Pedestrian crashes at priority-controlled junctions, roundabouts, and signalized junctions: The UK case study.
CONCLUSIONS: In terms of indicative blame, the coding frequencies of subjectively determined pedestrian actions and behaviour factors which might have contributed to pedestrian casualty crashes were found to be between 1.6 and 2.8 times the frequencies of driver actions and behavioural factors. Substantial social gradients were found in pedestrian casualty rates per miles walked and in the driver involvement rates per mile driven with those from the most deprived quintile having higher rates. In addition, it was found that female pedestrians, aged 60 years and over, had higher pedestrian casualty rates, per billion miles w...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Downey LT, Saleh W, Muley D, Kharbeche M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safety effects of street lighting on roadway segments: Development of a crash modification function.
CONCLUSIONS: Horizontal illuminance characteristics have a significant impact on nighttime crash risk on roadway segments. An increase in the mean of horizontal illuminance, indicating an improvement in average lighting level, tends to decrease nighttime crash risk; an increase in the standard deviation, representing a poor uniformity of lighting pattern on a roadway segment, is more likely to raise nighttime crash risk. Because the 2 measures are strongly correlated in a low mean range (
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yang R, Wang Z, Lin PS, Li X, Chen Y, Hsu PP, Henry A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road risk behaviors: Pedestrian experiences.
CONCLUSIONS: All subjects in this study performed several risky actions as pedestrians, at least occasionally, and at least one fifth had been involved in a road accident as a pedestrian. It is known that the surroundings can positively or negatively influence individuals' behaviors; therefore, once prevention measures are identified, it is possible to influence risk behaviors. Therefore, road safety education and the physical environment must be considered together, and efforts focused on optimum infrastructure also need to consider road safety education. PMID: 30971147 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tr...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Narváez YV, Parra Sierra V, Peña Cárdenas F, Ruíz Ramos L, Zamorano González B, Vargas Martínez JI, Monreal Aranda O Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian risky behavior and safety at zebra crossings in a Ghanaian metropolitan area.
CONCLUSION: The majority of the pedestrian crashes in the metropolis resulted in injuries resulting in hospitalization or fatalities and occurred at a midblock. Pedestrians largely exhibited risky behaviors predisposing the occurrence of RTCs at zebra crossings despite the fact that they are a pedestrian right-of-way. There is therefore the need for the National Road Safety Commission to carry out campaigns to educate pedestrians on the safer use of zebra crossings. PMID: 30951398 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ojo T, Adetona CO, Agyemang W, Afukaar FK Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors associated with motorcycle traffic crash fatalities among active duty U.S. Army personnel.
CONCLUSIONS: Among U.S. Army motorcycle operators, alcohol use and not wearing a helmet increased the odds of fatality, given that a crash occurred, and additional modifiable risk factors were identified. Results will help inform U.S. Army motorcycle policies and training. PMID: 30946596 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rappole C, Canham-Chervak M, Taylor B, Jones BH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Trauma demography and clinical epidemiology of motorcycle crash-related head injury in a neurosurgery practice in an African developing country.
CONCLUSIONS: Motorcycle crashes are now a significant threat to the heads, limbs, and lives of vulnerable road users in developing countries. PMID: 30946601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Adeleye AO, Clark DJ, Malomo TA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Predicting categories of drugs used by suspected drug-impaired drivers using the Drug Evaluation and Classification Program tests.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study suggest that drug recognition experts (DREs) should be careful to review a set of key signs and symptoms when determining the category of drug used by suspected drug-impaired drivers. Drug use indicators related to the appearance and physiological response of the eye were found to contribute the most to the prediction of the drug category responsible for the impairment. These results could help form the basis of a core set of indicators that DREs could initially consult to form their opinion of drug influence. This in turn may enhance the validity, effectiveness, and efficiency of ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Porath AJ, Beirness DJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Miss-and-run: Factors contributing to two-vehicle phantom vehicle crashes in Florida.
