Virtual street-crossing performance in persons with multiple sclerosis: Feasibility and task performance characteristics.
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that commonly results in physical and cognitive dysfunction. Accordingly, MS might impact the ability to safely cross the street. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a simulated street-crossing task in persons with MS and to determine differences in street-crossing performance between persons with MS and non-MS controls. METHODS: 26 participants with MS (median Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score = 3.5) and 19 controls completed 40 trials of a virtual street-crossing task. There were 2 crossing conditions ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 7, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Stratton ME, Pilutti LA, Crowell JA, Kaczmarski H, Motl RW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An Entropy-Based Analysis of Lane Changing Behavior: An Interactive Approach.
CONCLUSIONS: The nearest and close neighbor models are well within the conventional additive entropy framework. In this paper, both the long-range vehicular interactions and safe driving behavior in the traffic are handled in the nonadditive entropy domain. It is also inferred that Tsallis entropy region would correspond to mandatory lane changing behavior, whereas additive and either extensive or nonextensive (Boltzmann-Gibbs) entropy region would match discretionary lane changing behavior. This paper states that behaviors of drivers would be in nonadditive entropy domain to provide safe traffic stream, and hence a vehicl...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 7, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kosun C, Ozdemir S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Differential protective effects of motorcycle helmets against head injury.
CONCLUSIONS: Motorcycle helmets were associated with a 69% reduction in skull fractures, 71% reduction in cerebral contusion, and 53% reduction in intracranial hemorrhage. This study finds that current motorcycle helmets do not protect equally against all types of head injury. Efforts to improve rotational acceleration management in motorcycle helmets should be considered. PMID: 27585909 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 2, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Singleton MD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Computational investigation of the effects of knee airbag design on the interaction with occupant lower extremity in frontal and oblique impacts.
This study uses computational models of the human body and knee airbags to explore how KAB design may influence the impact response of the occupant's lower extremities. Methods The analysis was conducted using a 50(th)-percentile male occupant human body model with deployed KABs in a simplified vehicle interior. The two common KAB design types, bottom-deploy KAB (BKAB) and rear-deploy KAB (RKAB), were both included. A state-of-the-art airbag modeling technique, the corpuscular particle method, was adopted to represent the deployment dynamics of the unfolding airbags. Validation of the environment model was performed based ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 2, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nie B, Crandall JR, Panzer MB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Sensitivity Evaluation of the Visual, Tactile, and Auditory Detection Response Task Method while Driving.
CONCLUSIONS: None of the three methods of presenting DRT stimuli showed a consistent advantage in sensitivity in differentiating multiple levels of cognitive load if all response time, hit rate, and secondary task performance are considered. If only response time is considered, the visual presentation of the DRT stimulus used in this study showed some advantages. In interpreting this data, it should be noted that the methods of DRT stimulus presentation varied somewhat from currently proposed draft ISO standard and it is possible that the relative salience level of the visual DRT stimulus influenced the findings. It is fur...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 2, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Stojmenova K, Jakus G, Sodnik J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluating the Brazilian zero-tolerance drinking and driving law: Time series analyses of traffic-related mortality in three major cities.
CONCLUSION: There is no evidence of reduced traffic-related mortality in the three major Brazilian capitals 5.5 years after the zero-tolerance drinking and driving law was adopted. PMID: 27588457 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 2, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Volpe FM, Ladeira RM, Fantoni R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An Evaluation of the Effect of Ohio's Graduated Driver Licensing Law on Motor Vehicle Crashes and Crash Outcomes Involving Drivers 16 to 20 Years of Age.
CONCLUSIONS: Unlike previous studies, this investigation used linked data to evaluate the outcomes of all occupants in crashes involving drivers ages 16-20 years. The post GDL-period was associated with lower crash, injury crash, and fatal crash involvement among drivers and occupants ages 16- 17 years, but higher overall crash involvement for drivers and occupants ages 19 years, 20 years, and 18-20 years combined. These findings support extending GDL restrictions to novice drivers ages 18 through 20 years to reduce crashes in that group. PMID: 27588739 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 2, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Conner KA, Smith GA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Predictors Of Older Drivers' Involvement In High-Range Speeding Behavior.
