Driving during alcohol hangover among dutch professional truck drivers.
Abstract Objectives: Alcohol hangover may impair potentially dangerous daily activities such as driving a car or operating heavy machinery. The purpose of the present study was to determine (1) whether driving during alcohol hangover is a problem of concern among professional Dutch truck drivers and (2) to what extent they think their hangover state affects driving performance. Methods: Three hundred forty-three professional truck drivers were interviewed at a Dutch trucker festival. In addition to demographics, data were gathered on normal driving, alcohol consumption and hangover, and driving style during alcoho...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Verster JC, Van Der Maarel MA, McKinney A, Olivier B, De Haan L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Meta-Analysis of On-the-Road Experimental Studies of Hypnotics: Effects of Time After Intake, Dose, and Half-Life.
Conclusions: These analyses indicate that the half-life, dose of the hypnotic, as well as time between treatment and driving, as measured by SDLP, all significantly impact the ability to drive a car after taking hypnotic drugs. PMID: 24678565 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Roth T, Eklov SD, Drake CL, Verster JC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Compliance with traffic laws by traffic police officers, non-traffic police officers, and civilian drivers.
Conclusions: Our findings supported the notion that on-duty police officers, and traffic police officers in particular, adhere more closely to traffic laws compared to civilian drivers. As the general public compliance with traffic laws is affected by the police perceived legitimacy, the publication of these results can both boost public cooperation with the police and encourage police officers to continue providing positive role models to the public. PMID: 24678566 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Rosenbloom T, Pereg A, Perlman A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of passenger presence on older drivers' risk of fatal crash involvement.
Conclusion: Older drivers' crash risk is lower with almost every combination of passenger age group and gender. It is unclear whether the presence of passengers lowers older driver crash risk or whether safer drivers tend to ride with passengers. PMID: 24678567 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Braitman KA, Chaudhary NK, McCartt AT Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Light-vehicle occupancy and severe injury by vehicle and crash type.
Conclusions: On average, there were 1.35 occupants involved in a crash per vehicle. Severely injured occupants were uncommon in 5+ occupancy vehicles. There was a trend for increased injury risks with occupancy. The risk was 1.65 times higher in vehicles with 7+ occupants compared to those with a driver only. PMID: 24678568 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Parenteau CS, Viano DC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Scope and Nature of Injuries to Rear Seat Passengers in NSW Using Linked Hospital Admission and Police Data.
Conclusions: The findings suggest that there is a need for enhanced protection for rear seat passengers, because they have proportionally more fatal injuries than front-seated occupants. The frequency of abdominal injury and the differences between injury patterns observed in front seat passengers suggests a potential benefit from adding abdominal injury risk assessment to rear seat occupant protection test protocols. There is also scope to improve chest protection for older rear seat passengers. PMID: 24678569 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Brown J, Bilston LE Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Elevated risk of sleepiness-related motor vehicle accidents in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a case-control study.
Abstract Objectives: The present case-control study aimed to determine whether obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) patients are at an increased risk for sleepiness-related motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) than controls and to identify disease-related factors associated with accident risk. Methods: Demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and polysomnographic parameters of 312 OSAS patients were compared with 156 age- and sex-matched primary snoring subjects. Results: The rate of OSAS patients reporting accident was higher than snoring subjects (21.2% vs. 11.5%, P = .011), and OSAS was associated with an increase i...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Basoglu OK, Tasbakan MS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Buckle up safely (shoalhaven): a process and impact evaluation of a pragmatic, multifaceted preschool-based pilot program to increase correct use of age-appropriate child restraints.
Conclusions: This was a pragmatic study reflecting the real-life issues of implementing a program in preschools where 57 percent of families had a low income and turnover of staff was high. Despite these issues, impact evaluation showed that the integrated educational program showed promise in increasing correct use of age-appropriate restraints. The findings from this pilot study support the use of an integrated educational program that includes access to subsidized restraints to promote best practice child restraint use among communities that include a high proportion of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families in ...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Hunter K, Keay L, Clapham K, Lyford M, Brown J, Bilston L, Simpson JM, Stevenson M, Ivers RQ Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The use of self-report exposure measures among novice motorcyclists: appropriateness and best practice recommendations.
