Functional outcomes of motor vehicle crash thoracic injuries in pediatric and adult occupants.
CONCLUSION: Older adults had significantly greater overall disability than each of the other age groups for thoracic injuries. The developed disability metrics are important in quantifying the significant burden of injuries and loss of quality life years. Such metrics can be used to better characterize severity of injury and further the understanding of age-related differences in injury outcomes, which can influence future age-specific modifications to AIS. PMID: 29185785 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 29, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Schoell SL, Weaver AA, Talton JW, Barnard RT, Baker G, Stitzel JD, Zonfrillo MR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Risk factors for motorcycle loss-of-control crashes.
CONCLUSION: The LOC crash factors related to riders, vehicles and road infrastructure identified here were expected, but were rarely identified and taken simultaneously into account in previous studies. They could be targeted by countermeasures to improve motorcyclist safety. PMID: 29185788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 29, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wu D, Hours M, Martin JL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Effect of Correct Cross-Chest Clip Use on Injury Outcomes in Young Children during Motor Vehicle Crashes.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cross-chest clip use and injury outcomes in children between 0-4 years of age. METHODS: Child passengers between 0-4 years of age were selected from the Crashworthiness Data System of the US National Automotive Sampling System (NASS) datasets (2003-2014). Multiple regression analysis was used to model injury outcomes while controlling for age, crash severity, crash direction and restraint type. The primary outcomes were overall Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) 2+ injury, and the presence of any neck injury. RESULTS: Across all children aged 0-4 ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 29, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Woodford E, Brown J, Bilston LE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Discordance between Age and Size Based Criteria of Child Passenger Restraint Appropriateness.
In this study we sought to accomplish the following objectives: 1) to calculate the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained across eight criteria of increasing restrictiveness; 2) to examine agreement between age- and size-based appropriateness criteria; 3) to assess for changes in the percentage of children considered appropriately restrained by the eight criteria between 2011 (shortly after updates to United States (U.S.) guidelines) and 2015. Methods Data from two cross-sectional surveys of 928 parents of children younger than 12 years old (n = 591 in 2011, n = 337 in 2015) were analyzed in 2017....
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 17, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Smiley ML, Bingham CR, Jacobson PD, Macy ML Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Traffic Injury Prevention.
Authors: PMID: 29035084 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 18, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A Study of Fatal Pedestrian Crashes at Rural Low Volume Road Intersections in Southwest China.
CONCLUSIONS: Accident prevention treatments are suggested based on their suitability for rural areas in Southwest China. These countermeasures include introducing better access management and traffic calming treatments, providing more opportunities for pedestrian education and enhancing the quality of driver training and traffic law enforcement. PMID: 28981367 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 5, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Xie X, Nikitas A, Liu H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

State Helmet Laws and Helmet Use Among Fatally Injured Moped Riders in the United States, 2011-2015.
This study investigated this association among a census of fatally injured moped riders in the United States. METHODS: A logistic regression model was constructed to analyze data extracted from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) to examine risk factors for helmet non-use among 572 moped riders fatally injured between 2011 and 2015. RESULTS: Moped riders fatally injured in states with universal helmet laws had 69 times the odds of wearing a helmet (p
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 27, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Boone EM, Rossheim ME, Krall JR, Weiler RM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Unintentional nontraffic injury and fatal events: threats to children in and around vehicles.
Conclusions Nontraffic injuries and fatalities present an important threat to the safety and lives of very young children. Future efforts should consider complimentary surveillance mechanisms to systematically and comprehensively capture of all nontraffic incidents. Continued education, engineering modifications, advocacy, and legislation can help continue to prevent these incidents and must be incorporated in overall child vehicle safety initiatives. PMID: 28933560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 21, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zonfrillo MR, Ramsay ML, Fennell JE, Rollins A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of Mechanics of Side Impact Test Defined in UN/ECE Regulation 129.
