Effects of child restraint misuse on dynamic performance.
Conclusion: The study provides strong evidence for prioritizing tight restraint installation and proper tether use for FF restraints. In particular, use of the tether helped offset the adverse effects of loose installation or loose harness. Because the results show that performance of a RF child restraint system (CRS) installation is less affected by user error, they also provide support for extended RF restraint use. In addition, packaging convertible child restraints with the LATCH belt routed through the RF belt path could help prevent the most consequential RF CRS misuse. PMID: 31670975 [PubMed - as supplied by pu...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Manary MA, Flannagan CAC, Reed MP, Orton NR, Klinich KD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Inventory of child bicycle education programs reveals need for age, development, and skill-level considerations.
Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive list of program components and approaches that can be used as a foundation upon which child bicycle education standards can be evaluated and built, with the long-term goal of increased childhood safety. PMID: 31670979 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 31, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hamann CJ, Conrad A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Impaired driving: A case report. Pickup truck centerline crossover collision with medium-size bus on U.S. Highway 83, Concan, Texas, United States.
Conclusions: The failure of the truck driver to maintain control of his vehicle was due to impairment stemming from his use of marijuana in combination with misuse of a prescribed medication, clonazepam. Following the crash, the pickup driver was sentenced to 55 years in prison. Improved countermeasures including guidance and access to improved roadside testing methods, expanded law enforcement training to detect impaired drivers, enhanced enforcement regarding impairment by combinations of drugs or drugs and alcohol, as well an evaluation and implementation of data-driven strategies are needed to reduce fatalities,...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: McKay MP, Poland K, Karol D, Marshall R, Kaminski R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparing consequences of using two different definitions for body regions for the improvement of personal protective equipment for powered two-wheelers.
Conclusions: Body regions need to be defined carefully to avoid misinterpretations. Publications that use body regions for their analysis to present injury frequencies should clearly define what they include in each region. PMID: 31663779 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Schick S, Piantini S, Wisch M, Brown J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of the Q10 dummy upgrade kit in UN Regulation No. 129 front and side impact tests.
Conclusions: The original Q10 and the Q10 upgrade kit generated very similar kinematics and loadings in both front and side impact. Adoption of the kit for UN Regulation No. 129 would be unlikely to have significant effects on the type approval of booster seats. However, it would also appear not to offer any specific benefits. This will be verified in a larger program of experiments with a broader range of booster systems. PMID: 31663788 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Visvikis C, Thurn C, Müller T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Age and gender differences in emergency takeover from automated to manual driving on simulator.
Conclusions: The results from the simulation drives show that humans lose focus when they do not actively drive so that their response in an emergency does not allow them to reclaim control quickly enough to avoid a crash. PMID: 31663790 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 30, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Loeb H, Belwadi A, Maheshwari J, Shaikh S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Simulating cerebral edema and delayed fatality after traumatic brain injury using triphasic swelling biomechanics.
Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to simulate post-traumatic brain swelling to predict outcome. By incorporating swelling, ischemia, and cell death, our novel approach may improve fidelity of predicting outcome after MVCs. A strength of our approach is relying on the validated GHBMC model to predict brain deformation in the crash-scenario. The main goal of the current study was to demonstrate feasibility of simulating post-injury swelling using triphasic biomechanics. We successfully predicted clinically relevant increases in ICP that suggest a high likelihood of death when simulating a fata...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Basilio AV, Xu P, Takahashi Y, Yanaoka T, Sugaya H, Ateshian GA, Morrison B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Assessing driving behavior upstream of work zones by detecting response points in speed profile: A naturalistic driving study.
Conclusions: Overall, drivers were likely to show a response at the lane ends, work zone speed limit signs, and speed feedback signs. PMID: 31647333 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Thapa R, Hallmark S, Smadi O, Goswamy A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Does the inclusion of vehicle impoundment in provincial short-term administrative driver's license suspension programs reduce total and alcohol-related fatal collisions in Canada?
Conclusions: While mandatory vehicle impoundment programs for driving in the "warn" range (0.05%-0.08% BAC) have shown success in reducing fatal crashes in British Columbia, similar reductions in two other provinces with short-term vehicle impoundment were not observed. Moreover, large reductions in fatal crashes were observed in two provinces without vehicle impoundment as part of their short-term ADLS programs. Collectively, these findings suggest that vehicle impoundment, alone, has limited impact on fatal crash rates and that other factors help to explain the observed trends. Further analysis of new vehicle i...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Smith NK, Brubacher J, Andreou P, Asbridge M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

When policy meets the pedal: A reduction in motorcyclist fatalities following the implementation of a road traffic law in Lagos, Nigeria.
