Comparing drug detection in oral fluid and blood: data from a national sample of nighttime drivers.
Conclusions: Oral fluid and blood samples provided very similar information regarding recent drug intake by randomly tested drivers and oral fluid yielded a higher detection rate for one drug (cocaine) than blood. Oral fluid can be considered a reliable alternative to blood as a matrix for drug testing. PMID: 24345011 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kelley-Baker T, Moore C, Lacey JH, Yao J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Correlates of drug use and driving among undergraduate college students.
The objective of this study was to examine correlates of drugged driving among undergraduate college students. Methods: We conducted an anonymous, confidential, 24-question survey at a large New England public university during the 2010-2011 academic year among undergraduates in courses that met a graduation requirement. Data include demographics; academics; housing status; lifestyle; personal values; high school/college drug use; and driving following alcohol use, drug use, or both; and as a passenger with a driver who used alcohol, drugs, or both. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Chi-square tests compared driver a...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kohn C, Saleheen H, Borrup K, Rogers S, Lapidus G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

An examination of the validity of the standardized field sobriety test in detecting drug impairment using data from the drug evaluation and classification program.
Conclusions: These findings provide support for the use of the SFST as a screening tool for law enforcement to identify impairment in persons who have used CNS stimulants, CNS depressants, cannabis, or narcotic analgesics. PMID: 24345013 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Porath-Waller AJ, Beirness DJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Deterioration in driving performance during sleep deprivation is similar in professional and nonprofessional drivers.
Abstract Objective: There is some suggestion in the literature that professional drivers might self-select to be more resistant to the effects of sleep deprivation; however, this question has not been directly examined. The current laboratory study aimed to compare performance changes during acute sleep deprivation between professional and nonprofessional drivers. Methods: Twenty volunteer male professional drivers and 20 nonprofessional drivers performed a simulated driving task (AusEd) and the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) during 24 hours of continuous wakefulness. Ratings of subjective sleepiness were a...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Howard ME, Jackson ML, Swann P, Berlowitz DJ, Grunstein RR, Pierce RJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Prognosis of Outcome in Adult Survivors of Road Accidents in France: One-Year Follow-Up in the ESPARR Cohort.
Conclusions: One year after the crash, victims may still be experiencing multiple problems in terms of not only physical health but also of mental health, social life, and environment. Poor outcome may be predicted from both accident-related factors and socioeconomic fragility. Our results are useful in catching the attention of both clinicians and the public administration regarding victims at risk of suffering from important consequences after an accident. If those suffering head injuries are recognized, it would be very important to better consider and treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or PCS. Furthermore, subj...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Nhac-Vu HT, Hours M, Chossegros L, Charnay P, Tardy H, Martin JL, Mazaux JM, Laumon B Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The prevalence of mobile phone use among motorcyclists in three mexican cities.
Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first study that reports the prevalence of mobile phone use while driving among motorcyclists. The observed prevalence is higher than the prevalence stated in a previous report from China on electric bicycle riders. This risk factor should be monitored in the future given the growing popularity of motorcycles and the availability of mobile devices. Current legislation should be enforced to avoid potential injuries and deaths attributable to this risk factor. PMID: 24345016 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Pérez-Núñez R, Hidalgo-Solórzano E, Vera-López JD, Lunnen JC, Chandran A, Híjar M, Hyder AA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Predictors of nonstandard helmet use among san francisco bay-area motorcyclists.
This study identified riders of Harley-Davidsons and riders of cruiser-style motorcycles of other brands as potential targets of interventions. PMID: 24345017 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Tsui CK, Rice TM, Pande S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Relationship between motorcyclists' attitudes, behavior, and other attributes with declared accident involvement in europe.
Conclusions: The findings of the study provide some insight into the association between attitudes, behaviors, and declared past accident involvement. Furthermore, the analysis of such large databases with the inclusion of many different countries constitutes a step for further research in the field of motorcyclists' behaviors and safety. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24345018 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Theofilatos A, Yannis G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Hospitalizations and fatalities in crashes with light trucks.
