Baicalein Promotes Neuronal and Behavioral Recovery After Intracerebral Hemorrhage Via Suppressing Apoptosis, Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation.
Abstract Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an important public health problem in neurology, which is not only associated with high mortality but also leading to disability. Yet no satisfactory treatment has been developed. The secondary injury that resulted from a number of self-destructive processes such as neuroinflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress, is the key factor contributing to ICH-induced brain damage. Baicalein has been proved to improve neuronal functional recovery in rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage and ischemic brain damage. To investigate the effect of baicalein on ICH and its underlying me...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei N, Wei Y, Li B, Pang L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Twenty-seven Years of Cerebral Pyruvate Recycling.
e;n S Abstract Cerebral pyruvate recycling is a metabolic pathway deriving carbon skeletons and reducing equivalents from mitochondrial oxaloacetate and malate, to the synthesis of mitochondrial and cytosolic pyruvate, lactate and alanine. The pathway allows both, to provide the tricarboxylic acid cycle with pyruvate molecules produced from alternative substrates to glucose and, to generate reducing equivalents necessary for the operation of NADPH requiring processes. At the cellular level, pyruvate recycling involves the activity of malic enzyme, or the combined activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cerdán S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neurokinin-1 Receptor-Immunopositive Neurons in the Medullary Dorsal Horn Provide Collateral Axons to both the Thalamus and Parabrachial Nucleus in Rats.
Abstract It has been suggested that the trigemino-thalamic and trigemino-parabrachial projection neurons in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) are highly implicated in the sensory-discriminative and emotional/affective aspects of orofacial pain, respectively. In previous studies, some neurons were reported to send projections to both the thalamus and parabrachial nucleus by way of collaterals in the MDH. However, little is known about the chemoarchitecture of this group of neurons. Thus, in the present study, we determined whether the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, which is crucial for primary orofacial pain signaling...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li X, Ge SN, Li Y, Wang HT Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cdc42 Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Migration Through Wnt/ β-Catenin and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway After Sciatic Nerve Injury.
Cdc42 Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Migration Through Wnt/β-Catenin and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway After Sciatic Nerve Injury. Neurochem Res. 2017 Jan 17;: Authors: Han B, Zhao JY, Wang WT, Li ZW, He AP, Song XY Abstract Schwann cells (SCs) are unique glial cells in the peripheral nerve and may secrete multiple neurotrophic factors, adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix molecules to form the microenvironment of peripheral nerve regeneration, guiding and supporting nerve proliferation and migration. Cdc42 plays an important regulatory role in dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton. Howev...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Han B, Zhao JY, Wang WT, Li ZW, He AP, Song XY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Improves Motor Dysfunction in the Rotenone-Induced Mice Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) is diminished in patients of Parkinson's disease (PD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is responsible for regulating expression of the DRD3 in the brain. Our previous study showed that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) could increase BDNF content in the striatum of PD mice. This experiment aimed to evaluate whether HSYA can improve the motor dysfunction induced by rotenone through regulating the BDNF/TrkB/DRD3 signaling pathway in mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with HSYA. Thirty minutes later, they were intragastrically administered with rotenone a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang T, Wang L, Li C, Han B, Wang Z, Li J, Lv Y, Wang S, Fu F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Trachyspermum ammi Seeds Supplementation Helps Reverse Scopolamine, Alprazolam and Electroshock Induced Amnesia.
Abstract The present study was designed to explore the beneficial effects of successive 10 days administration of Trachyspermum ammi seed's powder (TASP) along with diet (at the dose of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% w/w) on learning and memory of mice. A total of 306 mice divided in 51 equal groups were employed in the study. Passive avoidance paradigm (PAP) and Object recognition Task (ORT) were employed as exteroceptive models. The brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), serum cholesterol, brain monoaldehyde (MDA), brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and brain nitrite were estimated and Alprazolam, Scopolamine and Electro...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Soni K, Parle M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Influence of Ivabradine on the Anticonvulsant Action of Four Classical Antiepileptic Drugs Against Maximal Electroshock-Induced Seizures in Mice.
