Normative Misperceptions of Peer Seatbelt Use among High School Students and Their Relationship to Personal Seatbelt Use.
Conclusions: Peer influences are a strong predictor of behavior, especially among adolescents. Ironically, adolescents' behaviors are often influenced by inaccurate perceptions of their peers. This research establishes the presence of a misperception related to seatbelt use and suggests that misperception is associated with own behaviors. This research provides a foundation for social norms based interventions designed to increase seatbelt use by correcting normative misperceptions among adolescents. PMID: 24628560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Litt D, Lewis MA, Linkenbach JW, Lande G, Neighbors C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Alcohol-related Road Traffic Injuries in Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates.
Conclusion: Self reported alcohol-related car collisions in Al-Ain City had a low incidence. It affected older Emirati male nationals and was associated with lower revised trauma score, mainly due to head injury. There is a need for a national registry with data on alcohol abuse so as to assess its effects and strategies for its prevention. PMID: 24617582 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 11, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Osman OT, Abbas AK, Eid HO, Salem MO, Abu-Zidan FM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Parental perceptions of the learner driver log book system in two Australian states.
Conclusions: The results of this study suggest the presence of a paradox with many parents possibly believing that others are not as diligent in the use of log books as they are or that the system is too open to misuse. Given that many parents report that their child's log book is accurate, this study has important implications for the development and ongoing monitoring of hours of practice requirements in graduated driver licensing systems. PMID: 24571187 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bates L, Watson B, King M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

How have changes in front airbag designs affected frontal crash death rates? an update.
Conclusions: Implementing advanced features to sled-certified airbags was beneficial, overall, to drivers and right-front passengers with sled-certified airbags. No overall benefit was observed for CAC airbags, compared with sled-certified airbags with advanced features. Further study is needed to understand the apparent reduction in belted driver protection observed for CAC airbags. PMID: 24571210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Teoh ER Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of Deterrent Impact of Ontario's Street Racing and Stunt Driving Law on Extreme Speeding Convictions.
Conclusions: These findings are congruent with deterrence theory that certain, swift and severe sanctions can deter risky driving behaviour and support the hypothesis that legal sanctions can have an impact on the extreme speeding convictions of the intervention group. PMID: 24571252 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Meirambayeva A, Vingilis E, Zou G, Elzohairy Y, McLeod AI, Xiao J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Older driver estimates of driving exposure compared to in-vehicle data in the Candrive II study.
Conclusions. Although self-reported driving distance categories may be adequate for studies entailing broad group comparisons, caution should be used in interpreting results. Use of self-reported estimates for individual assessments should be discouraged. PMID: 24571323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Porter MM, Smith GA, Cull AW, Myers AM, Bédard M, Gélinas I, Mazer BL, Marshall SC, Naglie G, Rapoport MJ, Tuokko HA, Vrkljan BH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Time to Death Analysis of Road Traffic Accidents in Relation to Delta V, Drunk Driving, and Restraint Systems.
Conclusion: Our findings may be useful in improving road traffic safety and insurance policies by offering insights into the factors that reduce fatalities. PMID: 24571356 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Ju YH, Sohn SY Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A Study of Fatality Risk and Head Dynamic Response of Cyclist and Pedestrian Based on Passenger Car Accident Data Analysis and Simulations.
Conclusions: These findings offer potential contributions for establishing a more reasonable speed limit for urban traffic in China and generating strategies for cyclists' and pedestrians' head protection. PMID: 24571385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Nie J, Li G, Yang J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Influence of Bicycle Oriented Facilities on Bicycle Crashes within Crash Concentrated Areas.
Conclusions This study presents guidelines for local transportation planners to analyze the patterns of bicyclist crashes in order to improve roadway safety. This research also assists planners in effectively allocating scarce resources as they address issues of bicyclist safety. PMID: 24571411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kim D, Kim K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of Cargo Loading on Occupant Injury and Seat Deformation in Motor-Vehicle Crashes.