This study investigates the nature and predictors of high-range speeding among drivers aged 75-94 years. Speed per second was estimated using Global Positioning System devices installed in participants' vehicles. High-range speeding events were defined as travelling an average 10+km/h above the speed limit over 30 seconds. Most (96%, 182/190) participants agreed to have their vehicle instrumented, and speeding events were accurately recorded for 97% (177/182) of participants. Descriptive analysis examined speeding events by participant characteristics and mileage driven. Regression analyses were used to examine the as...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 2, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Chevalier A, Coxon K, Rogers K, Chevalier AJ, Wall J, Brown J, Clarke E, Ivers R, Keay L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Risk of Motor Vehicle Accident Death among 1.3 Million Veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars.
CONCLUSIONS: Veterans exhibit significantly higher risk of MVA deaths compared to the US general population. However, deployment to the Iraq or Afghanistan war was not associated with the excess risk. PMID: 27589092 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 2, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bullman TA, Kang HK, Smolenski DJ, Skopp NA, Gahm GA, Reger MA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Powered two wheeler riders' risk of crashes associated with filtering on urban roads.
CONCLUSIONS: All measures limiting the practice of filtering by powered two-wheelers on urban roads would probably contribute to improving the safety of their users. PMID: 27589253 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 2, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Clabaux N, Fournier JY, Michel JE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Examination of Personality Traits and Social Problem Solving Skills of Individuals Whose Driving Licenses Have Been Confiscated Due to Drunk Driving.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between personality traits and social problem solving skills of individuals who drive while intoxicated. METHOD: 144 individuals apprehended twice while driving drunk and sent to a driver behavior training program (9 female and 135 male) participated in our study. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire Revised-Abbreviated (EPQ-RA) composed of 4 subscales (Extroversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism and Lying subscales) and the Social Problem Solving Inventory (SPS) composed of 6 subscales (Cognitive, Emotion, Behavior, Problem Definition and Formulation, Creating...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 2, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Taymur I, Budak E, Duyan V, Kanat BB, Önen S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Physiological signal analysis for fatigue level of experienced and inexperienced drivers.
CONCLUSIONS: We found under the monotonous road environment, fatigue symptoms occurred in inexperienced drivers and experienced drivers after about 60 and 80 min of continuous driving, respectively. Therefore, as for drivers with different experiences, restriction on continuous driving time would avoid overfatigue driving and thereby eliminate traffic accidents. We find the comprehensive indicator changes significantly with the fatigue levels. The integration of different indicators improves the recognition accuracy of different driving fatigue levels. PMID: 27589585 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: T...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 2, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Li R, Su W, Lu Z Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Development of an expert based ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM map to AIS 2005 update 2008.
CONCLUSION: This mapping between ICD and AIS provides a comprehensive, expert-designed solution for analysts to bridge the data gap between the injury descriptions provided in hospital codes (ICD-9-CM, ICD-10-CM) and injury severity codes (AIS08). By applying consistent rules from both the ICD and AIS taxonomies, the expert panel created these definitive maps, which are the only ones endorsed by the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM). Initial validation upheld the quality of these maps for the estimation of AIS severity, but future work should include verification of these maps for MAIS and ISS e...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Loftis KL, Price JP, Gillich PJ, Cookman KJ, Brammer AL, St Germain T, Barnes J, Graymire V, Nayduch DA, Read-Allsopp C, Baus K, Stanley PA, Brennan M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Changes in baseline concussion assessment scores following a school bus crash.
CONCLUSION: This case study highlights a unique opportunity to evaluate concussion assessment data from 30 male athletes involved in a high-speed school bus crash. Further, these data provide additional insight into assessing the effectiveness of current school bus occupant protection systems. PMID: 27586095 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Poland KM, McKay MP, Zonfrillo MR, Barth TH, Kaminski R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Changing threshold for AIS scores of thoracolumbar compression fractures.
CONCLUSIONS: These results are consistent with evolving clinical thinking, resulting in decreasing surgical incidence and orthosis use. Our data strongly suggests that isolated compression fractures in the absence of neurologic deficit or severe cord compression due to retropulsed bone are self-limiting. Therefore, the AIS scores for these common injuries could be reconsidered and reflect their relatively benign outlook. PMID: 27586096 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Soliman HM, Nguyen HS, Banerjee A, Pintar F, Yoganandan N, Kurpad S, Maiman D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prehospital transportation decisions for patients sustaining major trauma in road traffic crashes in Sweden.
