β-Asarone Regulates ER Stress and Autophagy Via Inhibition of the PERK/CHOP/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 Pathway in 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinsonian Rats.
β-Asarone Regulates ER Stress and Autophagy Via Inhibition of the PERK/CHOP/Bcl-2/Beclin-1 Pathway in 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinsonian Rats. Neurochem Res. 2019 Feb 22;: Authors: Ning B, Zhang Q, Wang N, Deng M, Fang Y Abstract β-Asarone (1,2,4-trimethoxy-5-[(Z)-prop-1-enyl]benzene) is an essential component of Acorus tatarinowii Schott volatile oil. Previous research has observed that β-asarone effectively attenuated symptoms in parkinsonian rats and improved their performance, but the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. Other research has shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ning B, Zhang Q, Wang N, Deng M, Fang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Consequences of a Metabolic Glucose-Depletion on the Survival and the Metabolism of Cultured Rat Astrocytes.
Abstract Brain astrocytes are considered to be highly glycolytic, but these cells also produce ATP via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. To investigate how a metabolic depletion of glucose will affect the metabolism of astrocytes, we applied glucose at an initial concentration of 2 mM to cultured primary astrocytes and monitored the cell viability and various metabolic parameters during an incubation for up to 2 weeks. Already within 2 days of incubation the cells had completely consumed the applied glucose and lactate had accumulated in the medium to a concentration of around 3 mM. Duri...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Arend C, Ehrke E, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astroglia in Sepsis Associated Encephalopathy.
Abstract Cellular pathophysiology of sepsis associated encephalopathy (SAE) remains poorly characterised. Brain pathology in SAE, which is manifested by impaired perception, consciousness and cognition, results from multifactorial events, including high levels of systemic cytokines, microbial components and endotoxins, which all damage the brain barriers, instigate neuroinflammation and cause homeostatic failure. Astrocytes, being the principal homeostatic cells of the central nervous system contribute to the brain defence against infection. Forming multifunctional anatomical barriers, astroglial cells maintain br...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shulyatnikova T, Verkhratsky A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Resveratrol Abrogates Hypoxia-Induced Up-Regulation of Exosomal Amyloid- β Partially by Inhibiting CD147.
In this study, we aimed to explore the role and mechanisms of RSV in hypoxia-induced upregulation of Aβ, especially exosomal Aβ. SH-SY5Y cells and HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) as well as C57BL/6 mice were treated with RSV and exposed to hypoxic conditions. The expression of SIRT1 or CD147 was modulated by transfection of specific siRNAs or plasmid. Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 levels were determined by ELISA. Hypoxia increased the levels of both Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 in the hippocampal lysates and serum-derived exosomes of mice. Hypoxia also increased both Aβ1-40 and A&bet...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xie J, Li X, Zhou Y, Wu J, Tan Y, Ma X, Zhao Y, Liu X, Zhao Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

NMDA Receptors in Astrocytes.
tal A Abstract Astrocytes support glutamatergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system through multiple mechanisms which include: (i) glutamate clearance and control over glutamate spillover due to operation of glutamate transporters; (ii) supply of obligatory glutamate precursor glutamine via operation of glutamate-glutamine shuttle; (iii) supply of L-serine, the indispensable precursor of positive NMDA receptors neuromodulator D-serine and (iv) through overall homoeostatic control of the synaptic cleft. Astroglial cells express an extended complement of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors, w...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Verkhratsky A, Chvátal A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of α-Synuclein Monomers Administration in the Gigantocellular Reticular Nucleus on Neurotransmission in Mouse Model.
Effects of α-Synuclein Monomers Administration in the Gigantocellular Reticular Nucleus on Neurotransmission in Mouse Model. Neurochem Res. 2019 Feb 13;: Authors: Joniec-Maciejak I, Ciesielska A, Poniatowski ŁA, Wawer A, Sznejder-Pachołek A, Wojnar E, Maciejak P, Mirowska-Guzel D Abstract The aim of the study was to examine the Braak's hypothesis to explain the spreading and distribution of the neuropathological changes observed in the course of Parkinson's disease among ascending neuroanatomical regions. We investigated the neurotransmitter levels (monoamines and amino acid concentration) as ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Joniec-Maciejak I, Ciesielska A, Poniatowski ŁA, Wawer A, Sznejder-Pachołek A, Wojnar E, Maciejak P, Mirowska-Guzel D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The VGVAPG Peptide Regulates the Production of Nitric Oxide Synthases and Reactive Oxygen Species in Mouse Astrocyte Cells In Vitro.