CONCLUSIONS: It is demonstrated that an artificial anchorage in the Regulation 129 test does not account for a rotation of the CRS, which should appear in the case of a realistic anchorage. Therefore, the adopted procedure generates the smallest HIC value, which is at the level of the far side impact scenario where there are no obstacles. It is also shown that the presence of non-lateral acceleration components challenges the quality of a CRS and its headrest much more than a pure lateral set-up. PMID: 28910537 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 14, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Baranowski P, Damaziak K, Mazurkiewicz L, Malachowski J, Muszynski A, Vangi D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 28902530 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 13, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The perception of Malaysian pedestrians towards the use of footbridges.
CONCLUSIONS: The study encourages the decision makers and the stakeholders to consider providing escalators for the new footbridges to enhance the safety of the pedestrians. PMID: 28898110 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 12, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hasan R, Napiah M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Adaptive Response Criteria in Road Hazard Detection Among Older Drivers.
CONCLUSIONS: Older drivers adopt compensatory strategies on hazard detection during driving. Our findings showed that, in the driving context, even at an old age our attentional functions are still adaptive according to environmental conditions. This leads to considerations on potential training methods to promote adaptive strategies which may help older drivers maintain performance in road hazard detection. PMID: 28898116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 12, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Feng J, Choi H, Craik FIM, Levine B, Moreno S, Naglie G, Zhu M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Young Females' Attention towards Road Safety Images: An ERP Study of the Revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide some preliminary objective support for the use of negative emotion-based road safety advertisements for young females. Further, this study provides support for using psychophysiological measures to enhance understanding of traffic injury persuasion. PMID: 28837359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 24, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kaye SA, White MJ, Lewis I Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Investigation of Hit-and-run Crash Occurrence and Severity Using Real-time Loop Detector Data and Hierarchical Bayesian Binary Logit Model with Random Effects.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests the potential traffic conditions of HR and severe HR occurrence, which refer to relatively congested upstream traffic conditions with high upstream speed and significant speed deviations on long segments. The above findings suggest that traffic enforcement should be directed towards mitigating the risky driving under the aforementioned traffic conditions. Moreover, the enforcement agencies may employ alcohol checkpoints to counter DUI during the night time. As per the engineering improvements, wider inner shoulders may be constructed to potentially reduce HR cases and the street lights shou...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 24, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Xie M, Cheng W, Gill GS, Zhou J, Jia X, Choi S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prevalence of alcohol among non-fatally injured road accident casualties in two level III trauma centres in Nothern Ghana.
Conclusion There was a high prevalence of alcohol use among non-fatally injured casualties in Northern Ghana and injury severity increased with BAC. AUDIT screening in the hospital, alcohol consumption guideline, road safety education with an emphasis on minimizing or eliminating alcohol consumption, and enhanced enforcement of the BAC limit among motorists are recommended. PMID: 28829627 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 22, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Damsere-Derry J, Palk G, King M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An Evaluation Scheme for Assessing the Effectiveness of Intersection Movement Assist (IMA) on Improving Traffic Safety.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, IMA is promising to effectively reduce angle crashes related to sight obstruction, and has potential to reduce not only crash frequency but also crash severity. PMID: 28812374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 16, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wu KF, Ardiansyah N, Ye WJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Classification of Driving Workload Affected by Highway Alignment Conditions Based on Classification and Regression Tree Algorithm.
CONCLUSION: Heart rate variability was a direct and effective index for measuring driving workload despite being affected by multiple highway alignment elements. The driving workload model and the thresholds of driving workload classifications can be used to evaluate the quality of highway geometric design. A higher quality of highway geometric design could keep driving workload within a safer and more comfortable range. This study provided insight into reducing traffic injuries from the perspective of disciplinary integration of highway engineering and human factor engineering. PMID: 28771038 [PubMed - as supplied by...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 3, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hu J, Wang R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Helmet retention system types as a risk factor to properly attach the chin strap.
This study aimed to determine the factors associated with the incorrect use of a helmet retention system (loose or open) and how often this happens. METHODS: This was an observational transversal study conducted in Curitiba, Brazil. Trained observers positioned at traffic lights collected information about the helmet fixation mode, the helmet model (full-face, open-face, modular, half) and the helmet retention system model (micrometric, double-D, fast-release). Additional data including the position on motorcycle, gender and function of the motorcycle (as a work vehicle) were collected. The observers, collection site ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 31, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Freitas CA, Furtado AM, Petterle RR, Pimentel SK, Carvalho FH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Using medico-legal data to investigate fatal older road user crash circumstances and risk factors.
