Finite element reconstruction of a vehicle-to-pedestrian impact.
CONCLUSIONS: Finite element reconstructions of real-world pedestrian impacts are useful for analyzing pedestrian kinematics and provide an effective tool for improving pedestrian impact injury analyses. PMID: 33147058 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Costa C, Aira J, Koya B, Decker W, Sink J, Withers S, Beal R, Schieffer S, Gayzik S, Stitzel J, Weaver A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pedestrian injuries from cars and SUVs: Updated crash outcomes from the vulnerable road user injury prevention alliance (VIPA).
CONCLUSIONS: Although the current analysis was based on a non-nationally representative dataset, the elevated pedestrian injury risk originating from SUVs' leading edge is consistent with past research on the subject. That is, despite the changes in vehicle design and fleet composition over the past two decades, SUVs may remain disproportionately likely to injure pedestrians compared with cars. PMID: 33147075 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 4, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Monfort SS, Mueller BC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Intervertebral foramen narrowing during vertical dynamic loading.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: The goal of the present study was to examine the effect of vertebral body fracture on the InterVertebral Foraminal IVF parameters with an input acceleration to the seat bottom in the inferior-to-superior direction. METHODS: A series of 43 isolated lumbar spines underwent vertical dynamic loading using the vertical accelerative device to determine the influence of inferior to superior loading through the lumbar spine on the intervertebral foramen (IVF) geometries. Existence of foraminal stenosis was quantified using pre- and post-test computed tomography (CT) images. Foraminal height (IVF_H...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Maiman D, Curry W, Yoganandan N, Pintar F Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors associated with EMS transport decisions for pediatric patients after motor vehicle collisions.
The objective of this study was to determine the rate of non-transport of pediatric patients who were involved in a motor vehicle collision (MVC) and the factors associated with non-transport decisions. METHODS: We searched the National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS) database using ICD-10 mechanism of injury codes to identify cases in which EMS responded to a pediatric occupant (age
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hartka T, Vaca FE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Development of chest deflection injury risk curve in oblique frontal small female PMHS sled tests.
CONCLUSIONS: The current study reports on the injury risk to small females in an upright seated position in oblique frontal impacts. The triplanar and transverse plane deflection metrics were similar for this posture; however, occupants in reclined configurations may demonstrate a different response, and further investigations are necessary. PMID: 33095061 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Humm J, Yoganandan N Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Potential injuries and costs averted by increased use of evidence-based behavioral road safety policies in North Carolina.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the utility of the MV PICCS tool as a foundation for exploring state-specific impacts that could be realized through increased evidence-based road safety policy and intervention implementation. For NC, we found that increasing the seat belt fine would avert the most injuries, and had the greatest financial benefits for the state, and the lowest implementation costs. Incorporating fines and fees into policy implementation can create important financial feedbacks that allow for implementation of additional evidence-based and cost-effective policies/interventions. Given the recent uptick i...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Singichetti B, Naumann RB, Sauber-Schatz E, Proescholdbell S, Marshall SW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pediatric occupant human body model kinematic and kinetic response variation to changes in seating posture in simulated frontal impacts - with and without automatic emergency braking.
CONCLUSIONS: Pre-crash AEB reduces the effect of the impact despite the same collision speed as cases without-AEB. This is primarily due to the limited travel distance of the occupant, thus, starting an earlier ride-down during the crash. Moreover, different initial seating postures lead to a wide range of injury exposures. Vehicle and child restraint design should incorporate these seating postures to ensure robust protection of the occupant in a crash. PMID: 33095067 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Maheshwari J, Sarfare S, Falciani C, Belwadi A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Obesity effects on pedestrian lower extremity injuries in vehicle-to-pedestrian impacts: A numerical investigation using human body models.
The objectives of this study were to develop a method for modeling obese pedestrians and to investigate effects of obesity on pedestrian impact responses and injury outcomes. METHODS: The GHBMC (Global Human Body Model Consortium) 50th percentile male pedestrian model was morphed into geometries with 4 body mass index (BMI) levels (25/30/35/40 kg/m2) predicted by statistical body shape models. Each of the 4 morphed models was further morphed from a standing posture into 2 other gaits (toe-off and mid-swing), which resulted in a total of 12 (4 BMIs × 3 postures) models. Each model was used to simulate vehi...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Tang J, Zhou Q, Nie B, Hu J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

System providing automated feedback improves task learning outcomes during child restraint system (CRS) installations.
