Yokukansan Reduces Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination in the Corpus Callosum Through Anti-inflammatory Effects on Microglia.
In this study, female C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet containing 0.2% cuprizone (bis-cyclohexanone oxaldihydrazone) to induce demyelination in the corpus callosum. We investigated whether or not yokukansan reduces cuprizone-induced demyelination using immunohistochemical analyses. Furthermore, we examined the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of yokukansan on LPS-stimulated BV2 cells, a murine microglial cell line. Luxol fast blue staining and immunostaining for myelin basic protein demonstrated that yokukansan reduces demyelination of the corpora callosa of cuprizone-fed mice. In addition, yokukansan significantly decreased...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nomura T, Bando Y, You H, Tanaka T, Yoshida S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Betaine in the Brain: Characterization of Betaine Uptake, its Influence on Other Osmolytes and its Potential Role in Neuroprotection from Osmotic Stress.
Abstract Betaine (N-trimethylglycine), a common osmolyte, has received attention because of the number of clinical reports associating betaine supplementation with improved cognition, neuroprotection and exercise physiology. However, tissue analyses report little accumulation of betaine in brain tissue despite the presence of betaine/GABA transporters (BGT1) at the blood brain barrier and in nervous tissue, calling into question whether betaine influences neuronal function directly or indirectly. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine what capacity nervous tissue has to accumulate betaine, specificall...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Knight LS, Piibe Q, Lambie I, Perkins C, Yancey PH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Oligodendrocyte-Neuron Interactions: Impact on Myelination and Brain Function.
Abstract In the past, glial cells were considered to be 'glue' cells whose primary role was thought to be merely filling gaps in neural circuits. However, a growing number of reports have indicated the role of glial cells in higher brain function through their interaction with neurons. Myelin was originally thought to be just a sheath structure surrounding neuronal axons, but recently it has been shown that myelin exerts effects on the conduction velocity of neuronal axons even after myelin formation. Therefore, the investigation of glial cell properties and the neuron-glial interactions is important for understan...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shimizu T, Osanai Y, Ikenaka K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Stress Causes Sex-Specific and Structure-Specific Alterations in Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Activity in Rat Brain.
This study aimed to investigate the CRS effects on mitochondrial respiratory chain activity, as well as mitochondrial potential and mass in cell body and synapses using hippocampus, cortex and striatum of male and female rats. Rats were divided into non-stressed (control) and stressed group (CRS during 40 days). Results showed that CRS increased complex I-III activity in hippocampus. We also observed an interaction between CRS and sex in the striatal complex II activity, since CRS induced a reduction in complex II activity in males, while in females this activity was increased. Also an interaction was observed between...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: de Souza Mota C, Weis SN, Almeida RF, Dalmaz C, Guma FTC, Pettenuzzo LF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Re Protects Trimethyltin-Induced Neurotoxicity via Activation of IL-6-Mediated Phosphoinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Signaling in Mice.
Abstract Ginseng (Panax ginseng), an herbal medicine, has been used to prevent neurodegenerative disorders. Ginsenosides (e.g., Re, Rb1, or Rg1) were obtained from Korean mountain cultivated ginseng. The anticonvulsant activity of ginsenoside Re (20 mg/kg/day × 3) against trimethyltin (TMT) insult was the most pronounced out of ginsenosides (e.g., Re, Rb1, and Rg1). Re itself did not significantly alter tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-ϒ (IFN-ϒ), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression, however, it significantly increases the interleukin-6 (IL-6) ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tu TT, Sharma N, Shin EJ, Tran HQ, Lee YJ, Jeong JH, Jeong JH, Nah SY, Tran HP, Byun JK, Ko SK, Kim HC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neural Progenitor Cells Undergoing Yap/Tead-Mediated Enhanced Self-Renewal Form Heterotopias More Easily in the Diencephalon than in the Telencephalon.
Abstract Spatiotemporally ordered production of cells is essential for brain development. Normally, most undifferentiated neural progenitor cells (NPCs) face the apical (ventricular) surface of embryonic brain walls. Pathological detachment of NPCs from the apical surface and their invasion of outer neuronal territories, i.e., formation of NPC heterotopias, can disrupt the overall structure of the brain. Although NPC heterotopias have previously been observed in a variety of experimental contexts, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Yes-associated protein 1 (Yap1) and the TEA domain (Tead) proteins, ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Saito K, Kawasoe R, Sasaki H, Kawaguchi A, Miyata T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cytochrome P450 2D6 and Parkinson's Disease: Polymorphism, Metabolic Role, Risk and Protection.