Conclusions: Though previous studies have shown high fatality costs associated with light trucks, this study is the first to explore the hospitalization costs associated with these vehicles. The existing traffic liability systems (tort or no-fault systems) likely fail to fully make light trucks accountable for costs they impose on other cars, pedestrians, and other road occupants. Our findings suggest the importance of a close examination of a broad range of cost implications even beyond hospitalization and fatality costs to evaluate the optimal amount of corrective taxes or other corrective policies in future research. Su...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Karaca-Mandic P, Lee J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Formation and Evaluation of Act and Anticipate Hazard Perception Training (AAHPT) Intervention for Young Novice Drivers.
Conclusions: Inclusion of an active-practical component generates an effective intervention. Using several evaluation measurements aids performance assessment process. Advantages of each of the training methodologies are discussed. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24345020 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Meir A, Borowsky A, Oron-Gilad T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Validation of simulated chestband data in frontal and lateral loading using a human body finite element model.
Conclusions: Though this work was focused on techniques to extract and analyze chestband data from FE models, the comparative results provide further validation of the model used in this study. The results suggest the importance of evaluating comparisons between virtual and experimental chestband data on a regional basis. These data also provide the potential to correlate chestband deformations to the loading of underlying thoraco-abdominal structures. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24345021 [...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Hayes AR, Vavalle NA, Moreno DP, Stitzel JD, Gayzik FS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Volvo drivers' experiences with advanced crash avoidance and related technologies.
Conclusions: Consistent with the results for early adopters in the previous survey of Volvo and Infiniti owners, the present survey found that driver acceptance of the technologies remains high, although less so for lane departure warning. This study is the first to report drivers' experiences with City Safety, a collision avoidance system provided as standard equipment on certain Volvo 2010-2012 models, and driver acceptance of this system was high, although not to the same extent as the optional forward collision avoidance system. Future research should continue to monitor drivers' experiences with these technologies as ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Eichelberger AH, McCartt AT Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Improving Hybrid III Injury Assessment in Steering Wheel Rim to Chest Impacts Using Responses from Finite Element Hybrid III and Human Body Model.
Conclusions: For the FE-Hybrid III, bar impacts caused higher chest deflection compared to hub impacts, although the contrary results were obtained with the more humanlike THUMS. Correction factors were developed that can be used to correct the Hybrid III chest responses. Higher injury criteria capping limits for steering wheel impacts are acceptable. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24345023 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Holmqvist K, Davidsson J, Mendoza-Vazquez M, Rundberget P, Svensson MY, Thorn S, Törnvall F Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of effects of manhole covers on motorcycle driver maneuvers: a nonparametric classification tree approach.
Conclusions: To reduce the effects and potential risks from the manhole covers, highway authorities not only need to make sure that any newly installed manhole covers are as level as possible but also need to regularly maintain all the manhole covers to ensure that they are in good condition. In the long run, the size of manhole covers should be kept as small as possible so that the impact of manhole covers on motorcycle drivers can be effectively reduced. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 243450...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 20, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Chang LY Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Commentary: why is the odds ratio for involvement in serious road traffic accident among drunk drivers in norway and Finland higher than in other countries?
Conclusion: The calculated odds ratios are not only related to alcohol use or blood alcohol concentration per se but also related to the study design-for example, the inclusion of nonculpable drivers among cases-and confounding factors not included in statistical analysis; for example, risk-taking behavior. Those two issues may contribute to explaining why the reported odds ratios are higher for Norway and Finland. PMID: 24279959 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Gjerde H, Bogstrand ST, Lillsunde P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The reasons for the recent decline in young driver licensing in the United States.
Abstract Objective: This survey examined why a substantial percentage of young adults currently do not have a driver's license and the future plans of this group concerning obtaining a license. Method: A questionnaire was developed to examine several issues related to an individual's decision not to obtain a driver's license. An online survey was conducted, yielding useable responses from 618 persons aged 18 to 39 without a driver's license. Results: The top 8 reasons for not having a driver's license were as follows: (1) too busy or not enough time to get a driver's license (determined by personal priorities), (2...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Schoettle B, Sivak M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Attitudes toward seat belt use and in-vehicle technologies for encouraging belt use.