Abstract The products of elastin degradation, namely elastin-derived peptides (EDPs), are detectable in the cerebrospinal fluid of healthy individuals and in patients after ischemic stroke, and their number increases with age. Depending on their concentrations, both nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) take part either in myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury or in neurovascular protection after ischemic stroke. The aim of our study was to determine the impact of VGVAPG peptide on ROS and NO production and expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNos), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNos...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Szychowski KA, Gmiński J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Expression Changes of NMDA and AMPA Receptor Subunits in the Hippocampus in rats with Diabetes Induced by Streptozotocin Coupled with Memory Impairment.
Abstract Cognitive impairment in diabetes (CID) is a severe chronic complication of diabetes mellitus (DM). It has been hypothesized that diabetes can lead to cognitive dysfunction due to expression changes of excitatory neurotransmission mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR); however, the pathogenesis involved in this has not been fully understood, especially at early phase of DM. Here, we sought to determine the cognitive changes and aim to correlate this with the expression changes of NMDAR and AMPAR of glutamate signal...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang XP, Ye P, Lv J, Zhou L, Qian ZY, Huang YJ, Mu ZH, Wang X, Liu XJ, Wan Q, Yang ZH, Wang F, Zou YY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Imbalance of Microglial TLR4/TREM2 in LPS-Treated APP/PS1 Transgenic Mice: A Potential Link Between Alzheimer's Disease and Systemic Inflammation.
In this study, intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into APP/PS1 transgenic AD model was used to mimic systemic inflammation in the development of AD. Initial results from the cortex showed that compared with wild-type mice, APP/PS1 mice exhibited elevated gene and protein expression levels of both TLR4 and TREM2 with different degree. Interestingly, after LPS treatment, TLR4 expression was persistently up-regulated, while TREM2 expression was significantly down-regulated in APP/PS1 mice, suggesting that the negative regulatory effect of TREM2 on inflammation might be suppressed by LPS-induced hyperactive ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhou J, Yu W, Zhang M, Tian X, Li Y, Lü Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Modulating P1 Adenosine Receptors in Disease Progression of SOD1G93A Mutant Mice.
otenza RL Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal progressing neurodegenerative disease; to date, despite the intense research effort, only two therapeutic options, with very limited effects, are available. The purinergic system has been indicated as a possible new therapeutic target for ALS, but the results are often contradictory and generally confused. The present study was designed to determine whether P1 adenosine receptor ligands affected disease progression in a transgenic model of ALS. SOD1G93A mice were chronically treated, from presymptomatic stage, with a selective adenosine A2A receptor...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Armida M, Matteucci A, Pèzzola A, Baqi Y, Müller CE, Popoli P, Potenza RL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Thymoquinone in Acrylamide-Induced Peripheral Nervous System Toxicity Through MAPKinase and Apoptosis Pathways in Rat.
In this study, we assessed the probable protective effects of thymoquinone (TQ), an active constituent of Nigella sativa, against ACR-induced neurotoxicity. ACR (50 mg/kg, i.p., for 11 days) and TQ (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p., for 11 days) were administered to rats. On 12th day, gait score was examined and rats were sacrificed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents were determined in sciatic nerve. Furthermore, western blotting was conducted. The exposure of rats to ACR caused severe gait disabilities. The MDA and GSH contents were increased and decreased, respectively. ACR decreased P-ERK/E...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tabeshpour J, Mehri S, Abnous K, Hosseinzadeh H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Increase in Glutamatergic Terminals in the Striatum Following Dopamine Depletion in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Dopaminergic neuron degeneration is known to give rise to dendrite injury and spine loss of striatal neurons, however, changes of intrastriatal glutamatergic terminals and their synapses after 6-hydroxydopamine (6OHDA)-induced dopamine (DA)-depletion remains controversial. To confirm the effect of striatal DA-depletion on the morphology and protein levels of corticostriatal and thalamostriatal glutamatergic terminals and synapses, immunohistochemistry, immuno-electron microscope (EM), western blotting techniques were performed on Parkinson's disease rat models in this study. The experimental results of th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zheng X, Huang Z, Zhu Y, Liu B, Chen Z, Chen T, Jia L, Li Y, Lei W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cytosolic HMGB1 Mediates Autophagy Activation in an Emulsified Isoflurane Anesthesia Cell Model.