Conclusions: This analysis supports NHTSA's earlier conclusion that cargo is not a major source of injury in frontal crashes. While anecdotal cases have been presented in the literature, there were no cases in NASS-CDS. NASS-CDS also showed that when untethered cargo deforms rear seats, it was not related to severe injury to 2(nd) row occupants. PMID: 24571626 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Viano DC, Parenteau CS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Alcohol involvement and other risky driver behaviors: effects on crash initiation and crash severity.
Conclusions: Risky driving behaviors, including alcohol involvement, increased the risk of a crash. Crash severity tended to increase with any risky behavior and to increase further with multiple risky behaviors. Other risky behaviors were associated with both alcohol involvement and crashes. Therefore, if effects from those other risky behaviors were not accommodated for, those effects would confound apparent associations between alcohol involvement and crashes. Therefore, this study's use of multivariate models that accommodated for effects from those other behaviors provided a truer picture of alcohol's association with...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Shyhalla K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Alcohol ignition interlocks in all new vehicles: a broader perspective.
Conclusion: We express caution about requiring an interlock as standard equipment in all new vehicles. PMID: 24471356 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Radun I, Ohisalo J, Rajalin S, Radun JE, Wahde M, Lajunen T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Graduated driver licensing provisions: an analysis of state policies and what works.
Conclusions: Consistent with other GDL research, states with stronger GDL policies had more favorable teen crash and mortality outcomes than states with weaker ones. Analysis showed that the policies in strong states shared several common themes: more required practice hours, ban on all teen passengers, and night driving restrictions for 12+ months. Implications for state policy makers are provided. PMID: 24471357 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Steadman M, Bush JK, Thygerson SM, Barnes MD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Distress tolerance as a predictor of risky and aggressive driving.
Conclusion: College drivers who have a diminished capacity to endure frustration without experiencing negative emotional states (i.e., low distress tolerance) tend to drive aggressively and in a risky manner. Traditional deterrence-based approaches to highway safety may benefit from inclusion of a wider array of prevention strategies that focus on emotion regulation while driving. PMID: 24471358 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Beck KH, Ali B, Daughters SB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Risk factors for subsequent impaired driving by injured passengers.
Conclusions: Injured alcohol-impaired passengers are at high risk for IDA and should be included in impaired driving prevention programs. PMID: 24471359 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Purssell RA, Chan H, Brown D, Fang M, Brubacher JR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Ethylglucuronide in Hair Is a Top Predictor of Impaired Driving Recidivism, Alcohol Dependence, and a Key Marker of the Highest BAC Interlock Tests.
Conclusions: This study showed that hEtG, an objective alternative to often unreliable self-reported past representation of drinking levels, yields crucial insight into driver alcohol-related risks early in an interlock program and is a top predictor of new recidivist events. Together with PEth, these markers would be excellent anchors in a panel for detecting alcohol consumption. PMID: 24471360 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Marques PR, Tippetts AS, Yegles M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Long-term medical consequences for child occupants 0 to 12 years injured in car crashes.
Conclusion: The pattern of injuries resulting in permanent medical impairment is different for children and adults; therefore, safety priorities for children need to be based on child data. The majority of those injuries leading to PMI were at lower AIS levels. Furthermore, AIS 1 cervical spine and AIS 1+ head injuries should be given priority concerning mitigation of long-term consequences for children. PMID: 24471361 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bohman K, Stigson H, Krafft M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A population-based study on road traffic injuries in pune city, India.
Conclusion: The magnitude of RTIs in India is very high, which is not reflected in police registration reports. PMID: 24471362 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Mirkazemi R, Kar A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pediatric Head and Neck Dynamics in Frontal Impact: Analysis of Important Mechanical Factors and Proposed Neck Performance Corridors for 6- and 10-Year-Old ATDs.