In this study, 7 university hospitals (UHs) in Sweden were selected to represent a TC level I or level II. These UHs have similar capabilities as the definition for level I and level II TC in the United States. Major trauma was defined as Injury Severity Score (ISS)> 15. A total of 117,730 patients who were transported by road or air ambulance were selected from the Swedish TRaffic Accident Data Acquisition (STRADA) database between 2007 to 2014. An analysis of the patient characteristics sustaining major trauma in comparison with patients sustaining minor trauma (ISS
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Candefjord S, Buendia R, Caragounis EC, Sjöqvist BA, Fagerlind H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Functional recovery patterns in seriously injured automotive crash victims.
This study compared FCI predicted loss with patient-reported 12-month outcomes as measured through the Short Form 36 (SF-36) health assessment survey. METHODS: Using follow-up data collected on 2,858 adult car crash occupants in the Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database, we compared FCI predicted outcomes to occupants' Physical Component Summary (PCS) scores, which are weighted averages of the SF-36 items addressing physical function. Our analyses included descriptive statistics, plots of typical recovery patterns, and a mixed effects regression model that describes PCS as a function of FCI, d...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: McMurry TL, Poplin GS, Crandall J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Functional outcomes of motor vehicle crash head injuries in pediatric and adult occupants.
CONCLUSION: At-risk populations such as pediatric and older adult patients possessed higher DRMAIS values for different head injuries. Disability in pediatric patients is critical due to loss of quality life years. Disability risk can supplement severity metrics to improve the ability of such metrics to discriminate the severity of different injuries that do not lead to death. Understanding of age-related differences in injury outcomes when compared to adults could inform future age-specific modifications to the AIS. PMID: 27586099 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Schoell SL, Weaver AA, Talton JW, Baker G, Doud AN, Barnard RT, Stitzel JD, Zonfrillo MR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Multicenter analysis of CIREN occupant lumbar bone mineral density and correlation with age and fracture incidence.
This study aimed to quantify lumbar volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) for 873 seriously injured Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) motor vehicle crash occupants (372 male, 501 female) from 8 centers using phantomless computed tomography scans and to associate vBMD with age, fracture incidence, and osteopenia/osteoporosis diagnoses. The novelty of this work is that it associates vBMD with region of injury by applying an established method for vBMD measurement using phantomless computed tomography (CT). METHODS: A validated phantomless CT calibration method that uses patient-specific fat and musc...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Saffarzadeh M, Hightower RC, Talton JW, Miller AN, Stitzel JD, Weaver AA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of the crash mitigation effect of low-speed automated emergency braking systems based on insurance claims data.
CONCLUSIONS: This study adds important information about the safety performance of collision avoidance technologies, beyond the number of crashes avoided. By combining insurance claims data and information from spare parts used, the study demonstrates a mitigating effect of low-speed AEB in real-world traffic. PMID: 27586101 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Isaksson-Hellman I, Lindman M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comparison of crash rates and rear-end striking crashes among novice teens and experienced adults using the SHRP2 Naturalistic Driving Study.
This article presents findings on the crash rates of novice teen and experienced adult drivers in naturalistic crashes. METHODS: A subset from the SHRP2 database consisting of 539 crash events for novice teens (16-19 years, n = 549) and experienced adults (35-54 years, n = 591) was used. Onboard instrumentation such as scene cameras, accelerometers, and Global Positioning System logged time series data at 10 Hz. Scene videos were reviewed for all events to identify rear-end striking crashes. Dynamic variables such as acceleration and velocity were analyzed for rear-end striking events. Number of crashes...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Seacrist T, Belwadi A, Prabahar A, Chamberlain S, Megariotis J, Loeb H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of automated speed enforcement in Montgomery County, Maryland, on vehicle speeds, public opinion, and crashes.
CONCLUSIONS: This study adds to the evidence that speed cameras can reduce speeding, which can lead to reductions in speeding-related crashes and crashes involving serious injuries or fatalities. PMID: 27586103 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hu W, McCartt AT Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Predicting crash-relevant violations at stop sign-controlled intersections for the development of an intersection driver assistance system.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential of I-ADAS to incorporate a stop sign violation detection algorithm. Repeating the analysis on a larger, more extensive data set will allow for the development of a more comprehensive algorithm to further validate the findings. PMID: 27586104 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Scanlon JM, Sherony R, Gabler HC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A robust estimation of the effects of motorcycle autonomous emergency braking (MAEB) based on in-depth crashes in Australia.