Abstract Inhalation anesthetic isoflurane may cause an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Previous studies have indicated that this cognitive decline is associated with neuroinflammation mediated by high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). HMGB1 is released from cells and acts as a damage-associated molecule in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the effect of intracellular HMGB1 during emulsified isoflurane (EI) exposure is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of autophagy on neuroprotection, evaluate variation of HMGB1, and determine its role in autophagic flux after EI expo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu RZ, Li T, Zhao GQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cortical Spreading Depolarization (CSD) Recorded from Intact Skin, from Surface of Dura Mater or Cortex: Comparison with Intracortical Recordings in the Neocortex of Adult Rats.
r F Abstract In cerebral cortex of anesthetized rats single waves of spreading depolarization (CSD) were elicited by needle prick. CSD-related changes of DC (direct current) potentials were either recorded from the intact skin or together with concomitant changes of potassium concentration with K+-selective microelectrodes simultaneously at the surface of the dura mater or of the cortex ([K+]s) and in the extracellular space at a cortical depth of 1200 µm. At the intact skin CSD-related DC-shifts had amplitudes of less than 1 mV and had only in a minority of cases the typical CSD-like shape. In the...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lehmenkühler A, Richter F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

SSeCKS promoted lipopolysaccharide-sensitized astrocytes migration via increasing β-1,4-galactosyltransferase-I activity.
In this study we aim to investigate the role of SSeCKS and β-1,4-GalT-I in the migration of astrocytes during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays have demonstrated that SSeCKS and β-1,4-GalT-I were significantly enhanced in LPS-treated astrocytes and their interactions may occur in the Trans-Golgi Network. Lectin blot showed that the knockdown of β-1,4-GalT-I could inhibit the β-1,4-galactosylation of glycoproteins including integrin β1 with and without LPS, and that SSeCKS knockdown inhibits the β-1,4-galactosylation of glycoprote...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei H, Xu L, Li C, Liu L, Ng DM, Haleem M, Jiang L, Sun N, Ling Q, Ma S, Zhang L, Wang Q, Tao T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine Promotes SH-SY5Y Cell Resistance Against Impairment of Iron Overload by Inhibiting NF- κB Pathways.
In conclusion, Dex exerted anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammation, and anti-apoptosis effects on FeCl2-treated SH-SY5Y cells, possibly by inhibiting NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID: 30694428 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hu XB, Xi ZY, Liu LQ, Kang K, Li WH, Shen YX, Kang F, Li J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Anticonvulsant Activity of Pterostilbene in Zebrafish and Mouse Acute Seizure Tests.
In conclusion, our present findings demonstrate for the first time the anticonvulsant potential of PTE. The aforementioned results suggest that it might be employed in epilepsy treatment, however, further precise studies are required to verify its activity in other experimental seizure and epilepsy models and its precise mechanism of action should be determined. PMID: 30689162 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nieoczym D, Socała K, Gawel K, Esguerra CV, Wyska E, Wlaź P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

3-Mercapto-5H-1,2,4-Triazino[5,6-b]Indole-5-Acetic Acid (Cemtirestat) Alleviates Symptoms of Peripheral Diabetic Neuropathy in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) Rats: A Role of Aldose Reductase.
Abstract Peripheral neuropathy is the most prevalent chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. Good glycemic control can delay the appearance of neuropathic symptoms in diabetic patients but it is not sufficient to prevent or cure the disease. Therefore therapeutic approaches should focus on attenuation of pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for the nerve injury. Considering the role of polyol pathway in the etiology of diabetic neuropathy, we evaluated the effect of a novel efficient and selective aldose reductase inhibitor, 3-mercapto-5H-1,2,4-triazino[5,6-b]indole-5-acetic acid (cemtirestat), on symptoms of di...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Soltesova Prnova M, Svik K, Bezek S, Kovacikova L, Karasu C, Stefek M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Resistin-Inhibited Neural Stem Cell-Derived Astrocyte Differentiation Contributes to Permeability Destruction of the Blood-Brain Barrier.
