Motorcycle helmets: head and neck dynamics in helmeted and unhelmeted oblique impacts.
Conclusions: Further research and development is required on the oblique test rig to establish its reliability and validity, the latter through comparisons to real-world impacts. Motorcycle helmets certified to a national standard manage linear acceleration well, but further developments are required to reduce angular acceleration. Within the range of impact conditions, there was no indication that helmets posed a neck injury risk. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24073772 [PubMed - in process] ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: McIntosh AS, Lai A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Toward a more robust lower neck compressive injury tolerance-an approach combining multiple test methodologies.
Conclusions: Results using the outlined approach indicate that the combination of lower neck sagittal plane resultant force and the anterior-posterior eccentricity at which the load is applied generally correlate with the type of cervical damage identified. These results show promise at better defining the tolerance for compressive cervical fractures in male postmortem human subjects (PMHS) than axial force alone. The current analysis requires expansion to include more tolerance data so the robustness of the approach across various applied loading vectors and cervical postures can be evaluated. PMID: 24073773 [PubMed ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Toomey DE, Yang KH, Yoganandan N, Pintar FA, Van Ee CA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Chinese carless young drivers' self-reported driving behavior and simulated driving performance.
Conclusions: Carless young drivers had poorer driving performance and were more overconfident of their self-reported driving skills compared to those young drivers with greater access to vehicles. Given that the lifetime mileage positively predicted the simulated violations measure of carless young drivers, immediate interventions are needed to help them increase driving exposure and gain driving experience gradually before moving to more challenging on-road driving tasks. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Zhang Q, Jiang Z, Zheng D, Man D, Xu X Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of the impacts of speed variation on freeway traffic collisions in various traffic States.
Conclusions: Considering the overall traffic as one state could hide important relationships between speed variation and collisions. The impacts of speed variation on collision likelihood are different in various traffic states. The SD and CSV are effective surrogate safety measures for traffic collisions in CT and BQ but may not be good measures in FF and FQ. The AS is an accident determinant in FF and BQ but not a contributing factor in other states. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24073775 [...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Li Z, Wang W, Chen R, Liu P, Xu C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An application of the driver behavior questionnaire to chinese carless young drivers.
Conclusions: The current study provides evidence that the DBQ can successfully be utilized to examine the self-reported driving behaviors of Chinese carless young drivers. However, the factor structure as well as the level of reported aberrant driving behaviors suggests that Chinese carless young drivers are a special population and thus should be treated differently when interventions are performed. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24073776 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Zhang Q, Jiang Z, Zheng D, Wang Y, Man D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Crash barriers and driver behavior: a simulator study.
Conclusions: We believe that there is a possibility that the increased speed on roads with crash barriers may be explained by drivers' sense of increased security. This study demonstrates that an experimental design including experience-based data captured using both a simulator and questionnaires is productive. It also demonstrates that driving simulators can be used to study road features such as crash barriers. It seems more than likely that features such as street lamps, signs, and landscape objects could be tested in this way. PMID: 24073777 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Antonson H, Ahlström C, Wiklund M, Blomqvist G, Mårdh S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 24073778 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Editorial Board EOV.
Authors: PMID: 24073779 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The protective effect of roadside barriers for motorcyclists.
Conclusions: Roadside barriers provide a significant reduction in the risk of serious injury to motorcyclists compared to various roadside hazards. The provisions in the United States and Australian Roadside Design Guides for passenger vehicle occupants are generally applicable to motorcyclists and support the prior and ongoing use of such guides for designing roadsides that reduce the risk of injury to motorcyclists. However, a more realistic estimation might be derived by increasing the severity indices for barriers by around 25 percent for motorcyclists. PMID: 23944155 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bambach MR, Mitchell RJ, Grzebieta RH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Disparity surveillance of nonfatal motor vehicle crash injuries.
Conclusions: The linkage approach provides an effective way to obtain additional information for MVC injury disparity surveillance. To reduce racial disparities in severe and nonsevere MVC injuries, race-sex-, race-age-, and race-location-specific interventions should be considered based on their significant contributions to disparity. PMID: 23944196 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Zhang Y, Lin G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An Anthropometric Comparison of Current ATDs with the U.S. Adult Population.