In conclusion, the enhanced anticonvulsant action of valproate by ivabradine in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model was pharmacodynamic in nature. A special attention is required when combining ivabradine with phenytoin due to a pharmacokinetic interaction and reduction of the anticonvulsant action of phenytoin in mice. The combinations of ivabradine with carbamazepine and phenobarbital were neutral from a preclinical viewpoint. PMID: 28083847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sawicka KM, Wawryniuk A, Zwolak A, Daniluk J, Szpringer M, Florek-Luszczki M, Drop B, Zolkowska D, Luszczki JJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Physical and Social Components of Enriched Environment on Astrocytes Proliferation in Rats After Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.
Abstract Treatment of enriched environment (EE) exerts neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, how the component of EE contributes to the functional recovery after brain ischemia remains unclear. Here we examined the effect of physical and social components of EE on poststroke astrocytes proliferation using an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. Rats were divided into five groups: physical enrichment group (PE), social enrichment group (SE), physical and social enrichment group (PSE), ischemia + standard group (IS) an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen X, Zhang X, Liao W, Wan Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erythropoietin Rescues Primary Rat Cortical Neurons by Altering the Nrf2:Bach1 Ratio: Roles of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2.
Abstract While inhalation anesthetics are indispensable, and generally considered safe and effective, there is growing concern about the selective neurotoxicity of these agents, especially sevoflurane. Erythropoetin (EPO)-induced protection against sevoflurane-induced neuronal death is an effective intervention, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Extracellular signal-related kinases (Erk) 1/2 plays a pivotal role in cell growth and proliferation. Alteration of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)/BTB-to-CNC homology 1 (Bach1) ratio by Erk1/2 ameliorates the oxidative stress which oc...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang LM, Zhang DX, Zhao XC, Sun W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glycogen Supercompensation in the Rat Brain After Acute Hypoglycemia is Independent of Glucose Levels During Recovery.
Abstract Patients with diabetes display a progressive decay in the physiological counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia, resulting in hypoglycemia unawareness. The mechanism through which the brain adapts to hypoglycemia may involve brain glycogen. We tested the hypothesis that brain glycogen supercompensation following hypoglycemia depends on blood glucose levels during recovery. Conscious rats were submitted to hypoglycemia of 2 mmol/L for 90 min and allowed to recover at different glycemia, controlled by means of i.v. glucose infusion. Brain glycogen concentration was elevated above control level...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Duarte JM, Morgenthaler FD, Gruetter R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hyperbaric Oxygen Prevents Cognitive Impairments in Mice Induced by D-Galactose by Improving Cholinergic and Anti-apoptotic Functions.
Abstract Our previous study demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) improved cognitive impairments mainly by regulating oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and aging-related gene expression. However, a method for preventing cognitive dysfunction has yet to be developed. In the present study, we explored the protective effects of HBO on the cholinergic system and apoptosis in D-galactose (D-gal)-treated mice. A model of aging was established via systemic intraperitoneal injection of D-gal daily for 8 weeks. HBO was administered during the last 2 weeks of D-gal injection. Our results showed that HBO...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen C, Huang L, Nong Z, Li Y, Chen W, Huang J, Pan X, Wu G, Lin Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ameliorative Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cognitive Impairment: Role of Cholinergic System.
Abstract Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with gi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jin Y, Peng J, Wang X, Zhang D, Wang T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

L-F001, a Multifunction ROCK Inhibitor Prevents 6-OHDA Induced Cell Death Through Activating Akt/GSK-3beta and Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway in PC12 Cells and Attenuates MPTP-Induced Dopamine Neuron Toxicity in Mice.