Abstract Neuroinflammation is an important part of the development of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Inflammatory factors destroy the balance of the microenvironment, which results in changes in neural stem cell differentiation and proliferation behaviour. However, the mechanism underlying inflammatory factor-induced NSC behavioural changes is not clear. Resistin is a proinflammatory and adipogenic factor and is involved in several human pathology processes. The neural stem cell microenvironment changes when the concentration of resistin ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiaoying L, Li T, Yu S, Jiusheng J, Jilin Z, Jiayi W, Dongxin L, Wengang F, Xinyue Z, Hao Y, Yuhua C, Deshu S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Administration of Cadmium for 2, 3 and 4 Months Causes a Loss of Recognition Memory, Promotes Neuronal Hypotrophy and Apoptosis in the Hippocampus of Rats.
s G, Diaz A Abstract Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal and classified as a carcinogen whose exposure could affect the function of the central nervous system. There are studies that suggest that Cd promotes neurodegeneration in different regions of the brain, particularly in the hippocampus. It is proposed that its mechanism of toxicity maybe by an oxidative stress pathway, which modifies neuronal morphology and causes the death of neurons and consequently affecting cognitive tasks. However, this mechanism is not yet clear. The aim of the present work was to study the effect of Cd administration on recognition memory f...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pulido G, Treviño S, Brambila E, Vazquez-Roque R, Moreno-Rodriguez A, Peña Rosas U, Moran-Perales JL, Handal Silva A, Guevara J, Flores G, Diaz A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Aucubin Alleviates Seizures Activity in Li-Pilocarpine-Induced Epileptic Mice: Involvement of Inhibition of Neuroinflammation and Regulation of Neurotransmission.
In conclusion, our findings provide the first evidence that AU can exert anti-seizure effects by attenuating gliosis and regulating neurotransmission. The results suggest that AU may be developed as a drug candidate for the treatment of epilepsy. PMID: 30666488 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen S, Zeng X, Zong W, Wang X, Chen L, Zhou L, Li C, Huang Q, Huang X, Zeng G, Hu K, Ouyang DS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inflammation in Traumatic Brain Injury: Roles for Toxic A1 Astrocytes and Microglial-Astrocytic Crosstalk.
Abstract Traumatic brain injury triggers neuroinflammation that may contribute to progressive neurodegeneration. We investigated patterns of recruitment of astrocytes and microglia to inflammation after brain trauma by firstly characterising expression profiles over time of marker genes following TBI, and secondly by monitoring glial morphologies reflecting inflammatory responses in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (i.e. the lateral fluid percussion injury). Gene expression profiles revealed early elevation of expression of astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein relative to microglial marker allogr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Clark DPQ, Perreau VM, Shultz SR, Brady RD, Lei E, Dixit S, Taylor JM, Beart PM, Boon WC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effect of Mating and the Male Sex Peptide on Group Behaviour of Post-mated Female Drosophila melanogaster.
Abstract Sleep is a highly conserved state in animals, but its regulation and physiological function is poorly understood. Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model for studying sleep regulation and has been used to investigate how sex and social interactions can influence wake-sleep profiles. Previously we have shown that copulation has a profound effect on day time activity and quiescence (siesta sleep) of individual post-mated females. Here we have the studied the effect of mating and the transfer of the 36 amino acid sex peptide in the seminal fluid on the behavior of mated female Drosophila populations, w...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Isaac RE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Treadmill Exercise on Motor and Cognitive Function Recovery of MCAO Mice Through the Caveolin-1/VEGF Signaling Pathway in Ischemic Penumbra.
In this study, we attempted to determine an additional mechanism of treadmill exercise-mediated motor and cognitive functional recovery through the caveolin-1/VEGF pathway associated with BDNF in the ischemic penumbra of MCAO mice. We found that mice exposed to treadmill exercise after the MCAO operation showed a significant up-regulation in expression of caveolin-1, VEGF, BDNF, synapsin I and CYFIP1 proteins, numbers of cells positive for BrdU/CD34, BDNF, BrdU/NeuN, BrdU/Synapsin I and CYFIP1 expression were increased, which support the reduction in neurological deficit and infarction volume, as well as improved synaptic ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen Z, Hu Q, Xie Q, Wu S, Pang Q, Liu M, Zhao Y, Tu F, Liu C, Chen X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Multi-targeted Effect of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide on Brain Bioenergetic Metabolism.