CONCLUSIONS: RU error was the most significant factor identified in fatal ORU crashes which suggests that there is a limited capacity of the road system to fully accommodate RU errors. Initiatives related to safer roads and roadsides, vehicles, speed zones as well as behavioral approaches are key areas of priority for targeted activity to prevent fatal ORU crashes in the future. PMID: 28758801 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 31, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Koppel S, Bugeja L, Smith D, Lamb A, Dwyer J, Fitzharris M, Newstead S, D'Elia A, Charlton J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Relationship between neuropsychological tests and driver's licence renewal tests in Parkinson's disease.
Conclusions At early stages of the disease about 19% of PD patients showed difficulties that may affect their driving capabilities. Line Orientation and Figure Recall are useful to alert clinicians to the risk of unsafe driving. For this reason, patients with PD should be evaluated for driving abilities more regularly to determine the extent of deficits that may influence driving performance. PMID: 28759268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 31, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Badenes D, Garolera M, Casas L, Cejudo JC, Zaragoza S, Calzado N, Aguilar M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Ticketing Aggressive Cars and Trucks (TACT): How does it work on city streets?
Conclusions Although designed for reducing crashes on highways, the TACT program can be an effective approach for improving driver behavior on city streets. PMID: 28750169 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 27, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Telford R, Cook LJ, Olson LM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Investigating Factors Influencing Pedestrian Injury Severity at Intersections.
CONCLUSIONS: The independent variables significant to PIS at intersections for young, middle-aged, and older driver groups were identified; while the marginal effect of each variable to the likelihood of PIS were assessed. PMID: 28737957 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 24, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ma Z, Lu X, Chien SI, Hu D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Belted Driver Fatalities: Time of Death and Risk by Injury Severity.
CONCLUSIONS: The risk for belted driver deaths exponentially increased with MAIS. A majority of deaths occurred within 2.5 hours of the crash. On average, fatally injured drivers experienced 2.64 AIS 4+ injuries, primarily to the head and thorax. PMID: 28738161 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 24, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Viano DC, Parenteau CS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Role of age and injury mechanism in cervical spine injury tolerance under head contact loading.
This study analyzed data from previously conducted experiments using Post Mortem Human Subject specimens (PMHS). Group A tests used the upright intact head-cervical column experimental model. The inferior end of the specimen was fixed, head was balanced by a mechanical system, and natural lordosis was removed. Specimens were placed on a testing device via a load cell. The piston applied loading at the vertex region. Spinal injuries were identified using medical images. Group B tests used the inverted head-cervical column experimental model. In one study, head-T1 specimens were fixed distally, and C7-T1 joints were oriented...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 24, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yoganandan N, Chirvi S, Voo L, Pintar FA, Banerjee A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Impact of Helmet Use on Traumatic Brain Injury from Road Traffic Accidents in Cambodia.
CONCLUSIONS: Helmets demonstrate a protective effect and may be an effective public health intervention to significantly reduce the burden of traumatic brain injury in Cambodia and other developing countries with increasing rates of motorization across the world. PMID: 28699848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 12, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gupta S, Klaric K, Sam N, Din V, Juschkewitz T, Iv V, Shrime MG, Park KB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Rail Height Effects on Safety Performance of Midwest Guardrail System.
CONCLUSIONS: A mounting height of 914 mm (36 in.) was determined to be the maximum guardrail height that would safety contain and redirect 1100C vehicles and not allow underride or excessive vehicle snag on support posts. Recommendations were also provided regarding the safety performance of the increased-height MGS. PMID: 28696773 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 11, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Asadollahi Pajouh M, Julin RD, Stolle CS, Reid JD, Faller RK Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Impact of Retail Beverage Service Training and Social Host Laws on adolescents' DUI rates in San Diego Co, California.