CONCLUSIONS: The small difference between the baseline and variant case results demonstrates that the potential effects of MAEB computed from the cases described in in-depth crash reports are typically a good approximation, despite limitations of postcrash investigation. Furthermore, given that MAEB intervenes very close to the point of impact, limitations of the currently available technologies were not found to have a dramatic influence on the effects of the system. PMID: 27586105 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Savino G, Mackenzie J, Allen T, Baldock M, Brown J, Fitzharris M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving under the influence of alcohol in professional drivers in Cameroon.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that increasing enforcement to counter impaired driving in professional drivers in Cameroon is needed. Interventions might include screening for alcohol misuse and hazardous occupational practices. PMID: 27586106 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sobngwi-Tambekou JL, Brown TG, Bhatti JA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Photo-oxidative degradation of motorcycle helmets in Hanoi, Vietnam: A prospective preliminary study.
CONCLUSION: POD occurs due to routine exposure to the ultraviolet light. Prolonged uv exposure affects outer shell surface material integrity. PMID: 27586107 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Ramli R, Che Man Z, Nordin R, Abdul Karim F, Rashdi MF, Oxley J, Viet Cuong P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of occupant kinematics and dynamics in nearside oblique impacts.
CONCLUSION: In this study of nearside oblique impact loading, the PMHS exhibited kinematics characterized by reduced torso pitching and increased lateral head excursion as compared to previous frontal impact results. These kinematics resulted in potential cervical and thoracic spinal injuries and in complete, displaced fractures of the lateral and posterior aspects of the rib cage. Though this is a limited number of subjects, it shows the necessity of further understanding of the kinematics of occupants exposed to this loading mode. PMID: 27586108 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: López-Valdés FJ, Juste-Lorente O, Maza-Frechin M, Pipkorn B, Sunnevang C, Lorente A, Aso-Vizan A, Davidsson J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Scaling approach in predicting the seatbelt loading and kinematics of vulnerable occupants: How far can we go?
CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed that for the peak lap belt force and the forward motion of the head and shoulder, the underlying linear relationship with body size and shape is valid over a wide anthropometric range. The chaotic nature of the dynamic response cannot be fully recovered by the assumption of the whole-body geometrical similarity, especially for the curve shape. The valid range of the scaling approach established in this study can be reasonably referenced in predicting the impact response of a given specific population with expected deviation. Application of this knowledge also includes proposing strategies ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Nie B, Forman JL, Joodaki H, Wu T, Kent RW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Quantitative evaluation of the occupant kinematic response of the THUMS 50th-percentile male model relative to PMHS laboratory rollover tests.
CONCLUSIONS: Though the model response in the lateral axis is significantly different than that of the PMHS, it is unclear whether this difference is the result of extrinsic factors (posture, pretension, and friction), where exact values in experiment are unknown or by model intrinsic factors (e.g., spine stiffness). These differences in occupant kinematics could potentially subject the PMHS and THUMS to very different loading conditions under roof impact in rollover crashes: different occupant posture and different roof impact location. Therefore, different injury mechanisms and severity might be predicted by the current ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Poulard D, Zhang Q, Cochran JR, Gepner B, Kerrigan J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Lumbar vertebrae fracture injury risk in finite element reconstruction of CIREN and NASS frontal motor vehicle crashes.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, precrash positioning has a large effect on lumbar injury metrics. The lack of lumbar injury criteria in regulatory crash tests may have led to inadvertent design of seat pans that work to apply axial force to the spinal column during frontal crashes. PMID: 27586111 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Jones DA, Gaewsky JP, Kelley ME, Weaver AA, Miller AN, Stitzel JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of kinematics and injuries to restrained occupants in far-side crashes using full-scale vehicle and human body models.
CONCLUSION: The average CORA rating was 0.7. In general, the results indicated that the high-speed impacts against the pole resulted in severe injuries, higher excursions followed by low-speed pole, high-speed moving deformable barrier (MDB), and low-speed MDB impacts. The vehicle and occupant kinematics varied with different impact setups and the latter kinematics were likely influenced by restraint effectiveness. Increased restraint engagement increased the injury risk to the corresponding anatomic structure, whereas ineffective restraint engagement increased the occupant excursion, resulting in a direct impact to the st...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Arun MW, Umale S, Humm JR, Yoganandan N, Hadagali P, Pintar FA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Assessment of an innovative seat belt with independent control of the shoulder and lap portions using THOR tests, the THUMS model, and PMHS tests.