Abstract Amounting evidences demonstrated that Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) might be a novel target for the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we synthesized L-F001 and revealed it was a potent ROCK inhibitor with multifunctional effects. Here we investigated the effects of L-F001 in PD models. We found that L-F001 potently attenuated 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells and significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevented the 6-OHDA-induced decline of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular GSH levels. In addition, L-F001 increased Akt and GSK-3beta ph...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luo L, Chen J, Su D, Chen M, Luo B, Pi R, Wang L, Shen W, Wang R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Resistance Exercise Reduces Seizure Occurrence, Attenuates Memory Deficits and Restores BDNF Signaling in Rats with Chronic Epilepsy.
In conclusion, resistance exercise reduced seizure occurrence and mitigated memory deficits in rats with epilepsy. These resistance exercise-induced beneficial effects can be related to changes in IGF-1 and BDNF levels and its signaling protein activation. Our findings indicate that the resistance exercise might be included as complementary therapeutic strategy for epilepsy treatment. PMID: 28078614 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: de Almeida AA, Gomes da Silva S, Lopim GM, Vannucci Campos D, Fernandes J, Cabral FR, Arida RM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Enthusiasm Scientifically Oriented: The Preface for the Special Issue Dedicated to Jan Albrecht.
PMID: 28078615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zielińska M, Aschner M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Preface for the Mary C. McKenna Honorary Issue of Neurochemical Research.
PMID: 28066856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schousboe A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

High Glucose Enhances Isoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity by Regulating TRPC-Dependent Calcium Influx.
Abstract Isoflurane is a commonly used inhalational anesthetic that can induce neurotoxicity via elevating cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)). High glucose regulates the expression of a family of non-selective cation channels termed transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels that may contribute to Ca(2+) influx. In the present study, we investigated whether high glucose enhances isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by regulating TRPC-dependent Ca(2+) influx. First, we evaluated toxic damage in mice primary cultured hippocampal neurons and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cells) after hyperglycemia and isoflurane...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Z, Ma C, Zhao W, Zhang Q, Xu R, Zhang H, Lei H, Xu S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Citrate, a Ubiquitous Key Metabolite with Regulatory Function in the CNS.
Abstract Citrate is key constituent of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, serves as substrate for fatty acid and sterol biosynthesis, and functions as a key regulator of intermediary energy metabolism. Ursula Sonnewald had initiated studies using for the first time both proton- and (13)C-NMR to investigate metabolic processes in cultured neurons and astrocytes resulting in the important observation that citrate was specifically synthesized in and released from astrocytes in large amounts which is in keeping with the high concentration found in the CSF. The aim of this review is to highlight the possible roles of ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Westergaard N, Waagepetersen HS, Belhage B, Schousboe A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Dr. Eugene Roberts, 1920-2016.
Authors: PMID: 28044241 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Loss or Mislocalization of Aquaporin-4 Affects Diffusion Properties and Intermediary Metabolism in Gray Matter of Mice.
g AK Abstract The first aim of this study was to determine how complete or perivascular loss of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels affects membrane permeability for water in the mouse brain grey matter in the steady state. Time-dependent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was performed on global Aqp4 knock out (KO) and α-syntrophin (α-syn) KO mice, in the latter perivascular AQP4 are mislocalized, but still functioning. Control animals were corresponding wild type (WT) mice. By combining in vivo diffusion measurements with the effective medium theory and previously measured extra-cellular volume ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pavlin T, Nagelhus EA, Brekken C, Eyjolfsson EM, Thoren A, Haraldseth O, Sonnewald U, Ottersen OP, Håberg AK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Early and Late Pathomechanisms in Alzheimer's Disease: From Zinc to Amyloid- β Neurotoxicity.
Early and Late Pathomechanisms in Alzheimer's Disease: From Zinc to Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity. Neurochem Res. 2016 Dec 30;: Authors: Szutowicz A, Bielarczyk H, Zyśk M, Dyś A, Ronowska A, Gul-Hinc S, Klimaszewska-Łata J Abstract There are several systemic and intracerebral pathologic conditions, which limit provision and utilization of energy precursor metabolites in neuronal cells. Energy deficits cause excessive depolarization of neuronal cells triggering glutamate-zinc evoked excitotoxic cascade. The intracellular zinc excess hits several intraneuronal targets yielding collapse of energy balan...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Szutowicz A, Bielarczyk H, Zyśk M, Dyś A, Ronowska A, Gul-Hinc S, Klimaszewska-Łata J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal Patterns of RING1 Expression after Rat Spinal Cord Injury.
