Effect of ABTS and conventional seats on occupant injury in rear impacts: Analysis of field and test data.
CONCLUSIONS: The field data indicate that the 50th percentile male Hybrid III size is representative of an average occupant involved in rear crashes. ABTS seats used in this study are stiffer than conventional seats and increase ATD responses and injury risks over a wide range of crash severities. PMID: 33566713 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 10, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Parenteau CS, Burnett RA, Viano DC, Lau E Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol: Predicting the intentions of young drivers.
Conclusions: This study explored an extended TPB model to understand young drivers' DUI intentions better. With this new knowledge of understanding the factors that influence DUI, researchers and practitioners can create interventions and strategies that are better tailored to the population of young drivers at higher risk. PMID: 33556262 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Vankov D, Schroeter R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The safety potential of enhanced lateral vehicle positioning.
CONCLUSIONS: This is a first attempt to identify and quantify the increase in potential safety benefits, based on the assumption that robust lateral vehicle positioning has been applied to lane keeping as well as lane escaping. In addition to the potentially increased number of prevented crashes compared to traditional lane support, a robust lateral positioning system may have the potential to improve the redundancy in positioning systems. Previous research suggests several techniques to improve lateral vehicle positioning. However, further research is required, including testing for implementation of adequately improved l...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sternlund S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

On-the-road driving performance of patients with central disorders of hypersomnolence.
CONCLUSION: Driving performance of NT1 patients may still be impaired, despite receiving treatment. No conclusions can be drawn for NT2 and IH patients due to the low sample sizes of these subgroups. In clinical practice, determination of fitness to drive for these patients should be based on an individual assessment in which also coping strategies are taken into account. PMID: 33543997 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 5, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: van der Sluiszen NNJJM, Urbanus B, Lammers GJ, Overeem S, Ramaekers JG, Vermeeren A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The failings of per se limits to detect cannabis-induced driving impairment: Results from a simulated driving study.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: Many jurisdictions use per se limits to define cannabis-impaired driving. Previous studies, however, suggest that THC concentrations in biological matrices do not reliably reflect cannabis dose and are poorly correlated with magnitude of driving impairment. Here, we first review a range of concerns associated with per se limits for THC. We then use data from a recent clinical trial to test the validity of a range of extant blood and oral fluid THC per se limits in predicting driving impairment during a simulated driving task. METHODS: Simulated driving performance was assessed in 14 infreq...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 5, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Arkell TR, Spindle TR, Kevin RC, Vandrey R, McGregor IS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prediction of lower extremity injuries in car-pedestrian crashes - real-world accident study.
CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that THUMS HBM well predicts pedestrian injuries in real-world crashes. However, a similar study with comprehensive crash site data and medical records of victims will enhance the confidence in results. PMID: 33528273 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 2, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Panday P, Vikram A, Chawla A, Mukherjee S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Associations of mental health with driving while impaired and risky driving in emerging adults.
CONCLUSIONS: Depressive and psychosomatic symptoms were associated with greater DWI and risky driving in all 4 years after high school. Negative mental and psychosomatic health should be targeted components of DWI and risky driving prevention to lower fatal motor vehicle crashes among emerging adults. PMID: 33497268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li K, Vaca FE, Courtney JB, Haynie DL, Simons-Morton BG Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A skewed logistic model of two-unit bicycle-vehicle hit-and-run crashes.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study are important and useful when developing countermeasures to prevent BV-HR crashes and to improve cycling safety. PMID: 33497285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jiang C, Tay R, Lu L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Development of the pedestrian anger expression inventory.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we developed a questionnaire to measure anger expression in pedestrians, highlighting three broad ways pedestrians deal with their anger (internally, externally, or constructively). This questionnaire was used in Iran and therefore, further research is required to validate these tools among different samples and populations. PMID: 33497287 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Esmaeli S, Aghabayk K, Abrari Vajari M, Stephens AN Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effect of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on driving behavior and risk perception.