Conclusions: The Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21) law allows the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to strengthen minimum requirements for belt reminders or allow the use of interlocks to meet federal safety standards. Even though most people always buckle up, belt interlocks are supported by only about half of full-time belt users and by fewer part-time belt users and nonusers. Enhanced reminder systems are more acceptable than belt interlocks and are viewed as almost as effective as interlocks if persistent enough. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publishe...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kidd DG, McCartt AT, Oesch NJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A method for linking motor vehicle victim and collision data collected by multiple county agencies.
Conclusion: These results were made possible by integrating 4 distinct data sources. As future research in traffic-related injury moves toward prevention, it will be critical to evaluate new preventative strategies quickly and effectively. A unique number that is both patient and event specific that could be incorporated into each of these databases would make such integration seamless. Successful methods for linking data collected by the multiple agencies involved in motor vehicle collisions will ultimately provide invaluable information for medical personnel, researchers, engineers, planners, and policy makers at the loc...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Papa L, Mendes ME, Benton T, Issa RR, Schmalz MS, Bugnacki K, Garavaglia JC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road safety from the perspective of driver gender and age as related to the injury crash frequency and road scenario.
Conclusion: According to the current study, based on the network approach for the allocation of economic resources and planning of road safety strategies, calibration of injury crash rate prediction models for specific target collision type is important because of the range of harms that are caused by different collision types. From these studies it is apparent that the age and gender of drivers considered together further refines how those factors contribute to crashes. Countermeasures (structural road interventions and/or safety awareness campaigns) can be planned to reduce the highest rate of injury crash for each gende...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Russo F, Biancardo SA, Dell'acqua G Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Underreporting of road crashes in pakistan and the role of fate.
Conclusions: These issues represent additional factors that can contribute to underreporting of crashes and associated trauma. Together, they highlight complications involved in establishing the true cost of road trauma in a country such as Pakistan and the difficulties faced when attempting to promote scientifically based road safety information to counteract faith-based beliefs. PMID: 24279964 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kayani A, Fleiter JJ, King MJ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Side Impact PMHS Thoracic Response With Large-Volume Air Bag.
Conclusions: Two of the 3 PMHS sustained rib fractures despite low levels of thorax deflection. We attribute this finding to individual variability in subject injury tolerance. Other response parameters exhibited lower levels of variability and characterize PMHS response to a potentially beneficial side impact countermeasure. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24279965 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Shaw G, Lessley DJ, Ash JL, Sochor MR, Crandall JR, Luzon-Narro J, Arregui-Dalmases C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Optimization of vehicle deceleration to reduce occupant injury risks in frontal impact.
Conclusions: The optimized crash pulse has a concave shape and is dependent on the occupant restraint stiffness and maximum vehicle deformation. The shapes of the optimized crash pulse in the final phase were different for the objective functions of chest acceleration and chest deflection due to the inertial forces of the head and upper extremities. From the human FE model analysis it was found that the optimized crash pulse for the Hybrid III chest deflection can substantially reduce the risk of rib cage fractures. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injur...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Mizuno K, Itakura T, Hirabayashi S, Tanaka E, Ito D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Analysis of Delta Velocity and PDOF by Means of Collision Partner and Structural Involvement in Real-Life Crash Pulses With Modern Passenger Cars.
Conclusion: On average the ΔV and crash angle are underestimated in NASS-CDS when analyzing the data based on collision partner/object and structural engagement. The largest difference is found in small overlap crashes and the least difference in collision scenarios similar to barrier tests. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24279967 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Iraeus J, Lindquist M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Characterization of vertebral angle and torso depth by gender and age groups with a focus on occupant safety.