Abstract Ring finger protein 1 (RING1) is a RING domain characterized protein belonging to the RING finger family. It is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediated monoubiquitination of histone H2A and the core component of PRC1 complex, which is the repressive multiprotein complex of Polycomb group (PcG). Previous studies showed the important tumorigenic role of RING1 via promoting cell proliferation and the crucial function in maintaining transcriptional program stability during development. However, its mechanism for spinal cord injury (SCI) is still unknown. In our research, we established an acute SCI model...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu H, Ji W, Gong P, Liu C, Duan C, Gao Y, Liu X, Zhang D, Zhu S, Gong L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Examination of the Role of NMDA and GABAA Receptors in the Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Striatal Dopamine Levels in Rats.
Abstract Hyperbaric oxygen induced in rats a decrease in striatal dopamine levels. Such decrease could be a result of changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic controls of the dopaminergic neurons into the Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta. The aim of this study was to determine the role of gluatamatergic and Gama-Amino-Butyric-Acid neurotransmissions in this alteration. Dopamine-sensitive electrodes were implanted into the striatum under general anesthesia. After one week rest, awaked rats were exposed to oxygen-nitrogen mixture at a partial pressure of oxygen of 3 absolute atmospheres. Dopamine level was monitored con...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lavoute C, Weiss M, Risso JJ, Rostain JC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Antagonism of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Alters Synaptic ERK Phosphorylation in the Rat Forebrain.
In this study, we investigated the role of mAChRs in the regulation of ERK phosphorylation (activation) in the mesocorticolimbic system of adult rat brains in vivo. We targeted a sub-pool of ERKs at synaptic sites. We found that a systemic injection of the mAChR antagonist scopolamine increased phosphorylation of synaptic ERKs in the striatum (caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Increases in ERK phosphorylation in both forebrain regions were rapid and transient. Notably, pretreatment with a dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonist SCH23390 blocked the scopolamine-stimulated ERK phosphor...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mao LM, Wang HH, Wang JQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Comparison of Glutamate Turnover in Nerve Terminals and Brain Tissue During [1,6-(13)C2]Glucose Metabolism in Anesthetized Rats.
Abstract The (13)C turnover of neurotransmitter amino acids (glutamate, GABA and aspartate) were determined from extracts of forebrain nerve terminals and brain homogenate, and fronto-parietal cortex from anesthetized rats undergoing timed infusions of [1,6-(13)C2]glucose or [2-(13)C]acetate. Nerve terminal (13)C fractional labeling of glutamate and aspartate was lower than those in whole cortical tissue at all times measured (up to 120 min), suggesting either the presence of a constant dilution flux from an unlabeled substrate or an unlabeled (effectively non-communicating on the measurement timescale) gluta...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Patel AB, Lai JC, Chowdhury GI, Rothman DL, Behar KL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Upregulated Expression of TRIM32 Is Involved in Schwann Cell Differentiation, Migration and Neurite Outgrowth After Sciatic Nerve Crush.
Abstract Tripartite motif containing 32 (TRIM32), a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, plays an indispensable role in myoblast proliferation. It also regulates neuron and skeletal muscle stem cell differentiation. Although it is of great importance, we know little about the roles of TRIM32 during peripheral nervous system injury. Here, we examined the dynamic changes of TRIM32 in acute sciatic nerve crush (SNC) model. After crush, TRIM32 rapidly increased and reached the climax at 1 week but then gradually declined to the normal level at 4 weeks post-injury. Meanwhile, we observed similar chan...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Y, Wu W, Yang H, Zhou Z, Zhu X, Sun C, Liu Y, Yu Z, Chen Y, Wang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intrathecal Delivery of ssAAV9-DAO Extends Survival in SOD1(G93A) ALS Mice.