CONCLUSIONS: Participants with ADHD and the control group drove remarkably similarly in the simulator driving test and rated themselves similarly regarding how they drive. The results contribute to state that ADHD drivers are less deviant than asserted by previous research. PMID: 33497288 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Lidestam B, Selander H, Vaa T, Thorslund B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Patterns of traumatic injuries and outcomes to motorcyclists in a developing country: A cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSION: Although orthopedic injuries occur most frequently in motorcycle trauma, polytrauma necessitating multi-disciplinary management and complicating hospital stay is also common. Understanding patterns of injuries and management in motorcycle trauma will enable trauma teams in a developing country like Pakistan to devise evidence-based management protocols, especially for cases of polytrauma. PMID: 33497294 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 26, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Martins RS, Saqib SU, Gillani M, Sania SRT, Junaid MU, Zafar H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characteristics of pedestrian injuries caused due to impacts with powered 2-wheelers in India.
Conclusions: The results show that head injuries account for most pedestrian fatalities in crashes with PTWs and lower extremity injuries account for most nonfatal injuries. Head injuries are associated with ground contacts and lower extremity injuries are associated with contacting PTW front-end parts. Pedestrians contacting the corner of the PTW are highly prone to MAIS 3+ head injuries, whereas pedestrians contacting the center of the PTW are less prone to MAIS 3+ head injuries. This difference is predominantly because of the varied injury mechanisms seen across PCZs. PMID: 33433239 [PubMed - as supplied by publish...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 12, 2021 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jayaraman A, Soni J, Baladaniya S, Rajaraman R, Patel M, Padmanaban J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Modeling lane-transgressing behavior of e-bike riders on road sections with marked bike lanes: A survival analysis approach.
Conclusions: E-bikers behave differently under the effects of various factors. In the perspective of the safety and the design, these effects need to be considered. The width of the non-motorized lane is recommended to be no less than 260 cm. The physically separated facilities, such as guardrail, are highly recommended to avoid the interference between the motorized vehicles and bicycles. This study provides a reference for a guidance for the management of the mixed traffic flow with e-bikes. PMID: 33337927 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nan S, Yan L, Tu R, Li T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Coupling neuroscience and driving simulation: A systematic review of studies on crash-risk behaviors in young drivers.
CONCLUSIONS: Our state of the science systematic review highlights the feasibility for coupling neuroscience with driving simulation to study the neurocorrelates of driving behaviors in the context of young drivers and neuromaturation. Findings show that, to date, most research has focused on examining brain correlates and driving behaviors related to contributing factors for fatal motor vehicle crashes. However, there remains a considerable paucity of research designed to understand underlying brain mechanisms that might otherwise facilitate greater understanding of individual variability of normative and risky driving be...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 15, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Banz BC, Hersey D, Vaca FE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A comparison of driving related skills impaired by ethanol and zopiclone.
Conclusion: Zopiclone and ethanol both lead to impairment, but have a different profile on what kind of tests and neurocognitive functions they mostly impair. This could be important in the understanding of the differences in traffic risk connected to these two drugs. PMID: 33320019 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 15, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Høiseth G, Hjelmeland K, Mørland J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Second-row occupant responses with and without intrusion in rear sled and crash tests.
CONCLUSIONS: The crash tests show that intrusion increases occupant responses in the right second-row seat and pushes the occupant forward in rear impacts. The sled tests without intrusion had relatively low biomechanical responses. Intrusion was influenced by the crash energy and cargo. PMID: 33289580 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 8, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Parenteau CS, Viano DC, Burnett R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Exploratory analysis of young adults' trajectories through the UK driving license acquisition process.
CONCLUSION: To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first opportunity to evaluate this novel data resource covering the UK's driving license acquisition process. This is an important research direction to help policymakers understand young adults' delay in acquiring licenses, particularly the extent to which there may be structural inequalities. The main finding is that socio-demographic factors appear to be relatively poor predictors, with employment status the strongest single correlate of the variables that were tested. This paper is concluded with suggestions for designers of household travel surveys in regions wh...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 8, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wu C, Le Vine S, Sivakumar A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Cannabis, alcohol and other drug findings in fatally injured drivers in Ontario.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights the use of cannabis and other drugs by drivers. The patterns of crashes and the characteristics of drivers involved indicate that the characteristics of driver fatalities involving cannabis and/or other drug use differ from those of alcohol and require new, innovative approaches targeting high-risk times, groups and behaviors. Continued monitoring of the toxicological findings from blood samples obtained from drivers killed in motor vehicle crashes will be a key element in efforts to reduce the impact of drug use by drivers on road safety. PMID: 33275453 [PubMed - as supplied ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Beirness DJ, Gu KW, Lowe NJ, Woodall KL, Desrosiers NA, Cahill B, Porath AJ, Peaire A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Validation of the cycling anger scale in Singapore.