Abstract Objective: The Lagos State Road Traffic Law of 2012 sought to curb reckless okada use and the objective of this study is to determine its impact on motorcyclist fatalities in Nigeria's most densely populated state. This is the first study to date that analyzes the potential impact of the Law on motorcyclist fatalities across Lagos State. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed monthly motorcyclist fatalities in Lagos between January 2012 and December 2015. We analyzed the data using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software, and used Quantum GIS ver. 2.16.2 to create maps illustrating the spatial-epidemi...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Venkatraman C, Kim H, Idowu A, Idris J, Hynan L, Kim D, Nwariaku FE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Re: Fewster et  al. (2019) Characterizing trunk muscle activations during simulated low-speed rear impact collisions, Traffic Injury Prevention, doi:10.1080/15389588.2019.1579317.
Re: Fewster et al. (2019) Characterizing trunk muscle activations during simulated low-speed rear impact collisions, Traffic Injury Prevention, doi:10.1080/15389588.2019.1579317. Traffic Inj Prev. 2019 Oct 21;:1-2 Authors: Siegmund GP PMID: 31633429 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Siegmund GP Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Author response: Re: Re: Fewster et al. (2019) Characterizing trunk muscle activations during simulated low-speed rear impact collisions.
PMID: 31633431 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fewster KM, Viggiani D, Gooyers CE, Parkinson RJ, Callaghan JP Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Quantifying vehicle control from physiology in type 1 diabetes.
Abstract Objective: Our goal is to measure real-world effects of at-risk driver physiology on safety-critical tasks like driving by monitoring driver behavior and physiology in real-time. Drivers with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have an elevated crash risk that is linked to abnormal blood glucose, particularly hypoglycemia. We tested the hypotheses that (1) T1D drivers would have overall impaired vehicle control behavior relative to control drivers without diabetes, (2) At-risk patterns of vehicle control in T1D drivers would be linked to at-risk, in-vehicle physiology, and (3) T1D drivers would show impaired vehicle co...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chakraborty P, Merickel J, Shah V, Sharma A, Hegde C, Desouza C, Drincic A, Gunaratne P, Rizzo M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparison of control strategies for the cervical muscles of an average female head-neck finite element model.
Conclusions: Both muscle control strategies improved the head kinematics compared to the passive model and comparable to the volunteer kinematics responses with overall better agreement achieved by the model with active muscles mimicking the human vestibular system. PMID: 31617760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 16, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Putra IPA, Iraeus J, Thomson R, Svensson MY, Linder A, Sato F Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Detailed subject-specific FE rib modeling for fracture prediction.
Conclusion: This study indicates that rib fracture location can be predicted for subject specific rib models based on high resolution CT, when loaded in anterior-posterior bending, as long as the rib's cortical cortex is of sufficient thickness and has limited porosity. This study provides guidelines for further enhancements of rib modeling for fracture location prediction with HBMs. PMID: 31589083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Iraeus J, Lundin L, Storm S, Agnew A, Kang YS, Kemper A, Albert D, Holcombe S, Pipkorn B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluating the effectiveness of perceptual treatments on sharp curves: a driving simulator study.
Conclusions: The findings demonstrated the effectiveness of the perceptual treatments, especially red PTB, in enticing drivers to reduce their speeds whilst approaching the sharp curve under study or driving through the curve. PMID: 31589474 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Calvi A, D'Amico F, Ciampoli LB, Ferrante C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Are we SAFE now? An evaluation of the Seatbelts Are for Everyone teen traffic safety program in Kansas.
Conclusions: The evaluation of SAFE suggests that students are receptive to programs about seat belt and traffic safety. States may consider the recommendations for improvement of this program with other published evaluations and programs to determine how best to implement similar programs in their communities. PMID: 31580733 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 3, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Freund NM, Turosak A, Dean A, White H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effectiveness of center-mounted airbag in far-side impacts based on THOR sled tests.
Conclusion: The center-mounted airbag reduced the ATD excursions and accelerations in the 45° and 90° tests, thus reducing the risk of injury due to contact with the intruding structure. The results of this study may assist in designing countermeasures for vehicles in far-side impact. PMID: 31567026 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Umale S, Hauschild H, Humm J, Driesslein K, Yoganandan N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The common characteristics and behaviors of child occupants in motor vehicle travel.