Conclusions: The changes in the vertebral angles, as well as the anterior and posterior spine-to-skin distances along the sagittal plane, were determined as a function of age and gender. The effect was greatest in the mid-thoracic area. Spine alignment and body shape differences need to be considered in human mathematical models used to develop safety countermeasures for the older population, because they may affect the loading path and lead to different seating postures or belt positioning. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Parenteau CS, Zhang P, Holcombe S, Wang S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Risk factors related to fatal truck crashes on korean freeways.
Conclusions: Some recommendations for safer truck traffic operations were presented based on the results obtained. The outcomes of this study could be effectively utilized to support the development of various traffic operations strategies and policies for truck traffic safety. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24279969 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Choi S, Oh C, Kim M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Bicycle crashes in different riding environments in the Australian capital territory.
Conclusions: Fewer cyclists were injured in on-road cycle lanes than in other cycling environments, and a high proportion of injuries were incurred on shared paths. This study highlights an urgent need to determine appropriate criteria and management strategies for paths classified as suitable for shared or segregated usage. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental files. PMID: 24279970 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: De Rome L, Boufous S, Georgeson T, Senserrick T, Richardson D, Ivers R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safety evaluation for expressways: a comparative study for macroscopic and microscopic indicators.
Conclusions: Speed dispersion is recommended to proactively assess road safety because (1) it provides consistent risk evaluation with microscopic potential risks and (2) it makes data collection easier. PMID: 24279971 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Qu X, Kuang Y, Oh E, Jin S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Agricultural vehicles and rural road safety: tackling a persistent problem.
Conclusions: A targeted approach to all road system components is urgently needed to avoid a further worsening of existing problems and to reduce the above proportional role of AVs in road danger. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24279972 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Jaarsma CF, De Vries JR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Exploring the impact of access designs on crash injury severity on multilane highways.
Conclusions: Installation of directional median openings is a reasonable safety treatment at 4-leg access points because this access design has better safety performance than full median openings in terms of crash injury severity; in addition, it provides fewer restrictions on accessibility than closed medians. Other effective treatments include installing left-turn storage bays at median openings and increasing the width of shoulders and medians. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24279973 [PubMe...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Wang Z, Huang B, Lu J, Zhao J, Zhang Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 24279974 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - December 1, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Child Restraint Use in Canadian Provinces with and Without Legislation in 2010.
Conclusion The findings from this study suggest that child safety seat legislation has an impact on restraint use in Canada. Despite the increase in rates of child safety seat use in provinces with new legislation and stable rates in provinces with old legislation, use rates remain low. Injury prevention strategies including further surveillance, interventions, and enforcement of restraint use in children are important to decrease motor vehicle related injury and death. PMID: 24279898 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 26, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Simniceanu A, Richmond SA, Snowdon A, Hussein A, Boase P, Howard A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Assessment of vehicle and restraint design changes for mitigating rear seat occupant injuries.
Conclusions: The results from this study demonstrate the importance of an upright seated posture and the potential benefits of including adjustable upper anchorages to allow good sash belt fit, anti-submarining seat pans, belt buckles positioned near the seat bight, and seat belts with pretensioners and load limiters for rear seat occupants. These data can be used to inform the design of a system of restraints to reduce injuries to rear seat occupants. PMID: 24279923 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 26, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Beck B, Brown J, Bilston LE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A Comparison of KABCO and AIS Injury Severity Metrics Using CODES Linked Data.
Conclusions: This analysis examines the distribution of two injury severity metrics different in both design and collection and found that both classifications are consistent within each state from 2006-2008. However, the distribution of both KABCO and MAIS varies between the states. MAIS was found to be more consistent between states than KABCO. PMID: 24261347 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 21, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Burch C, Cook L, Dischinger P Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Modeling the Impact of Rescinding Michigan's Primary and Secondary Seatbelt Laws on Death and Injury from Passenger Vehicle Crashes.
Conclusions: This analysis suggests that repealing the either the primary or full seatbelt law would have a substantial and negative impact on public health, increasing motor vehicle crash related fatality, non-fatal injury and associated economic costs. PMID: 24245574 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 18, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Carter PM, Flannagan CA, Bingham CR, Cunningham RM, Rupp JD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Associations between Drug Use and Motorcycle Helmet Use in Fatal Crashes.
