Reducing the risk of rear-end collisions with infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) integration of variable speed limit control and adaptive cruise control system.
CONCLUSIONS: Compared with VSL-only and ACC-only scenarios, this integrated I2V system is more effective on reducing rear-end collision risks. The findings of this study provide useful information for traffic agencies to implement novel techniques to improve safety on freeways. PMID: 26761633 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 13, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li Y, Wang H, Wang W, Liu S, Xiang Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Difference in Dummy Responses in Matched Side Impact Tests of Vehicles with and without Side Airbags.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: IIHS high-hooded side impacts were analyzed for matched vehicle tests with and without side airbags. The comparison provides a measure of the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing biomechanical responses for near-side occupants struck by trucks, SUVs and vans at 50 km/h. METHOD: The IIHS Moving Deformable Barrier (MDB) uses a high-hooded barrier face. It weighs 1,500 kg and impacts the driver-side perpendicular to the vehicle at 50 km/h. SID-IIs dummies are placed in the driver and left 2(nd) row seats. They represent 5(th) female occupants. IIHS tests were reviewed for ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 23, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Viano DC, Parenteau CS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Etiology of fatal thoracic aortic injuries: Secondary data analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The increased prevalence of fatal thoracic aortic injury in nearside crashes, increasing age, and vehicle type provide some insight into the current US fleet. Important factors, including model year, had significantly lower levels of the injury in univariate analysis, demonstrating the effect of safety improvements in newer model vehicles. Further study of this fatal injury is warranted, including comparisons of those who survive the injury. PMID: 26605433 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 25, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sznol JA, Koru-Sengul T, Graygo J, Murakhovsky D, Bahouth G, Schulman CI Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

EOV Editorial Board.
Authors: PMID: 26391342 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 25, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Simulator Study of Young Driver's Instinctive Response of Lower Extremity to a Collision.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: A driver's instinctive response of the lower extremity in braking movement consists of two parts, including reaction time and braking reaction behaviour. It is critical to consider these two components when conducting studies concerning driver's brake movement intention and injury analysis. The purposes of this study were to investigate the driver reaction time to an oncoming collision and muscle activation of lower extremity muscles at the collision moment. The ultimate goal is to provide data that aid in both the optimization of intervention time of an active safety system and the improvement...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gao Z, Li C, Hu H, Zhao H, Chen C, Yu H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Key aspects of successful rehabilitation after repeated or serious driving offenses.
CONCLUSION: The results clearly indicate that the provision of relevant information at an early stage combined with counseling has a beneficial influence on success rates for the rehabilitation process (an increase from 37.1% to 81%). As such, we recommend the introduction of obligatory license consultations, offered by MPA experts, involving a status assessment to customize offenders' rehabilitation and thereby provide more or less intensive guidance or coaching depending on offenders' characteristics throughout their progression through the MPA system. PMID: 26375797 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traf...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Glitsch E, Knuth D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of Car-to-Bicycle Approach Patterns for Developing Active Safety Devices.
CONCLUSIONS: When considering the TTC in the test protocol of evaluation for safety performance of active safety devices, we propose individual TTCs for evaluation of cyclist and pedestrian detections, respectively. In the test protocols, the following two scenarios should be employed: bicycle emerged from behind unobstructed views and bicycle emerging from behind obstructions. PMID: 26375916 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matsui Y, Oikawa S, Hitosugi M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Experimental investigation of the effect of occupant characteristics on contemporary seatbelt payout behavior in frontal impacts.
CONCLUSIONS: The analysis indicated that the PMHS characteristics showed significant influence on the belt response, while the belt response obtained with the ATDs were more reproducible. The potentialcause included the occupant anthropometry, the body mass distribution and the relative motion among body segments specific to the population variance. This study provided a primary data source to understand the biomechanical interaction of the occupant with the restraint system. Further research is necessary to consider these effects in the computational studies and optimized design of the restraint system in a more realistic...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nie B, Poulard D, Subit D, Donlon JP, Forman JL, Kent RW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Effect of Posture on Forces and Moments Measured in a Hybrid III ATD Lower Leg.
CONCLUSIONS: The range of postures tested herein spanned published injury criteria, and thus would have made the difference between pass and fail in a safety evaluation. In/eversion had the largest influence on injury metrics, likely due to the change in axial stiffness and altered impact durations in these postures. Results suggest increased injury risk at neutral or near neutral postures, whereas previous cadaveric studies have suggested that in/eversion does not influence injury risk. It is unclear whether the ATD appropriately represents the natural lower leg for impacts in out-of-position testing. Great care must be t...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Van Tuyl J, Burkhart TA, Quenneville CE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Validation of quasi-induced exposure representativeness assumption among young drivers.