CONCLUSION: Concepts for a belt system that can reduce the load on the chest of the occupant in a crash and thereby reduce the number of injured occupants, in particular the elderly, was proposed. PMID: 27586113 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Pipkorn B, López-Valdés FJ, Juste-Lorente O, Insausti R, Lundgren C, Sunnevång C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Non-censored rib fracture data during frontal PMHS sled tests.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, these data provide compelling empirical evidence that suggests a more conservative thoracic injury criterion could potentially be developed based on non-censored rib fracture data with additional testing performed over a wider range of subjects and loading conditions. PMID: 27586114 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Kemper AR, Beeman SM, Porta DJ, Duma SM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Neck forces and moments of human volunteers and post mortem human surrogates in low-speed frontal sled tests.
CONCLUSIONS: This study examined the effects of active muscles, in the form of conscious and reflexive muscle activity, on the biomechanical response of occupants in low-speed frontal sled tests. Although active bracing did not result in significantly different peak neck loads or moments, the timing of these peak values were affected by muscle condition. The findings of this study provide insight to the kinetics experienced during low-speed sled tests and are important to consider when refining and validating computational models and ATDs used to assess injury risk in automotive collisions. PMID: 27586115 [PubMed - in...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Beeman SM, Kemper AR, Duma SM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

On equal footing: Trends in ankle/foot injuries for men vs. women.
CONCLUSIONS: Significant declines in A/F injuries have been noted in recent years, especially for women, whose risks are now similar to those for men. However, significant risk factors remain for each gender, primarily related to body habitus (BMI) and toepan intrusion. Age was a risk factor for foot injuries among women, for whom the foot pedals were more likely to be an injury source. Toepan intrusion remains a major factor for both men and women, but, with the exception of 30+ cm of intrusion, odds ratios were primarily much higher for men in each category of intrusion. PMID: 27586116 [PubMed - in process] (Source:...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Dischinger PC, Kufera JA, Ho SM, Ryb GE, Wang S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Protection of children in forward-facing child restraint systems during oblique side impact sled tests: Intrusion and tether effects.
CONCLUSION: These tests demonstrate the important role of the tether in controlling head excursion for center- or far-side-seated child occupants in oblique side impact crashes and limiting the head injury potential with an intruded door. The tether may not influence the kinematics of a near-side-seated occupant as strongly where the vehicle door or side structure interacts with the CRS and influences its motion. The results indicate that there may be an opportunity to improve child head kinematics and head protection in oblique side impacts through different CRS attachment methods and/or alternative vehicle side structure...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Hauschild HW, Humm JR, Pintar FA, Yoganandan N, Kaufman B, Kim J, Maltese MR, Arbogast KB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

How safe are children when transported by bicycle?
CONCLUSION: This article provides an exploratory and broad overview of the magnitude and severity of injuries among child bike riders and passengers and highlights that younger children are more likely to sustain head injuries compared to older children. This is likely the result of very young children being passengers on bicycles who are constrained in a seat or trailer with little protection or opportunity to mitigate injuries. HIGHLIGHTS: • Analyses of injury data to understand the nature and extent of injuries to children on bikes as passengers and riders. • Child cyclist injuries as a significant safety...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Oxley J, O'Hern S, Raftery S, Woolley J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Naturalistic driving study of rear seat child occupants: Quantification of head position using a Kinect ™ sensor.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time in a naturalistic setting, the range of head positions for child occupants was quantified. More variability was observed for those restrained in booster seats and seat belts than for those in FFCRS. The role of activities, in particular interactions with electronic devices, on head position was notable; this will be the subject of further analysis in other components of the broader study. These data can lead to solutions for optimal protection for occupants who assume positions that differ from prescribed, optimal testing positions. PMID: 27586119 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Arbogast KB, Kim J, Loeb H, Kuo J, Koppel S, Bohman K, Charlton JL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Short Communications From AAAM's 60th Annual Scientific Conference.
Authors: PMID: 27586120 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Posters From AAAM's 60th Annual Scientific Conference.
Authors: PMID: 27586121 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Foreword.
Schulman C PMID: 27586122 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - September 1, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: López-Valdés FJ, Schulman C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Using Negative Emotional Feedback to Modify Risky Behavior of Young Moped Riders.