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that we could show the validity of the CAS for cyclists from Singapore. Researchers and practitioners who are interested in safer cycling can apply the CAS in Singapore. In line with other studies, we also conclude that cycling anger experience is related to driving anger experience and general trait anger. However, cycling anger does not seem to be related to self-reported aggressive cycling. PMID: 33275455 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Oehl M, Becker T, Che M, Brandenburg S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effect of the scalp on the effectiveness of bicycle helmets' anti-rotational acceleration technologies.
CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that the presence of the scalp can obscure the functionality of anti-rotational acceleration technologies. This could indicate that the effectiveness of technologies tested in previous studies, which have not tested anti-rotational acceleration technologies in the presence of a realistic scalp layer, may exaggerate the contribution of such technologies if compared with a more biofidelic set-up. The study supports the fact that headforms should be better designed by incorporating artificial skin layers that can better imitate scalp's behavior and, in addition, provides insights for the design of...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 30, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zouzias D, De Bruyne G, Ni Annaidh A, Trotta A, Ivens J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prevalence of unprotected motorcycle riding and its association with other risk behaviors among adolescents in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of helmet use in Chiang Mai province in Thailand and identify the association between helmet use, externalized behaviors, and other risk-taking behaviors. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, Thai version. Risky motor vehicle behaviors and other risk-taking behaviors of 4,372 adolescents were measured. Behavioral problems from the Youth Self-Report were also obtained from all participants. RESULTS: A total of 2,981 adolescents (68.2%) reported motorcycle riding, of which, 36.3% reported unprotected riding. Fe...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 24, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Boonchooduang N, Likhitweerawong N, Louthrenoo O Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A penalized-likelihood approach to characterizing bridge-related crashes in New Jersey.
CONCLUSION: This model is an appropriate tool for predicting the impact of all the confounding variables on the probability of bridge-related crashes while also considering the rareness of the event. Based on the obtained odds ratio, the various effects of the identified variables are discussed, and recommendations made regarding countermeasures policymakers can establish to reduce the number of these crashes in New Jersey. PMID: 33232215 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 24, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jalayer M, Pour-Rouholamin M, Patel D, Das S, Parvardeh H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Crash narrative classification: Identifying agricultural crashes using machine learning with curated keywords.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support that machine learning methodologies can potentially reduce the amount of human power required to develop key word lists and manually review narratives. PMID: 33206551 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kim J, Trueblood AB, Kum HC, Shipp EM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Strategies for accelerating the implementation of non-intrusive alcohol detection systems in the vehicle fleet.
CONCLUSIONS: This paper provides guidelines for how best to stimulate the widespread adoption of in-vehicle alcohol-detection technology as a preventive measure so that its life-saving potential can be realized both in the United States and in other countries that may be open to the implementation of DADSS. PMID: 33206552 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ferguson SA, Draisin NA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Thoracolumbar spine kinematics and injuries in frontal impacts with reclined occupants.
CONCLUSIONS: Anterior rotation of the pelvis caused increased extension of the lumbar spine, which exacerbated lumbar compression in two of the PMHS; the one subject whose pelvis kinematic tracking was lost exhibited similar compression kinematics. Posterior rotation of the pelvis enabled lumbar flexion, which decreased lumbar compression, but lead to lap-belt submarining in one case. Lumbar kinematics for these reclined frontal impacts were sensitive to changes in initial posture of the spine (magnitude of lordosis or kyphosis) and pelvis (pitch angle). To our knowledge, this study is the first to analyze thoracolumbar ki...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Richardson R, Jayathirtha M, Chastain K, Donlon JP, Forman J, Gepner B, Östling M, Mroz K, Shaw G, Pipkorn B, Kerrigan J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Severity analysis of crashes on express lane facilities using support vector machine model trained by firefly algorithm.