Conclusions: This study provides evidence that alcohol, marijuana, and other drug use is associated with not wearing a motorcycle helmet in fatal motorcycle crashes. There is a clear need for additional prevention and intervention efforts that seek to change helmet and drug-use norms among motorcycle riders. PMID: 24245609 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 18, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Rossheim ME, Wilson F, Suzuki S, Rodriguez M, Walters S, Thombs DL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Second Generation Antihistamines Exhibit a Protective Effect on Drivers in Traffic - a Preliminary Population-based Case-Control Study.
Discussion: This preliminary study supports the protective effect of second generation antihistamines with respect to fatal traffic accidents. Due to the small sample size the results not conclusive. PMID: 24245669 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 18, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Perttula A, Pitkäniemi J, Heinonen OP, Finkle WD, Triche T, Gergov M, Vuori E Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Forecasting impact injuries of unrestrained occupants in railway vehicle passenger compartments.
Conclusions: The injury forecast model established in this paper reduced repeat-experiment times and improved the design efficiency of the internal compartment's structure parameters, and it provided a new way for assessing the safety performance of the interior structural parameters in existing, and newly designed, railway vehicle compartments. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24224566 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 13, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Xie S, Zhou H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Update: Repeat DWI Offenders Involvement in Fatal Crashes in 2010.
Abstract Abstract This analysis is an update of a Traffic Tech published by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in March 1992. Drivers with prior driving-while-intoxicated (DWI) convictions are overrepresented in fatal crashes and the relative risk of fatal crash involvement is greater for these repeat DWI offenders. Although it is estimated that 2.1% of licensed drivers had a prior arrest for DWI within the past three years in 2010, 8.0% of intoxicated drivers (blood alcohol concentration [BAC] ≥ .08 g/dL) involved in fatal crashes had at least one prior DWI conviction in the past 3...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 12, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Fell JC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Surveillance of Road Crash Injuries in Cambodia: An Evaluation of the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System (RCVIS).
Conclusion: RCVIS provides a strong foundation for the surveillance of road crash injuries and fatalities in Cambodia. Differences in participation by data source and reduced hospital participation over time affect data representativeness and may indicate issues with acceptability. Recommendations include working with hospitals to standardize reporting procedures and to increase awareness about the usefulness of the data they collect. PMID: 24215613 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 12, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Parker EM, Ear C, Roehler DR, Sann S, Sem P, Ballesteros MF Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Modeling the Frequency of Opposing Left-turn Conflicts at Signalized Intersections using Generalized Linear Regression Models.
Conclusions: The occurrences of traffic conflicts at signalized intersections can be modeled using generalized linear regression models. The uses of conflict predictive models have potential to expand the uses of surrogate safety measures in safety estimation and evaluation. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24215633 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - November 12, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Zhang X, Liu P, Chen Y, Bai L, Wang W Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Road traffic crashes and fatalities in Japan 2000-2010 with special reference to the elderly road user.
Conclusions: Despite the overall decrease in the elderly crash and fatal crash rates in all road use categories, elderly pedestrians are more susceptible to road traffic crashes and are more likely to be killed than younger persons. Further research may reduce this risk. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24073764 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kaimila B, Yamashina H, Arai A, Tamashiro H Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The driving competence of 90-year-old drivers: from a hospital-based driving clinic.
Conclusion: Drivers age 90 and above were at no greater driving risk than those one decade younger. MMSE orientation questions may be useful to assist in identifying which oldest old drivers could benefit from a comprehensive driving evaluation including an on-road test. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24073765 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Hollis AM, Lee AK, Kapust LR, Phillips LK, Wolkin J, O'Connor MG Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Psychomotor performance of truck drivers before and after day shifts.