Abstract Dysfunctions in NAD+ metabolism are associated with neurodegenerative diseases, acute brain injury, diabetes, and aging. Loss of NAD+ levels results in impairment of mitochondria function, which leads to failure of essential metabolic processes. Strategies to replenish depleted NAD+ pools can offer significant improvements of pathologic states. NAD+ levels are maintained by two opposing enzymatic reactions, one is the consumption of NAD+ while the other is the re-synthesis of NAD+. Inhibition of NAD+ degrading enzymes, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) and ectoenzyme CD38, following brain ischemic insu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Klimova N, Kristian T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dopamine Alters Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Nitric Oxide Production in Microglial Cells via Activation of D1-Like Receptors.
Abstract Dopamine (DA) is important in the maintenance of normal nervous system function. DA is the target of multiple drugs, and it induces critical alterations in immune cells. However, these impacts are controversial, and the mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we treated BV-2 microglial cells and primary microglia with DA and measured the changes in cytokines. We also identified the expression of DA receptors (DRs) using confocal and immunofluorescent microscopy. Specific agonists and antagonists of D1-like DRs (D1DR and D5DR) were used to observe alterations in cytokines. Western blot and siRNA i...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang B, Chen T, Li G, Jia Y, Wang J, Xue L, Chen Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Atypical Auditory Brainstem Response and Protein Expression Aberrations Related to ASD and Hearing Loss in the Adnp Haploinsufficient Mouse Brain.
Abstract Autism is a wide spread neurodevelopmental disorder with growing morbidity rates, affecting more boys than girls worldwide. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) was recently recognized as a leading gene accounted for 0.17% of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases globally. Respectively, mutations in the human ADNP gene (ADNP syndrome), cause multi-system body dysfunctions with apparent ASD-related traits, commencing as early as childhood. The Adnp haploinsufficient (Adnp+/-) mouse model was researched before in relations to Alzheimer's disease and autism. Adnp+/- mice suffer from deficient soc...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hacohen-Kleiman G, Yizhar-Barnea O, Touloumi O, Lagoudaki R, Avraham KB, Grigoriadis N, Gozes I Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuropeptide VGF-Derived Peptide LQEQ-19 has Neuroprotective Effects in an In Vitro Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
In conclusion, these results suggest that VGF C-terminal peptides exert their neuroprotective effects via activation of MAPKs such as Akt and ERK1/2. Furthermore, these findings indicate that VGF-derived peptides have potential application in ALS therapy. PMID: 30656593 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Noda Y, Motoyama S, Nakamura S, Shimazawa M, Hara H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity and Crocin Against Adolescent Stress Induced Anxiety or Depressive-Like Symptoms and Dendritic Morphology Remodeling in Prefrontal Cortex in Adult Male Rats.
This study examined whether crocin, the main active saffron constituent, and voluntary exercise, alone or combined, could prevent the detrimental influences of chronic restraint stress during adolescent (postnatal days, PND, 30-40) on behavioral and morphological deficits in adult (PND60) male rats. Results showed that plasma corticosterone levels increased at PND40, but not PND60 in stressed rats. Moreover, stressed rats demonstrated enhanced anxiety levels and depression like behaviors in adulthood. These behavioral abnormalities were accompanied by a decline in apical dendritic length in both infralimbic and prelimbic r...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ghalandari-Shamami M, Nourizade S, Yousefi B, Vafaei AA, Pakdel R, Rashidy-Pour A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Anesthetic Ketamine on Anxiety-Like Behaviour in Rats.
Abstract There is scarce information regarding the effects of anesthetic doses of the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist ketamine on anxiety. The current study evaluated the acute effects of intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered anesthetic ketamine (100 mg/kg) i.p. on anxiety in rats. For this purpose, the light/dark and the open field tests were utilized. The effects of anesthetic ketamine on motility were also examined using a motility cage. In the light/dark test, anesthetic ketamine, administered 24 h before testing reduced the number of transitions between the light and dark co...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pitsikas N, Georgiadou G, Delis F, Antoniou K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Carvacrol Depends on Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) to Exert Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and Mitochondria-Related Protection in the Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells Line Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide.