Abstract Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 is one of the most highly active, oxidative and polymorphic enzymes known to metabolize Parkinsonian toxins and clinically established anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) drugs. Albeit CYP2D6 gene is not present in rodents, its orthologs perform almost the similar function with imprecise substrate and inhibitor specificity. CYP2D6 expression and catalytic activity are found to be regulated at every stage of the central dogma except replication as well as at the epigenetic level. CYP2D6 gene codes for a set of alternate splice variants that give rise to a range of enzymes possessing var...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ur Rasheed MS, Mishra AK, Singh MP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Activities of Spirulina platensis in the 6-OHDA Model of Parkinson's Disease Are Related to Its Anti-Inflammatory Effects.
In conclusion, we showed that behavioral and neurochemical alterations in hemiparkinsonian rats were partly reversed by SPI, characterizing the neuroprotective potential of Spirulina and stimulating translational studies focusing on its use as an alternative treatment for PD. PMID: 28861668 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lima FAV, Joventino IP, Joventino FP, de Almeida AC, Neves KRT, do Carmo MR, Leal LKAM, de Andrade GM, de Barros Viana GS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

SOD1 Mutations Causing Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Induce Toxicity in Astrocytes: Evidence for Bystander Effects in a Continuum of Astrogliosis.
Abstract Astrocytes contribute to the death of motor neurons via non-cell autonomous mechanisms of injury in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Since mutations in the gene encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) underlie the neuropathology of some forms of familial ALS, we explored how expression of mutant SOD1 protein A4V SOD1-EGFP affected the biology of secondary murine astrocytes. A4V SOD1-EGFP expressing astrocytes (72 h after transfection) displayed decreased mitochondrial activity (~45%) and L-glutamate transport (~25%), relative to cells expressing wild-type SOD1-EGFP. A4V SOD1-EGFP altered F-act...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wallis N, Lau CL, Farg MA, Atkin JD, Beart PM, O'Shea RD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Estrogen Receptor β Mediated Neuroprotective Efficacy of Cicer microphyllum Seed Extract in Global Hypoxia.
Estrogen Receptor β Mediated Neuroprotective Efficacy of Cicer microphyllum Seed Extract in Global Hypoxia. Neurochem Res. 2017 Aug 31;: Authors: Sharma D, Biswal SN, Kumar K, Bhardwaj P, Barhwal KK, Kumar A, Hota SK, Chaurasia OP Abstract Hypoxia induced oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in the hippocampus has been implicated for memory impairment in conditions like stroke, ischemia and hypobaric hypoxia. The present study, aimed at investigating the potential of ethanolic extract of Cicer microphyllum seeds (CSE) for amelioration of global hypoxia induced neurodegeneration in CA1 region of...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sharma D, Biswal SN, Kumar K, Bhardwaj P, Barhwal KK, Kumar A, Hota SK, Chaurasia OP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Capsaicin Protects Against Oxidative Insults and Alleviates Behavioral Deficits in Rats with 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinson's Disease via Activation of TRPV1.
This study investigated the potential neuroprotective role of capsaicin in a rat model of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced Parkinson's disease (PD). Capsaicin was treated intraperitoneally for the 6-OHDA induced PD rats and the locomotor activity and abnormal involuntary movements were found alleviated. Besides, brain oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and catalase) was also assessed, and oxidative insults were investigated relieved. Both the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and TRPV1 were increased in the striatal and substantia nigra areas of 6-OHDA induced rats after the treatment of capsaici...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao Z, Wang J, Wang L, Yao X, Liu Y, Li Y, Chen S, Yue T, Wang X, Yu W, Liu Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

GluA4 Dependent Plasticity Mechanisms Contribute to Developmental Synchronization of the CA3-CA1 Circuitry in the Hippocampus.
Abstract During the course of development, molecular mechanisms underlying activity-dependent synaptic plasticity change considerably. At immature CA3-CA1 synapses in the hippocampus, PKA-driven synaptic insertion of GluA4 AMPA receptors is the predominant mechanism for synaptic strengthening. However, the physiological significance of the developmentally restricted GluA4-dependent plasticity mechanisms is poorly understood. Here we have used microelectrode array (MEA) recordings in GluA4 deficient slice cultures to study the role of GluA4 in early development of the hippocampal circuit function. We find that duri...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Atanasova T, Kharybina Z, Kaarela T, Huupponen J, Luchkina NV, Taira T, Lauri SE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Extracellular Cytosolic Aspartate Aminotransferase Promotes Axonal Growth and Object Recognition Memory.