CONCLUSIONS: The use of negative emotional feedback in driving schools or advanced rider assistance systems could enhance riding performance, making riders aware of unsafe practices and helping them to set up more accurate riding habits. Moreover, the combination of riding simulators and feedback, for example in the training of novice riders and traffic offenders, could be an efficient tool to improve their hazard perception skills and promote safer behaviors. PMID: 27580253 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 31, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Megías A, Cortes A, Maldonado A, Cándido A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Teaching Infant Car Seat Installation via Interactive Visual Presence: An Experimental Trial.
CONCLUSIONS: Interactive communication may help parents install car seats more accurately than using the manufacturer's manual alone. This was an initial study with a modestly-sized sample; if results are replicated in future research, there may be reason to consider centralized "call centers" that provide verbal and/or interactive visual instruction from remote locations to parents installing car seats, paralleling the model of centralized poison control centers in the United States. PMID: 27576099 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 30, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Schwebel DC, Johnston A, Rouse J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effects of whole spine alignment patterns on neck responses in rear end impact.
CONCLUSIONS: The cervical spine alignment is continuous with the thoracic spine, and a trend of the relationship between cervical spine and thoracic spinal alignment was shown in this study. Simulation results suggested that variations in thoracic spinal alignment had a potential impact on cervical spine motion as well as cervical spinal alignment in rear end impact condition. PMID: 27576139 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 30, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Sato F, Odani M, Miyazaki Y, Yamazaki K, Östh J, Svensson M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Associations of Repeated High Alcohol Abuse with Unsafe Driving Behaviors, Traffic Offences, and Traffic Crashes among Young Drivers: Findings from the New Zealand Drivers Study.
CONCLUSIONS: We found that high alcohol use was common among young newly licensed drivers and those who repeatedly reported high alcohol use were at a significantly higher risk of unsafe driving behaviours. Recently introduced zero BAC should help to address this problem, but other strategies are required to target persistent offenders. PMID: 27574719 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 30, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Begg D, Brookland R, Connor J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Driving Self-Regulation and Ride Service Utilization in a Multi-Community, Multi-State Sample of U.S. Older Adults.
CONCLUSIONS: Reported ride usage suggests that older adults are willing to use such ride services for a variety of trips when these services aren't limited to specific types (e.g. medical). Further research can help tailor strategies to encourage both non-drivers and drivers make better use of alternative transportation that meets the special needs of older people. PMID: 27574778 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 30, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Bird DC, Freund K, Fortinsky RH, Staplin L, West BA, Bergen G, Downs J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Relationship Of Traffic Fatality Rates To Maximum State Speed Limits.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a definite trend of increased fatality risk when speed limits are raised. As roadway sections with higher speed limits have become more ubiquitous, the increase in fatality risk has extended beyond these roadways. The increase in risk has been so great that it has now largely offset the beneficial effects of some other traffic safety strategies. State policymakers should keep this trade-off in mind when considering proposals to raise speed limits. PMID: 27574856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 30, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Farmer CM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Rating Child Passenger Safety Laws Relative to Best Practice Recommendations for Occupant Protection.
CONCLUSIONS: The scoring system developed in this study can be used in mathematical models to predict how child passenger safety legislation affects child restraint practices. PMID: 27574894 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 30, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Klinich KD, Benedetti M, Manary MA, Flannagan CA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Direct and indirect costs of non-fatal road traffic injuries in Iran; a population-based study.
CONCLUSIONS: In Iran, non-fatal RTIs imposed a total cost of almost 7 billion dollars to the country for one year. Extension and more serious implementation of preventive measurements seem necessary to decrease this notable burden of the RTIs. PMID: 27574963 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 30, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Karimi H, Soleyman-Jahi S, Hafezi-Nejad N, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Amin-Esmaeili M, Sharifi V, Hajebi A, Saadat S, Sari AA, Rahimi-Movaghar V Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

After-Effects And Disabilities in Traffic Crash Victims in Northern Brazil.
CONCLUSION: The mechanism, such as the origin of the pattern of injuries, explains the exposure factors shown by each attribute of the victim and their characteristics. Many of the injuries were precursors to after-effects/disabilities, which, due to their nature and extent, result in the modification of the apparently healthy living standards of young victims who are routinely injured in traffic crashes. Therefore, public policies for prevention should be formulated, reformulated, and implemented, taking into account each attribute of the victims and their social conditions, as these are closely related to their habits an...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - August 30, 2016 Category: Accident Prevention Authors: Rocha GD, Mello Jorge MH, Grembek O Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research