CONCLUSIONS: At the county level, although RBS, SH laws, and media efforts were found to contribute to a significant reduction in DUI rates, the largest significant contributors to reducing DUI rates were alcohol and gas taxation rates. Policy makers interested in reducing DUI rates among teenagers, should examine these variables within their specific communities and consider conducting community-specific research to determine the best way to do so. Future efforts should be made to develop models that represent specific communities who are interested in reducing DUI rates among drivers aged 16-20 years. PMID: 28696779...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 11, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Scherer M, Romano E, Caldwell S, Taylor E Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Toe Board Energy Absorbing Material for Foot, Ankle and Lower Leg Injury Reduction.
CONCLUSION: A polyurethane energy absorbing (EA) foam was found to be effective in limiting axial tibia force and foot accelerations when subjected to frontal impacts using the NASCAR motorsport restraint system. PMID: 28696780 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 11, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Patalak JP, Stitzel JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Occupant Responses in Conventional and ABTS Seats in High-Speed Rear Sled Tests.
This study compared biomechanical responses of a normally seated Hybrid III dummy on conventional and ABTS (all belts to seat) seats in 40.2 km/h (25 mph) rear sled tests. It determined the difference in performance with modern (≥2000 MY) seats compared to older (
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 5, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Viano DC, Parenteau CS, Burnett R, Prasad P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Wrong-Way Driving Crashes: A Multiple Correspondence Approach to Identify Contributing Factors.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite many other methods that identify only the contributing factors, this method can identify possible associations between various contributing factors. This is an inherent advantage of the MCA method, which can provide a major opportunity for state DOTs to select safety countermeasures that are associated with multiple safety benefits. PMID: 28657352 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jalayer M, Pour-Rouholamin M, Zhou H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Burden of road traffic injuries related to delays in implementing safety belt laws in low- and lower middle-income countries.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite limited data availability in low- and middle-income countries, the avoidable part of the burden related to delayed intervention is measurable. These results can be used to convince countries to avoid delaying the provision of better protection to road users. PMID: 28657368 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Martin A, Lagarde E, Salmi LR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driver and Front-Passenger Injury in Frontal Crashes: Update on the Effect of Unbelted Rear Occupants.
Abstract PURPOSE: This is a study of the influence of an unbelted rear occupant on the risk for severe injury to the front-seat occupant ahead of them in frontal crashes. It provides an update to earlier studies. METHODS: 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data was used to investigate the risk for severe injury (MAIS 4+F) to belted drivers and front passengers in frontal crashes by the presence of a belted or unbelted passenger seated directly behind them or without a rear passenger. Frontal crashes were identified with GAD1 = 'F' without rollover (rollover ≤ 0). Front- and rear-outboard occupants were included without ej...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Parenteau CS, Viano DC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors associated with prehospital death among traffic accident patients in Osaka City, Japan: a population-based study.
CONCLUSIONS: In this population, the factors associated with prehospital death due to traffic accidents were elderly people, nighttime, and pedestrian as the type of patient. The proportion of prehospital death due to traffic accidents was also high when the collision component was an automobile. PMID: 28658590 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Katayama Y, Kitamura T, Kiyohara K, Iwami T, Kawamura T, Hayashida S, Ogura H, Shimazu T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of countermeasures for red light running by traffic-simulator-based surrogate safety measures.
CONCLUSIONS: Although increasing the yellow signal interval duration is advantageous because this reduces the total conflicts (a possibility of total RLR-related crashes), each countermeasure has shown different effects by RLR-related conflict types which can be referred to when making a decision. Given that each intersection has different RLR crash issues, evaluated countermeasures are directly applicable to enhance the cost and time effectiveness, according to the situation of the target intersection. Also, the proposed methodology is replicable in any site, which has a dearth of affluent crash data and/or comparison sit...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 21, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Lee C, So JJ, Ma J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Emergency Department Visits by Pediatric Patients Sustained as a Passenger on a Motorcycle.
CONCLUSION: Although there were only about 9,700 visits to US EDs for motorcycle crashes involving passengers less than 16 years old for 2006 to 2011, the total cost of visits that resulted in either ED discharge or hospital admission surmounted to over $71 million. PMID: 28613096 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 14, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tadros A, Owen S, Hoffman SM, Davis SM, Sharon MJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Influence of Pedestrians' Age and Gender types on Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Pedestrian Crashes.