CONCLUSIONS: Several conclusions for better understanding the occurrence of PVCs are proposed for traffic management departments and car insurers. Cautious driving behavior including concentrated attention and deliberate lane changes should be encouraged for motorists to engage in appropriate levels of driving freedom, and drunk driving should be strictly supervised to keep motorists behind the wheel conscious. Car insurance is encouraged to compensate for economic loss resulting from roadway crashes. Road monitoring systems with well-performing illumination devices are recommended to help drivers provide potent testimony ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jiang C, Lu L, Peng Y, Xing Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Overestimation of self-reported driving exposure: Results from the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that although self-reported annual mileage is heavily relied on for research, such estimates of driving distance may be an overestimate of current or future mileage and can influence the validity of prior research that has utilized estimates of driving exposure. PMID: 30938546 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Friedrich TE, Duerksen KN, Elias LJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Trends in the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers in S ão Paulo State, Brazil: A time-series cross sectional roadside survey (2009-2016).
CONCLUSION: These data show that the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers in Brazil did not decrease during the study period. This reinforces the need for further preventive measures to reduce drug use among drivers, which could lead to a decrease in traffic crashes in Brazil. PMID: 30933546 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Leyton V, Bombana HS, Magalhães JG, Panizza HN, Sinagawa DM, Takitane J, Carvalho HB, Andreuccetti G, Yonamine M, Gjerde H, Muñoz DR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effectiveness of protective clothing for motorized 2-wheeler riders.
CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the potential for motorcycle clothing to protect users from injury, in particular abrasions and lacerations. However, it did not show any significant protective effect against more serious injuries, such as fracture, dislocation, or sprain, except for knee-high or ankle boots, which reduced foot and ankle fracture risk. Our results argue for more widespread use of protective clothing by MTW users. PMID: 30901230 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 22, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wu D, Hours M, Ndiaye A, Coquillat A, Martin JL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

High blood alcohol concentration associated with traumatic brain injury among traffic injury patients during New Year festivals in Thailand.
CONCLUSION: Excessive alcohol consumption and RTIs occurred on New Year and Songkran Festival in Thailand. Legislation should be strictly used during these long holidays to control driving under the influence of alcohol, particularly among motorcyclists. PMID: 30892946 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Seesen M, Siviroj P, Sapbamrer R, Morarit S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

What can a hazard function teach us about drivers' perception of hazards?
CONCLUSIONS: The suggested process has the ability to provide researchers with additional information regarding the nature of the traffic scenes that enables differentiating between various hazardous situations and between various users with different characteristics such as age or experience. PMID: 30888869 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Parmet Y, Meir A, Borowsky A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Bibliometric analysis of simulated driving research from 1997 to 2016.
CONCLUSIONS: This article employed bibliometric tools to probe the contributing countries, institutes, journals, authors, and mainstream hotspots of simulated driving research in the past 20 years. A systematic bibliometric analysis of this field will help researchers realize the panorama of global simulated driving and establish future research directions. PMID: 30888870 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Guo F, Lv W, Liu L, Wang T, Duffy VG Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Ventilation mode changes our safety in buses: Study on "air-rain" flow against chemical and arson attack in public transport vehicles.
CONCLUSION: Compared to common ventilation, the key characteristic of air-rain ventilation is its resistance to the blending effect of the air. Because of this, the spread of chemical agents, hot gas/combustion products during a fire, and fuel aerosol is constrained to a limited area in a PTV. Passengers are then protected from chemical attack, explosion of fuel aerosols, and high temperatures and smoke. Thus, we can say that this new ventilation mode increases passenger safety in buses. PMID: 30888871 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chen N, Kozinski J, Tan Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of risk-taking behaviors of electric bicycle riders in response to pedestrian countdown signal devices.
CONCLUSIONS: PCSDs are effective in preventing RLVs but increase the probability of early starts. Based on the findings in this article, practical countermeasures such as redesigning PCSDs could help improve safety at intersections for electric bicycle riders and should be further investigated. PMID: 30888872 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yu R, Zhao H, Zhang C, Wang Z Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Mobile phone use while riding a motorcycle and crashes among university students.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall this article reveals significant safety issues of using a mobile phone while riding a motorcycle, providing valuable insight for designing education and publicity campaigns. PMID: 30888875 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Truong LT, Nguyen HTT, De Gruyter C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Severity of motorcycle crashes in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
CONCLUSIONS: Several countermeasures are recommended based on the study findings. The recommended countermeasures focus on the holistic safety improvement strategies constituting the three Es of highway safety, namely, engineering, education, and enforcement. PMID: 30888877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Salum JH, Kitali AE, Bwire H, Sando T, Alluri P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Assessing the performance of motorcyclists' impact protectors in simulated ATD knee and shoulder impacts.