Conclusions: The models are less stiff in dynamic anterioposterior bending than the ATDs; the secant stiffness of the 6- and 10-year-old models is 53 and 67 percent less than that of the HIII ATDs. The ATDs exhibit nonlinear stiffening and the models demonstrate nonlinear softening. Consequently, the models do not remain within the Mertz scaled flexion bending corridors. The more compliant model necks suggest an increased potential for head impact via larger head excursions. The pediatric anterioposterior bending corridors developed in this study are extensible to any frontal loading condition through calculation and sensi...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Dibb AT, Cutcliffe HC, Luck JF, Cox CA, Myers BS, Bass CR, Arbogast KB, Seacrist T, Nightingale RW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Lower leg injury in relation to vehicle front end.
Conclusions: This simplified computer model can be used as a prescreening design tool to demonstrate general vehicle front-end design trade-offs and provide approximate results without physical testing. PMID: 24471364 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Zanetti EM, Franceschini G, Audenino AL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Three-dimensional adult male head and skull contours.
Conclusions: Three-dimensional average male head and skull contours were created and measurements of landmark locations were made. It was found that the 50th percentile male Hybrid III corresponds well to the average male head contour and validated its 3D shape. Average adult head and skull contours and landmark data are available for public research use at http://biomechanics.pratt.duke.edu/data . PMID: 24471365 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Lee C, Loyd AM, Nightingale R, Myers BS, Damon A, Bass CR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Perceived value of a motorcycle training program: the influence of crash history and experience of the training.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates the utility of contingent valuation in quantifying the perceived value of training, as well as the modifiability of perceived value, with age, training participation, and near-crash experiences as key determinants. This indicates that research to determine ways to align the perceived value with evidence on training effectiveness is worthwhile in order to facilitate more appropriate and justified allocation of road safety resources. Potential options to explore and evaluate may include community education on evidence of training effectiveness as well as alternative measures with demonstra...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sakashita C, Jan S, Senserrick T, Lo S, Ivers R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Survey about pedestrian safety and attitudes toward automated traffic enforcement in washington, d.C.
Conclusions: Most residents supported speed cameras and red light cameras, but support was lower for stop sign and crosswalk cameras. Emphasizing the safety benefits of stop sign and crosswalk cameras and documenting the extent of safety problems at stop signs and crosswalks may increase support for these new forms of camera enforcement. Communities considering automated enforcement should take into account the opinions of pedestrians, even though they are not subject to camera citations. PMID: 24471367 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Cicchino JB, Wells JK, McCartt AT Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Investigating motorists' behaviors in response to supplementary traffic control devices at land surveying work sites.
Conclusion: The use of supplemental TCDs can greatly contribute to the changes in motorists' behaviors at surveying work sites. The changes in motorists' driving behaviors imply that the motorists reacted favorably to the deployed TCDs at the land-surveying work sites. PMID: 24471368 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Yang H, Bartin B, Ozbay K, Chien SI Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safety of the Japanese K-car in a real-world low severity frontal collision.
Conclusions: Although we are generally concerned that drivers of small vehicles suffer more severe injuries, our results suggest that, for real-world accidents, K-cars provide similar safety for drivers involved in frontal collisions as do standard vehicles in low delta V impact conditions. PMID: 24499113 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 5, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Hitosugi M, Matsui Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors associated with young adults delaying and forgoing driving licences: Results from Britain To appear in: Traffic Injury Prevention.
CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that a number of previously under-appreciated factors appear to be linked with young British adults not acquiring a driving licence. PMID: 24484393 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 1, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Le Vine S, Polak J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safety System for Child Pillion Riders of Underbone Motorcycles in Malaysia.
Conclusion: Hence the intervention of new technology is inevitable. Therefore, this paper highlights a need for a new safety backrest system for the use of children when riding as pillion to ensure their safety. PMID: 24484430 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 1, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sivasankar S, Karmegam K, Shamsul Bahri MT, Sadeghi N H, Kulanthayan S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of New Speed Limits in Sweden: A Sample Survey.