Conclusions It appears that the representativeness assumption holds among the population of NJ young drivers. We encourage young driver studies utilizing QIE methods to conduct internal validation studies to ensure appropriate application of these methods and we propose utilization of QIE methods to address broader foundational and applied questions in young driver safety. PMID: 26376230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Curry AE, Pfeiffer MR, Elliott MR, Durbin DR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Exploring the Association between Working Memory and Driving Performance in Parkinson's disease.
CONCLUSIONS: Although the conclusions drawn from this study are tentative, the evidence presented here is encouraging with regard to the use of a driving simulator to examine isolated cognitive functions underlying driving performance in PD. With an understanding of its limitations, such driving simulation in combination with functional assessment batteries measuring physical, visual and cognitive abilities could comprise one component of a multi-tiered system to evaluate medical fitness to drive. PMID: 26376369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Vardaki S, Devos H, Beratis I, Yannis G, Papageorgiou SG Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Young drivers' responses to anti-speeding advertisements: Comparison of self-report and objective measures of persuasive processing and outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into how psychophysiological and GPS devices could be used as objective measures in conjunction with self-report measures to further understand the persuasive processes and outcomes of emotion-based anti-speeding advertisements. PMID: 26302428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 24, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kaye SA, Lewis I, Algie J, White MJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Enforcement of alcohol-impaired driving laws in the United States: a national survey of state and local agencies.
CONCLUSIONS: Recommended enforcement strategies to detect and prevent alcohol-impaired driving are employed in some jurisdictions and underutilized in others. Future research should explore the relationship of enforcement with drinking and driving behavior and alcohol-involved motor vehicle fatalities. PMID: 25802970 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 26, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Erickson DJ, Farbakhsh K, Toomey TL, Lenk KM, Jones-Webb R, Nelson TF Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Awareness Tool for Safe and Responsible Driving (OSCAR): A Potential Educational Intervention for Increasing Interest, Openness and Knowledge About the Abilities Required and Compensatory Strategies Among Older Drivers.
er JC, D'Amours M Abstract OBJECTIVE: This pilot study aimed to verify the impact of the awareness tool for safe and responsible driving (OSCAR) on older adults' (1) interest, openness, and knowledge about the abilities and compensatory strategies required for safe driving; (2) awareness of changes that have occurred in their own driving abilities; and (3) actual utilization of compensatory strategies. METHODS: A preexperimental design, including a pretest (T0) and posttest (T1) 8 to 10 weeks after exposure to the intervention, was used with 48 drivers aged between 67 and 84. The participants had a valid driv...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 26, 2015 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Levasseur M, Audet T, Gélinas I, Bédard M, Langlais MÈ, Therrien FH, Renaud J, Coallier JC, D'Amours M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An investigation into motorcycle crashes in work zones.
CONCLUSIONS: It is found that work types that take place on lower functional class roadways, such as sewer repair, are found to have higher fatality rates. In contrast, those work zones on higher functional class roadways often incorporate speed calming measures and have a clear division between the traveled way and the actual construction work. PMID: 25590669 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 18, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Maistros AR, Stakleff BA, Schneider WH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Young age as a predictor of poor road safety practices of commercial motorcyclists in Oyo state, Nigeria.
This study examined the association between young age and poor road safety practices of commercial motorcyclists in Oyo state, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 371 commercial motorcyclists selected via a multi-stage sampling technique was conducted. Information on socio-demographic characteristics and road safety practices (possession of a valid license, helmet use, number of passengers carried per trip and compliance with ten selected traffic signs) were obtained with the aid of an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Individual road safety practice items were scored and a total score obtained giving m...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Olumide AO, Owoaje ET Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Investigation on deterrence effect of legal punishment measures on driving after drinking in chongqing, china.
Conclusions: The 4(th) edition of Chinese Traffic Safety Law which took effect on January 2013 coinciding with application of random breath testing and intensification of enforcement activity is effective in deterring driving after drinking according to the investigation. More measures should be implemented to change the decreasing tendency of perceived certainty of being caught for driving after drinking. The amount of monetary fine is suggested be raised up to a threshold. PMID: 25569129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Suo Q Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Mature Driver Laws and State Predictors of Motor Vehicle Crash Fatality Rates among the Elderly: A Cross-sectional Ecological Study.
Conclusions: Mature driver laws are not associated with lower state MVC fatality rates among the elderly. PMID: 25569273 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bell TM, Qiao N, Zarzaur BL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Using Enforcement and Adjudication Data to Assess the Impact of a Primary Safety Belt Law.