In conclusion, administering ssAAV9-DAO may be an effective complementary approach to gene therapy to extend lifespans in symptomatic ALS. PMID: 28025800 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang W, Duan W, Wang Y, Wen D, Liu Y, Li Z, Hu H, Cui H, Cui C, Lin H, Li C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glucose and Intermediary Metabolism and Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions Following Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rat.
en TS Abstract Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and the delayed injury cascade that follows involve excitotoxicity, oxidative stress and mitochondrial failure. The susceptibility to excitotoxicity of the neonatal brain may be related to the capacity of astrocytes for glutamate uptake. Furthermore, the neonatal brain is vulnerable to oxidative stress, and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) may be of particular importance for limiting this kind of injury. Also, in the neonatal brain, neurons depend upon de novo synthesis of neurotransmitters via pyruvate carboxylase in astrocytes to increase neurotransmitter pools du...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Brekke E, Berger HR, Widerøe M, Sonnewald U, Morken TS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glutamate and Brain Glutaminases in Drug Addiction.
FJ, de Fonseca FR Abstract Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and its actions are related to the behavioral effects of psychostimulant drugs. In the last two decades, basic neuroscience research and preclinical studies with animal models are suggesting a critical role for glutamate transmission in drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse. Although most of the interest has been centered in post-synaptic glutamate receptors, the presynaptic synthesis of glutamate through brain glutaminases may also contribute to imbalances in glutamate homeostasis, a key feature of th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Márquez J, Campos-Sandoval JA, Peñalver A, Matés JM, Segura JA, Blanco E, Alonso FJ, de Fonseca FR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Upregulated TLR3 Promotes Neuropathic Pain by Regulating Autophagy in Rat With L5 Spinal Nerve Ligation Model.
Abstract Microglia, rapidly activated following peripheral nerve injury (PNI), accumulate within the spinal cord and adopt inflammation that contributes to development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Microglia express functional Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play pivotal roles in regulating inflammatory processes. However, little is known about the role of TLR3 in regulating neuropathic pain after PNI. Here TLR3 expression and autophagy activation was assayed in dorsal root ganglions and in microglia following PNI by using realtime PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry. The role of TLR3/autophagy sig...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen W, Lu Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Role of Cell Metabolism and Mitochondrial Function During Adult Neurogenesis.
Abstract Brain is the major consumer of glucose in the human body, whose pattern of consumption changes through lifetime, decreasing during adolescence up to adulthood. This evidence leads to the hypothesis that, in cerebral developmental stages, glycolysis might be the driving force for the high-energy requirement. Furthermore, several studies claim that neurogenesis process is accompanied by a shift into mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. Herein, we discuss recent work about cell metabolism during neuronal differentiation process, in particular the mitochondrial role in cellular bioenergy dynamics. PMID: 2...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Almeida AS, Vieira HL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Pinocembrin Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells Exposed to Methylglyoxal: Role for the Erk1/2-Nrf2 Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Pinocembrin (PB; 5,7-dihydroxyflavanone) is found in propolis and exhibits antioxidant activity in several experimental models. The antioxidant capacity of PB is associated with the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2/antioxidant response element (Nrf2/ARE) signaling pathway. The Nrf2/ARE axis mediates the expression of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and the catalytic (GCLC) and regulatory (GCLM) subunits of the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), γ-gluta...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: de Oliveira MR, Peres A, Ferreira GC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of (-)-Sesamin on Chronic Stress-Induced Anxiety Disorders in Mice.