Abstract Previous proteome analysis studies from other groups have shown that cAST might be secreted from neurons and that cAST was detected in human cerebrospinal fluid. However, none of these studies focused on its role or significance. We therefore investigated the role of extracellular cAST for neurons. cAST was detected in conditioned medium from cultured cortical neurons, but not in fresh medium. Recombinant cAST treatment of cortical neurons significantly extended axonal length. Continuous intracerebroventricular administration of recombinant cAST in normal mice for 14 days significantly enhanced objec...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kobayashi R, Tohda C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Anti-glioma Activity of Dapsone and Its Enhancement by Synthetic Chemical Modification.
Abstract The sulfone dapsone is an old antibiotic used for the treatment of mycobacterial and protozoal infections. We postulated before that dapsone might possess biological activity exceeding its anti-infectious properties and that it could potentially be repurposed for the treatment of glioma. To test this hypothesis, we treated established and primary cultured glioma cells with dapsone or several dapsone analogues which we previously synthesized (D2-D5) and determined effects on proliferation, anchorage-independent growth and migration. While dapsone and its synthetic analogues D2-D5 displayed only modest anti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Karpel-Massler G, Kast RE, Siegelin MD, Dwucet A, Schneider E, Westhoff MA, Wirtz CR, Chen XY, Halatsch ME, Bolm C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Antioxidative and Anti-Apoptotic Roles of Silibinin in Reversing Learning and Memory Deficits in APP/PS1 Mice.
Abstract Silibinin has been widely used to treat liver diseases due to its antioxidant activity. However, the effects of silibinin on the central nervous system have not been thoroughly investigated. The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease are the accumulation of amyloid β protein, development of neurofibrillary tangles and increased oxidative stress, which ultimately lead to irreversible neuronal loss and cognitive impairment. Our findings show that silibinin ameliorated memory impairments in APP/PS1 mice in the Morris water maze via suppression of oxidative stress and inhibition of apoptosis. Trea...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 29, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bai D, Jin G, Yin S, Zou D, Zhu Q, Yang Z, Liu X, Ren L, Sun Y, Gan S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

N-Acetylcysteine Prevents the Increase in Spontaneous Oxidation of Dopamine During Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition in PC12 Cells.
This study examined whether N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of the anti-oxidant glutathione, attenuates the increase in Cys-DA production during MAO inhibition. Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were incubated with NAC, the MAO-B inhibitor selegiline, or both. Selegiline decreased DOPAL and increased Cys-DA levels (p 
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Goldstein DS, Jinsmaa Y, Sullivan P, Sharabi Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Promotes Amyloid-Beta Pathogenesis via Activating β/γ-Secretases.
Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Promotes Amyloid-Beta Pathogenesis via Activating β/γ-Secretases. Neurochem Res. 2017 Aug 24;: Authors: Cai Z, Liu Z, Xiao M, Wang C, Tian F Abstract Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) contributes to the Alzheimer's-like pathogenesis, but the relationship between CCH and the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains obscure. The aim is to elucidate the potential pathophysiological mechanism in the field of amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology induced by CCH. A rat model of CCH has been developed with permanent bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cai Z, Liu Z, Xiao M, Wang C, Tian F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Future Vocation of Neural Stem Cells: Lineage Commitment in Brain Development and Evolution.
Abstract Understanding the fate commitment of neural stem cells is critical to identify the regulatory mechanisms in developing brains. Genetic lineage-tracing has provided a powerful strategy to unveil the heterogeneous nature of stem cells and their descendants. However, recent studies have reported controversial data regarding the heterogeneity of neural stem cells in the developing mouse neocortex, which prevents a decisive conclusion on this issue. Here, we review the progress that has been made using lineage-tracing analyses of the developing neocortex and discuss stem cell heterogeneity from the viewpoint o...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nomura T, Gotoh H, Ono K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Purinergic Antagonism Prevents Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Behavioral Deficits Associated with Dopaminergic Toxicity Induced by 6-OHDA in Rats.
