implementation in extra-long tunnels. PMID: 27294892 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yan Y, Wang X, Shi L, Liu H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving performance comparing older versus younger drivers.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Touro University California campus to compare differences in reaction times and driving performance of younger adult drivers (18-40 years) and older adult drivers (60 years and older). Each test group consisted of 38 participants. METHODS: A Simple Visual Reaction Test (SVRT) tool was used to measure reaction times. The STISIM Drive M100 driving simulator was used to assess driving parameters. Driving performance parameters included mean lane position, standard deviation of mean lane position measured, mean speed, standard deviation of mea...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Doroudgar S, Chuang HM, Perry PJ, Thomas K, Bohnert K, Canedo J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safety effectiveness and crash cost benefit of red light cameras in Missouri.
CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of RLCs reduced overall angle crashes by 11.6%, whereas rear-end crashes increased by 16.5%. The net economic crash cost benefit of the implementation of RLCs was $35,269 per site per year in 2001 dollars (approximately $47,000 in 2015 dollars). Thus, RLCs produced a sizable net positive safety benefit that is consistent with previous statistical studies. PMID: 27348043 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Claros B, Sun C, Edara P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Examination of personality traits and social problem-solving skills of individuals whose driving licenses have been confiscated due to drunk driving.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between personality traits and social problem-solving skills of individuals who drive while intoxicated. METHOD: One hundred forty-four individuals apprehended twice while driving drunk and sent to a driver behavior training program (9 females and 135 males) participated in our study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated (EPQ-RA) composed of 4 subscales (Extroversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism, and Lying) and the Social Problem Solving Inventory (SPSI) composed of 7 subscales (Cognitive, Emotion, Behavior, Problem Definition and Formulat...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Taymur I, Budak E, Duyan V, Kanat BB, Önen S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Virtual street-crossing performance in persons with multiple sclerosis: Feasibility and task performance characteristics.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that commonly results in physical and cognitive dysfunction. Accordingly, MS might impact the ability to safely cross the street. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a simulated street-crossing task in persons with MS and to determine differences in street-crossing performance between persons with MS and non-MS controls. METHODS: 26 participants with MS (median Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score = 3.5) and 19 controls completed 40 trials of a virtual street-crossing task. There were 2 crossing conditions ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Stratton ME, Pilutti LA, Crowell JA, Kaczmarski H, Motl RW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Editorial Board EOV.
Authors: PMID: 27673349 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 28, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pleasure in using adaptive cruise control: A questionnaire study in the Netherlands.
CONCLUSION: Pleasure in using ACC is a function of both technological advances and human factors. PMID: 27657192 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 21, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: de Winter JC, Gorter CM, Schakel WJ, van Arem B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analyzing pedestrian crash injury severity under different weather conditions.
CONCLUSIONS: Elderly pedestrians are associated with higher pedestrian injury severities. Higher speed limit values increase the pedestrian injury severity. Based on the research finding recommendations are provided to improve pedestrian safety. PMID: 27657363 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 21, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li D, Ranjitkar P, Zhao Y, Yi H, Rashidi S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Psychological predictors of mobile phone use while crossing the street among college students: An application of the theory of planned behavior.
CONCLUSION: The current study revealed that attitude, perceived behavior control, descriptive norm, mobile phone involvement and the perceived ability to compensate all emerged as significant predictors of intentions. The findings could support the design of more effective safety campaigns and interventions to reduce pedestrians' distracted crossing behavior. PMID: 27648513 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 19, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jiang K, Ling F, Feng Z, Wang K, Guo L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Assessing fitness to drive - A validation study on patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.
CONCLUSIONS: The selected measures of the previously proposed approach revealed adequate accuracy in identifying fitness to drive in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment. Furthermore, a combination of neuropsychological test performance and simulated driving behaviour proved to be the most valid predictors of practical fitness to drive. PMID: 27623685 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 12, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fuermaier AB, Piersma D, de Waard D, Davidse RJ, de Groot J, Doumen MJ, Bredewoud RA, Claesen R, Lemstra AW, Scheltens P, Vermeeren A, Ponds R, Verhey F, Brouwer WH, Tucha O Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Parental Awareness and Perception for Correct Use of Child Restraint Systems and Airbags in Brazil.
CONCLUSION: Considering appropriateness for age, correctness of installation (in the back seat in the correct orientation) and frequency of use, only 50.85% (149/293) of the children were reported as always protected with a CRS. Children between one and four years were more likely to use the CRS always in this Brazilian survey. We were also able to identify an important gap in the knowledge about airbags among parents, in a time such equipment has become obligatory in Brazil. Further efforts are needed to correct those distortions. PMID: 27624163 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 12, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Souza BG, Evangelista de Melo T, Pereira Lisboa T, Bastos Miranda M, Schroder E Souza TG, de Oliveira VM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effectiveness of lane departure warning systems - a reduction in real-world passenger car injury crashes.
Conclusions LDW/LKA systems were estimated to lower the driver injury risk in crash types that the systems are designed to prevent, i.e. head-on and single vehicle crashes. While these are important findings, they were based on a small dataset. Therefore, further research is desirable to evaluate the effectiveness of LDW/LKA systems under real-world conditions, and to differentiate the effectiveness between technical solutions (i.e. LDW and LKA) proposed by different manufacturers. PMID: 27624313 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 12, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sternlund S, Strandroth J, Rizzi M, Lie A, Tingvall C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Age-Related Risk Factors with Non-Fatal Traffic Accidents in Urban Areas in Maring á, Paraná, Brazil.