CONCLUSIONS: This research reveals that temporal and spatial distributions of vehicle-pedestrian crashes vary for different pedestrians' age groups and gender types. Therefore, specific safety measures should be placed during the high crash times at different locations for different age groups and gender types to increase the effectiveness of the countermeasures in preventing and reducing the vehicle-pedestrian crashes. PMID: 28605251 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 12, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Toran Pour A, Moridpour S, Tay R, Rajabifard A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

On the selection of stimulus for the Auditory Variant of the Detection Response Task Method for driving experiments.
CONCLUSIONS: Consistent significant differences in response times for all tested stimuli prove that the auditory DRT variant is also sensitive to changes in cognitive load. The mean increase in response times of more than 25% for 4 kHz and 8 kHz signals for trials with a cognitive task compared to trials without one indicates that one of these signals could be used as a potential auditory stimulus for the auditory DRT variant. PMID: 28594238 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 8, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Stojmenova K, Policardi F, Sodnik J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Differences in the kinematics of booster-seated pediatric occupants using two different car seats.
CONCLUSION: The results suggest that the overall response of the booster-seated occupant exposed to the same impact conditions was different depending on the seat used regardless of the size of the ATD. The differences observed in the response of the occupants between the two seats can be attributed to the differences in cushion stiffness, seat pan geometry and the different belt geometry. However, these results were obtained for two particular seat models and a specific CRS and therefore, it cannot be directly extrapolated to the generality of vehicle seats and CRS. PMID: 28594247 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 8, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Juste-Lorente O, Maza M, Lorente AI, Lopez-Valdes FJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Features of fatal injuries in older cyclists in vehicle-bicycle accidents in Japan.
CONCLUSIONS: For cyclists aged 75 years and over, wearing a helmet may be helpful to prevent head injuries in vehicle-to-cyclist accidents. It may also be helpful to introduce some safety measures to prevent hip injuries, given the higher level of fatality following these among all cyclists aged 75 and over, but especially women. PMID: 28581829 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 5, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matsui Y, Oikawa S, Hitosugi M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Efficacy of Seat Mounted Thoracic Side Airbags in the German Vehicle Fleet.
CONCLUSION: The reduction in occupant HFN injury risk associated with the coupled tSAB and curtain airbag may be attributable to its ability to provide coverage over previously-causing mechanism of injury. Yet, the sole presence of the tSAB showed no ability to provide additional benefit for the occupant's thoracic region. Future work should identify mechanisms of injury in the tSAB cases and attempt to quantify improvements in the vehicle ability to resist intrusion. PMID: 28557622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 30, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gaylor L, Junge M, Abanteriba S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian fatality and impact speed squared: Cloglog modeling from French national data.
CONCLUSIONS: For impact speeds below 60 km/h, the shape of the curve relating probability of death to impact speed was very similar to those reported in recent rigorous studies. For higher impact speeds, the present model allows the curve to rise ever more steeply, giving a much better fit to observed data. The present results confirm that, when a pedestrian is struck by a car, impact speed is a major risk factor, thus providing a supplementary argument for strict speed limits in areas where pedestrians are highly exposed. PMID: 28557669 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 30, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Martin JL, Wu D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A novel method for quanitifying comfort in child passengers demonstrates an association between child restraint comfort and errors in use of booster seats.
In this study we examine the reliability and sensitivity of a newly developed observational method for assessing comfort in children in vehicles. We then use this method to examine the relationship between comfort and errors in use of booster seats. METHODS: A novel method was developed for assessing comfort by counting fidgeting and postural adjustment behaviors to derive a Discomfort Avoidance Behavior (DAB) score. The sensitivity of the DAB score was examined by observing children in four different seating conditions designed as "comfortable" and "uncomfortable" (Part 1). Paired-samples t-tests ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fong CK, Bilston LE, Paul G, Brown J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of biofidelity of THUMS pedestrian model under a whole-body impact conditions with a generic sedan buck.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the data considered, the THUMS PFEM was considered to be biofidelic for this pedestrian impact condition and vehicle. Given the capability of the model to reproduce biomechanical responses, it shows potential as a valuable tool for developing novel pedestrian safety systems. PMID: 28548920 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wu T, Kim T, Bollapragada V, Poulard D, Chen H, Panzer MB, Forman JL, Crandall JR, Pipkorn B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Repeatability testing of a new Hybrid III 6-year-old ATD lower extremity.