Conclusions: The reference mass for the midsize-male Hybrid-III ATD of 78.2 kg is now the 33(rd) percentile body mass for U.S. adults, and the large-male ATD reference body mass of 102.5 kg is now the 81(st) percentile. The implications of these differences are discussed in the context of restraint system design. PMID: 23944215 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Reed MP, Rupp JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An investigation on the head injuries of adult pedestrians by passenger cars in china.
Conclusions: Pedestrian age, vehicle impact speed, and head contact site were common pertinent factors for the risk of pedestrian head injury and the risk of death. Further studies would be valuable to fully characterize vehicle-pedestrian crashes in China and to develop targeted injury prevention strategies based on surveillance results. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 23944252 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Zhao H, Yang G, Zhu F, Jin X, Begeman P, Yin Z, Yang KH, Wang Z Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Estimating safety effects of pavement management factors utilizing bayesian random effect models.
Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that a reduction in pavement roughness would reduce the likelihood of traffic-related crashes. Hence, maintaining a low level of pavement roughness is strongly suggested. In addition, the results suggested that the temporal correlation among observations was significant and that the ORENB model outperformed all other models. PMID: 23944326 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Jiang X, Huang B, Zaretzki RL, Richards S, Yan X Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A Fundamental Reconsideration of the CRASH3 Damage Analysis Algorithm: The Case Against Uniform Ubiquitous Linearity Between BEV, Peak Collision Force Magnitude, and Residual Damage Depth.
Conclusion: Linearity between BEV or peak collision force magnitude and residual damage depth may be applicable for particular ranges of residual damage depth for any given region of any given vehicle. Within the modeling construct employed by the CRASH3 damage algorithm, the case of uniform and ubiquitous linearity cannot be supported. Considerations regarding the inclusion of internal work recovered and restitution for modeling the separation phase change in velocity magnitude should account for not only the effects present during the evaluation of a vehicle-to-vehicle collision of interest but also to the approach taken...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Singh J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Strengthening impaired-driving enforcement in the United States.
Conclusions: Breath test technology has enabled other countries around the world to adopt and implement enforcement strategies that serve as both general and specific deterrents to alcohol-impaired driving. Many of these enforcement strategies have been shown to be effective. If any one of these strategies can be adopted in the United States, further progress in reducing impaired driving is probable. It may be necessary to provide the U.S. Supreme Court with a test case of breath testing all drivers at a sobriety checkpoint, depending upon whether or not a police agency is willing to use that strategy. PMID: 23944649 ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Voas RB, Fell JC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Impact of the penalty points system on severe road traffic injuries in kuwait.
This study aimed to examine the effect of a penalty points system (PPS) implemented in early July 2006 on the number of severe road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Kuwait. Methods: Monthly counts of RTIs that occurred between January 2003 and December 2009 were analyzed. We used an interrupted seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average model (SARIMA) to estimate the intervention parameter along with its 95 percent confidence interval (CI) after accounting for seasonal and trend components in the data series. Based on the SARIMA model, we computed the number of RTIs that would have occurred post-PPS for 42 months after Ju...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Akhtar S, Ziyab AH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Effects of Alcohol Mixed With Energy Drinks (AmED) on Traffic Behaviors Among Brazilian College Students: A National Survey.
Abstract Objective: Drinking alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) may be contributing to hazardous drinking practices and risk-taking behaviors among college students. In this regard, this study aimed to assess the frequency of AmED consumption in a national sample of Brazilian college students and to estimate the risk that energy drinks pose on drinking and traffic behaviors. Method: A sample of 12,711 college students from across the country was asked to complete a research questionnaire on the use of drugs and other behaviors. Students who reported drinking in the previous 12 months (N = 8672) were divided i...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Eckschmidt F, De Andrade AG, Dos Santos B, De Oliveira LG Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Cyclist-motorist crash patterns in denmark: a latent class clustering approach.
Conclusions: The latent class clustering approach provided a comprehensive and clear map of cyclist-motorist crash patterns. The results are useful for prioritizing and resolving safety issues in urban areas, where there is a significant share of cyclists potentially involved in multiple hazardous situations or where extensive bicycle sharing programs are planned. PMID: 23944832 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kaplan S, Prato CG Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Concordance of motor vehicle crash, emergency department, and inpatient hospitalization data sets in the identification of drugs in injured drivers.