CONCLUSION: Though the energy attenuation test method in the European standard may be an appropriate approach, distinct differences in injury protection performance observed between knee and shoulder IP indicate that there may be a need for different performance criteria for IP designated to protect different body regions. PMID: 30888879 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Meredith L, Albanese B, Whyte T, Gibson T, Fitzharris M, Baldock M, Brown J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Measures of speeding from a GPS-based travel behavior survey.
CONCLUSIONS: Road design and link length (or its converse, frequency of intersections) affect the likelihood of speeding. Use of increasingly available GPS data allows more systematic empirical analysis of designs and topologies that are conducive to road safety. PMID: 30888884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yokoo T, Levinson D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Reliability and validity of the Multidimensional Driving Style Inventory in Chinese drivers.
CONCLUSIONS: The Chinese version of the MDSI proved to be a reliable, valid, and highly useful instrument. It could be used to assess Chinese drivers who are at risk due to their maladaptive driving styles. PMID: 30888886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Long S, Ruosong C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effectiveness of lowering the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for driving from 0.10 to 0.08 grams per deciliter in the United States.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study of the effects of lowering the BAC from 0.10 to 0.08 g/dL in the United States from 1982 to 2014 showed an overall effect of 10.4% on annual drinking driver fatal crash rates, in line with other multistate studies. This research provides strong evidence of the relationship between lowering the BAC limit for driving and the general deterrent effect on impaired-driving fatal crash rates. PMID: 30888888 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 19, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Scherer M, Fell JC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Marijuana use and driving in Washington State: Risk perceptions and behaviors before and after implementation of retail sales.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of daytime THC-positive drivers increased substantially a few months after retail sales of marijuana were legal. Daytime and nighttime prevalence of THC-positive drivers was similar after retail sales. This pattern differs from that typically found for alcohol use, which is consistently higher among drivers at nighttime, compared to daytime. Reports of marijuana use were not always consistent with drug test results, which suggests that comparisons of self-reported marijuana use before and after legalization could be biased. This study examined marijuana use and risk perceptions over the course o...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Eichelberger AH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Impact of perceptual countermeasures on driving behavior at curves using driving simulator.
CONCLUSION: The study concluded that among other low-cost speed reduction methods, optical circles are effective tools to reduce speed and increase drivers' attention. Moreover, a herringbone pattern can be used to reduce crashes on curves, mainly for head-on crashes where the main problem is inappropriate lateral position. PMID: 30822137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Awan HH, Pirdavani A, Houben A, Westhof S, Adnan M, Brijs T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

User experience and operational feasibility of four point-of-collection oral fluid drug-testing devices according to Brazilian traffic agents.
CONCLUSION: Based on the selected criteria, 3 of the 4 devices were considered useful by traffic agents in routine roadblock operations. The weighted evaluations suggest that their ease of use (handling, sampling analysis, and reliability), as well as their agreement with findings obtained by other means, defined their utility to traffic agents, although such appraisals must be further analyzed in future studies. PMID: 30822144 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pechansky F, Scherer JN, Schuch JB, Roglio V, Telles YM, Silvestrin R, Pasa G, Sousa T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

AEB effectiveness evaluation based on car-to-cyclist accident reconstructions using video of drive recorder.
CONCLUSION: The AEB systems were effective for mitigating collisions that occurred due to driver perception delay. Because cyclists have a traveling velocity, a wide-angle FOV is effective for reduction of car-to-cyclist intersection collisions. The reduction of delay time in braking can reduce the number of collisions that are close to the braking performance limit. The collisions that remained even with an ideal AEB system in the PC-Crash simulation indicate that such collisions could still occur for autonomous cars if the traffic environment does not change. PMID: 30822153 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Sourc...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 1, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zhao Y, Ito D, Mizuno K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Awareness, riding behaviors, and legislative attitudes toward electric bikes among two types of road users: An investigation in Tianjin, a municipality in China.