Abstract Objective: Child occupant behavior and head position when travelling in child restraint systems (CRS) may have an effect on injury risk in the event of a motor vehicle crash. The current study aimed to describe the common characteristics and behaviors of child occupants during everyday, real-world motor vehicle travel in a sample of Australian families to identify potential safety implications of observed behaviors and head position within the CRS. Methods: Two instrumented study vehicles were used by 42 families for approximately two weeks. Continuous video and audio data were collected across 1,651 trip...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cross SL, Koppel S, Arbogast KB, Bohman K, Rudin-Brown CM, Charlton JL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An analysis of cyclists' speed at combined pedestrian and cycle paths.
Conclusions: The relationship between bicycle type and measured speed was not entirely clear, but the results suggest that paths with higher proportions of electric and racer bicycles have higher average speeds. There also appears to be a connection between average speed and the width of the distribution; that is, the higher the average speed, the wider the speed distribution. More research is needed on how speed levels and speed variance affect accident risk. PMID: 31560212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Eriksson J, Forsman Å, Niska A, Gustafsson S, Sörensen G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Age-based differences in the disability of extremity injuries in pediatric and adult occupants.
The objective was to develop a disability-based metric for motor vehicle crash (MVC) upper and lower extremity injuries and compare functional outcomes between children and adults. Methods: Disability risk (DR) was quantified using Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores within the National Trauma Data Bank-Research Data System for the top 95% most frequently occurring Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3 extremity injuries (22 unique injuries). Pediatric (7-18 years), young adult (19-45 years), middle-aged (46-65 years), and older adult (66+ years) MVC occupants with an FIM score and at least one of ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 27, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gaffley M, Weaver AA, Talton JW, Barnard RT, Stitzel JD, Zonfrillo MR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Validation of a simplified human body model in relaxed and braced conditions in low-speed frontal sled tests.
Conclusions: The results justify the need for use of an active human body model for predicting low-speed frontal kinematics, particularly in the braced condition. Head kinematics were reduced when using active modeling for all simulations (braced and relaxed). PMID: 31549531 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Devane K, Johnson D, Gayzik FS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Underutilized strategies in traffic safety: Results of a nationally representative survey.
Conclusions: The results indicate that when drivers in the United States are given facts about certain strategies to reduce crash fatalities, the majority are in favor of the underutilized strategies. This information could be useful to legislators and highway safety officials in their decisions to implement these strategies. PMID: 31550179 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 24, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Fell J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Submarining sensitivity across varied anthropometry in an autonomous driving system environment.
Conclusions: Submarining may be a major challenge to overcome for reclined occupants, which may become more prevalent with autonomous driving systems. This study shows that the angle of recline, anthropometric variation, and position of the knee bolster affect the risk of submarining. To our knowledge, this is the first study to computationally evaluate the occupant protection implications of seatback recline for multiple body sizes, postures, and positions relative to the vehicle interior. PMID: 31539280 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rawska K, Gepner B, Kulkarni S, Chastain K, Zhu J, Richardson R, Perez-Rapela D, Forman J, Kerrigan JR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of personality traits and sociocognitive determinants on risky riding behaviors among Chinese e-bikers.
Conclusions: Personality traits of e-bikers impacted their riding behaviors both directly and indirectly, and sociocognitive variables played an intermediate role in the personality-behavior relationship. The results revealed the importance of personality traits in influencing e-bikers' risky riding and also verified the applicability of the personality-behavior model proposed by Ulleberg and Rundmo ( 2003 ) among e-bikers. The findings of this study may provide an empirical basis for evidence-based safety interventions for e-bikers in China. PMID: 31539283 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 20, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zheng Y, Ma Y, Cheng J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Urban freight and road safety in the era of e-commerce.
Conclusions: Freight-involved injury and fatality rates are rising more rapidly than overall road traffic-related rates, both in all areas and in urban areas. These crashes are also increasingly occurring on local roads and arterials as opposed to interstates. These findings can help policymakers better understand the changing patterns of freight-related safety issues. As freight volumes increase in commercial and residential areas, planners must increasingly consider freight needs and ensure that space is allocated to this function. Additionally, changes to surveillance systems are necessary to better track burden and ris...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 5, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: McDonald N, Yuan Q, Naumann R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Self-reports of workloads and aberrant driving behaviors as predictors of crash rate among taxi drivers: A cross-sectional study in China.