Abstract Purinoceptors are present in neurons, microglia and oligodendrocytes and regulate dopamine (DA) release, striatal-related function and striatal neuronal and DA cells damage. Therefore, purinoceptors may be involved in the pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and purinergic antagonism may show neuroprotective effect. The study investigated the role of the non-selective purinergic receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2('), 4(')-disulfonic acid (PPADS) and a selective purinergic receptor P2X7 receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) against 6-OHDA induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats; ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kumar S, Mishra A, Krishnamurthy S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Purine Salvage Pathway and the Restoration of Cerebral ATP: Implications for Brain Slice Physiology and Brain Injury.
Abstract Brain slices have been the workhorse for many neuroscience labs since the pioneering work of Henry McIlwain in the 1950s. Their utility is undisputed and their acceptance as appropriate models for the central nervous system is widespread, if not universal. However, the skeleton in the closet is that ATP levels in brain slices are lower than those found in vivo, which may have important implications for cellular physiology and plasticity. Far from this being a disadvantage, the ATP-impoverished slice can serve as a useful and experimentally-tractable surrogate for the injured brain, which experiences simil...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Frenguelli BG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Puerarin and Amlodipine Improvement of D-Galactose-Induced Impairments of Behaviour and Neurogenesis in Mouse Dentate Gyrus: Correlation with Glucocorticoid Receptor Expression.
In this study, we hypothesized that hypotensors could alleviate the decline of GR gene expression and ameliorate age-induced learning and memory deficits in a D-gal-induced ageing mice model. In line with our hypothesis, we found that chronic D-gal treatment decreased GR and DCX expression in the hippocampus, leading to learning and memory deficits. Amlodipine (AM) and puerarin (PU) treatment improved GR gene expression decline in the hippocampus and ameliorated the learning and memory deficits of D-gal-treated mice. These changes correlated with enhanced DCX expression and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expressi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 22, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li X, Ma J, Xu J, Zhu D, Li A, Che Y, Chen D, Feng X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Expression of Unconventional Myosin VI in Oligodendrocytes.
In this study, to analyze expression of Myo6 in oligodendrocytes, we performed immunofluorescence analysis on brains of adult normal and cuprizone-induced demyelination mice. Myo6 expression was detected in mature oligodendrocytes and oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the cerebellum and corpus callosum. To compare temporal expression patterns of myosin superfamily members in vitro, double immunostainings using anti-Myo6, myosin Va (Myo5a), or Myo1d with each stage-specific oligodendrocyte marker antibody were performed. In cultured oligodendrocytes, although Myo1d was found only in mature oligodendrocytes, Myo6 and Myo5a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yamazaki R, Ishibashi T, Baba H, Yamaguchi Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Dimeric PSD-95 Inhibition on Excitotoxic Cell Death and Outcome After Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats.
The objectives of the present study were to assess the effects of a dimeric inhibitor of PSD-95, UCCB01-144, on excitotoxic cell death in vitro and outcome after experimental TBI in rats in vivo. In addition, the pharmacokinetic parameters of UCCB01-144 were investigated in order to assess uptake of the drug into the central nervous system of rats. After a controlled cortical impact rats were randomized to receive a single injection of either saline or two different doses of UCCB01-144 (10 or 20 mg/kg IV) immediately after injury. Spatial learning and memory were assessed in a water maze at 2 weeks post-trauma, a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sommer JB, Bach A, Malá H, Gynther M, Bjerre AS, Gram MG, Marschner L, Strømgaard K, Mogensen J, Pickering DS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Oligomer Hypothesis in α-Synucleinopathy.
This report reviews the recent findings regarding the oligomer hypothesis in the research of α-synucleinopathies. PMID: 28828740 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ono K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Do Evolutionary Changes in Astrocytes Contribute to the Computational Power of the Hominid Brain?
Abstract It is now well accepted that astrocytes are essential in all major nervous system functions of the rodent brain, including neurotransmission, energy metabolism, modulation of blood flow, ion and water homeostasis, and, indeed, higher cognitive functions, although the contribution of astrocytes in cognition is still in early stages of study. Here we review the most current research findings on human astrocytes, including their structure, molecular characterization, and functional properties. We also highlight novel tools that have been established for translational approaches to the comparative study of as...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Oberheim Bush NA, Nedergaard M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Leptin Regulation of Synaptic Function at Hippocampal TA-CA1 and SC-CA1 Synapses: Implications for Health and Disease.