Conclusions: If self-reported odometer readings are used, questions on whether the respondents share their own bike or ride more than one bike, and a built-in process to ensure respondents report the exact odometer reading on their bike are recommended. It is recommended that self-report riding exposure questions ask about the hours of riding for the current average week, and data on riding purposes, locations, and experience are also collected. PMID: 24678572 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sakashita C, Senserrick T, Boufous S, De Rome L, Elkington J, Ivers R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Distribution and Type of Crash Damage to Motorcyclists' Clothing: Validation of the Zone Approach in the European Standard for Motorcycle Protective Clothing, EN13595.
Conclusions: The results are in agreement with the general concept of the zones used in the EU Standard. However, these results indicate that minor adjustments may be warranted. In particular, the number of impacts to the forearm and lower leg suggest that these regions might be better protected by considering the whole regions as zone 1or 2 rather than the multiple regions as currently indicated in the EU Standard. However, the subjective nature of determining the zone in which damage (and/or injury) occurred limits these findings and any others that attempt to validate the zone principles using real-world data. Further v...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Meredith L, Brown J, Ivers R, De Rome L Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Involvement of unendorsed motorcycle operators in fatal crashes in cuyahoga county, ohio, 2005-2011.
Conclusion: The large proportion of unendorsed motorcyclists involved in fatal crashes in northeast Ohio highlights the need for more stringent licensing requirements that make it more difficult to ride without an endorsement and limit learner's permit renewals. PMID: 24678574 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Connor SM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A numerical investigation on the variation in hip injury tolerance with occupant posture during frontal collisions.
Conclusions: The stability and biofidelity response of the pelvis-lower limb (PLEX) model indicates its potential application in future frontal and lateral impact FE simulations. PMID: 24678575 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - April 3, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Yue N, Untaroiu CD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Increased inequality in mortality from road crashes among Arabs and Jews in Israel.
Conclusions: The reduction in road crashes in the last decade is a positive achievement. However, the reductions are not equal in Arabs and Jews in Israel. Therefore an increase in the disparities in mortality from road crashes is apparent. Public health efforts need to focus specifically on decreasing road crashes in the Arab community. PMID: 24679219 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 28, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Magid A, Leibovitch-Zur S, Baron-Epel O Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Normative Misperceptions of Peer Seatbelt Use among High School Students and Their Relationship to Personal Seatbelt Use.
Conclusions: Peer influences are a strong predictor of behavior, especially among adolescents. Ironically, adolescents' behaviors are often influenced by inaccurate perceptions of their peers. This research establishes the presence of a misperception related to seatbelt use and suggests that misperception is associated with own behaviors. This research provides a foundation for social norms based interventions designed to increase seatbelt use by correcting normative misperceptions among adolescents. PMID: 24628560 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 14, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Litt D, Lewis MA, Linkenbach JW, Lande G, Neighbors C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Alcohol-related Road Traffic Injuries in Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates.
Conclusion: Self reported alcohol-related car collisions in Al-Ain City had a low incidence. It affected older Emirati male nationals and was associated with lower revised trauma score, mainly due to head injury. There is a need for a national registry with data on alcohol abuse so as to assess its effects and strategies for its prevention. PMID: 24617582 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - March 11, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Osman OT, Abbas AK, Eid HO, Salem MO, Abu-Zidan FM Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Parental perceptions of the learner driver log book system in two Australian states.
Conclusions: The results of this study suggest the presence of a paradox with many parents possibly believing that others are not as diligent in the use of log books as they are or that the system is too open to misuse. Given that many parents report that their child's log book is accurate, this study has important implications for the development and ongoing monitoring of hours of practice requirements in graduated driver licensing systems. PMID: 24571187 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bates L, Watson B, King M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

How have changes in front airbag designs affected frontal crash death rates? an update.