Conclusions: To improve the safety of taxi drivers, considerable measures should be strictly implemented, ranging from periodic driver training and safety education to workload reduction, with the cooperation of government agencies and taxi companies. The findings of this study contribute to the design of potentially useful policy initiatives as well as targeted safety promotion programs. PMID: 31442087 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang Y, Zhang Y, Li L, Liang G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

E-bikers' braking behavior: Results from a naturalistic cycling study.
Conclusions: The results provide new insights into the behavior of cyclists on e-bikes and may provide support in the development of safety measures including guidelines and best practices for optimal brake use. The results may also inform the design of braking systems intended to reduce the complexity of the braking operation. PMID: 31442089 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Huertas-Leyva P, Dozza M, Baldanzini N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Kinematic risky driving behavior among younger and older drivers: Differences over time by age group and sex.
Conclusions: KRD rates were higher among younger relative to older, more experienced drivers and did not decline over time, consistent with a protracted period of risky driving behavior. The persistently higher KRD rate among young drivers suggests the need to enhance crash prevention approaches, such as feedback about abrupt maneuvering, to young drivers and their parents. PMID: 31442090 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 23, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Simons-Morton BG, Gershon P, Gensler G, Klauer S, Ehsani J, Zhu C, O'Brien F, Gore-Langton R, Dingus T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Cross-chest clips in child restraints: A crash testing study.
Conclusions: Cross-chest clips do not appear to greatly influence the dynamic performance of a forward-facing child restraint in a simulated frontal crash. Taken together with recent research suggesting a potential benefit in injury reduction from the clips in the real world, possibly due to maintaining the harness straps in place on a child's shoulders, it may be appropriate to re-evaluate safety standards that prevent their use. PMID: 31433676 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bilston LE, Kent N, Brown J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characteristics and severity of motorcycle crashes resulting in hospitalization in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Conclusions: This study highlighted several high-risk behaviors among hospitalized motorcyclists in Vietnam. In addition, the study found that being unlicensed and crashing at night were associated with higher injury severity among hospitalized motorcyclists. The findings suggest that prevention and enforcement interventions targeting high-risk behaviors may reduce the significant morbidity and mortality associated with motorcycle crashes in Vietnam. PMID: 31433684 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 21, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Doan HTN, Hobday MB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A comparison of seat belt fit and comfort experience between older adults and younger front seat passengers in cars.
Conclusions: The change in body posture due to aging influences belt fit. Older adults seemed less aware of safety related to belt fit. Increased BMI influenced shoulder belt fit, independent of age. These findings are important when designing restraint systems to ensure safety for all occupants. PMID: 31411924 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 14, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bohman K, Osvalder AL, Ankartoft R, Alfredsson S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Identifying motorist characteristics associated with youth bicycle-motor vehicle collisions.
Conclusions: Culpability analysis is typically applied to motorists to identify transient exposures; however, this study used culpability analysis to select control drivers who could be compared with drivers involved in youth bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. This study highlights motorist characteristics in youth bicycle-motor vehicle collisions. In doing so, we hope to inform primary prevention strategies for motorists and the environment that will reduce collisions. PMID: 31407928 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pitt TM, Nettel-Aguirre A, McCormack GR, Howard AW, Rowe BH, Hagel BE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driver distraction and inattention in fatal and injury crashes: Findings from in-depth road crash data.
Conclusions: The findings established that almost a third of fatal and injury crashes involved driver inattention and distraction and many of these could have been prevented. System-wide solutions that could mitigate or prevent distraction crashes include intervening vehicle safety technologies, infrastructure solutions to promote a forgiving road environment, blocking capabilities within technologies to prevent communications while driving, and interventions communicating the risks associated with inattention. Of significance, this study also demonstrated the importance of in-depth data for understanding the contribution ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wundersitz L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An examination of billboard impacts on crashes on a suburban highway: Comparing three periods-Billboards present, removed, and restored.
Conclusion: The study provided empirical evidence on the positive safety impact of removing billboard advertising from the roadsides of a suburban highway and of the negative safety impact of billboard restoration. The stronger impact values found in the study, compared to previous research, may be related to the high frequency of conspicuous billboards along the road and to complicated traffic conditions on the road-a heavily traveled route with a high density of interchanges-that might strengthen the negative impact of driver distraction due to advertising billboards. PMID: 31408362 [PubMed - as supplied by publishe...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gitelman V, Doveh E, Zaidel D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparison of traffic data and blood alcohol concentration among fatally injured drivers in Norway and Sao Paulo, Brazil, 2005-2015.