Abstract Growing evidence indicates that the endocrine hormone leptin regulates hippocampal synaptic function in addition to its established role as a hypothalamic satiety signal. Indeed, numerous studies show that leptin facilitates the cellular events that underlie hippocampal learning and memory including activity-dependent synaptic plasticity and glutamate receptor trafficking, indicating that leptin may be a potential cognitive enhancer. Although there has been extensive investigation into the modulatory role of leptin at hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC)-CA1 synapses, recent evidence indicates that leptin...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: McGregor G, Harvey J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Paraquat-Induced Movement Disorder in Relation to Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neurodegeneration in the Brain of Drosophila melanogaster.
Abstract Exposure to pesticides like paraquat (PQ) is considered as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). PQ has been shown to induce PD-like phenotype in experimental animals. Drosophila, a valuable laboratory model organism, is widely used to study neurodegenerative disorders including PD. The acute (single dose) PQ model of PD in Drosophila is associated with high mortality as well as reversibility of locomotor deficits and, therefore, does not replicate the disease phenotype. We have investigated the relevance of the acute and multiple (sublethal) dose of PQ to induce PD-like symptoms in Drosophila ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Niveditha S, Ramesh SR, Shivanandappa T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of PTEN Attenuates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis via Activation of PI3K/AKT Pathway in Alzheimer's Disease.
In this study, we demonstrate that the expression of PTEN and ER stress related proteins, GRP78 and CHOP, increased in APP/PS1 transgenic AD mice compared with WT mice. A PTEN inhibitor, dipotassium bisperoxo-(5-hydroxypyridine-2-carboxyl)-oxovanadate (bpv) could decrease apoptosis, induce AKT phosphorylation and inhibit the ER stress response proteins in hippocampus in APP/PS1 transgenic AD model mice. Furthermore, treatment with the specific PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, significantly blocked the anti-apoptotic effects of bpv in AD mice. The expression in GRP78, CHOP and apoptosis levels by bpv was reversed after PI3K inhibi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cui W, Wang S, Wang Z, Wang Z, Sun C, Zhang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Role of Apocynin via Suppression of Neuronal Autophagy and TLR4/NF- κB Signaling Pathway in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.
In conclusion, our findings indicate that the protective effects of apocynin may be related to modulation of neuronal autophagy and the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID: 28786047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Feng Y, Cui C, Liu X, Wu Q, Hu F, Zhang H, Ma Z, Wang L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

mRNA and Long Non-coding RNA Expression Profiles in Rats Reveal Inflammatory Features in Sepsis-Associated Encephalopathy.
Abstract Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) is related to cognitive sequelae in patients in the intensive care unit and can have serious impacts on quality of life after recovery. Although various pathogenic pathways are involved in SAE development, little is known concerning the global role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in SAE. Herein, we employed transcriptome sequencing approaches to characterize the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on lncRNA expression patterns in brain tissue isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats with and without SAE. We performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing after LPS was ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun W, Pei L, Liang Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Naringenin Attenuates H2O2-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction by an Nrf2-Dependent Mechanism in SH-SY5Y Cells.
Abstract Mitochondria are the major site of ATP production in mammalian cells. Furthermore, these organelles are a source and a target of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as radical anion superoxide (O2(-·)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the master regulator of the mammalian redox biology and controls the expression of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes in several cell types. Naringenin (NGN, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2,3-dihydrochromen-4-one), a flavanone, exhibits cytoprotective effects by acting as an anti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: de Oliveira MR, Brasil FB, Andrade CMB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Assessment of the Target Engagement and D-Serine Biomarker Profiles of the D-Amino Acid Oxidase Inhibitors Sodium Benzoate and PGM030756.
Abstract Irregular N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function is one of the main hypotheses employed to facilitate understanding of the underlying disease state of schizophrenia. Although direct agonism of the NMDAR has not yielded promising therapeutics, advances have been made by modulating the NMDAR co-agonist site which is activated by glycine and D-serine. One approach to activate the co-agonist site is to increase synaptic D-serine levels through inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO), the major catabolic clearance pathway for this and other D-amino acids. A number of DAO inhibitors have been developed...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Howley E, Bestwick M, Fradley R, Harrison H, Leveridge M, Okada K, Fieldhouse C, Farnaby W, Canning H, Sykes AP, Merchant K, Hazel K, Kerr C, Kinsella N, Walsh L, Livermore DG, Hoffman I, Ellery J, Mitchell P, Patel T, Carlton M, Barnes M, Miller DJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Increases Synaptic Protein Levels via the MAPK/Erk Signaling Pathway and Nrf2/Trx Axis Following the Transplantation of Neural Stem Cells in a Rat Model of Traumatic Brain Injury.