The objective was to build and test an automated, interactive educational system to teach adults how to install a child restraint system (CRS) into a vehicle seat. METHODS: The automated feedback system (AFS) consisted of a mockup vehicle fixture, convertible CRS, and doll. Sensors were implemented into the equipment so that forward-facing (FF) CRS installation errors could be detected. An interactive display monitor guided users through the CRS installation process and alerted them when steps were done incorrectly. Sixty adult volunteers were recruited and randomized into either the treatment group or the control gro...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Mansfield JA, Bolte JH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prevalence of alcohol use among road traffic crash victims presenting to a Malawian Central Hospital: A cross-sectional study.
CONCLUSIONS: A large percentage of road traffic injured patients had been drinking alcohol before their injury, especially male pedestrians. A large proportion of the patients were abstaining from alcohol, but those not abstaining had a high prevalence both of alcohol use when injured and hazardous drinking identified by AUDIT-C. This has important implications for prevention. PMID: 33064031 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 16, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sundet M, Kajombo C, Mulima G, Bogstrand ST, Varela C, Young S, Christophersen AS, Gjerde H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A study on cyclist head injuries based on an electric-bicycle to car accident reconstruction.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of accident reconstruction in this study case showed that: (1) The head impact region on the windshield in the E-bike-to-car impact accidents is higher than that in the pedestrian-to-car impact accidents. (2) The skull MPS, ICP, von-Mises stress and MPS of strain can accurately predict the head injury risk, location, etc. (3) The directly impact force caused the skull fracture, and the tensile inertial force torn bridge vein resulting in the subdural hematoma on the opposite side of impact in this accident. (4) The models developed in this study were validated against the reconstructed accident and...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 14, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gao W, Bai Z, Li H, Liu Y, Chou CC, Jiang B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Automatic collision notification availability and emergency response times following vehicle collision-an analysis of the 2017 crash investigation sampling system.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to directly compare EMS response-related times between collisions involving vehicles with and without ACN available. The current data corroborate prior literature reporting quicker EMS notification times among collisions involving ACN-equipped vehicles. This is the first study to find that ACN is also associated to quicker times to medical center arrival, particularly for collisions occurring in less urban areas. Future research examining whether these decreased times are associated with better clinical outcomes are needed in order to fully assess ACN's ability to prevent trauma-related...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Griffin RL, Carroll S, Jansen JO Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Drivers' visual load at different time periods in entrance and exit zones of extra-long tunnel.
CONCLUSION: This study highlights the driving risk in extra-long tunnel. These findings could provide a basis for studying the setting method of visual guidance facilities in entrance and exit zones of extra-long tunnel. Also, this study could provide a theoretical basis for the evaluation of drivers' visual load in the tunnel. PMID: 33044875 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Wang S, Du Z, Jiao F, Zheng H, Ni Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Impact of cannabis and low alcohol concentration on divided attention tasks during driving.
CONCLUSIONS: With increasing medical and legal cannabis use, understanding the impact of acute cannabis use on driving performance, including divided-attention, is essential. These data indicate that impaired divided-attention performance is a safety concern. PMID: 33035082 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 9, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Miller RE, Brown TL, Lee S, Tibrewal I, Gaffney GG, Milavetz G, Hartman RL, Gorelick DA, Compton R, Huestis MA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Considering real-world sightline obstructions in crash and injury prevention estimates for left turn across path/opposite direction intersection active safety systems.
CONCLUSIONS: This study quantified the sightline obstruction ratio, an important parameter needed to evaluate intersection active safety systems. This study also establishes a baseline for evaluating the presence of sightline obstructions in a future naturalistic driving study when road infrastructure has changed. PMID: 33026259 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bareiss M, Gabler HC, Sherony R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Red-light running behavior of delivery-service E-cyclists based on survival analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: Waiting position, violation of the law by other cyclists, and group size play an important role in red-right running behavior. The hazard rates of running red-light by delivery-service E-cyclists increased by 62% and 33% when they wait near motorized lanes and when other individuals violate traffic rules, respectively. The hazard rates reduced by 50% when there are more than five waiting cyclists. PMID: 33026838 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Gao X, Zhao J, Gao H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Are helmeted cyclists taking more risk at signalized intersections?