CONCLUSIONS: The results provide insights into the influence of different geometric characteristics and crash-related factors on the severity of crashes on EL facilities. The study findings may assist agencies to better understand the impacts of factors contributing to injury and fatal crashes on EL facilities and implement strategies to reduce the severity of these crashes. PMID: 33206561 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kitali AE, Mokhtarimousavi S, Kadeha C, Alluri P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Examining driver injury severity in left-turn crashes using hierarchical ordered probit models.
CONCLUSIONS: The HOPIT model is applied to examine contributing factors of left-turn crashes and the corresponding injury severity, based on left-turn crash records from 2010 to 2017 in Utah. Eighteen significant factors of left-turn crash injury severity are identified in the overall dataset. In seasons rather than winter, the significant factors are almost the same as that of the entire year. In the winter, less significant factors and different patterns are found compared with the overall crashes. PMID: 33206565 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zhang Z, Yang R, Yuan Y, Blackwelder G, Yang XT Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Ride hailing app use and drunk/drugged driving among young adult nightclub patrons.
CONCLUSIONS: This novel study among a high-risk population points to the potential for on-demand RHAs to reduce DUI behaviors and arrests among young adult nightclub patrons who consume alcohol and/or drugs in the context of the club experience. Our findings point to key educational, peer support, and structural targets for intervention to increase the use of RHAs among this population, specifically, club-based incentives for increasing RHA availability and affordability. Research is needed to fully elucidate the findings of this exploratory study, including potential differences in intervention approaches depending on the...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kurtz SP, Buttram ME Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Survivability of a Tesla collision into a non-operational crash attenuator in Mountain View, CA.
CONCLUSIONS: The Tesla driver could have survived the collision had the crash attenuator been functional. Roadway management and timely maintenance of safety critical traffic hardware are necessary to ensure safety. PMID: 33179965 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Barth T, McKay MP, Smith R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The effect of chin-to-chest contact on upper neck axial force in UN Regulation No. 129 frontal impact tests of child restraint systems.
CONCLUSIONS: Chin-to-chest contact can increase axial neck tension force beyond the level it would reach under purely inertial loading. Adopting upper neck axial force in regulation, without considering how the force is generated, might encourage child restraint designs that mitigate only chin-to-chest contact, rather than the true inertial neck loading. PMID: 33179975 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Visvikis C, Thurn C, Kettner M, Müller T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Selected characteristics and injury patterns by age group among pedestrians treated in North Carolina emergency departments.
CONCLUSIONS: There were considerable differences in demographic characteristics, crash characteristics, frequency of hospitalization/death, and injury patterns by age group. It is important to design streets and implement transportation policies and programs that improve safety for all pedestrians. PMID: 33179976 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Harmon KJ, Hancock KA, Waller AE, Sandt LS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Sensitivity of scale factor choice on injury response for equal-stress equal-velocity scaling.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that an injury metric predicted with equal-stress equal-velocity scaling is sensitive to choice of scale factor when employing scaling across occupants of dissimilar size and sex. This conclusion suggests error can be introduced into scaled response due to choice of anthropometry metric used to create a scale factor, and therefore, anthropometry metrics used to create scale factors should be justified mechanistically and shown to apply across size and sex before being employed. PMID: 33179977 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Roberts C, Forman J, Kerrigan J, Pipkorn B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Alcohol use patterns and their association with sober driver vehicle control in high fidelity driving simulation.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings support our hypothesis that the AUDIT score and responses to individual AUDIT questions, among sober drivers, relates to vehicle control measures. Overall, our data highlight two important themes: 1) a need to further integrate alcohol use metrics with high-fidelity driving simulation studies to understand how drinking experience can relate to driver behavior and vehicle control and 2) the opportunity to integrate clinical perspectives with driving simulation research to strengthen clinically oriented alcohol-misuse prevention efforts. PMID: 33179979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Sourc...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Banz BC, Brown TL, Camenga DR, Li K, Vaca FE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Potential lives saved by in-vehicle alcohol detection systems.
CONCLUSIONS: Vehicle-based interventions will not immediately solve the problem of alcohol-impaired driving, but they are an important component of the overall strategy. Even if required as standard equipment in all new vehicles, it will take 12 years before there are enough to reach more than half of their potential. If vehicle-based interventions are instead voluntary or introduced as options, then progress toward a solution will be much slower. PMID: 33179990 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Farmer CM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Postmortem injury quantification for the fatally injured cyclists in the Osijek-Baranja county over a 21-year period.