Conclusions: The present results are in line with previous results indicating an average change in mean speed of approximately 2.5 km/h when the speed limit changes by 10 km/h. The confidence intervals were in most instances fairly small, indicating a sufficiently large number of measurement sites. PMID: 24484445 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 1, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Vadeby A, Forsman A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Anthropometric Specifications, Development, and Evaluation of EvaRID-A 50(th) Percentile Female Rear Impact Finite Element Dummy Model.
Conclusions The EvaRID dummy model demonstrated the potential of becoming a valuable tool when evaluating and developing seats and whiplash protection systems. However, updates of the joint stiffness will be required to provide better correlation at lower load levels. Moreover, the seated posture, curvature of the spine and head position of 50(th) percentile female occupants needs to be established and implemented in future models. PMID: 24484526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 1, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Carlsson A, Chang F, Lemmen P, Kullgren A, Schmitt KU, Linder A, Svensson M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Use of seat belt and enforcement of seat belt laws in pakistan.
USE OF SEAT BELT AND ENFORCEMENT OF SEAT BELT LAWS IN PAKISTAN. Traffic Inj Prev. 2014 Jan 16; Authors: Klair AA, Arfan M Abstract Objectives: Traffic crashes are leading cause of deaths and injuries in Pakistan. WHO estimates that approximately 30,131 people die in road crashes annually on Pakistani roads (WHO, 2013). The use of seat belt can be effective device to reduce road crash fatalities in Pakistan but under existing seat belt laws, seat belt wearing is mandatory only for driver and is limited to specific vehicles and roads. Primarily, this study was aimed to measure seat belt wearing rates among P...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Klair AA, Arfan M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Spinal Fracture-Dislocations and Spinal Cord Injuries in Motor Vehicle Crashes.
Conclusions: Spinal cord injury occurred in one out of 1,860 front-seat occupants in tow-away crashes. The rate was highest in rollover crashes and was reduced by seatbelt use. Fracture-dislocation of the spine occurred about 5.3 times more often than SCI and was also prevented by seatbelt use. PMID: 24433030 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Parenteau CS, Viano DC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of NASS-CDS Side Crash Delta-V Estimates using Event Data Recorders.
This study will investigate the accuracy of WinSMASH ΔV estimates in real-world side crashes. Methods This study uses biaxial ΔV data from event data recorders (EDRs) to assess the accuracy of side crash ΔV estimates in NASS-CDS crash cases. Single-event side crashes were identified in the NASS-CDS for which a) WinSMASH ΔV had been coded and b) biaxial EDR data was available. For these crashes, the WinSMASH-estimated resultant ΔV was compared with the EDR-recorded resultant ΔV to assess the accuracy of the former. EDR ΔV values were adjusted for an assumed average restitution value...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Johnson NS, Gabler HC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Development and validation of the Spanish Hazard Perception Test.
Conclusion: The test has adequate psychometric properties and is useful in distinguishing between learner, novice and expert drivers. In addition, it is useful in that it analyses the performance of both safe and unsafe drivers (re-offenders who have already lost their driving licence). PMID: 24433083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Castro C, Padilla JL, Roca J, Benítez I, García-Fernández P, Estévez B, López-Ramón MF, Crundall D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Influence of a Combo Side Airbag on the Risk for Basilar Skull Fracture in a Far-Side Occupant.
Conclusion: The airbag reduced head acceleration in the belted test, but did not influence the diving forces from torso augmentation through the neck of the far-side occupant. The side airbag did not reduce the risk for basilar skull fracture due to high neck compression loads in either the belted or unbelted tests. PMID: 24433103 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Viano DC, Burnett R, Parenteau CS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comprehensive Target Populations for Current Active Safety Systems using National Crash Databases.
Conclusions: This study found that these active safety systems could potentially mitigate approximately 1 in 5 of all severity and serious injury crashes in the U.S., and 26% of fatal crashes. Annually, this corresponds to 1.2 million all severity, 14,353 serious injury (MAIS3+), and 7,412 fatal crashes. In addition, we provide the source code for the crash scenarios as an appendix to this paper so that researchers can use the crash scenarios in future research. PMID: 24433115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kusano KD, Gabler C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A Study on the Effects of Fatigue Driving and Drunk Driving on Drivers' Physical Characteristics.