CONCLUSIONS: The above work has demonstrated that the repeatability of the ATD-LE was excellent for tibia force, bending moment, and ankle ROM. The ATD-LE has the ability to provide new information to engineers and researchers due to its ability to directly evaluate the crash response of the ankle and leg. New information on injury mechanism and injury tolerance may lead to injury reduction and thus help advance the safety of children. PMID: 28548921 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 28, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Boucher LC, Ryu Y, Kang YS, Bolte JH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Modeling Crash Injury Severity by Road Feature to Improve Safety.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this research help identify critical road features that need to be given priority. As an example, additional advanced warning signs and providing enlarged or highly retroreflective signs that grab the attention of older drivers may help in making locations such as end or beginning of a divided highway much safer. Educating drivers about the necessary skill sets required at critical road features in addition to engineering solutions may further help them adopt safe driving behavior on roads. PMID: 28548581 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 26, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Penmetsa P, Pulugurtha SS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The sex disparity in risky driving: A survey of Colombian young drivers.
CONCLUSION: Young drivers in Colombia appear to engage in the same risky driving behaviours as young drivers in developed nations. In addition, young male drivers in Colombia reported greater engagement in risky driving behaviour than young female drivers; a finding again consistent with the behaviours of young male drivers in developed nations. As such, the research findings suggest that general interventions such as education, engineering, and enforcement should target transient rule violations such as speeding and using a handheld mobile phone while driving for young drivers in Colombia. Future research should investiga...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 26, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Oviedo-Trespalacios O, Scott-Parker B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A spectral power analysis of driving behavior changes during the transition from non-distraction to distraction.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that driver state detection needs to consider the behavior changes during the pre-starting periods, instead of only focusing on periods with physical presence of distraction, such as cell phone use. Lateral control measures can be a better indicator of distraction detection than longitudinal controls. In addition, frequency domain analyses proved to be a more robust and consistent method in assessing driving performances, when compared to time domain analyses. PMID: 28534644 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 23, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang Y, Bao S, Du W, Ye Z, Sayer JR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Considering built environment and spatial correlation in modelling pedestrian injury severity.
CONCLUSIONS: This study emphasises the need for thinking about traffic calming measures, illumination solutions, road maintenance programs and speed limit reductions. Moreover, this study emphasises the role of the built environment, as shopping areas, residential areas, and walking traffic density are positively related to a reduction in pedestrian injury severity. Often, these areas have in common a larger pedestrian mass that is more likely to make other road users more aware and attentive, while the same does not seem to apply to areas with lower pedestrian density. PMID: 28534647 [PubMed - as supplied by publishe...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 23, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Prato CG, Kaplan S, Patrier A, Rasmussen TK Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors related to child safety restraint in citizens of Shenzhen Municipality, China and the associations between these factors.
Conclusions-This observational study found that although the majority of respondents had fair levels of knowledge and positive attitudes, they had lower rates of CSR ownership and use. Therefore, efforts at developing opportunities to expand public awareness of CSR use should be made to improve child passenger safety practices and eliminate child injury caused by traffic collisions. PMID: 28534715 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 23, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Liu S, Zhou H, Ma J, Wang C, Chen Z, Chen S, Yang Y, Liu X, Peng J, Duan L, Deng X Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

German Taxi Drivers' Experience and Expression of Driving Anger: Are the Driving Anger Scale and the Driving Anger Expression Inventory Valid Measures?
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the STAXI can be applied to professional German taxi drivers. In contrast, for the DAS and the DAX we found particular shorter versions for professional taxi drivers. Especially for the DAX most statements were too strong for German drivers to agree to. They do not show behaviors related to driving anger expression as they are described in the DAX. These problems with the original American DAX items are in line with several other studies in different countries. Future investigations should examine whether (professional) drivers from further countries express their anger as proposed by the DAX....
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - May 19, 2017 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Brandenburg S, Oehl M, Seigies K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research