CONCLUSIONS: Measures against dangerous cycling behavior such as driving under the influence of alcohol and driving without the helmet could lead to reduction of fatal, and probably, non-fatal bicycle crashes. We believe that policy change regarding mandatory helmet usage is of upmost importance. Injury analysis can provide us with valuable information regarding where the focus of treatment should be among severely injured cyclists as well as where the prevention should be targeted. Further injury analysis studies are needed, with studies including both fatal and non-fatal crashes. The Abbreviated Injury Scale represents a...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matuzalem Marinović E, Mažuranić A, Bubalo P, Martinović S, Petrovečki V Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Lower neck injury criteria for THOR and Hybrid III dummies in rear impact.
CONCLUSIONS: The lower neck based LNij injury assessment risk curves and reference values, IARCs and IARVs, serve as the first dataset for injury assessments, and the THOR may be a better test device for assessing injures in rear impact environments. PMID: 33174769 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yoganandan N, Humm J, Greenhalgh P, Somers J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Development and validation of an elderly human body model for frontal impacts.
CONCLUSIONS: The developed model with the morphological and material changes representing an elderly occupant is considered to be validated under three experimental scenarios, and it can be used for crashworthiness applications (develop countermeasures) with a focus on elderly occupants. The process used in the development of the elderly model can also be used to understand the responses of elderly occupants with different postures. PMID: 33174790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Umale S, Khandelwal P, Humm J, Yoganandan N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Isometric, concentric, and eccentric neck strength in the sagittal and coronal planes of motion for adult females.
CONCLUSIONS: Neck strength of adult females depends on muscle activation type and anatomical positions. Future computational models should account for muscle activation type when quantifying responses of female subjects. PMID: 33155842 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zaragoza-Rivera Y, Bolte J, Boucher L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Video from user-generated content as a source of pre-crash scenario naturalistic driving data.
CONCLUSIONS: The most prevalent pre-crash scenarios in the video data were similar to those in data from FARS and NASS-GES. Though not nationally representative, this preliminary study demonstrated that user-generated content may be useful as a source of inexpensive naturalistic data and provides sufficient detail to capture important pre-crash, near-crash and crash information. PMID: 33155861 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: St Lawrence S, Hallman J, Sherony R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Finite element reconstruction of a vehicle-to-pedestrian impact.
CONCLUSIONS: Finite element reconstructions of real-world pedestrian impacts are useful for analyzing pedestrian kinematics and provide an effective tool for improving pedestrian impact injury analyses. PMID: 33147058 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Costa C, Aira J, Koya B, Decker W, Sink J, Withers S, Beal R, Schieffer S, Gayzik S, Stitzel J, Weaver A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian injuries from cars and SUVs: Updated crash outcomes from the vulnerable road user injury prevention alliance (VIPA).
CONCLUSIONS: Although the current analysis was based on a non-nationally representative dataset, the elevated pedestrian injury risk originating from SUVs' leading edge is consistent with past research on the subject. That is, despite the changes in vehicle design and fleet composition over the past two decades, SUVs may remain disproportionately likely to injure pedestrians compared with cars. PMID: 33147075 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Monfort SS, Mueller BC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Intervertebral foramen narrowing during vertical dynamic loading.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to examine the effect of vertebral body fracture on the InterVertebral Foraminal IVF parameters with an input acceleration to the seat bottom in the inferior-to-superior direction. METHODS: A series of 43 isolated lumbar spines underwent vertical dynamic loading using the vertical accelerative device to determine the influence of inferior to superior loading through the lumbar spine on the intervertebral foramen (IVF) geometries. Existence of foraminal stenosis was quantified using pre- and post-test computed tomography (CT) images. Foraminal height (IVF_H...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Maiman D, Curry W, Yoganandan N, Pintar F Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors associated with EMS transport decisions for pediatric patients after motor vehicle collisions.