Abstract The link between mitochondrial dysfunction, redox impairment, and inflammation leads to increased rates of brain cells loss in neurodegenerative diseases and in affective disorders. Carvacrol (CAR) is a component of essential oils found in Labiatae. CAR exerts antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in different cell types, as assessed in both in vitro and in vivo experimental designs. Nonetheless, it was not previously investigated whether and how CAR would prevent mitochondrial impairment in human cells exposed to a pro-oxidant challenge. Therefore, we analyzed here whether a pretreatment (for 4 ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chenet AL, Duarte AR, de Almeida FJS, Andrade CMB, de Oliveira MR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Isoliquiritigenin Provides Protection and Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Induced Injuries via the Nrf2-ARE Signaling Pathway After Traumatic Brain Injury.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The Fluorescence Immunoassays text written in Materials and Methods section and Fig. 1i, j is incorrect. In Fig. 1j, the images corresponding to Sham and TBI + ILG are incorrect. In Fig. 1i the figure caption "TBI + EDA" are incorrect. The corrected text and Fig. 1i, j are given below. PMID: 30637601 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang M, Huang LL, Teng CH, Wu FF, Ge LY, Shi YJ, He ZL, Liu L, Jiang CJ, Hou RN, Xiao J, Zhang HY, Chen DQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Selective 14-3-3 γ Upregulation Promotes Beclin-1-LC3-Autophagic Influx via β-Catenin Interaction in Starved Neurons In Vitro and In Vivo.
Selective 14-3-3γ Upregulation Promotes Beclin-1-LC3-Autophagic Influx via β-Catenin Interaction in Starved Neurons In Vitro and In Vivo. Neurochem Res. 2019 Jan 11;: Authors: Xiong XX, Hu DX, Xu L, Lin H, Zhang Y, Li CY, Chen XQ Abstract Lack of blood or glucose supply is the most common pathological factor in the brain. To cope with such an energy stress, initiating programmed autophagic processes in neurons is required. However, the mechanisms controlling neuronal autophagy during starvation remain far from clear. Here, we report an essential role of 14-3-3γ in starvation-activated...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiong XX, Hu DX, Xu L, Lin H, Zhang Y, Li CY, Chen XQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Long-term Therapeutic Effects of Extracorporeal Shock Wave-Assisted Melatonin Therapy on Mononeuropathic Pain in Rats.
Abstract We evaluated the ability of extracorporeal shock wave (ECSW)-assisted melatonin (Mel) therapy to offer an additional benefit for alleviating the neuropathic pain (NP) in rats. Left sciatic nerve was subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI) to induce NP. Animals (n = 30) were randomized into group 1 (sham-operated control), group 2 (CCI only), group 3 (CCI + ECSW), group 4 (CCI + Mel) and group 5 (CCI + ECSW + Mel). By days 15, 22 and 29 after CCI, the thermal paw withdrawal latency (TPWL) and mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (M...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang CH, Yip HK, Chen HF, Yin TC, Chiang JY, Sung PH, Lin KC, Tsou YH, Chen YL, Li YC, Huang TH, Huang CR, Luo CW, Chen KH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Sleep Restriction Induces A β Accumulation by Disrupting the Balance of Aβ Production and Clearance in Rats.
Chronic Sleep Restriction Induces Aβ Accumulation by Disrupting the Balance of Aβ Production and Clearance in Rats. Neurochem Res. 2019 Jan 10;: Authors: Zhao B, Liu P, Wei M, Li Y, Liu J, Ma L, Shang S, Jiang Y, Huo K, Wang J, Qu Q Abstract Amyloid-β (Aβ) plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, and growing evidence has shown that poor sleep quality is one of the risk factors for AD, but the mechanisms of sleep deprivation leading to AD have still not been fully demonstrated. In the present study, we used wild-type (WT) rats to determine the effects of chr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao B, Liu P, Wei M, Li Y, Liu J, Ma L, Shang S, Jiang Y, Huo K, Wang J, Qu Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Morphine Dependence is Attenuated by Treatment of 3,4,5-Trimethoxy Cinnamic Acid in Mice and Rats.