Conclusions: Surveillance data from multiple public health data sets is necessary to identify the presence of drugs in injured drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The use of a single surveillance data set alone may significantly underreport the number of drugged drivers who were injured in a motor vehicle collision. PMID: 23944873 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bunn T, Singleton M, Nicholson V, Slavova S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road traffic safety beliefs and driver behaviors among personality subtypes of drivers in the norwegian population.
Conclusions: Countermeasures aimed to reduce the frequency of road traffic accidents should be targeted to specific personality risk groups. Personality traits may also be used in early identification and intervention among risky drivers. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 23944939 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Nordfjærn T, Rundmo T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Impact of headway distance and car speed on drivers' decisions to answer an incoming call.
Conclusions: Headway distance and car speed can be used by in-vehicle information systems (IVIS) to warn drivers against using a mobile phone in certain traffic situations. Traffic safety campaigns for young drivers should focus on keeping safe headway distance and speed while driving. PMID: 23944976 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Pouyakian M, Mahabadi HA, Yazdi SM, Hajizadeh E, Nahvi A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Identifying access management factors associated with safety of urban arterials mid-blocks: a panel data simultaneous equation models approach.
Conclusions: From the results it can be concluded that the access management techniques, mid-block segment length, driveway density, and median opening density are significant factors that influence safety on mid-block segments. The longer the distance between signals, driveways, and median openings, the fewer the potential crashes are. In addition to these access management techniques, land use, especially the commercial land type, influences the safety on mid-block segments. PMID: 23945008 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Xu X, Kwigizile V, Teng H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Fifteen-passenger vans and other transportation options: a comparison of driver, vehicle, and crash characteristics.
Conclusions: Drivers need to be aware that as occupancy rates of the vehicles they drive rise so does the risk of rollover and fatalities, especially among minivans and 15-PVs. Organizations transporting groups need to balance cost and safety management by selecting vehicle types and drivers with acute awareness of the risks involved. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 23945032 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Potter T, Dubois S, Haras K, Bédard M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Importance of Muscle Activations for Biofidelic Pediatric Neck Response in Computational Models.
Conclusions: Though muscular loads were not large enough to cause vertebral compressive failure, they would provide a prestressed state that could protect the vertebrae during tensile loading but might exacerbate risk during compressive loading. For example, in the 10-year-old, a load of 602 N was produced, though estimated compressive failure tolerance is only 2.8 kN. Including muscles and time-variant activation schemes is vital for producing biofidelic models because both vary by age. The pediatric activations developed represent physiologically appropriate sets of initial conditions and are based on validated adul...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Dibb AT, Cox CA, Nightingale RW, Luck JF, Cutcliffe HC, Myers BS, Arbogast KB, Seacrist T, Bass CR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Bumper and Grille Airbags Concept for Enhanced Vehicle Compatibility in Side Impact: Phase II.
The objective of this research is to develop a concept of deployable bumper and grille airbags for improved vehicle compatibility in side impact. The external airbags, deployed upon signals from sensors, may help mitigate the effect of weight, geometry and stiffness differences and reduce side intrusions. However, a highly reliable pre-crash sensing system is required to enable the reliable deployment, which is currently not technologically feasible. Methods: Analytical and numerical methods and hardware testing were used to help develop the deployable external airbags concept. Various Finite Element (FE) models at differe...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Barbat S, Li X, Prasad P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An Open Simulation Approach to Identify Chances and Limitations for Vulnerable Road User (VRU) Active Safety.
This article introduces a simulation model, incorporating accident kinematics, driving dynamics, driver reaction times, pedestrian dynamics, performance parameters of different autonomous emergency braking (AEB) generations, as well as legal and logical limitations. The level of detail for available pedestrian accident data is limited. Relevant variables, especially timing of the pedestrian appearance and the pedestrian's moving speed, are estimated using assumptions. The model in this article uses the fact that a pedestrian and a vehicle in an accident must have been in the same spot at the same time and defines the impac...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Seiniger P, Bartels O, Pastor C, Wisch M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Optimizing the Rear Seat Environment for Older Children, Adults, and Infants.