CONCLUSIONS: E-bike users had lower correct awareness rate than other road users regarding e-bike violation behaviors but were more concerned about safety protection than other road users. E-bike users' correct practices were far behind their awareness for all kinds of violation behaviors. Public education on the traffic law needs to be strengthened among e-bike users. The public strongly supported special regulations for e-bike use, such as helmet use. PMID: 30763127 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang Z, Neitzel RL, Xue X, Zheng W, Jiang G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Study of the possible relationships between tramway front-end geometry and pedestrian injury risk.
CONCLUSIONS: When considering only the front-end shape, the best strategy to limit the risk of head injury due to contact with the stiff windshield seems to be to promote the mechanism involving shoulder loading. Because body regions engaged vary with the pedestrian size, none of the groups of designs performed equally well for all pedestrian sizes. The best compromise is achieved with a combination of a large windscreen offset and a high windscreen. Conversely, particularly unfavorable configurations are observed for low windshield heights, especially with a large offset. Beyond the front-end shape, considering the stiffn...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chevalier MC, Brizard D, Beillas P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Cervical and thoracic spine injury in pediatric motor vehicle crash passengers.
CONCLUSIONS: Spinal injury location in the cervical and thoracic spine moved downward with age in this trauma center data set. This shift in injury pattern supports the need for measurement of thoracic and lower cervical spine loading in ATDs representing the 8- to 12-year-old age group. PMID: 30715907 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mallory A, Stammen J, Zhu M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Influence of the feedback links of connected and automated vehicle on rear-end collision risks with vehicle-to-vehicle communication.
CONCLUSIONS: Two links of CAV feedback are appropriate when control complexity is a priority, whereas 3 links is the better choice when reductions in collisions are a priority. The findings of this study provide helpful reference for CAV control and design before larger-scale implementation in real vehicles. PMID: 30715915 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Qin Y, Wang H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Estimating resource utilization demands in implementing statewide screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for alcohol-impaired drivers.
CONCLUSIONS: This article provides local distribution of AUDIT scores and state estimates for the number of individuals scoring in each level of risk (AUDIT risk zone) and corresponding intervention type. Routine criminal justice practice is well positioned to deliver alcohol screening, education, simple advice, and continued alcohol monitoring, making delivery of SBIRT feasible for the majority of alcohol-impaired drivers. Challenges to implementing the full range of SBIRT services include resource demands of brief counseling, identifying the appropriate providers within a criminal justice context, and availability of com...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mathias CW, Moon TJ, Karns-Wright TE, Hill-Kapturczak N, Roache JD, Mullen J, Dougherty DM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving concerns among older adults: Associations with driving skill, behaviors, and experiences.
CONCLUSIONS: Older adult drivers are frequently concerned about their own driving as well as the driving of others. Implications for future research and health practice are discussed. PMID: 30715919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Allen HK, Beck KH, Zanjani F Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of mobile phone use on driving performance in a multiresource workload scenario.
CONCLUSIONS: Phone use distraction leads to visual, cognitive, and/or motor resource functional limitations and thus causes lane violations and traffic accidents. PMID: 30702965 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Niu J, Wang X, Liu X, Wang D, Qin H, Zhang Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driver behavior analysis on rural 2-lane, 2-way highways using SHRP 2 NDS data.
CONCLUSIONS: Young drivers (16-19 years old) were more likely to have driving behavior fault compared to other age groups. The presence of an intersection may also slightly increase the probability of driver behavior fault. The curve on the road can increase the risk of driver behavior fault. Drivers were more likely to have driver behavior fault when no hands were on the wheel. Sites with curves near intersections are locations where drivers are more likely to have behavior fault. PMID: 30689397 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 28, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wu J, Xu H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Diffusing innovative road safety practice: A social network approach to identifying opinion leading U.S. cities.
CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated a large intermunicipal monitoring network, half of which crossed regional boundaries. Road safety professionals have formed a country-spanning example-following network on the topic of improving road user safety in the United States. Researchers and intervention teams can tap into this network to accelerate the uptake and spread of evidence-based road safety practices. PMID: 30681883 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: LaJeunesse S, Heiny S, Evenson KR, Fiedler LM, Cooper JF Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Association between speeding and use of alcohol and medicinal and illegal drugs and involvement in road traffic crashes among motor vehicle drivers.