This study investigated the effects of (-)-sesamin on chronic electric footshock (EF) stress-induced anxiety disorders in mice. Mice were treated with (-)-sesamin (25 and 50 mg/kg) orally once a day for 21 days prior to exposure to EF stress (0.6 mA, 1 s every 5 s, 3 min). Mice treated with (-)-sesamin (25 and 50 mg/kg) exhibited less severe decreases in the number of open arm entries and time spent on open arms in the elevated plus-maze test and the distance traveled in the open field test following exposure to chronic EF stress. Similarly, mice treated with (-)-sesamin exhibited significantl...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao TT, Shin KS, Park HJ, Yi BR, Lee KE, Lee MK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Downregulation of Oxytocin Receptor Decreases the Length of Projections Stimulated by Retinoic Acid in the U-87MG Cells.
Abstract Oxytocin is a neuropeptide widely expressed in the brain. Oxytocin plays a role in both proliferation and differentiation of various cells. Previous studies have suggested that oxytocin could affect the morphology of neuronal cells, therefore the objective of the present study was to test whether (1) oxytocin receptor stimulation/inhibition by specific ligands may change cell morphology and gene expression of selected cytoskeletal proteins (2) oxytocin receptor silencing/knockdown may decrease the length of cell projections (3) oxytocin receptor knockdown may affect human glioblastoma U-87MG cell survival...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lestanova Z, Puerta F, Alanazi M, Bacova Z, Kiss A, Castejon AM, Bakos J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Erythropoietin on Phenylhydrazine-Induced Hemolytic Hyperbilirubinemia in Neonatal Rats.
zek E Abstract Neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia might cause severe bilirubin neurotoxicity in especially hemolytic conditions. The study aimed to elucidate the potential neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) in hemolysis-induced hyperbilirubinemia. In newborn rats, hyperbilirubinemia secondary to hemolysis was induced by injecting with phenylhydrazine hydrochloride (PHZ) and rats were injected with either vehicle or EPO. At 54th hour of the PHZ injection, rats were decapitated. Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and S100-B and brain malondiald...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Memisoglu A, Kolgazi M, Yaman A, Bahadir E, Sirvanci S, Yeğen BÇ, Ozek E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Induction of G1 Cell Cycle Arrest in Human Glioma Cells by Salinomycin Through Triggering ROS-Mediated DNA Damage In Vitro and In Vivo.
Abstract Chemotherapy has always been one of the most effective ways in combating human glioma. However, the high metastatic potential and resistance toward standard chemotherapy severely hindered the chemotherapy outcomes. Hence, searching effective chemotherapy drugs and clarifying its mechanism are of great significance. Salinomycin an antibiotic shows novel anticancer potential against several human tumors, including human glioma, but its mechanism against human glioma cells has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, we demonstrated that salinomycin treatment time- and dose-dependently inhibited U251...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao SJ, Wang XJ, Wu QJ, Liu C, Li DW, Fu XT, Zhang HF, Shao LR, Sun JY, Sun BL, Zhai J, Fan CD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Echinacoside on Regulating the Stress-Active p38MAPK and NF- κB p52 Signals in the Mice Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Neuroprotective Effects of Echinacoside on Regulating the Stress-Active p38MAPK and NF-κB p52 Signals in the Mice Model of Parkinson's Disease. Neurochem Res. 2016 Dec 15; Authors: Zhang J, Zhang Z, Xiang J, Cai M, Yu Z, Li X, Wu T, Cai D Abstract Herbal medicines have long been used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). To systematically analyze the anti-parkinsonian activity of echinacoside (ECH) in a neurotoxic model of PD and provide a future basis for basic and clinical investigations, male C57BL/6 mice were randomized into blank control, PD model and ECH-administration groups. ECH significant...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang J, Zhang Z, Xiang J, Cai M, Yu Z, Li X, Wu T, Cai D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

FTY720 Attenuates 6-OHDA-Associated Dopaminergic Degeneration in Cellular and Mouse Parkinsonian Models.