In this study, to investigate whether NSCs genetically modified to encode the BDNF gene (BDNF/NSCs) would further enhance synaptogenesis, BDNF/NSCs or naive NSCs were directly engrafted into lesions in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Immunohistochemistry, western blotting and RT-PCR were performed to detect synaptic proteins, BDNF-TrkB and its downstream signaling pathways, at 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after transplantation. Our results showed that BDNF significantly increased the expression levels of the TrkB receptor gene and the phosphorylation of the TrkB protein in the lesions. The expression levels of Ras,...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen T, Wu Y, Wang Y, Zhu J, Chu H, Kong L, Yin L, Ma H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intra-accumbal Cannabinoid Agonist Attenuated Reinstatement but not Extinction Period of Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference; Evidence for Different Characteristics of Extinction Period and Reinstatement.
Abstract The brain reward system consists of the ventral tegmental area that sends its dopaminergic projections to the forebrain, cortical areas, amygdala and largely to the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The present study aims were to investigate the effects of bilateral intra-accumbal microinjection of WIN55,212-2, a CB1 receptor agonist, on the duration of extinction period and reinstatement to morphine by the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in the rat. Forty-six adult male albino Wistar rats received intra-accumbal WIN55,212-2 [p0.5, 1 and 2 mM/0.5 μl dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)] injections bi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Khaleghzadeh-Ahangar H, Haghparast A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Spinal CX3CL1/CX3CR1 May Not Directly Participate in the Development of Morphine Tolerance in Rats.
In this study, we found that chronic morphine exposure did not alter the expressions of CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 in spinal cord. And neither exogenous CX3CL1 nor CX3CR1 inhibitor could affect the development of morphine tolerance. The cellular localizations of spinal CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 changed from neuron and microglia, respectively, to all the neural cells during the development of morphine tolerance. A microarray profiling revealed that 15 members of chemokine family excluding CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 were up-regulated in morphine-treated rats. Our study provides evidence that spinal CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 may not be involved in the develop...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Peng Y, Guo G, Shu B, Liu D, Su P, Zhang X, Gao F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Implication of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorder.
Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is categorized as a neurodevelopmental disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disorders, Fifth Edition and is defined as a congenital impairment of the central nervous system. ASD may be caused by a chromosomal abnormality or gene mutation. However, these etiologies are insufficient to account for the pathogenesis of ASD. Therefore, we propose that the etiology and pathogenesis of ASD are related to the stress of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress, induced by valproic acid, increased in ASD mouse model, characterized by an unfolded protein resp...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kawada K, Mimori S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

In vitro and Ex vivo Neurotoxic Effects of Efavirenz are Greater than Those of Other Common Antiretrovirals.
;a PS Abstract Although antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has reduced the incidence of severe dementia associated with HIV infection, there has been a rise in milder neurocognitive complaints. Data from HIV patients taking ARVs have shown measurable neurocognitive improvements during drug cessation, suggesting a neurotoxic role of the therapy itself. Mechanisms underlying potential ARV neurotoxicity have not been thoroughly investigated, however pathologic oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been suspected. Using DIV 16 primary rat cortical neuron culture, we tested eight ARVs from the three most common...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ciavatta VT, Bichler EK, Speigel IA, Elder CC, Teng SL, Tyor WR, García PS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Comparing the Effects of Melatonin with Caloric Restriction in the Hippocampus of Aging Mice: Involvement of Sirtuin1 and the FOXOs Pathway.
This study aimed to compare the effects of melatonin (Mel) and caloric restriction (CR) on the expression of Sirt1, FoxO1, FoxO3a and FOXOs target genes in the aging mouse hippocampus. Neuropeptide Y-knockout (NpyKO) and wild-type (WT) male mice aged 19 months were previously treated either with food ad libitum or CR for 16 months. WT old animals were divided into four groups: control, CR, Mel and CR+Mel treated groups. The Mel and CR+Mel were treated with melatonin 10 mg/kg, daily, subcutaneously for 7 consecutive days. Mel treatment upregulated the mRNA expression of Sirt1, FOXOs (FoxO1 and FoxO3a) target ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jenwitheesuk A, Park S, Wongchitrat P, Tocharus J, Mukda S, Shimokawa I, Govitrapong P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Differential Effects of Low- and High-dose Zinc Supplementation on Synaptic Plasticity and Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Control and High-fat Diet-fed Mice.