Conclusions: Implementing advanced features to sled-certified airbags was beneficial, overall, to drivers and right-front passengers with sled-certified airbags. No overall benefit was observed for CAC airbags, compared with sled-certified airbags with advanced features. Further study is needed to understand the apparent reduction in belted driver protection observed for CAC airbags. PMID: 24571210 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Teoh ER Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of Deterrent Impact of Ontario's Street Racing and Stunt Driving Law on Extreme Speeding Convictions.
Conclusions: These findings are congruent with deterrence theory that certain, swift and severe sanctions can deter risky driving behaviour and support the hypothesis that legal sanctions can have an impact on the extreme speeding convictions of the intervention group. PMID: 24571252 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Meirambayeva A, Vingilis E, Zou G, Elzohairy Y, McLeod AI, Xiao J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Older driver estimates of driving exposure compared to in-vehicle data in the Candrive II study.
Conclusions. Although self-reported driving distance categories may be adequate for studies entailing broad group comparisons, caution should be used in interpreting results. Use of self-reported estimates for individual assessments should be discouraged. PMID: 24571323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Porter MM, Smith GA, Cull AW, Myers AM, Bédard M, Gélinas I, Mazer BL, Marshall SC, Naglie G, Rapoport MJ, Tuokko HA, Vrkljan BH Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Time to Death Analysis of Road Traffic Accidents in Relation to Delta V, Drunk Driving, and Restraint Systems.
Conclusion: Our findings may be useful in improving road traffic safety and insurance policies by offering insights into the factors that reduce fatalities. PMID: 24571356 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Ju YH, Sohn SY Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A Study of Fatality Risk and Head Dynamic Response of Cyclist and Pedestrian Based on Passenger Car Accident Data Analysis and Simulations.
Conclusions: These findings offer potential contributions for establishing a more reasonable speed limit for urban traffic in China and generating strategies for cyclists' and pedestrians' head protection. PMID: 24571385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Nie J, Li G, Yang J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

The Influence of Bicycle Oriented Facilities on Bicycle Crashes within Crash Concentrated Areas.
Conclusions This study presents guidelines for local transportation planners to analyze the patterns of bicyclist crashes in order to improve roadway safety. This research also assists planners in effectively allocating scarce resources as they address issues of bicyclist safety. PMID: 24571411 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kim D, Kim K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Effect of Cargo Loading on Occupant Injury and Seat Deformation in Motor-Vehicle Crashes.
Conclusions: This analysis supports NHTSA's earlier conclusion that cargo is not a major source of injury in frontal crashes. While anecdotal cases have been presented in the literature, there were no cases in NASS-CDS. NASS-CDS also showed that when untethered cargo deforms rear seats, it was not related to severe injury to 2(nd) row occupants. PMID: 24571626 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 26, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Viano DC, Parenteau CS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Alcohol involvement and other risky driver behaviors: effects on crash initiation and crash severity.
Conclusions: Risky driving behaviors, including alcohol involvement, increased the risk of a crash. Crash severity tended to increase with any risky behavior and to increase further with multiple risky behaviors. Other risky behaviors were associated with both alcohol involvement and crashes. Therefore, if effects from those other risky behaviors were not accommodated for, those effects would confound apparent associations between alcohol involvement and crashes. Therefore, this study's use of multivariate models that accommodated for effects from those other behaviors provided a truer picture of alcohol's association with...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Shyhalla K Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Alcohol ignition interlocks in all new vehicles: a broader perspective.
Conclusion: We express caution about requiring an interlock as standard equipment in all new vehicles. PMID: 24471356 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Radun I, Ohisalo J, Rajalin S, Radun JE, Wahde M, Lajunen T Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Graduated driver licensing provisions: an analysis of state policies and what works.