Conclusions: The wide interindividual variability of urinary aMT6s excretion observed before driving shifts and the direct association between aMT6s levels in the early morning and performance measurements suggest that the circadian typology of drivers should be taken into account when scheduling the work shifts of professional drivers. PMID: 24073766 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Vivoli R, Rovesti S, Bussetti P, Bergomi M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Kinematics and shoulder belt position of child anthropomorphic test devices during steering maneuvers.
Conclusions: Compared to children, the HIII ATDs were closer with regards to mean values in the initial phase of the maneuver and the Q ATDs were closer in the end of the ramping phase of the lateral acceleration. The question regarding which ATD replicates better the behavior of children exposed to steering maneuvers still remains open. As shown in this study, it depends on the focus of the comparison and on what phase of the maneuver is of interest. This study provides valuable knowledge on how representative the current ATDs are for replicating potential precrash postures of children as a result of vehicle emergency ste...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Stockman I, Bohman K, Jakobsson L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Real-World Injury Patterns Associated With Hybrid III Sternal Deflections in Frontal Crash Tests.
Conclusions: Restraint systems that reduce peak Hybrid III sternal deflection in a moderate overlap crash test are beneficial in real-world crashes with similar or greater overlap but likely have a disbenefit in crashes with small overlap. This may occur because belt-force limiters employed to control deflections allow excursion that could produce contact with interior vehicle components in small overlaps, given the more oblique occupant motion and potential inboard movement of the air bag. Although based on a limited number of cases, this interpretation is supported by differences in skeletal fracture locations among driv...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Brumbelow ML, Farmer CM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Influencing factors and sensitivity analysis of occupant impact injury in passenger compartment.
Conclusions: The response surfaces of the occupant's injury parameters (HIC and TC3ms), and changes therein as the system's variables were altered showed that impact injury parameters and change thereto could be described intuitively and qualitatively. Some meaningful conclusions were obtained through the sensitivity analysis of occupant injury parameters to changes in these influence factors. The research offered a guideline for the design and manufacture of a train's passenger compartment structure. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Suchao X, Hongqi T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Car crash fatalities associated with fire in sweden.
Conclusions: Car fires are a deadly postcrash problem. Reducing this risk would be primarily a responsibility for the automotive industry. A multifactor approach could be considered as follows: risk-reducing design, insulation, reduced flammability in motor compartment fluids and plastics, and automatic fire extinguishing equipment. Inspiration could be found in how, for example, the auto racing and aviation industries handle this problem. PMID: 24073770 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Viklund A, Björnstig J, Larsson M, Björnstig U Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Muscle pathologies after cervical spine distortion-like exposure-a porcine model.
Conclusions: By simulating a CSD-like motion we were able to confirm injuries in the posterior cervical muscles under severe loading conditions. Further studies need to be conducted to determine whether these muscle injuries also occur under lower exposure forces. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24073771 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Gales N, Kunz SN, Rocksén D, Arborelius UP, Svensson MY, Hell W, Schick S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Motorcycle helmets: head and neck dynamics in helmeted and unhelmeted oblique impacts.
Conclusions: Further research and development is required on the oblique test rig to establish its reliability and validity, the latter through comparisons to real-world impacts. Motorcycle helmets certified to a national standard manage linear acceleration well, but further developments are required to reduce angular acceleration. Within the range of impact conditions, there was no indication that helmets posed a neck injury risk. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Traffic Injury Prevention to view the supplemental file. PMID: 24073772 [PubMed - in process] ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: McIntosh AS, Lai A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Toward a more robust lower neck compressive injury tolerance-an approach combining multiple test methodologies.
Conclusions: Results using the outlined approach indicate that the combination of lower neck sagittal plane resultant force and the anterior-posterior eccentricity at which the load is applied generally correlate with the type of cervical damage identified. These results show promise at better defining the tolerance for compressive cervical fractures in male postmortem human subjects (PMHS) than axial force alone. The current analysis requires expansion to include more tolerance data so the robustness of the approach across various applied loading vectors and cervical postures can be evaluated. PMID: 24073773 [PubMed ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - October 2, 2013 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Toomey DE, Yang KH, Yoganandan N, Pintar FA, Van Ee CA Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research