In conclusion, TMCA could be considered as potential therapeutic agent against morphine-induced dependence. PMID: 30632088 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 10, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Moon S, Kang S, Shin H, Yayeh T, Sur B, Oh S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glutamate Transporters: Expression and Function in Oligodendrocytes.
uss B Abstract Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the vertebrate central nervous system (CNS), is well known as a regulator of neuronal plasticity and neurodevelopment. Such glutamate function is thought to be mediated primarily by signaling through glutamate receptors. Thus, it requires a tight regulation of extracellular glutamate levels and a fine-tuned homeostasis that, when dysregulated, has been associated with a wide range of central pathologies including neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disorders. In the mammalian CNS, extracellular glutamate levels are controlled...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Suárez-Pozos E, Thomason EJ, Fuss B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MiR-124 Enriched Exosomes Promoted the M2 Polarization of Microglia and Enhanced Hippocampus Neurogenesis After Traumatic Brain Injury by Inhibiting TLR4 Pathway.
In conclusion, Exo-miR-124 treatment promoted M2 polarization of microglia and improved hippocampal neurogenesis and functional recovery after brain injury, which might be a strategy to improve the outcome of TBI. PMID: 30628018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang Y, Ye Y, Kong C, Su X, Zhang X, Bai W, He X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Nrf2/ARE Pathway as a Therapeutic Target for the Treatment of Parkinson Diseases.
Abstract Instead of the progress in the understanding of etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), effective methods to prevent the progression of the disease have not been developed and only symptomatic treatment is currently possible. One of possible pathways to slow the progression of the disease is protection of dopaminergic neurons by maintaining mitochondrial quality control in neuron cells. Recent studies showed that the most promising target for pharmacological effects on mitochondria is the Nrf2/ARE signaling cascade. It participates in the maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis, which is provided by an opt...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gureev AP, Popov VN Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cinnamic Acid Protects the Nigrostriatum in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α.
This study highlights the neuroprotective effect of cinnamic acid in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. Oral administration of cinnamic acid protected tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and TH fibers in the striatum of MPTP-insulted mice. Accordingly, oral cinnamic acid also normalized striatal neurotransmitters and improved locomotor activities in MPTP-intoxicated mice. While investigating mechanisms, we found that cinnamic acid induced the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), bu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Prorok T, Jana M, Patel D, Pahan K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Therapeutic Effect of Agmatine on Neurological Disease: Focus on Ion Channels and Receptors.
Abstract The central nervous system (CNS) is the most injury-prone part of the mammalian body. Any acute or chronic, central or peripheral neurological disorder is related to abnormal biochemical and electrical signals in the brain cells. As a result, ion channels and receptors that are abundant in the nervous system and control the electrical and biochemical environment of the CNS play a vital role in neurological disease. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid receptor, kainate receptor, acetylcholine receptor, serotonin receptor, α2-adrenoreceptor, and...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Barua S, Kim JY, Kim JY, Kim JH, Lee JE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Caffeine Neuroprotection Decreases A2A Adenosine Receptor Content in Aged Mice.
Abstract Caffeine is a bioactive compound worldwide consumed with effect into the brain. Part of its action in reducing incidence or delaying Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases symptoms in human is credited to the adenosine receptors properties. However, the impact of caffeine consumption during aging on survival of brain cells remains debatable. This work, we investigated the effect of low-dose of caffeine on the ectonucleotidase activities, adenosine receptors content, and paying particular attention to its pro-survival effect during aging. Male young adult and aged Swiss mice drank water or caffeine (0.3 ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Garcez ML, Damiani AP, Pacheco R, Rodrigues L, de Abreu LL, Alves MC, de Andrade VM, Boeck CR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Scalable Measurements of Intrinsic Excitability in Human iPS Cell-Derived Excitatory Neurons Using All-Optical Electrophysiology.
Abstract Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells offer the exciting opportunity for modeling neurological disorders in vitro in the context of a human genetic background. While significant progress has been made in advancing the use of iPS cell-based disease models, there remains an unmet need to characterize the electrophysiological profile of individual neurons with sufficient throughput to enable statistically robust assessment of disease phenotypes and pharmacological modulation. Here, we describe the Optopatch platform technology that utilizes optogenetics to both stimulate and record action potentials (APs) fro...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Williams LA, Joshi V, Murphy M, Ferrante J, Werley CA, Brookings T, McManus O, Grosse J, Davies CH, Dempsey GT Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Special Issue in Honor of Dr. Elias K. Michaelis.