Conclusions: Consistent with other GDL research, states with stronger GDL policies had more favorable teen crash and mortality outcomes than states with weaker ones. Analysis showed that the policies in strong states shared several common themes: more required practice hours, ban on all teen passengers, and night driving restrictions for 12+ months. Implications for state policy makers are provided. PMID: 24471357 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Steadman M, Bush JK, Thygerson SM, Barnes MD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Distress tolerance as a predictor of risky and aggressive driving.
Conclusion: College drivers who have a diminished capacity to endure frustration without experiencing negative emotional states (i.e., low distress tolerance) tend to drive aggressively and in a risky manner. Traditional deterrence-based approaches to highway safety may benefit from inclusion of a wider array of prevention strategies that focus on emotion regulation while driving. PMID: 24471358 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Beck KH, Ali B, Daughters SB Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Risk factors for subsequent impaired driving by injured passengers.
Conclusions: Injured alcohol-impaired passengers are at high risk for IDA and should be included in impaired driving prevention programs. PMID: 24471359 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Purssell RA, Chan H, Brown D, Fang M, Brubacher JR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Ethylglucuronide in Hair Is a Top Predictor of Impaired Driving Recidivism, Alcohol Dependence, and a Key Marker of the Highest BAC Interlock Tests.
Conclusions: This study showed that hEtG, an objective alternative to often unreliable self-reported past representation of drinking levels, yields crucial insight into driver alcohol-related risks early in an interlock program and is a top predictor of new recidivist events. Together with PEth, these markers would be excellent anchors in a panel for detecting alcohol consumption. PMID: 24471360 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Marques PR, Tippetts AS, Yegles M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Long-term medical consequences for child occupants 0 to 12 years injured in car crashes.
Conclusion: The pattern of injuries resulting in permanent medical impairment is different for children and adults; therefore, safety priorities for children need to be based on child data. The majority of those injuries leading to PMI were at lower AIS levels. Furthermore, AIS 1 cervical spine and AIS 1+ head injuries should be given priority concerning mitigation of long-term consequences for children. PMID: 24471361 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Bohman K, Stigson H, Krafft M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A population-based study on road traffic injuries in pune city, India.
Conclusion: The magnitude of RTIs in India is very high, which is not reflected in police registration reports. PMID: 24471362 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Mirkazemi R, Kar A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Pediatric Head and Neck Dynamics in Frontal Impact: Analysis of Important Mechanical Factors and Proposed Neck Performance Corridors for 6- and 10-Year-Old ATDs.
Conclusions: The models are less stiff in dynamic anterioposterior bending than the ATDs; the secant stiffness of the 6- and 10-year-old models is 53 and 67 percent less than that of the HIII ATDs. The ATDs exhibit nonlinear stiffening and the models demonstrate nonlinear softening. Consequently, the models do not remain within the Mertz scaled flexion bending corridors. The more compliant model necks suggest an increased potential for head impact via larger head excursions. The pediatric anterioposterior bending corridors developed in this study are extensible to any frontal loading condition through calculation and sensi...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Dibb AT, Cutcliffe HC, Luck JF, Cox CA, Myers BS, Bass CR, Arbogast KB, Seacrist T, Nightingale RW Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Lower leg injury in relation to vehicle front end.
Conclusions: This simplified computer model can be used as a prescreening design tool to demonstrate general vehicle front-end design trade-offs and provide approximate results without physical testing. PMID: 24471364 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Zanetti EM, Franceschini G, Audenino AL Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Three-dimensional adult male head and skull contours.
Conclusions: Three-dimensional average male head and skull contours were created and measurements of landmark locations were made. It was found that the 50th percentile male Hybrid III corresponds well to the average male head contour and validated its 3D shape. Average adult head and skull contours and landmark data are available for public research use at http://biomechanics.pratt.duke.edu/data . PMID: 24471365 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Lee C, Loyd AM, Nightingale R, Myers BS, Damon A, Bass CR Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Perceived value of a motorcycle training program: the influence of crash history and experience of the training.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates the utility of contingent valuation in quantifying the perceived value of training, as well as the modifiability of perceived value, with age, training participation, and near-crash experiences as key determinants. This indicates that research to determine ways to align the perceived value with evidence on training effectiveness is worthwhile in order to facilitate more appropriate and justified allocation of road safety resources. Potential options to explore and evaluate may include community education on evidence of training effectiveness as well as alternative measures with demonstra...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sakashita C, Jan S, Senserrick T, Lo S, Ivers R Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Survey about pedestrian safety and attitudes toward automated traffic enforcement in washington, d.C.