CONCLUSIONS: The results do not provide support for the position that promoting or mandating bicycle helmet use will have adverse safety effects because of more risky behavior among helmeted cyclists. PMID: 33026846 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Høye AK, Jensen ML, Sørensen MWJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Health status and quality of life among road users with permanent medical impairment several years after the crash.
CONCLUSIONS: The Swedish definition of serious injury, an injury leading to PMI, was found to correlate with self-reported health loss; 85% of the injured road-users reported that they still had remaining symptoms several years after the accident. The injured body region leading to PMI after an accident can vary from the body regions reported to cause long-term health loss. It was found that the higher the degree of PMI the higher the health loss. Sustaining a PMI regardless severity and injured body region has the same effects on general health for men and women. Sustaining a PMI will both lower the health-related quality...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 7, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Stigson H, Boström M, Kullgren A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

EEG biomarkers acquired during a short, straight-line simulated drive to predict impairment from cannabis intoxication.
CONCLUSIONS: These results, in combination with prior work on the effect of cannabis intoxication during neurocognitive tasks, suggest that neurophysiological signatures associated with acute cannabis intoxication are robust and consistent across tasks, and that these signatures are significantly correlated with impaired performance in a driving simulator. Taken together, EEG data acquired during a short neurocognitive testbed and during a simulated drive may provide specific profiles of impairment associated with acute cannabis intoxication. Further research is needed to establish the impaired cognitive processes associat...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 24, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Brown TL, Richard C, Meghdadi A, Poole J, Fink A, Stevanović Karić M, McConnell M, Rupp G, Schmitt R, Gaffney GG, Milavetz G, Berka C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Impaired driving among rural female drug-involved offenders.
CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that rural female impaired drivers may have more extensive substance use and mental health problems than other rural female drug-involved offenders. In addition, study results suggest that a recent history of impaired driving may serve as a marker for a more extensive substance use history. Other implications include that early identification of impaired drivers in at-risk groups may be an important opportunity to prevent future traffic injuries and fatalities. PMID: 32941075 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 16, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Webster JM, Tillson M, Dickson MF, Staton M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Land motor vehicle-related fatal drowning in Finland: A nation-wide population-based survey.
CONCLUSION: Because transport safety is crucial to prevent any vehicle entering the water, placing LMVA-related drowning in the category of transport accidents is warranted. Once the vehicle becomes submersed, however, prevention measures to avoid death by drowning remains decisive. PMID: 32926634 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 13, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Lunetta P, Haikonen K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Understanding users' characteristics in the selection of vehicle seating configurations and positions in fully automated vehicles.
CONCLUSIONS: Previous work had shown differences in participants' preferences for seating configurations and positions depending on age, sex and country. While increasing the sample size, the current study analyses other factors that were associated with choosing one vehicle configuration and seating position over others. As these factors are directly related to the likelihood of sustaining injuries in the event of a crash, the current study provides important insights regarding the potential risk factors for FAV occupants. PMID: 32926638 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 13, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Lopez-Valdes FJ, Bohman K, Jimenez-Octavio J, Logan D, Raphael W, Quintana L, Fueyo RSD, Koppel S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The role of perceived pedestrian safety on designing safer built environments.
CONCLUSIONS: This combination of findings provide valuable support for the premise that pedestrians may have a good sense of recognizing safety problems and the ability to see the solutions. Although the research was undertaken in the context of a municipality in Guadalajara, the role of pedestrian safety perception may be applicable in other urban settings in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), where local authorities are in charge of designing the road environment. This study highlights the relevance of including pedestrians' participation for a safer and human-centred design of our cities. PMID: 32926653 [PubM...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 13, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Aceves-González C, Ekambaram K, Rey-Galindo J, Rizo-Corona L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Types and site distributions of intestinal injuries in seat belt syndrome.
This study aimed to clarify the incidence and distribution of intestinal injuries in seat belt syndrome. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 25 patients who underwent laparotomy for suspected intestinal injuries due to seat belt syndrome during a frontal impact. The incidence and distribution of the sites of intestinal injuries, as well as associated injuries, were investigated. Intestinal injuries were divided into bowel and mesenteric injuries. Additionally, bowel injuries were classified into two types: perforation and non-perforation (seromuscular tears/intramural hematomas). Regarding the...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 6, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Yamamoto Y, Miyagawa Y, Kitazawa M, Takahata S, Aoyagi S, Hondo N, Koyama M, Nakamura S, Tokumaru S, Muranaka F, Soejima Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A Wizard-of-Oz experimental approach to study the human factors of automated vehicles: Platform and methods evaluation.