Discussion: Our analysis demonstrates that Kentucky's public safety and judicial systems took the new law seriously and enforced it effectively, and that the increased level of enforcement persisted for at least five years after implementation. We also find that data from judicial system administrative agency reports makes an important contribution to public policy analysis. In the face of persistent anti-regulatory forces and public sector budget cuts, it is critically important to document the relationship between enforcement activities and the achievement of legislative goals. PMID: 25569430 [PubMed - as supplied b...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Costich JF, Slavova SS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Finite Element Model Prediction of Pulmonary Contusion in Vehicle to Vehicle Simulations of Real-World Crashes.
Conclusions: A preliminary threshold for maximum crush was calculated to predict a clinically significant volume of pulmonary contusion. PMID: 25569549 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Danelson KA, Stitzel JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

General Motor Vehicle Drivers' Knowledge and Practices Regarding Drink Driving in Yinchuan and Guangzhou, China.
This study examined knowledge, drink driving practices and alcohol misuse problems among general drivers in Yinchuan. The objectives were to gain a better understanding of drink driving in Yinchuan, identify areas that need to be addressed, and compare the results with a similar study in Guangzhou. MethodsThis was a cross-sectional study with a survey designed to collect information of participants' demographic characteristics and their knowledge and practices in relation to drinking and driving. The survey was comprised of questions on knowledge and practices in relation to drink driving and was administered to a convenie...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Jia K, King M, Fleiter J, Sheehan M, Ma W, Lei J, Zhang J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

High risk driving attitudes and everyday driving violations of car and racing enthusiasts in Ontario, Canada.
Conclusion: The findings indicate that positive high risk driving attitudes may be transferring to driving violations in everyday traffic which mediate driving offense citations. PMID: 25569798 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 8, 2015 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Yıldırım-Yenier Z, Vingilis E, Wiesenthal DL, Mann RE, Seeley J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Erratum.
Authors: PMID: 25296766 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 12, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Editorial Board EOV.
Authors: PMID: 25025753 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 20, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 24924808 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 19, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prevalence of alcohol and drugs among car and van drivers killed in road accidents in norway: an overview from 2001 to 2010.
Conclusions: The findings confirm that a large number of fatally injured drivers, in particular among drivers involved in single-vehicle accidents, had concentrations of alcohol or drugs above the new legislative limits introduced in 2012. In many cases, concentrations of at least 5 times the limits were found. The proportion of drivers killed who tested positive for alcohol or other drugs did not change during the study period; however, the total number of drivers killed per year decreased by about 20 percent. Some changes were also observed with regard to the types of benzodiazepines and amphetamines detected during...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Christophersen AS, Gjerde H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characteristics of 1226 alcohol-positive drivers involved in nonfatal traffic crashes in shanghai, china.
Conclusions: The results indicated a notable need for more governmental attention that would prevent accidents caused by driving under the influence of alcohol. PMID: 24867564 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sun Y, Huang Z, Zhao Z, Jiang Y, Ye Y, Yu T, Rao Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Phone use while driving: results from an observational survey.
Conclusions: The level of handheld phone use among drivers in South Australia appears to be low relative to other jurisdictions. The level of enforcement activity and severity of penalties do not offer a clear explanation for the higher levels of compliance with phone laws. Given the rate of increase in phone technology, it is important to conduct regular roadside surveys of phone use among drivers to monitor trends in usage over time. PMID: 24867565 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Wundersitz LN Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effectiveness of red light cameras in the United States-a literature review.
Conclusions: Despite limited peer-reviewed publications available in the literature, it appears that RLCs decrease violations, crashes, and injuries at intersections. Some studies, however, contained methodological shortcomings. Therefore, the apparent effectiveness should be confirmed with stronger methodological approaches. Although spillover effects appeared to be evident, many of the jurisdictions examined were small in area. Thus, it is unknown whether spillover resulting from RLCs would have similar effects in large metropolitan areas. To determine the full public health impact of RLC programs, crashes, injuries, and...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Llau AF, Ahmed NU Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Optimizing the passenger air bag of an adaptive restraint system for multiple size occupants.
Conclusions: According to the optimization results, 4 typical PABs could provide effective protection to 5th and 50th percentile dummies. However, due to the heavy and large torsos of the 95th percentile occupants, the current occupant restraint system does not demonstrate satisfactory protective function, particularly for the thorax. PMID: 24867567 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bai Z, Jiang B, Zhu F, Cao L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Estimating rear-end accident probabilities at signalized intersections: a comparison study of intersections with and without green signal countdown devices.