Conclusions: Both fatigue driving and drunk driving are found to impair drivers' physical characteristics. However, their impacts on the parameters SBP, HR eyesight and TDSA are different. A driver's physical characteristics will be impaired more seriously when he continues driving while drowsy, compared to driving under normal situation. These findings contribute to the current research on identifying drivers' driving state and quantifying the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on driving ability and driving behavior. PMID: 24433140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Zhang X, Zhao X, Du H, Rong J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Development, Calibration, and Validation of a Head-Neck Complex of THOR Mod Kit Finite Element Model.
Conclusion: The optimization-based calibration methodology was effective as it markedly improved model performance. The calibrated head-neck model demonstrated application in a crash safety analysis, showing slight head-neck injury sensitivity to pre-test positioning in a frontal crash impact scenario. PMID: 24433158 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Putnam JB, Somers JT, Untaroiu CD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prevalence of and factors associated with distraction among public transit bus drivers.
Abstract Abstract Objective: Recent research has suggested that driver distraction is a major cause of driving performance impairment and motor vehicle collisions. Research on the topic has focused on passenger vehicles, with studies suggesting that drivers may be distracted nearly 33% of the time spent driving. To date, no study has examined the prevalence of distraction specifically among public transit bus drivers. Methods: Over a three-month period, trained investigators observed and recorded distraction behaviors of bus drivers. Distraction prevalence was compared by route characteristics (e.g., geographic ar...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Griffin R, Huisingh C, McGwin G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Predicting DUI Decisions in Different Legal Environments: Investigating Deterrence With a Conjoint Experiment.
Conclusions: Our research confirmed and quantified certainty of punishment as the greatest deterrent to DUI, but it also indicated the equally important effect of a severe jail penalty. It provides evidence on the feasibility of using a conjoint experiment in future studies to understand the general driver population and, with the help of a simulation tool, to predict DUI decisions in different legal environments. Such predictions can be used to better inform policy decisions on developing targeted general deterrence programs in different communities. PMID: 24372492 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Yao J, Johnson MB, Beck KH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The role of alcohol in road traffic accidents with fatal outcome: 10-year period in croatia split-dalmatia county.
Conclusion: The results of our study show that alcohol remains one of the main contributing factors of traffic accidents in Split-Dalmatia County. Unfortunately, legislation changes regarding the allowed BAC did not cause any reduction in casualties among drivers driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA). Chi-square test of the number of total driver victims and driver victims who were DUIA revealed no significant difference (P = .173). PMID: 24372493 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sutlovic D, Scepanovic A, Bosnjak M, Versic-Bratincevic M, Definis-Gojanovic M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An evaluation of immediate roadside prohibitions for drinking drivers in british columbia: findings from roadside surveys.
Conclusions: The IRP program combined immediate short-term roadside suspensions with vehicle impoundment and monetary penalties to enhance the swiftness, certainty, and perceived severity of sanctions for drinking and driving. The introduction of these measures was associated with a substantial reduction in the prevalence of driving with a BAC over 50 mg/dL and driving with a BAC over 80 mg/dL. PMID: 24372494 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Beirness DJ, Beasley EE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Cell phones and young drivers: a systematic review regarding the association between psychological factors and prevention.
Conclusions: The systematic review reveals that young drivers are an at-risk group for distracted driving. We propose preventative strategies based on identifying factors that influence drivers to engage in CPWD and TextWD as well as by reviewing strategies found in the reviewed articles. Further research is necessary to determine the effectiveness of these proposed strategies. PMID: 24372495 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Cazzulino F, Burke RV, Muller V, Arbogast H, Upperman JS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Public opinion on motor vehicle-related injury prevention policies: a systematic review of a decade of research.