Age-Related Risk Factors with Non-Fatal Traffic Accidents in Urban Areas in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. Traffic Inj Prev. 2016 Sep 13;:0 Authors: Melo WA, Alarcão AC, de Oliveira AP, Pelloso SM, Carvalho MD Abstract OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to analyze the factors associated with the occurrence of non-fatal traffic accidents regarding age. METHODS: A retrospective, transversal and analytical study was carried out in the municipality of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil based on data from Boletins de Ocorrência de Acidente de Trânsito ("Police Occurr...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 12, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Melo WA, Alarcão AC, de Oliveira AP, Pelloso SM, Carvalho MD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Real World Adjustments of Driver Seat and Head Restraint in Saab 9-3 Vehicles.
Abstract Objective Whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), commonly denoted whiplash injury, is a worldwide problem. These injuries occur at relatively low changes of velocity (typically
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 11, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Carlsson A, Pipkorn L, Kullgren A, Svensson M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Virtual street-crossing performance in persons with multiple sclerosis: Feasibility and task performance characteristics.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that commonly results in physical and cognitive dysfunction. Accordingly, MS might impact the ability to safely cross the street. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a simulated street-crossing task in persons with MS and to determine differences in street-crossing performance between persons with MS and non-MS controls. METHODS: 26 participants with MS (median Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score = 3.5) and 19 controls completed 40 trials of a virtual street-crossing task. There were 2 crossing conditions ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 6, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Stratton ME, Pilutti LA, Crowell JA, Kaczmarski H, Motl RW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An Entropy-Based Analysis of Lane Changing Behavior: An Interactive Approach.
CONCLUSIONS: The nearest and close neighbor models are well within the conventional additive entropy framework. In this paper, both the long-range vehicular interactions and safe driving behavior in the traffic are handled in the nonadditive entropy domain. It is also inferred that Tsallis entropy region would correspond to mandatory lane changing behavior, whereas additive and either extensive or nonextensive (Boltzmann-Gibbs) entropy region would match discretionary lane changing behavior. This paper states that behaviors of drivers would be in nonadditive entropy domain to provide safe traffic stream, and hence a vehicl...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 6, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kosun C, Ozdemir S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.
CONCLUSIONS: Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against all types of head injury. Efforts to improve rotational acceleration management in motorcycle helmets should be considered. PMID: 27585909 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Singleton MD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Computational investigation of the effects of knee airbag design on the interaction with occupant lower extremity in frontal and oblique impacts.
This study uses computational models of the human body and knee airbags to explore how KAB design may influence the impact response of the occupant's lower extremities. Methods The analysis was conducted using a 50(th)-percentile male occupant human body model with deployed KABs in a simplified vehicle interior. The two common KAB design types, bottom-deploy KAB (BKAB) and rear-deploy KAB (RKAB), were both included. A state-of-the-art airbag modeling technique, the corpuscular particle method, was adopted to represent the deployment dynamics of the unfolding airbags. Validation of the environment model was performed based ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nie B, Crandall JR, Panzer MB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Sensitivity Evaluation of the Visual, Tactile, and Auditory Detection Response Task Method while Driving.
CONCLUSIONS: None of the three methods of presenting DRT stimuli showed a consistent advantage in sensitivity in differentiating multiple levels of cognitive load if all response time, hit rate, and secondary task performance are considered. If only response time is considered, the visual presentation of the DRT stimulus used in this study showed some advantages. In interpreting this data, it should be noted that the methods of DRT stimulus presentation varied somewhat from currently proposed draft ISO standard and it is possible that the relative salience level of the visual DRT stimulus influenced the findings. It is fur...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Stojmenova K, Jakus G, Sodnik J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluating the Brazilian zero-tolerance drinking and driving law: Time series analyses of traffic-related mortality in three major cities.
CONCLUSION: There is no evidence of reduced traffic-related mortality in the three major Brazilian capitals 5.5 years after the zero-tolerance drinking and driving law was adopted. PMID: 27588457 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Volpe FM, Ladeira RM, Fantoni R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An Evaluation of the Effect of Ohio's Graduated Driver Licensing Law on Motor Vehicle Crashes and Crash Outcomes Involving Drivers 16 to 20 Years of Age.
CONCLUSIONS: Unlike previous studies, this investigation used linked data to evaluate the outcomes of all occupants in crashes involving drivers ages 16-20 years. The post GDL-period was associated with lower crash, injury crash, and fatal crash involvement among drivers and occupants ages 16- 17 years, but higher overall crash involvement for drivers and occupants ages 19 years, 20 years, and 18-20 years combined. These findings support extending GDL restrictions to novice drivers ages 18 through 20 years to reduce crashes in that group. PMID: 27588739 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Conner KA, Smith GA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Predictors Of Older Drivers' Involvement In High-Range Speeding Behavior.
This study investigates the nature and predictors of high-range speeding among drivers aged 75-94 years. Speed per second was estimated using Global Positioning System devices installed in participants' vehicles. High-range speeding events were defined as travelling an average 10+km/h above the speed limit over 30 seconds. Most (96%, 182/190) participants agreed to have their vehicle instrumented, and speeding events were accurately recorded for 97% (177/182) of participants. Descriptive analysis examined speeding events by participant characteristics and mileage driven. Regression analyses were used to examine the as...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chevalier A, Coxon K, Rogers K, Chevalier AJ, Wall J, Brown J, Clarke E, Ivers R, Keay L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Risk of Motor Vehicle Accident Death among 1.3 Million Veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars.
CONCLUSIONS: Veterans exhibit significantly higher risk of MVA deaths compared to the US general population. However, deployment to the Iraq or Afghanistan war was not associated with the excess risk. PMID: 27589092 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bullman TA, Kang HK, Smolenski DJ, Skopp NA, Gahm GA, Reger MA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research