Conclusions: Most residents supported speed cameras and red light cameras, but support was lower for stop sign and crosswalk cameras. Emphasizing the safety benefits of stop sign and crosswalk cameras and documenting the extent of safety problems at stop signs and crosswalks may increase support for these new forms of camera enforcement. Communities considering automated enforcement should take into account the opinions of pedestrians, even though they are not subject to camera citations. PMID: 24471367 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Cicchino JB, Wells JK, McCartt AT Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Investigating motorists' behaviors in response to supplementary traffic control devices at land surveying work sites.
Conclusion: The use of supplemental TCDs can greatly contribute to the changes in motorists' behaviors at surveying work sites. The changes in motorists' driving behaviors imply that the motorists reacted favorably to the deployed TCDs at the land-surveying work sites. PMID: 24471368 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 8, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Yang H, Bartin B, Ozbay K, Chien SI Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safety of the Japanese K-car in a real-world low severity frontal collision.
Conclusions: Although we are generally concerned that drivers of small vehicles suffer more severe injuries, our results suggest that, for real-world accidents, K-cars provide similar safety for drivers involved in frontal collisions as do standard vehicles in low delta V impact conditions. PMID: 24499113 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 5, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Hitosugi M, Matsui Y Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Factors associated with young adults delaying and forgoing driving licences: Results from Britain To appear in: Traffic Injury Prevention.
CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of these findings, it can be concluded that a number of previously under-appreciated factors appear to be linked with young British adults not acquiring a driving licence. PMID: 24484393 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 1, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Le Vine S, Polak J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Safety System for Child Pillion Riders of Underbone Motorcycles in Malaysia.
Conclusion: Hence the intervention of new technology is inevitable. Therefore, this paper highlights a need for a new safety backrest system for the use of children when riding as pillion to ensure their safety. PMID: 24484430 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 1, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Sivasankar S, Karmegam K, Shamsul Bahri MT, Sadeghi N H, Kulanthayan S Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of New Speed Limits in Sweden: A Sample Survey.
Conclusions: The present results are in line with previous results indicating an average change in mean speed of approximately 2.5 km/h when the speed limit changes by 10 km/h. The confidence intervals were in most instances fairly small, indicating a sufficiently large number of measurement sites. PMID: 24484445 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 1, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Vadeby A, Forsman A Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Anthropometric Specifications, Development, and Evaluation of EvaRID-A 50(th) Percentile Female Rear Impact Finite Element Dummy Model.
Conclusions The EvaRID dummy model demonstrated the potential of becoming a valuable tool when evaluating and developing seats and whiplash protection systems. However, updates of the joint stiffness will be required to provide better correlation at lower load levels. Moreover, the seated posture, curvature of the spine and head position of 50(th) percentile female occupants needs to be established and implemented in future models. PMID: 24484526 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - February 1, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Carlsson A, Chang F, Lemmen P, Kullgren A, Schmitt KU, Linder A, Svensson M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Use of seat belt and enforcement of seat belt laws in pakistan.
USE OF SEAT BELT AND ENFORCEMENT OF SEAT BELT LAWS IN PAKISTAN. Traffic Inj Prev. 2014 Jan 16; Authors: Klair AA, Arfan M Abstract Objectives: Traffic crashes are leading cause of deaths and injuries in Pakistan. WHO estimates that approximately 30,131 people die in road crashes annually on Pakistani roads (WHO, 2013). The use of seat belt can be effective device to reduce road crash fatalities in Pakistan but under existing seat belt laws, seat belt wearing is mandatory only for driver and is limited to specific vehicles and roads. Primarily, this study was aimed to measure seat belt wearing rates among P...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Klair AA, Arfan M Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Spinal Fracture-Dislocations and Spinal Cord Injuries in Motor Vehicle Crashes.