Abstract FTY720 (fingolimod) is the first oral drug approved for treating relapsing-remitting forms of multiple sclerosis. It is also protective in other neurological models including ischemia, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease and Rett syndrome. However, whether it might protect in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) mouse model associated with the dopaminergic pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD), has not been explored. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of FTY720 on 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in cell cultures and mice. Here we show that FTY720 protected against 6-OHDA cytotoxicity an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ren M, Han M, Wei X, Guo Y, Shi H, Zhang X, Perez RG, Lou H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Anti-Neuroinflammatory Effects of Fucoxanthin via Inhibition of Akt/NF- κB and MAPKs/AP-1 Pathways and Activation of PKA/CREB Pathway in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated BV-2 Microglial Cells.
Anti-Neuroinflammatory Effects of Fucoxanthin via Inhibition of Akt/NF-κB and MAPKs/AP-1 Pathways and Activation of PKA/CREB Pathway in Lipopolysaccharide-Activated BV-2 Microglial Cells. Neurochem Res. 2016 Dec 08; Authors: Zhao D, Kwon SH, Chun YS, Gu MY, Yang HO Abstract Microglia play a critical role in controlling the homeostasis of the brain, but over-activated microglia secrete pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines, which induce neuronal cell death. Fucoxanthin (Fx), a marine carotenoid, has demonstrated a variety of beneficial health effects. Despite accumulating evidence supporting t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao D, Kwon SH, Chun YS, Gu MY, Yang HO Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Metabolic Characterization of Acutely Isolated Hippocampal and Cerebral Cortical Slices Using [U-(13)C]Glucose and [1,2-(13)C]Acetate as Substrates.
Abstract Brain slice preparations from rats, mice and guinea pigs have served as important tools for studies of neurotransmission and metabolism. While hippocampal slices routinely have been used for electrophysiology studies, metabolic processes have mostly been studied in cerebral cortical slices. Few comparative characterization studies exist for acute hippocampal and cerebral cortical slices, hence, the aim of the current study was to characterize and compare glucose and acetate metabolism in these slice preparations in a newly established incubation design. Cerebral cortical and hippocampal slices prepared fr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: McNair LF, Kornfelt R, Walls AB, Andersen JV, Aldana BI, Nissen JD, Schousboe A, Waagepetersen HS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Demyelination Occurred as the Secondary Damage Following Diffuse Axonal Loss in a Rat Model of Radiation Myelopathy.
Abstract The main purpose of the present study was to examine the time and dose-dependent course of demyelination in the rat radiation myelopathy model in the first 180 days after irradiation of the spinal cord. An irradiated cervical spinal cord rat model (C2-T2 segment) was generated using a (60)Co irradiator to deliver 50 Gy and 100 Gy, respectively. The behavioral dysfunction was observed by the forelimb paralysis scoring system. The histological damage in the irradiated spinal cord was examined by hematoxylin/eosin staining, luxol fast blue staining, immunohistochemical analysis, methylene blue...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei L, Zhou Y, Liu CJ, Zheng K, You H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Variable Doses of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles on Male Albino Mice Behavior.
Abstract Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have diverse utility these days ranging from being part of nanosensors to be ingredient of cosmetics. Present study was designed to report the effect of variable doses of ZnO NPs on selected aspects of male albino mice behavior. Nano particles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method (Data not shown here). 10 week old male albino mice were divided into four experimental groups; group A, B and C were orally supplemented with 50 (low dose), 300 (medium dose) and 600 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight (high dose) of ZnO NPs for 4 days. Group D (control) orally rece...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zahra J, Iqbal S, Zahra K, Javed Z, Shad MA, Akbar A, Ashiq MN, Iqbal F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Pentoxifylline Alleviates Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Possibly via Inhibiting TLR 4/NF- κB Signaling Pathway.
Pentoxifylline Alleviates Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats: Possibly via Inhibiting TLR 4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2016 Dec 08; Authors: Xia DY, Zhang HS, Wu LY, Zhang XS, Zhou ML, Hang CH Abstract Early brain injury (EBI) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) generally causes significant and lasting damage. Pentoxifylline (PTX), a nonselective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, has shown anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties in several brain injury models, but the role of PTX with respect to EBI following SAH remains uncertain. The purpose ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 8, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xia DY, Zhang HS, Wu LY, Zhang XS, Zhou ML, Hang CH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Metabolic Changes in the Bilateral Visual Cortex of the Monocular Blind Macaque: A Multi-Voxel Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study.