CONCLUSION: These results provide evidence for the use of alternative approaches for the conduct of human factors studies on vehicle automation, potentially lowering barriers to undertaking such experiments while increasing flexibility in designing more complex studies. PMID: 32856935 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 27, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pai G, Widrow S, Radadiya J, Fitzpatrick CD, Knodler M, Pradhan AK Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An examination of relationships between cannabis legalization and fatal motor vehicle and pedestrian-involved crashes.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall findings do not suggest an elevated risk of total or pedestrian-involved fatal motor vehicle crashes associated with cannabis legalization. PMID: 32856949 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 27, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Calvert C, Erickson D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Simulation-based assessment of injury risk for an average male motorsport driver.
CONCLUSIONS: Beyond injury risk, the study is the first of its kind to provide mechanical loading values likely experienced during motorsports crash incidents with crash pulses developed from real-world data. Given the severity of the crash pulses, the simulated environments reinforce the need for the robust safety environment implemented by NASCAR. PMID: 32856956 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 27, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Decker WB, Jones DA, Devane K, Davis ML, Patalak JP, Gayzik FS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Vehicle safety characteristics in vulnerable driver populations.
CONCLUSIONS: Vehicle safety is an important component of seminal road safety philosophies that aim to reduce crash fatalities. However, driver groups that are overrepresented in fatal crashes-young drivers, older drivers, and those of lower SES-are also driving the less safe vehicles. Ensuring drivers are in the safest car they can afford should be further explored as an approach to reduce crash-related injuries among vulnerable populations. PMID: 32851883 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 26, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Metzger KB, Sartin E, Foss RD, Joyce N, Curry AE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Investigation of vehicle-bicycle hit-and-run crashes.
CONCLUSIONS: The result of the paper can further provide implications on the policies and counter-measures in order to prevent bicyclists from vehicle-bicycle hit-and-run collisions. PMID: 32835525 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Zhu S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of users' experience and posture in a rotated swivel seating configuration.
CONCLUSIONS: This static user study shows that rotated seats could be a desired seating configuration in future autonomous vehicles for individuals who know each other. It reveals the reasons behind the preferences and the extent of desired seat rotation, showing differences between tall and short individuals. By understanding how occupant position and posture can be influenced by offering various seating configurations, the occupant can choose a comfortable position that is also safe. The leg and feet positions are raised as the body region with most variations and for which an increased understanding of influence in a cr...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 23, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bohman K, Örtlund R, Kumlin Groth G, Nurbo P, Jakobsson L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Promote or inhibit: An inverted U-shaped effect of workload on driver takeover performance.
CONCLUSIONS: This study found an inverted U-shaped relationship between the drivers' workload generated by NDRTs and takeover performance. The moderate workload level (rather than the lower or higher workload level) led to a faster and better takeover performance, and it seemed to require minimal lead time for drivers. These findings help understand the relationship of drivers' workload during the automation and takeover performance in conditional automated driving. An important recommendation emerging from this work is to investigate what should be the most efficient method to detect the drivers' workload state real-time ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ma S, Zhang W, Yang Z, Kang C, Wu C, Chai C, Shi J, Li H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The relationships between correct helmet use, enforcement presence, and mortality in a Latin-America city: The case study of Bogot á, Colombia.
CONCLUSIONS: Incorrect helmet use has been found by the study to be related to higher mortality among motorcycle occupants in Bogotá. Our data shows that enforcement increases correct helmet use with the potential to reduce deaths among motorcycle occupants. PMID: 32822246 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Guzman LA, Ortiz AIV, Mesa VG, Camargo JP, Allen KA, Hyder AA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Booster cushion design effects on child occupant kinematics and loading assessed using the PIPER 6-year-old HBM and the Q10 ATD in frontal impacts.
CONCLUSIONS: Early pelvis coupling to initiate torso pitch, and thereby an upper torso motion controlled by the shoulder belt, is the preferred occupant protection for booster-seated children. A stable mid-shoulder belt position centered over the chest initially is a prerequisite. Additionally, it was seen that the design of the guiding loops helps provide favorable interaction with the torso during the crash. The option to allow the shoulder belt to be placed above and under the guiding loops will accommodate a larger span of child sizes and adapt to more vehicle seat belt geometries. This study provides evidence that the...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 19, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bohman K, Östh J, Jakobsson L, Stockman I, Wimmerstedt M, Wallin H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of death and disability due to golf cart crashes in The Villages, Florida: 2011-2019.