CONCLUSION: Speeding, as an indicator of risk behavior, and the use of cannabis were associated with previous RTC involvement, whereas increasing age was significantly associated with lower risk. This is consistent with previous studies on RTCs. PMID: 30681887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jørgenrud B, Bogstrand ST, Furuhaugen H, Jamt REG, Vindenes V, Gjerde H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road safety implications of the blood alcohol concentrations among alcohol users exiting bars in northern Ghana.
CONCLUSION: Motorists were more likely to exit the bars with very high BACs. It is recommended that police should enforce the BAC law. In addition, in order to prevent harmful use of alcohol, the introduction of an alcohol consumption guideline in Ghana is recommended. Because alcohol consumption is increasing currently with motorization, it is also necessary to educate alcohol users about the number of drinks required to stay below the legal limit if they are motorists as well as other road users or to prevent long-term illnesses associated with excessive alcohol use. PMID: 30681893 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Damsere-Derry J, Palk G, King M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Alcohol and marijuana use among young injured drivers in Arizona, 2008-2014.
We examined alcohol and marijuana use among injured drivers aged 16-20 years evaluated at Arizona level 1 trauma centers during 2008-2014. METHODS: Using data from the Arizona State Trauma Registry, we conducted a descriptive analysis of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and qualitative test results (positive or negative) for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) by year of age, sex, race, ethnicity, injury severity, seat belt use, motorcycle helmet use, and type of vehicle driven. To explore compliance with Arizona's motorcycle helmet law requiring helmet use for riders
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 25, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Shults RA, Jones JM, Komatsu KK, Sauber-Schatz EK Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Feasibility of providing child restraint devices after a motor vehicle crash in a pediatric emergency department.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) cause disproportionate childhood morbidity and mortality. Ensuring that children are placed in appropriate child restraint devices (CRDs) would significantly reduce injuries and deaths as well as medical costs. The goal of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of providing child restraint devices after an MVC in a pediatric emergency department (PED). METHODS: A guideline was developed to assess the need for CRDs for patients discharged from a PED after an MVC. Providers were educated on the use of the guideline. Caregivers were provided a brief educational ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 18, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Violano P, Aysseh N, Lucas M, Gawel M, Morrell P, Norway C, Alfano A, Bechtel K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Applying fractional split model to examine the effects of roadway geometric and traffic characteristics on speeding behavior.
CONCLUSIONS: An understanding of the influence of roadway geometrics and traffic characteristics on speeding behavior of drivers will inform the design of targeted countermeasures in order to reduce speed limit violations along highways. PMID: 30644760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Afghari AP, Haque MM, Washington S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characteristics of animal-related motor vehicle crashes in select National Park Service units-United States, 1990-2013.
CONCLUSIONS: AVCs represent a public health and wildlife safety concern for NPS units. AVCs in select NPS units were approximately 2-fold higher than the national percentage for AVCs. The peak season for AVCs varied by NPS region. Knowledge of region-specific seasonality patterns for AVCs can help NPS staff develop mitigation strategies for use primarily during peak AVC months. Improving AVC data collection might provide NPS with a more complete understanding of risk factors and seasonal trends for specific NPS units. By collecting information concerning the animal species hit, park managers can better understand the impac...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cherry CC, Dietz S, Sauber-Schatz E, Russell S, Proctor J, Buttke D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Elderly pedestrian safety in a rapidly aging society-Commonality and diversity between the younger-old and older-old.
CONCLUSIONS: The study investigated the commonality and diversity of pedestrian injuries among the elderly by introducing an additional cutoff age of 75. By employing single and interaction binary logit models, the study identified common risk factors for both elderly groups, as well as those that are particularly hazardous to the older-old. With nearly every country experiencing growth in the elderly population, our study strongly suggests that the conventional definition of a single elderly group is no longer relevant and the variety among elderly pedestrians needs to be considered in traffic safety policy. PMID: 30...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 15, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Noh Y, Kim M, Yoon Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A predictive model to analyze factors affecting the presence of mild whiplash-associated disorders in minor motor vehicle crashes based on the Korean In-Depth Accidents Study (KIDAS) Database.