Conclusions: There is a relatively small evidence base on public opinion related to motor vehicle- and bicycle-related evidence-based policies; even less is less known for state- or county-specific policies. The findings of this review suggest that the public's opinion toward injury prevention legislation is generally favorable. This information can be used to communicate with the media and policy makers to reinforce the need for effective policy solutions to continuing motor vehicle injury problems. More research is needed to understand the perspectives of those who do not hold favorable opinions, to understand opinions t...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Debinski B, Smith KC, Gielen A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

How to report and interpret screening test properties: guidelines for driving researchers.
ard M Abstract One important goal of driving research is the development of a short but valid office-based screening test for fitness to drive of aging drivers. Several candidate tests have been proposed already, and no doubt others will be proposed in the future. It might seem obvious that authors advocating for the adoption of a particular screening test or procedure should report sensitivity, specificity, and other common screening test properties. Unfortunately, driving researchers have frequently failed to report any screening test properties. Others have reported screening test properties but have made basic...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Weaver B, Walter SD, Bédard M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors affecting self-regulatory driving practices among older adults.
Conclusions: Continuing efforts to better understand the self-regulatory practices of older drivers at multiple levels of driver performance and decision making should provide important insights into how the transition from driving to nondriving can be better managed to balance the interdependent needs of public safety and personal mobility. PMID: 24372498 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Molnar LJ, Charlton JL, Eby DW, Langford J, Koppel S, Kolenic GE, Marshall S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characteristics of designated drivers and their passengers from the 2007 national roadside survey in the United States.
Conclusions: Designated driving is widely used in the United States, with the majority of designated drivers abstaining from drinking alcohol. However, because designated driving separates drinking from driving for passengers in a group traveling together, this may encourage passengers to binge drink, which is associated with many adverse health consequences in addition to those arising from alcohol-impaired driving. Designated driving programs and campaigns, although not proven to be effective when used alone, can complement proven effective interventions to help reduce excessive drinking and alcohol-impaired driving. ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bergen G, Yao J, Shults RA, Romano E, Lacey JH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions.
Conclusions: Many drivers, especially those who always use seat belts, said they would encourage unbuckled passengers to buckle up and supported auditory and visual belt reminders for passengers, particularly for children sitting in the back seat. Front and rear passenger reminders that last indefinitely would be acceptable to most drivers who transport these passengers. An auditory alert may be especially useful to alert drivers to children unbuckling in the back seat during a trip. PMID: 24372500 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kidd DG, McCartt AT Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Geometrical properties of the human child cervical spine with a focus on the c1 vertebra.
Conclusions: These early nonlinear and nonuniform age- and local geometry-specific variations should be considered in human finite element models for an accurate transfer of the external load from the atlas to the subaxial spine and to improve their fidelity and biomechanical capabilities. PMID: 24372501 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Yoganandan N, Pintar FA, Lew SM, Rao RD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The six degrees of freedom motion of the human head, spine, and pelvis in a frontal impact.
Conclusion: Despite the predominance of the sagittal motion of the occupant in a pure (12 o'clock) frontal impact, the asymmetry of belt loading induced other relevant displacements and rotations of the head and thoracic spine. Attempts to model occupant kinematics in a frontal impact should consider these results to biofidelically describe the interaction of the torso with the belt. PMID: 24372502 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Lopez-Valdes FJ, Riley PO, Lessley DJ, Arbogast KB, Seacrist T, Balasubramanian S, Maltese M, Kent R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Definition of simulated driving tests for the evaluation of drivers' reactions and responses.
Conclusions: For the braking test, which has been widely employed in similar forms in the literature, it was shown how the reaction time, with respect to the pedal transition time, can have a higher dispersion due to the influence of external factors. For the lateral skid test, the following measures were identified as the most significant for application studies: the reaction time for the reaction phase, the second peak of the steering wheel angle for the first instinctive response, and the integral of the steering wheel angle for the complete response. The methodology used to analyze the test measures was founded on stat...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bartolozzi R, Frendo F Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research