Conclusions: The findings of this study suggested that adaptive/adjustable restraint systems are necessary to simultaneously improve the rear seat occupant protection for all age groups. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 23905625 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Hu J, Wu J, Klinich KD, Reed MP, Rupp JD, Cao L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Repeatability and Reproducibility of the BioRID IIg in a Repeatable Laboratory Seat Based on a Production Car Seat.
Conclusions: The present certification tests may not adequately control front cervical spine bumper characteristics, which are important for neck flexion response. The certification sled test also does not include the pelvis and so cannot be used to control pelvis response and does not substantially load the lumbar bumpers and so does not control these parts of the dummy. The stiffness of all spine bumpers and of the pelvis flesh should be much more tightly controlled. It is recommended that a method for certifying the front cervical bumpers should be developed. Recommendations are also made for tighter tolerance on the in...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Hynd D, Depinet P, Lorenz B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Features of Pedestrian Behavior in Car-to-Pedestrian Contact Situations in Near-Miss Incidents in Japan.
Conclusions: The authors propose that a moving speed of a pedestrian surrogate "dummy" should be determined considering the near-miss incident situations for the evaluation of a CDMBS for pedestrian detection. The authors also propose that the time-to-collision of the dummy to the tested car during the evaluation of the performance of the CDMBS for pedestrian detection should be determined considering the time such as the vehicle TTC in this study. Additionally or alternatively, the pedestrian TTV should be considered, in which the worst situation was assumed for a car that was moving toward a pedestrian without ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Matsui Y, Hitosugi M, Doi T, Oikawa S, Takahashi K, Ando K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Effect of Earlier or Automatic Collision Notification on Traffic Mortality by Survival Analysis.
Conclusions: This article obtains the driver/passenger survival probabity differences over time under different conditions of collision notifications, EMS arrivals, and crash locations; furthermore, this analysis provides an estimation of the lives that could potentially be saved (approximately 154 to 290 per year) due to earlier ACN. PMID: 23905750 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Wu J, Subramanian R, Craig M, Starnes M, Longthorne A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Foreword.
PMID: 23905779 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Ridella SA, Lie A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An Evaluation of Objective Rating Methods for Full-Body Finite Element Model Comparison to PMHS Tests.
In this study, the methods proposed by Sprague and Geers (magnitude and phase error, SGM and SGP), Rhule et al. (cumulative standard deviation, CSD), and Gehre et al. (CORrelation and Analysis, or CORA, size, phase, shape, corridor) were compared. A 40 kph frontal sled test presented by Shaw et al. was simulated using the Global Human Body Models Consortium midsized male full-body finite element model (v. 3.5). Mean and standard deviation experimental data (n = 5) from Shaw et al. were used as the benchmark. Simulated data were output from the model at the appropriate anatomical locations for kinematic ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Vavalle NA, Jelen BC, Moreno DP, Stitzel JD, Gayzik FS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Methodology for Using Advanced Event Data Recorders to Reconstruct Vehicle Trajectories for Use in Safety Impact Methodologies (SIM).
Conclusions: This study demonstrated a novel method for crash reconstruction that can be applied to a SIM for active safety systems. Benefits of this method are that the driver inputs do not need to be inferred from other reconstructions because they are recorded directly by the EDR. Currently, there are too few cases with the advanced EDR data to estimate fleet-wide benefits of a system. Because of recent regulation (49 CFR Part 563), EDRs are likely to be downloaded in more real-world crashes, making this method a potentially valuable and low-cost method for developing SIMs in the future. Supplemental materials are avail...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kusano KD, Sherony R, Gabler HC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Assessing the Potential Benefits of the Motorcycle Autonomous Emergency Braking Using Detailed Crash Reconstructions.
Discussion and Limitations: MAEB represents an innovative safety device in the field of PTWs, and the feasibility of such a system was investigated with promising results. Nevertheless, this technology is not mature yet for PTW application. Research in the field of passenger cars does not directly apply to PTWs because the activation logic of a braking system is more challenging on PTWs. The deployment of an autonomous deceleration would affect the vehicle dynamics, thus requesting an additional control action of the rider to keep the vehicle stable. In addition, the potential effectiveness of the MAEB should be investigat...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Savino G, Giovannini F, Baldanzini N, Pierini M, Rizzi M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Investigation of a Relationship Between External Force to Shoulder and Chest Injury of WorldSID and THUMS in 32 km/h Oblique Pole Side Impact.