In conclusion, the difference of metabolic ratios can be detected by multi-voxel (1)H-MRS in the visual cortex between groups A and B, which was valuable for investigating the adaptive plasticity of monocular blind macaque. PMID: 27909856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 1, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu L, Tang Z, Feng X, Sun X, Qian W, Wang J, Jin L, Jiang J, Zhong Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Time Course, Behavioral Safety, and Protective Efficacy of Centrally Active Reversible Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors in Cynomolgus Macaques.
Abstract Galantamine hydrobromide and (-)huperzine A, centrally active reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, are potentially superior to the current standard, pyridostigmine bromide, as a pretreatment for organophosphorus chemical warfare nerve agent intoxication. Galantamine, huperzine, and pyridostigmine were compared for time course of acetylcholinesterase inhibition in 12 cynomolgus macaques. Although both galantamine and huperzine shared a similar time course profile for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, huperzine was 88 times more potent than galantamine. The dose for 50% acetylcholinesterase inhibition...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hamilton LR, Schachter SC, Myers TM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroleptic Drugs and PACAP Differentially Affect the mRNA Expression of Genes Encoding PAC1/VPAC Type Receptors.
In conclusion, our findings suggest PACAP receptors may be involved in the mechanism of typical and atypical neuroleptic drugs. PMID: 27900577 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jóźwiak-Bębenista M, Kowalczyk E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Potential Mechanism of Neurite Outgrowth Enhanced by Electrical Stimulation: Involvement of MicroRNA-363-5p Targeting DCLK1 Expression in Rat.
In conclusion, our data has indicated that miR-363-5p is involved in ES-promoted neurite outgrowth by targeting DCLK1. These findings provide new insights into the roles of miRNAs in ES-enhanced neurite outgrowth and regeneration. PMID: 27900578 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Quan X, Huang L, Yang Y, Ma T, Liu Z, Ge J, Huang J, Luo Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Melatonin Attenuates Manganese and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Activation of BV2 Microglia.
This study examined the effects of melatonin on manganese (Mn) and/or lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial activation. Melatonin (10 μM) inhibited Mn (100 μM) and/or LPS (0.5 μg/ml)-induced phagocytotic activity of activated BV2 microglia. It also inhibited the lipid peroxidation and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion induced by Mn and/or LPS. Melatonin effectively suppressed the upregulation of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at both mRNA and protein levels in Mn and/or LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. In addition, melatonin pretre...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Park E, Chun HS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Antidepressant-Like Effect of Isorhynchophylline in Mice.
Abstract Isorhynchophylline (IRN), an oxindole alkaloid, has been identified as the main active ingredient responsible for the biological activities of Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq) Miq ex Havil. (Rubiaceae). Previous studies in our laboratory have revealed that IRN possesses potent neuroprotective effects in different models of Alzheimer's disease. However, the antidepressant-like effects of IRN are remained unclear. The present study aims to evaluate the antidepressant-like effects of IRN. The antidepressant-like effects of IRN was determined by using animal models of depression including forced swimming and tail ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xian YF, Fan D, Ip SP, Mao QQ, Lin ZX Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

RNA-Seq Expression Analysis of Enteric Neuron Cells with Rotenone Treatment and Prediction of Regulated Pathways.
In this study, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis to examine differential expression genes (DEGs) and pathways induced by in vitro treatment of rotenone in the enteric nervous cells isolated from rats. We identified 45 up-regulated and 30 down-regulated genes. The functional categorization revealed that the DEGs were involved in the regulation of cell differentiation and development, response to various stimuli, and regulation of neurogenesis. In addition, the pathway and network analysis showed that the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), Toll-like receptor, Wnt, and Ras signaling pathways were intensively inv...
Source: Neurochemical Research - November 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guan Q, Wang X, Jiang Y, Zhao L, Nie Z, Jin L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research