CONCLUSIONS: During the observation period, a total of 875 GC-related crashes occurred, representing an average of 136 crashes, 65 hospitalizations, and 9 dead or disabled annually. Of all crashes, 48% resulted in hospitalization, severe trauma, or death. Of these, ejection occurred in 27%, hospitalization in 55%, and death or disability in 15% of crashes. Virtually all death and disability occurred within the setting of GC used on streets or road pathways. Death and disability, particularly due to ejection during GC crashes, occur at an alarming rate when GCs are used for local transportation. We believe public awareness ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Castaldo JE, Raquet B, Roberts M, VandeWeerd C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Expansion of NASS/CDS for characterizing run-off-road crashes.
CONCLUSIONS: The NCHRP 17-43 database contains information extracted from NASS/CDS cases to better understand the nature of ROR crashes, driver behavior in these crashes, and the potential benefits of both vehicle-based and infrastructure-based ROR countermeasures. PMID: 32804541 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 16, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Riexinger LE, Gabler HC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The impact of interlock installation on driving behavior and drinking behavior related to driving.
This study examines changes in driving behaviors and drinking behaviors used by DWI offenders to manage driving with the IID. METHODS: A total of 166 IID participants who completed two surveys covering the period from arrest to IID installation (T1) and during IID use (T2) were examined. Four domains were covered: demographics, driving environments and transportation needs, reported driving activity, and reported drinking activities. Participants were on average 38 years old, 43% were female, 35% completed college, 34% had an income of more than $50,000, and 83% were employed. For those who provided it, the mea...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nochajski TH, Manning AR, Voas R, Taylor EP, Scherer M, Romano E Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The characteristics of dockless electric rental scooter-related injuries in a large U.S. city.
CONCLUSIONS: E-scooters are an emerging transportation technology associated with a wide range of potentially serious injuries that consume substantial emergency department and hospital resources. Head injuries are a particular concern, as few e-scooter riders are wearing helmets at the time of injury. PMID: 32783642 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: English KC, Allen JR, Rix K, Zane DF, Ziebell CM, Brown CVR, Brown LH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The influence of driving anger on truck drivers' speeding behavior in Serbia: the evidence from naturalistic global positioning system driving data.
CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms the predictive performance of driving anger facets. The results of the research can help us improve our understanding of the mechanisms of speeding behavior of truck drivers. PMID: 32729726 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 29, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Matović B, Jovanović D, Pljakić M, Bačkalić S, Jakšić D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Part-time shoulder use operational impact on the safety performance of interstate 476.
CONCLUSIONS: PTSU has great operational improvement effects which create a faster-moving transportation network. The higher speeds caused by the enhanced operations increases the risk of a crash during unsafe situations, but the number of unsafe situations occurring will significantly reduce. The reduced number of unsafe situations indicates an increased probability of crash avoidance but does not indicate a definitive reduction in crashes. PMID: 32697124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 21, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Coffey S, Park S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prevalence of non-nominal seat positions and postures among front-seat passengers.
CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to report distributions of postures, seat positions, and seat back angles for front-seat passengers. Seat positions rearward of the middle of the seat adjustment range are common, but highly reclined postures are infrequent. Non-nominal torso and head postures also are nontrivial. PMID: 32692249 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Reed MP, Ebert SM, Jones MLH, Hallman JJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driver knowledge of cycling-related road rules in Queensland, Australia.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that improving knowledge of some current road rules could be beneficial for cycling safety but for some other rules, improved knowledge could be detrimental for cycling safety and changing the rules to reflect shared perceptions of safe behavior may be more beneficial. For each of the rules, further research is needed to examine the links between knowledge and compliance, and the influence of compliance on the risks of bicycle-motor vehicle crashes and near misses. PMID: 32692254 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 20, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Briant O, Haworth N, Twisk D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The epidemiology and prehospital care of motorcycle crashes in a sub-Saharan African urban center.