Conclusions: In the test configuration used, a shoulder restraint using the air bag helps reduce chest injury risk by lowering the maximum magnitude of external force to the shoulder and chest. To help reduce rib fracture risk in the THUMS, the shoulder restraint air bag was expected to generate a force of 3.7 kN with a minimum rib deflection ratio. This corresponds to a shoulder rib deflection of 60 mm and a shoulder load of 2.2 kN in WorldSID. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 23905926 [Pu...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Tanaka S, Hayashi S, Fukushima S, Yasuki T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparison of Cervical Vertebrae Rotations for PMHS and BioRID II in Rear Impacts.
Conclusions: These results reflect the fact that the fully articulated spine of the BioRID II was designed and tuned to model low speed rear impacts. The intervertebral rotations for both the PMHS and the BioRID II were primarily relative flexion rotations even though the cervical vertebrae rotated rearward with respect to the global coordinate system. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 23905990 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kang YS, Moorhouse K, Herriott R, Bolte JH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Development of a Frontal Small Overlap Crashworthiness Evaluation Test.
Conclusions: When assessing overall crashworthiness (based on injury measures, structural deformation, and occupant kinematics), one vehicle had superior performance in each crash configuration. This was confirmation that the countermeasures benefiting performance in a single small overlap test also will provide a benefit in other crash configurations. Based on these test results, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety has developed a small overlap crashworthiness evaluation with the following characteristics: a rigid flat barrier with a 150-mm corner radius, 25 percent overlap, 64 km/h test speed, and a Hybrid II...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sherwood CP, Mueller BC, Nolan JM, Zuby DS, Lund AK Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Proposal for a Frontal Impact and Compatibility Assessment Approach Based on the European FIMCAR Project.
Conclusions: By adding a full-width test to the current ODB test it is possible to better address the issues of structural misalignment and injuries resulting from high acceleration accidents as observed in the current fleet. The estimated benefit ranges from a 5 to 12 percent reduction of fatalities and serious injuries resulting from frontal impact accidents. By using a deformable element in the full-width test, the test conditions are more representative of real-world situations with respect to acceleration pulse, restraint system triggering time, and deformation pattern of the front structure. The test results are ther...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Johannsen H, Adolph T, Edwards M, Lazaro I, Versmissen T, Thomson R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Modeling of Material Orientation Effects on AHSS Crush and Fracture Behavior in Axial Crush Tests.
Conclusions: The predicted fracture mode and force-displacement curves agreed well with the test data for both the L and T directions in axial crush tests of the 12-sided components. The simple isotropic material model MAT224 is adequate for crush simulations to predict material orientation effects on AHSS component crush performance and fracture behavior. PMID: 23906382 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 5, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Chen G, Link TM, Shi MF, Tyan T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

How important is vehicle safety for older consumers in the vehicle purchase process?
Conclusions: These findings are consistent with previous research that suggests that, though older consumers highlight the importance of safety features (i.e., seat belts, air bags, braking), they often downplay the role of safety in their vehicle purchasing process and are more likely to equate vehicle safety with the presence of specific vehicle safety features or technologies rather than the vehicle's crash safety/test results or crashworthiness. The findings from this study provide a foundation to support further research in this area that can be used by policy makers, manufacturers, and other stakeholders to better ta...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Koppel S, Clark B, Hoareau E, Charlton JL, Newstead SV Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Rear seat restraint system optimization for older children in frontal crashes.
Conclusions: The balance of reducing head and knee excursions and preventing submarining indicates that an optimization approach is necessary to improve protection for 6- to 12-year-old child occupants. The findings of this study provided design guidelines for future rear seat restraint system. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 23859119 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Hu J, Wu J, Reed MP, Klinich KD, Cao L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of Vehicle Front-End Stiffness on Rear Seat Dummies in NCAP and FMVSS208 Tests.
This study is devoted to quantifying changes in mass and stiffness of vehicles tested by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) over the past 3 decades (model years 1982 to 2010) and understanding the effect of those changes on protection of rear seat occupants. Methods: A total of 1179 tests were used, and the changes in their mass and stiffness versus their model year was quantified. Additionally, data from 439 dummies tested in rear seats of NHTSA's full frontal crashes were analyzed. Dummies were divided into 3 groups based on their reference injury criteria. Multiple regressions were performed with...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sahraei E, Digges K, Marzougui D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of personality on risky driving behavior and accident involvement for chinese drivers.