Conclusions: The study shows a different profile of RTC victims and higher alcohol consumption among drivers in Sao Paulo. The differences between the sites can possibly be attributed to public policies regarding traffic safety and alcohol control, which could be further improved by following the Norwegian model in Sao Paulo. PMID: 31408371 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ponce JC, Andreuccetti G, Gonçalves REM, Gjerde H, Bogstrand ST, Valen A, Leyton V, de Carvalho HB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving/riding after alcohol and marijuana use among young adults: Is residing with family protective?
Conclusions: Living with parents protects against riding after substance use among young adults. Prevention programs should target young adults who live independently or those transitioning away from the parental home. Furthermore, given the higher rates of driving after marijuana use among young adult parents, this group should be educated about the risks associated with this behavior. PMID: 31408379 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 13, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Greene KM, Hedstrom AM, Murphy ST Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Cycling Skill Inventory: Assessment of motor-tactical skills and safety motives.
Conclusions: The nomological network of the CSI for cyclists is similar to that of the Driving Skill Inventory for car drivers. Safety motives are a predictor of self-reported accident involvement among cyclists. PMID: 31397591 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 9, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: de Winter JCF, Kovácsová N, Hagenzieker MP Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Worldwide prevalence of alcohol in fatally injured motorcyclists: A meta-analysis.
Conclusions: Motorcyclists dominated the picture of fatal crashes and deserve more attention by the public and government. With the proper planning and adoption of health policies, increasing prevalence and complications of the disease will be prevented. PMID: 31389721 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 7, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Asgarian FS, Namdari M, Soori H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Forward collision warning based on a driver model to increase drivers' acceptance.
Conclusions: Similar to other studies' results, drivers prefer warning times that compare with their driving behavior. It is important to consider that the study tested only one scenario. In addition, in this study, participants were aware of the appearance of the cyclist and the warning. A further investigation should be conducted to determine the acceptance of distracted drivers. PMID: 31381428 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Puente Guillen P, Gohl I Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of rider and child pillion passenger kinematics along with injury mechanisms during motorcycle crash.
Conclusions: This study revealed 2 kinematics patterns and injury mechanisms. Simulations with config-MC manifested a high risk of head and thorax injury to the rider but a low risk of severe injury to the child. Thorax injury to the rider due to handlebar impact was only found in simulations with config-MC. However, a high risk of skull, lower extremity, brain, and neck injuries were more pronounced for cases with config-CM. A high risk of DAI was also noticed for the child. In simulations with config-CM the child exhibited a higher risk of severe injury. PMID: 31381429 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Carmai J, Koetniyom S, Hossain W Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Quantifying Vision Zero: Crash avoidance in rural and motorway accident scenarios by combination of ACC, AEB, and LKS projected to German accident occurrence.
Conclusions: This article describes a systematic approach for assessing the effectiveness of ADAS using GIDAS PCM data to be able to project results to Germany. The closed-loop simulation run in rateEFFECT covers ACC, AEB, and LKS as well as relevant sensors for environment recognition and actuators for longitudinal and lateral vehicle control. Identification of green spots evaluates safety benefits of state-of-the-art level 0-2 functions as a baseline for further system improvements to address grey spots. Knowing which accidents could be avoided by standard ADAS helps focus the evolution of future driving functions on whi...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Stark L, Düring M, Schoenawa S, Maschke JE, Do CM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Multi-agent traffic simulations to estimate the impact of automated technologies on safety.
Conclusions: We developed a multi-agent traffic simulation methodology to estimate the effect of different automated vehicle technologies on safety. The crash locations resulting from simulations of manual driving within a limited area in Japan were preliminary assessed by comparison with real-world crash data collected in the same area. Increasing penetration levels of AEB and LDW led to a large reduction in both the frequency and severity of rear-end crashes, followed by car-to-car head-on crashes and single-vehicle lane departure crashes. Preliminary estimations of the potential safety improvements that may be achieved ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kitajima S, Shimono K, Tajima J, Antona-Makoshi J, Uchida N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Toward harmonizing prospective effectiveness assessment for road safety: Comparing tools in standard test case simulations.