Conclusions: Spinal cord injury occurred in one out of 1,860 front-seat occupants in tow-away crashes. The rate was highest in rollover crashes and was reduced by seatbelt use. Fracture-dislocation of the spine occurred about 5.3 times more often than SCI and was also prevented by seatbelt use. PMID: 24433030 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Parenteau CS, Viano DC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Evaluation of NASS-CDS Side Crash Delta-V Estimates using Event Data Recorders.
This study will investigate the accuracy of WinSMASH ΔV estimates in real-world side crashes. Methods This study uses biaxial ΔV data from event data recorders (EDRs) to assess the accuracy of side crash ΔV estimates in NASS-CDS crash cases. Single-event side crashes were identified in the NASS-CDS for which a) WinSMASH ΔV had been coded and b) biaxial EDR data was available. For these crashes, the WinSMASH-estimated resultant ΔV was compared with the EDR-recorded resultant ΔV to assess the accuracy of the former. EDR ΔV values were adjusted for an assumed average restitution value...
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Johnson NS, Gabler HC Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Development and validation of the Spanish Hazard Perception Test.
Conclusion: The test has adequate psychometric properties and is useful in distinguishing between learner, novice and expert drivers. In addition, it is useful in that it analyses the performance of both safe and unsafe drivers (re-offenders who have already lost their driving licence). PMID: 24433083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Castro C, Padilla JL, Roca J, Benítez I, García-Fernández P, Estévez B, López-Ramón MF, Crundall D Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Influence of a Combo Side Airbag on the Risk for Basilar Skull Fracture in a Far-Side Occupant.
Conclusion: The airbag reduced head acceleration in the belted test, but did not influence the diving forces from torso augmentation through the neck of the far-side occupant. The side airbag did not reduce the risk for basilar skull fracture due to high neck compression loads in either the belted or unbelted tests. PMID: 24433103 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Viano DC, Burnett R, Parenteau CS Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Comprehensive Target Populations for Current Active Safety Systems using National Crash Databases.
Conclusions: This study found that these active safety systems could potentially mitigate approximately 1 in 5 of all severity and serious injury crashes in the U.S., and 26% of fatal crashes. Annually, this corresponds to 1.2 million all severity, 14,353 serious injury (MAIS3+), and 7,412 fatal crashes. In addition, we provide the source code for the crash scenarios as an appendix to this paper so that researchers can use the crash scenarios in future research. PMID: 24433115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Kusano KD, Gabler C Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

A Study on the Effects of Fatigue Driving and Drunk Driving on Drivers' Physical Characteristics.
Conclusions: Both fatigue driving and drunk driving are found to impair drivers' physical characteristics. However, their impacts on the parameters SBP, HR eyesight and TDSA are different. A driver's physical characteristics will be impaired more seriously when he continues driving while drowsy, compared to driving under normal situation. These findings contribute to the current research on identifying drivers' driving state and quantifying the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on driving ability and driving behavior. PMID: 24433140 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Zhang X, Zhao X, Du H, Rong J Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research

Development, Calibration, and Validation of a Head-Neck Complex of THOR Mod Kit Finite Element Model.
Conclusion: The optimization-based calibration methodology was effective as it markedly improved model performance. The calibrated head-neck model demonstrated application in a crash safety analysis, showing slight head-neck injury sensitivity to pre-test positioning in a frontal crash impact scenario. PMID: 24433158 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Traffic Injury Prevention)
Source: Traffic Injury Prevention - January 16, 2014 Category: Occupational Health Authors: Putnam JB, Somers JT, Untaroiu CD Tags: Traffic Inj Prev Source Type: research