Abstract PMID: 30603980 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Choi IY, Schousboe A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Electroacupuncture and Curcumin Promote Oxidative Balance and Motor Function Recovery in Rats Following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.
hez O Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a condition that puts the patient's life at risk in the acute phase and, during the chronic stage, results in permanent deficits in motor, sensory and autonomic functions. Isolated therapeutic strategies have not shown an effect on this condition. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and curcumin, alone or combined, on the oxidative balance, motor function recovery and amount of preserved tissue following a traumatic SCI. Long-Evans rats were divided into five groups: SHAM, SCI, SCI + EA, SCI + Curcumin...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alvarado-Sanchez BG, Salgado-Ceballos H, Torres-Castillo S, Rodriguez-Silverio J, Lopez-Hernandez ME, Quiroz-Gonzalez S, Sanchez-Torres S, Mondragón-Lozano R, Fabela-Sanchez O Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Segments in the Amyloid Core that Distinguish Hamster from Mouse Prion Fibrils.
In this study, cross-seeding assay was used to identify the segments involved in the amyloid fibril formation of full-length hamster prion protein, SHaPrP(23-231). Our results showed that the residues in the segments 108-127, 172-194 (helix 2 in PrPC) and 200-227 (helix 3 in PrPC) are in the amyloid core of hamster prion fibrils. The segment 127-143, but not 107-126 (which corresponds to hamster sequence 108-127), was previously reported to be involved in the amyloid core of full-length mouse prion fibrils. Our results indicate that hamster prion protein and mouse prion protein use different segments to form the amyloid co...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shen HC, Chen YH, Lin YS, Chu BK, Liang CS, Yang CC, Chen RP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sinomenine Attenuates Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury by Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Inflammation via Nrf2 Pathway.
Abstract Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating condition with few efficacious drugs. Sinomenine, a bioactive alkaloid extracted from medicinal herb, has been used as a treatment of rheumatoid diseases. This present study explored the therapeutic effects of sinomenine on locomotor dysfunction and neuropathology in SCI. Our findings revealed that sinomenine mitigated neurological deficits and enhanced neuronal preservation, paralleled with a reduction of apoptosis. Also, sinomenine significantly reduced inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress factors. We further examined erythroid-2-related factor ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang L, Zhang W, Zheng B, Tian N Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Juvenile Rats Show Altered Gut Microbiota After Exposure to Isoflurane as Neonates.
Abstract Inhaled anesthetic agents may be neurotoxic to the developing brain of a neonatal rodent. Isoflurane is a commonly used volatile anesthetic agent for maintenance of general anesthesia in various types of surgery. Neonatal exposure to isoflurane has been implicated in long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in children. The mechanisms of isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity have not been fully elucidated. Disruption of gut microbiota is currently attracting considerable interest as a vital pathogeny of some neurologic disorders. In the rat model, it is unknown whether neonatal exposure to isoflurane impacts the g...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang L, Yang X, Wu H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Human Remyelination Promoting Antibody Stimulates Astrocytes Proliferation Through Modulation of the Sphingolipid Rheostat in Primary Rat Mixed Glial Cultures.
Abstract Remyelination promoting human IgMs effectively increase the number of myelinated axons in animal models of multiple sclerosis. Hence, they ultimately stimulate myelin production by oligodendrocytes (OLs); however, their exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated, and in particular, it remains unclear whether they are directly targeting OLs, or their action is mediated by effects on other cell types. We assessed the effect of remyelination promoting antibody rHIgM22 on the proliferative response and on the ceramide/sphingosine 1-phosphate rheostat in mixed glial cell cultures (MGCs). rHIgM22 treatm...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Grassi S, Giussani P, Prioni S, Button D, Cao J, Hakimi I, Sarmiere P, Srinivas M, Cabitta L, Sonnino S, Prinetti A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Triggers Autophagy by Influencing the mTOR Pathway in the Spinal Dorsal Horn in a Rat Neuropathic Pain Model.
Abstract Histone acetylation levels can be upregulated by treating cells with histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs), which can induce autophagy. Autophagy flux in the spinal cord of rats following the left fifth lumber spinal nerve ligation (SNL) is involved in the progression of neuropathic pain. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), one of the HDACIs can interfere with the epigenetic process of histone acetylation, which has been shown to ease neuropathic pain. Recent research suggest that SAHA can stimulate autophagy via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in some types of cancer cells. However...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Feng XL, Deng HB, Wang ZG, Wu Y, Ke JJ, Feng XB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research