CONCLUSION: Motorcycle-related RTCs represent a large burden of disease for patients treated by SAMU in Kigali, Rwanda. Young men are most at risk of injury, which imposes a financial strain on society. Though injuries occurred frequently, critical trauma cases from motorcycle crashes were uncommon. This may be a result of several initiatives in Rwanda to improve road safety. PMID: 32678676 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 16, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rosenberg A, Uwinshuti FZ, Dworkin M, Nsengimana V, Kankindi E, Niyonsaba M, Uwitonze JM, Kabagema I, Dushime T, Krebs E, Jayaraman S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driver experiences with the alcohol ignition interlock: Comparing successful and poor performers.
CONCLUSIONS: People with a more serious drinking pattern and who may be most at risk for recidivating may be more inclined to recognize the potential benefits of the interlock as a DUI preventive countermeasure. More research is needed to identify and influence high risk DUI offenders while on the interlock to increase its effectiveness once the interlock is removed. PMID: 32658548 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Beck KH, Scherer M, Romano E, Taylor E, Voas R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Submarining sensitivity across varied seat configurations in autonomous driving system environment.
CONCLUSIONS: Submarining may be a major challenge to overcome for reclined occupants in autonomous driving systems. This study shows that seat cushion angle plays a role in restraining occupants in recline scenarios, but it is not sufficient to prevent submarining without additional countermeasures. PMID: 32658549 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rawska K, Gepner B, Moreau D, Kerrigan JR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Mobile phone use among Indonesian motorcyclists: prevalence and influencing factors.
CONCLUSIONS: This study supports previous findings regarding the high prevalence of mobile phone use among motorcyclists in developing countries. The models implied that further investigation on intervention strategy to minimize mobile phone use during motorcycling is a necessity. PMID: 32658550 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 12, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Widyanti A, Pratama GB, Anindya AH, Sari FP, Sumali A, Salma SA, Yamin PAR, Soetisna HR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Reducing child restraint misuse: national survey of awareness and use of inspection stations.
Conclusions: The AACPSIR Survey results suggest a segment of caregivers share a positive safety culture, including knowledge of CPS services and use of those services. Of concern are caregivers who did not access an inspection station because they indicated it was not necessary, they already knew how to install the CRS, or pointed to other inconveniences. Future intervention programs that target caregivers unfamiliar with inspection stations or believe that the services are not necessary have the potential to improve child passenger safety. PMID: 32615804 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - July 1, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Levi S, Lee H, Ren W, McCloskey S, Polson A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Change in helmet use behavior enforced by CCTV cameras with automatic helmet use detection system on an urban arterial road.
Conclusions: This study confirms that CCTV camera enforcement can be an important driving force for changing helmet use behavior, particularly for child passengers. Moreover, CCTV camera enforcement can support enforcement by extending coverage to a 24-h period and to intersections without police inspection. PMID: 32559159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 18, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Satiennam T, Kumphong J, Satiennam W, Klungboonkrong P, Jaensirisak S, Ratanavaraha V Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Speeding and impaired driving in fatal crashes-Results from in-depth investigations.
Conclusions: Those drivers who show most types of high-risk behaviors, especially EXC and ALC drivers, are less likely to respond to measures relying on voluntary behavior changes, such as recommended speed, speed warnings, or classical enforcement, although such measures may be effective for INAP and some DRUG drivers. To change the behavior of EXC and ALC drivers, more restrictive measures are called for, such as non-overridable intelligent speed adaptation, vehicle impoundment, or Alcolock. PMID: 32551897 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 17, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Høye A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Seasonal crash prediction model for urban signalized intersections: Wisconsin southeast region.
Conclusions: Seasonal estimates have a significant contribution in safety analysis in regions where snow and ice conditions are regularly experienced. Identifying locations that experience significantly higher number of crashes during the winter can contribute to target snow and ice-related crashes and evaluate the effectiveness of deicing materials, equipment, and practices. PMID: 32551989 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 17, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Claros B, Chitturi M, Vorhes G, Bill A, Noyce D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Should airbags be deactivated for wheelchair-seated drivers?
Conclusions: This is the first study using sled tests and computational simulations to investigate the effects of airbag deployment on injury risks of wheelchair-seated drivers. Overall, the results showed little basis for concern that the energy of deploying a driver airbag in today's vehicles will cause serious-to-fatal injuries to drivers seated in wheelchairs. The results of this study therefore support the idea that driver airbags generally offer tangible safety benefits for a wide range of wheelchair-seated drivers in frontal crashes. PMID: 32529848 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - June 11, 2020 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hu J, Orton N, Manary MA, Boyle K, Schneider LW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research