Abstract In the present study, we investigated the concentration-dependent effect of zinc (Zn) supplementation on the adult hippocampus in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mouse model. Four-weeks after HFD- and control diet (CD)-feeding, mice were provided with low (15 ppm) or high (60 ppm) doses of Zn in their drinking water for additional 4 more weeks along with their respective diets. Compared to the CD-fed mice, HFD-feeding elicited the reduction of neurogenic markers such as nestin, Ki67, doublecortin (DCX), and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in the dentate gyrus. Additionally, HFD-feeding reduced th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nam SM, Kim JW, Kwon HJ, Yoo DY, Jung HY, Kim DW, Hwang IK, Seong JK, Yoon YS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Antidepressant-like Effect of Bacopaside I in Mice Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress by Modulating the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Function and Activating BDNF Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Preliminary studies conducted in our laboratory have confirmed that Bacopaside I (BS-I), a saponin compound isolated from Bacopa monnieri, displayed antidepressant-like activity in the mouse behavioral despair model. The present investigation aimed to verify the antidepressant-like action of BS-I using a mouse model of behavioral deficits induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and further probe its underlying mechanism of action. Mice were exposed to CUMS for a period of 5 consecutive weeks to induce depression-like behavior. Then, oral gavage administrations with vehicle (model group), fluox...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zu X, Zhang M, Li W, Xie H, Lin Z, Yang N, Liu X, Zhang W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

NGF Attenuates High Glucose-Induced ER Stress, Preventing Schwann Cell Apoptosis by Activating the PI3K/Akt/GSK3 β and ERK1/2 Pathways.
NGF Attenuates High Glucose-Induced ER Stress, Preventing Schwann Cell Apoptosis by Activating the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and ERK1/2 Pathways. Neurochem Res. 2017 Jul 31;: Authors: Li R, Wu Y, Zou S, Wang X, Li Y, Xu K, Gong F, Liu Y, Wang J, Liao Y, Li X, Xiao J Abstract Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the most common and troublesome complications of diabetes mellitus. It has been demonstrated that nerve growth factor (NGF) exerts a pivotal role in the regulation of neuronal growth and the promotion of DPN recovery. However, the exact molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Recent s...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li R, Wu Y, Zou S, Wang X, Li Y, Xu K, Gong F, Liu Y, Wang J, Liao Y, Li X, Xiao J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Disorganization of Oligodendrocyte Development in the Layer II/III of the Sensorimotor Cortex Causes Motor Coordination Dysfunction in a Model of White Matter Injury in Neonatal Rats.
Abstract We previously established neonatal white matter injury (WMI) model rat that is made by right common carotid artery dissection at postnatal day 3, followed by 6% hypoxia for 60 min. This model has fewer oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and reduced myelin basic protein (MBP) positive areas in the sensorimotor cortex, but shows no apparent neuronal loss. However, how motor deficits are induced in this model is unclear. To elucidate the relationship between myelination disturbance and concomitant motor deficits, we first performed motor function tests (gait analysis, grip test, horizontal ladder test) an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ueda Y, Misumi S, Suzuki M, Ogawa S, Nishigaki R, Ishida A, Jung CG, Hida H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Chitosan Oligosaccharide on Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Damage in Neonatal Rats.
In this study we found that administration of COS ameliorated early neurological reflex behavior, significantly reduce brain infarct volume and attenuated neuronal cell injury and degeneration. Furthermore, COS markedly decreased the level of MDA, lactic acid and increased SOD, GSH-Px and T-AOC. COS attenuated hypoxic-ischemic induced up-regulation of expressions of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), meanwhile it dramatically increased the interleukin-10 (IL-10). These results suggest that COS exerts neuroprotection on hypoxic-ischemic brain damage in neonatal rats, it implies COS ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu W, Wei W, Lu M, Zhu X, Liu N, Niu Y, Sun T, Li Y, Yu J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Downregulation of USP4 Promotes Activation of Microglia and Subsequent Neuronal Inflammation in Rat Spinal Cord After Injury.