Conclusions: Consistent with previous studies, the present study revealed that personality traits play an important role in predicting Chinese drivers' risky driving behaviors. In addition, Chinese drivers' personality characteristics were also associated with accident involvement. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 23859184 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Yang J, Du F, Qu W, Gong Z, Sun X Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian and motorized mobility scooter safety of older people.
Conclusion: Maintaining older adults' mobility and independence during a time of decreasing physical and mental capacity is a priority. Walking provides a key mode of transport that needs to be given higher priority within the road environment by policy makers, transport planners, and drivers. Therefore, governments need to consider appropriate and comprehensive urban planning and road safety policies that accommodate active aging to provide pedestrians and MMS users with environments that facilitate active living and safe transport. In addition, there is a need for community programs that raise awareness about safe road c...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Jancey J, Cooper L, Howat P, Meuleners L, Sleet D, Baldwin G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Boosting restraint norms: a community-delivered campaign to promote booster seat use.
Conclusions: The "Boosting Restraint Norms" social marketing campaign, distributed through community organizations combined with caregiver education and a one-time free distribution of BPBs, was effective in increasing BPB use. This study demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing community organizations with established audiences to spread the "No Regrets" messaging of the campaign in the community. This study also indicates that spreading evidence-based messages in this manner may effectively change behavior in populations that are often hard to reach. Future studies are needed in which this methodolog...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bryant-Stephens T, Garcia-Espana JF, Winston FK Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A comparative study of count models: application to pedestrian-vehicle crashes along malaysia federal roads.
Conclusions: The results indicated the presence of overdispersion in the pedestrian crashes (PCs) and showed that it is due to excess zero rather than variability in the crash data. To handle the issue, the hurdle Poisson model was found to be the best model among the considered models in terms of comparative measures. Moreover, the variables average daily traffic, heavy vehicle traffic, speed limit, land use, and area type were significantly associated with PCs. PMID: 23859313 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Pour MH, Prasetijo J, Yahaya AS, Ghadiri SM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A study of adult pedestrian head impact conditions and injury risks in passenger car collisions based on real-world accident data.
Conclusions: The present study provides new insight into pedestrian head impact conditions in terms of velocity, angle, and impact location based on a number of real-world cases. Therefore, it may perform a critical analysis for current pedestrian head standard tests. PMID: 23859362 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Peng Y, Deck C, Yang J, Otte D, Willinger R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Crash involvement of motor vehicles in relationship to the number and severity of traffic offenses. An exploratory analysis of dutch traffic offenses and crash data.
Abstract Objective: To establish the statistical relationship between offenses and crashes when the unit of analysis is the vehicle instead of the driver, to show the influence of the severity (e.g., minor speed offenses) on this relationship, and to research whether the form of this relationship is similar in different enforcement contexts. Methods: An exploratory analysis was conducted using Dutch traffic offense and crash data. Crash data included all police-registered crashes involving motorized and registered vehicles in 2009; offense data included all non-criminal traffic offenses registered during 2005-2009...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Goldenbeld C, Reurings M, Van Norden Y, Stipdonk H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Injury thresholds of knee ligaments under lateral-medial shear loading: an experimental study.
Conclusion: Based on the bone-ligament-bone complex experiment of the knee, we present injury occurrences of the knee joints in lateral and medial shear loading. The testing data provide a basis for improving knee injury criteria that regulate passenger cars to reduce their aggressiveness to pedestrians. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 23859467 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Mo F, Arnoux PJ, Zahidi O, Masson C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Consumer perceptions of medication warnings about driving: a comparison of French and Australian labels.
Conclusion: The results are potentially important for the Australian approach to medication warnings about driving impairment. The research contributes practical findings that can be used to enhance the effectiveness of warnings and develop countermeasures in this area. Hospital pharmacy patients should include persons with the highest level of likelihood of knowledge and awareness of medication warning labeling. Even in this context it appears that a review of the Australian warning system would be useful particularly in the context of increasing evidence relating to associated driving risks. Reviewing text size and reada...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Smyth T, Sheehan M, Siskind V, Mercier-Guyon C, Mallaret M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research