Conclusions: GSCDs helped shorten indecision zones and reduce rear-end collisions near the stop line during the yellow interval, but they easily resulted in risky car following behavior and much higher rear-end collision probabilities at indecision zones during both flashing green and yellow intervals. GSCDs are recommended to be cautiously installed and education on safe driving behavior should be available. PMID: 24867568 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Ni Y, Li K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Demonstrating a correlation between the maturity of road safety practices and road safety incidents.
Conclusion: Road safety practices associated with enforcement of speed limits and promotion of alternative modes are the most significant road safety practices toward which mature countries have concentrated their efforts, resulting in a lower frequency of fatalities, injury rates, and property damage accidents. The authors argue that the use of gross domestic product (GDP) as a predictor of road safety incidents suffers from the presumptive assumption that the only criterion that matters is national income, therefore erroneously predicting that richer countries all perform approximately the same in fatalities and that dev...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Amador L, Willis CJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road safety forecasts in five European countries using structural time series models.
Conclusions: A concluding section providing perspectives and directions for future research is presented. PMID: 24867570 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Antoniou C, Papadimitriou E, Yannis G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A One Year Pay-as-You-Speed Trial With Economic Incentives for Not Speeding.
Conclusions: It was shown that a PAYS concept is an effective way to reduce speed violations. Hence, it has the possibility to reduce crash severity and thereby to save lives. This could be an important step toward a safer road transport system. The majority of the participants were in favor of the concept, which indicates the potential of a new insurance product in the future. PMID: 24867571 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Stigson H, Hagberg J, Kullgren A, Krafft M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Can anatomical morphomic variables help predict abdominal injury rates in frontal vehicle crashes?
In this study, abdominal injuries for occupants involved in frontal impacts were assessed using crash and medical data. Methods: Injury rates and patterns were first assessed with respect to thoracic injuries. A statistical analysis was then conducted to predict abdominal injury outcome using 18 covariate variables, including 4 vehicle, 4 demographic, and 10 morphomic, derived from computed tomography (CT) scans. More than 260,000 logistic regression models were fitted using all possible variable combinations. The models were ranked using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and combined through the model-averaging appro...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Parenteau CS, Zhang P, Holcombe S, Kohoyda-Inglis C, Wang SC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Raised crosswalks on entrance to the roundabout-a case study on effectiveness of treatment on pedestrian safety and convenience.
Conclusions: Preliminary results of the case study suggest positive safety and convenience outcomes. Implications for pedestrian safety include less exposure to traffic and lower risk of serious injury, particularly for elderly pedestrians; convenience outcomes include shorter waiting times to cross and greater compliance to the crossing. A larger study is required to substantiate the findings. PMID: 24867573 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Candappa N, Stephan K, Fotheringham N, Lenné MG, Corben B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effects of primary enforcement laws and fine levels on seat belt usage in the United States.
We examined law type and fine levels as predictors of seat belt use among fatally injured occupants of passenger vehicles from 1997 through 2008 using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Fine levels used were the statutory maximum base fines for a first offense. Results: Having a primary enforcement law was associated with a 9 to 10 percentage point increase in seat belt use. An increase in the fine amount, from the current median level of $25 to a level of $60, was associated with a 3 percentage point increase in usage. An increase in fine from $25 to $100 was associated with a 6- to 7-point increase....
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Nichols JL, Tippetts AS, Fell JC, Eichelberger AH, Haseltine PW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Mild to moderate dehydration combined with moderate alcohol consumption has no influence on simulated driving performance.
Conclusions: Overall, it appears that dehydration does not exacerbate impairment in driving performance caused by mild-moderate alcohol intoxication. Further research is required to clarify the effects of alcohol and dehydration at various alcohol doses. PMID: 24867575 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 31, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Irwin C, Leveritt M, Shum DH, Desbrow B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Head and Spine Injuries Sustained by Motorcyclists in Head-Leading Collisions with Fixed Roadside Objects.
Conclusions The study results were used to suggest possible crash test protocols for motorcyclists sliding into fixed objects and/or safety devices designed to reduce the injury risk of fixed objects. The predominant orientation of lying prone with head extension led the authors to suggest a crash test using the motorcycle anthropomorphic test device (MATD) sliding prone. However, the occurrence of the supine orientation, albeit less frequently, indicates the utility of a crash test with an ATD sliding supine. The two options are discussed, particularly with regard to appropriate injury assessment reference values. PM...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bambach MR, Mattos GA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

New Method for Distance-based Close Following Safety Indicator.
Conclusions: It is envisaged that this new distance-based safety indicator would provide a more realistic depiction of the real traffic situation for safety analysis. PMID: 24827899 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sharizli AA, Rahizar R, Karim MR, Saifizul AA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of increasing child restraint use in reducing occupant injuries among children aged 0-5 years in Japan.