In conclusion, our study provides the first evidence that in microglial cells expression of USP4 decreases after SCI in rats. The downregulation of USP4 expression may promote microglial activation and subsequent neuronal inflammation through NF-κB by attenuating the deubiquitination of TRAF6. This mechanism is of great significance in the pathophysiology of secondary SCI. PMID: 28755289 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jiang X, Yu M, Ou Y, Cao Y, Yao Y, Cai P, Zhang F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Regulation of Clock Genes by Adrenergic Receptor Signaling in Osteoblasts.
Abstract The clock system has been identified as one of the major mechanisms controlling cellular functions. Circadian clock gene oscillations also actively participate in the functions of various cell types including bone-related cells. Previous studies demonstrated that clock genes were expressed in bone tissue and also that their expression exhibited circadian rhythmicity. Recent findings have shown that sympathetic tone plays a central role in biological oscillations in bone. Adrenergic receptor (AR) signaling regulates the expression of clock genes in cancellous bone. Furthermore, α1-AR signaling in ost...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hirai T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erratum to: Exogenous Adipokine Peptide Resistin Protects Against Focal Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Mice.
PMID: 28744754 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhu J, Wu D, Zhao C, Luo M, Hamdy RC, Chua BHL, Xu X, Miao Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Resveratrol Protects Against Vacuous Chewing Movements Induced by Chronic Treatment with Fluphenazine.
In this study, we investigated the effect of resveratrol, a polyphenol with neuroprotective properties, on behavioral changes induced by chronic treatment with fluphenazine in rats and the possible relationship between monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and vacuous chewing movements (VCMs). Rats were treated for 18 weeks with fluphenazine enantate [25 mg/kg, intramuscularly (i.m.), every 21 days] and/or resveratrol (20 mg/kg, offered daily in drinking water). Next, body weight gain, behavioral parameters (VCMs and open field tests-locomotor and rearing activity), and MAO activity were evaluated. Fluphenazine t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Busanello A, Leal CQ, Peroza LR, Röpke J, de Moraes Reis E, de Freitas CM, Libardoni M, de Vargas Barbosa NB, Fachinetto R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Proteasome Stress Triggers Death of SH-SY5Y and T98G Cells via Different Cellular Mechanisms.
Abstract Overload or dysfunction of ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is implicated in mechanisms of neurodegeneration associated with neurodegenerative diseases, e.g. Parkinson and Alzheimer disease, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between viability of neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y and glioblastoma T98G cells treated with bortezomib, inhibitor of 26S proteasome, and accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins with respect to direct cytotoxicity of aggregates of ubiquitin-conjugated proteins. Bortezomib-induced death of SH-SY5Y cells was documented after...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pilchova I, Klacanova K, Dibdiakova K, Saksonova S, Stefanikova A, Vidomanova E, Lichardusova L, Hatok J, Racay P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ginkgolide B Suppresses Methamphetamine-Induced Microglial Activation Through TLR4-NF- κB Signaling Pathway in BV2 Cells.
Ginkgolide B Suppresses Methamphetamine-Induced Microglial Activation Through TLR4-NF-κB Signaling Pathway in BV2 Cells. Neurochem Res. 2017 Jul 15;: Authors: Wan F, Zang S, Yu G, Xiao H, Wang J, Tang J Abstract Accumulating evidence suggests that microglial cells have altered morphology and proliferation in different brain regions of methamphetamine (Meth) abusers and Meth-abusing animal models. However, the possible mechanisms underlying Meth-induced microglial activation remain poorly understood. Meanwhile, Toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) is closely associated with inflammation. Therefore the aim ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wan F, Zang S, Yu G, Xiao H, Wang J, Tang J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal Expression of Bcl-2/Bax and Neural Cell Apoptosis in the Developing Lumbosacral Spinal Cord of Rat Fetuses with Anorectal Malformations.
In this study, the neural cell apoptosis and Bcl-2/Bax expression were explored during lumbosacral spinal cord development in normal and ARMs fetuses. ARMs rat fetuses were induced by treating pregnant rats with ethylenethiourea on embryonic day 10. TUNEL staining was performed to identify apoptosis, and the expression of Bcl-2/Bax was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining, RT-qPCR and Western blot analysis on E16, E17, E19 and E21. Apoptosis index (AI) in the ARMs group was significantly higher compared to normal group. Our results showed that TUNEL-positive cells were mainly localized in the ventral horn, which is ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang Z, Geng Y, Yao Z, Jia H, Bai Y, Wang W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research