The objective of this study was to determine the rate of non-transport of pediatric patients who were involved in a motor vehicle collision (MVC) and the factors associated with non-transport decisions. METHODS: We searched the National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) database using ICD-10 mechanism of injury codes to identify cases in which EMS responded to a pediatric occupant (age
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hartka T, Vaca FE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Development of chest deflection injury risk curve in oblique frontal small female PMHS sled tests.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study reports on the injury risk to small females in an upright seated position in oblique frontal impacts. The triplanar and transverse plane deflection metrics were similar for this posture; however, occupants in reclined configurations may demonstrate a different response, and further investigations are necessary. PMID: 33095061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Humm J, Yoganandan N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Potential injuries and costs averted by increased use of evidence-based behavioral road safety policies in North Carolina.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the utility of the MV PICCS tool as a foundation for exploring state-specific impacts that could be realized through increased evidence-based road safety policy and intervention implementation. For NC, we found that increasing the seat belt fine would avert the most injuries, and had the greatest financial benefits for the state, and the lowest implementation costs. Incorporating fines and fees into policy implementation can create important financial feedbacks that allow for implementation of additional evidence-based and cost-effective policies/interventions. Given the recent uptick i...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Singichetti B, Naumann RB, Sauber-Schatz E, Proescholdbell S, Marshall SW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pediatric occupant human body model kinematic and kinetic response variation to changes in seating posture in simulated frontal impacts - with and without automatic emergency braking.
CONCLUSIONS: Pre-crash AEB reduces the effect of the impact despite the same collision speed as cases without-AEB. This is primarily due to the limited travel distance of the occupant, thus, starting an earlier ride-down during the crash. Moreover, different initial seating postures lead to a wide range of injury exposures. Vehicle and child restraint design should incorporate these seating postures to ensure robust protection of the occupant in a crash. PMID: 33095067 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Maheshwari J, Sarfare S, Falciani C, Belwadi A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Obesity effects on pedestrian lower extremity injuries in vehicle-to-pedestrian impacts: A numerical investigation using human body models.
The objectives of this study were to develop a method for modeling obese pedestrians and to investigate effects of obesity on pedestrian impact responses and injury outcomes. METHODS: The GHBMC (Global Human Body Model Consortium) 50th percentile male pedestrian model was morphed into geometries with 4 body mass index (BMI) levels (25/30/35/40 kg/m2) predicted by statistical body shape models. Each of the 4 morphed models was further morphed from a standing posture into 2 other gaits (toe-off and mid-swing), which resulted in a total of 12 (4 BMIs × 3 postures) models. Each model was used to simulate vehi...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tang J, Zhou Q, Nie B, Hu J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

System providing automated feedback improves task learning outcomes during child restraint system (CRS) installations.
The objective was to build and test an automated, interactive educational system to teach adults how to install a child restraint system (CRS) into a vehicle seat. METHODS: The automated feedback system (AFS) consisted of a mockup vehicle fixture, convertible CRS, and doll. Sensors were implemented into the equipment so that forward-facing (FF) CRS installation errors could be detected. An interactive display monitor guided users through the CRS installation process and alerted them when steps were done incorrectly. Sixty adult volunteers were recruited and randomized into either the treatment group or the control gro...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mansfield JA, Bolte JH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prevalence of alcohol use among road traffic crash victims presenting to a Malawian Central Hospital: A cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSIONS: A large percentage of road traffic injured patients had been drinking alcohol before their injury, especially male pedestrians. A large proportion of the patients were abstaining from alcohol, but those not abstaining had a high prevalence both of alcohol use when injured and hazardous drinking identified by AUDIT-C. This has important implications for prevention. PMID: 33064031 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 16, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sundet M, Kajombo C, Mulima G, Bogstrand ST, Varela C, Young S, Christophersen AS, Gjerde H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A study on cyclist head injuries based on an electric-bicycle to car accident reconstruction.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of accident reconstruction in this study case showed that: (1) The head impact region on the windshield in the E-bike-to-car impact accidents is higher than that in the pedestrian-to-car impact accidents. (2) The skull MPS, ICP, von-Mises stress and MPS of strain can accurately predict the head injury risk, location, etc. (3) The directly impact force caused the skull fracture, and the tensile inertial force torn bridge vein resulting in the subdural hematoma on the opposite side of impact in this accident. (4) The models developed in this study were validated against the reconstructed accident and...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 14, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gao W, Bai Z, Li H, Liu Y, Chou CC, Jiang B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research