Conclusions: The present study used comparative indicators relative to age groups that were not covered by the legislation, and showed that a decrease in trend of occupant morbidity among children aged 0-5 years started before the introduction of compulsory restraint use. This change probably reflects the pre-legislative voluntary increase in child restraint use. PMID: 24827976 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Nakahara S, Ichikawa M, Nakajima Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Influence of Drinking, Texting and Eating on Simulated Driving Performance.
Conclusions: Distracting behaviours such as eating and texting whilst driving appear to negatively impact driving measures of lane position control and reaction time. These findings may have direct implications for motorists that engage in these types of distracting behaviours behind the wheel and for the safety of other road users. PMID: 24828121 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Irwin C, Monement S, Desbrow B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian Injuries in the most densely populated city in Nigeria-an epidemics calling for control.
Conclusions This study suggests high incidence, and significant underreporting, of pedestrian injury. Morbidity and mortality reduction is possible (from head and lower limb injuries) by traffic calming techniques in crossing the highway especially from the motorcycles, cars and buses. PMID: 24828258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Solagberu BA, Balogun RA, Mustafa IA, Ibrahim NA, Oludara MA, Ajani AO, Idowu OE, Osuoji RI Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Road Traffic Crashes As A Neglected Public Health Concern; An Observational Study From Iranian Population.
Conclusions: The public health strategies and preventive policies should be focused on more common human risk factors such as disregarding traffic rules and regulations, driver rush and alcohol consumption due to their greater population attributable fraction and more intuitive impacts on society. PMID: 24761776 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 24, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bakhtiyari M, Delpisheh A, Monfared AB, Kazemi-Galougahi MH, Mehmandar MR, Riahi M, Salehi M, Mansourni MA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Reconsidering the Safety in Numbers Effect for Vulnerable Road Users: An Application Of Agent-Based Modeling.
Conclusions: Agent-based modeling may provide a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms underpinning the relationships previously observed between volume and risk under the assumptions of SiN. The SiN effect may apply only under circumstances in which bicycle density also increases over time. Additional mechanisms underpinning the SiN effect, independent of behavioural adjustment by drivers, are explored. PMID: 24761795 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 24, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Thompson J, Savino G, Stevenson M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The prevalence of distraction among passenger vehicle drivers: a roadside observational approach.
Conclusions: When using similar methodology, roadside observational studies generate comparable prevalence estimates of driver distraction as naturalistic driving studies. Driver distraction is a common problem among passenger vehicle drivers. Despite the increased awareness on the dangers of texting and cell phone use while driving, these specific activities were two of the most frequently observed distractions. There is a continued need for road safety education about the dangers of distracted driving, especially for younger drivers. PMID: 24761827 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 24, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Huisingh C, Griffin R, McGwin G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Motorcyclists' Perceptions and Experiences of Riding and Risk, and Their Advice For Safety.
Conclusions: Riders identified risks that have been recognised in the road safety literature, and also risks for which there are no engineering or scientific solutions. To effectively increase motorcyclist safety, recognition of the commonalities and the differences between motorcyclists' perspectives and proposed strategies is needed. This approach is more likely to engage riders, and thus support positive behaviour change among riders and drivers. PMID: 24761932 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 24, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Simpson JC, Wilson S, Currey N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian Fatalities Resulting from Train-Person Collisions.
Conclusions: Differences from other European studies were found, which may be related to the different cultures of the countries/regions, as well as to the differences of the railway systems. More extensive studies must be performed, in order to develop strategies to prevent train-person collisions. PMID: 24761944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 24, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sousa S, Santos L, Dinis-Oliveira RJ, Magalhães T, Santos A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Experiences of teen drivers and their advice for the Learner licence phase.
Conclusions The wealth of experiences and advice shared by the Learner drivers should be considered in refining the content and process of the Learner licence phase. Moreover, the non-use of Learner resources suggests that alternative mechanisms of engagement and information dissemination need to be explored. PMID: 24730571 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Scott-Parker B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Problem of Suspended and Revoked Drivers who Avoid Detection at Checkpoints.
Conclusion. The fact that many SR drivers are able to pass through DUI/License checkpoints undetected weakens both the specific and general impacts of checkpoints for deterring SR driving, and may diminish the effectiveness of suspension and revocation actions for reducing the crash risk posed by problem drivers. Using license card readers that can quickly identify SR drivers in real time during routine traffic stops and at DUI/License checkpoints warrants further consideration. PMID: 24730601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Parrish KE, Masten SV Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research