Conclusions: The study identified variations that can arise from the use of different simulation setups in assessment of the effectiveness of active safety systems. The research presented is a first of its kind and provides significant input to the overall goal of harmonization by identifying specific items for standardization. Future activities aim at further specification of methods for prospective assessments of the effectiveness of active safety, which will enhance comparability and trustworthiness in this kind of studies and thus contribute to increased traffic safety. PMID: 31381432 [PubMed - in process] (Source...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wimmer P, Düring M, Chajmowicz H, Granum F, King J, Kolk H, Op den Camp O, Scognamiglio P, Wagner M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The detection of drowsiness using a driver monitoring system.
Conclusions: Blinks and saccades have been shown to be predictive of microsleeps; however, it may be that detection of microsleeps and lane departures occurs too late. Therefore, it is encouraging that the model was able to distinguish mild from moderate drowsy driving. The use of automation may make vehicle-based signals useless for characterizing driver states, providing further motivation for a DMS. Future improvements in impairment detection systems may be expected through a combination of improved hardware, physiological measures from unobtrusive sensors and wearables, and the intelligent integration of environmental ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Schwarz C, Gaspar J, Miller T, Yousefian R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Trends in aggressivity and driver risk for cars, SUVs, and pickups: Vehicle incompatibility from 1989 to 2016.
Conclusions: The trend toward reduced fleet incompatibility has continued in the latest crash data, particularly for cars and SUVs. Although pickup-car incompatibility has also decreased over time, pickups remain disproportionately aggressive toward other vehicles, possibly due to their greater average curb weight. Reducing the weight of some of the heaviest vehicles and making crash avoidance technology fitment more widespread may be promising means to reduce remaining fleet incompatibility. Identifying the source of remaining incompatibility will be important for safety improvements going forward. PMID: 31381434 [Pu...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Monfort SS, Nolan JM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Passenger muscle responses in lane change and lane change with braking maneuvers using two belt configurations: Standard and reversible pre-pretensioner.
This article focuses on muscle activation data (surface electromyography [EMG] normalized using maximum voluntary contraction [MVC] data) obtained from 38 muscles in the neck, upper extremities, the torso, and lower extremities. The raw EMG data were filtered, rectified, and smoothed. All muscle activations were presented in corridors of mean ± one standard deviation. Separate Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were performed on volunteers' muscle activation onset and amplitude considering 2 paired samples with the belt configuration as an independent factor. Results: In normal driving conditions prior to any...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ghaffari G, Brolin K, Pipkorn B, Jakobsson L, Davidsson J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characteristics of rear-end crashes involving passenger vehicles with automatic emergency braking.
Conclusions: The typical rear-end crash occurs when 2 passenger vehicles are proceeding in line, on a dry road, and at lower speeds. Because atypical crash circumstances are overrepresented among rear-end crashes by striking vehicles with AEB, it appears that the system is doing a better job of preventing the more typical crash scenario. Consumer information testing programs of AEB use a test configuration that models the typical rear-end crash type. Testing programs promoting good AEB performance in crash circumstances where vehicles with AEB are overrepresented could guide future development of AEB systems that perform w...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Cicchino JB, Zuby DS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A framework for definition of logical scenarios for safety assurance of automated driving.
Conclusions: Defining a limited number of safety-relevant scenarios helps to realize a systematic safety assurance process for automated vehicles. Scenarios are defined based on the point of the potential collision of a challenging object with the subject vehicle and its initial position. This approach allows defining scenarios for different environments and different driving states of the subject vehicle using the same mechanisms. A next step is the generation of logical scenarios for other driving states of the subject vehicle and for other traffic environments. PMID: 31381437 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Weber H, Bock J, Klimke J, Roesener C, Hiller J, Krajewski R, Zlocki A, Eckstein L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of automated versus manual emergency braking on rear seat adult and pediatric occupant precrash motion.
Conclusions: Across all ages, head and trunk excursions were greater in MEB than AEB, despite increased muscle activity in MEB. This observation may suggest an ineffective attempt to brace the head or a startle reflex. The increased excursion in MEB compared to AEB may be attributed to differences in the acceleration pulses between the 2 scenarios. These results suggest that AEB systems can use specific deceleration profiles that have potential to reduce occupant motion across diverse age groups compared to sudden maximum emergency braking applied manually. PMID: 31381438 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 6, 2019 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Graci V, Douglas E, Seacrist T, Kerrigan J, Mansfield J, Bolte J, Sherony R, Hallman J, Arbogast KB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research