CONCLUSIONS: Using the predictive model, the results of the external validity analysis showed low sensitivity but high specificity. This predictive model provided meaningful results, with a high success rate for determining no injury to an occupant. Given our study results, future research is needed to create a more accurate predictive model that includes relevant technical and sociological factors. PMID: 30633556 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 11, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Lee HY, Youk H, Kim OH, Kong JS, Kang CY, Sung S, Jang JY, Kim HJ, Kim SC, Lee KH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Nonlinear models of injury risk and implications in intervention targeting for thoracic injury mitigation.
CONCLUSIONS: Nonlinear multivariate regression methods have the potential to convey information about the risk-predictor relationship that cannot be captured through traditional linear modeling. These results suggest that traditional linear logistic regression models may underestimate the risk of AIS 3+ rib fracture injury in the ΔV range where they most frequently occur (below 50 km/h). Due to its nonmonotonic effect, traditional linear models may underestimate injury risk at both high and low BMIs. PMID: 30624079 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 9, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Forman JL, McMurry TL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Overview of a combined computational-experimental evaluation for the assessment of panoramic sunroof impact characteristics for ejection mitigation.
CONCLUSIONS: This study combined computational and experimental analyses to determine a range of possible unbelted occupant-to-roof impact energies. These results can be used to determine design parameters for an impactor for the assessment of the risk of roof glazing ejection for unbelted occupants in rollover crashes. PMID: 30608886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 4, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rawska K, Gepner B, Shaw G, Kerrigan JR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving behaviors associated with emergency service vehicle crashes in the U.S. fire service.
CONCLUSIONS: Harsh braking and excessive speeding were driving behaviors most associated with crash in the fire service. Telematics may be a useful tool for monitoring driver safety in the fire service. PMID: 30605007 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bui DP, Hu C, Jung AM, Pollack Porter KM, Griffin SC, French DD, Crothers S, Burgess JL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driver head locations: Considerations for head restraint design.
CONCLUSIONS: The reported distribution of occupant head positions and the resulting restrictions on comfortable head restraint position at various HRMD-referenced backsets and seat back angles help provide guidance for head restraint design. Knowing the actual mean driver-selected seat back angle for a particular vehicle seat and the model presented in this work, a manufacturer can choose a head restraint location that will have a high likelihood of complying with FMVSS backset requirements while also achieving minimal disaccommodation. The findings in this study support the flexibility in the current FMVSS 202a that permi...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Park J, Jones MLH, Ebert SM, Reed MP, Hallman JJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Usability of non-standard lower anchor configurations for child restraint system (CRS) installation.
CONCLUSIONS: The amount of tension required to pass the 1-in. rule did not vary with lower anchor spacing configurations for the RF and FF convertible CRS, but the infant base required more tension in wider anchor configurations. Nonexperts tended to produce less than ideal tension in all configurations, although their tension magnitudes increased for the infant base in wider configurations. PMID: 30570335 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mansfield JA, Zaragoza-Rivera YN, Bolte JH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Novel learning framework (knockoff technique) to evaluate metric ranking algorithms to describe human response to injury.
CONCLUSIONS: In the present data set, the AUROCs and related binary classification algorithms led to inflated FDRs, rendering metric selection/ranking questionable. This is particularly true for data sets with a high proportion of censoring. Squared error loss-type algorithms (such as the Brier score algorithm or its modifications) improved the performance in the metric selection process. The presented new knockoff technique may wholly change how IRCs are developed from impact experiments or simulations. At the very least, the knockoff technique demonstrates the need for evaluations among different metric ranking/selection...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Banerjee A, DeVogel N, Pintar FA, Yoganandan N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Epidemiology of injury patterns for 4- to 10-year-olds in side and oblique impacts.
CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study could be useful in design advances of pediatric anthropomorphic test devices, child restraints, as well as vehicles and their safety countermeasure systems. PMID: 30570338 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2018 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yaek JL, Rouhana SW, Cavanaugh JM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research