Astrocyte-Derived Exosomal microRNA miR-200a-3p Prevents MPP+-Induced Apoptotic Cell Death Through Down-Regulation of MKK4.
Abstract Astrocytes release exosomes that regulate neuronal cell function. 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) is a well-known neurotoxin used to induce cell death in in vitro Parkinson's disease models, and microRNA (miRNA) transferred by released exosomes can regulate its mechanisms. Here, we demonstrated that exosomes released from normal astrocytes (ADEXs), but not exosomes derived from MPP+-stimulated astrocytes (MPP+-ADEXs), significantly attenuate MPP+-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells and primary mesencephalic dopaminergic neuron cultures, and reduce expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shakespear N, Ogura M, Yamaki J, Homma Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dynamic Lamin B1-Gene Association During Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Differentiation.
In this study, we show that cultured OPC were characterized by progressively declining levels of endogenous Lamin B1 (LMNB1) during differentiation into OL. We then identify the genes dynamically associated to the nuclear lamina component LMNB1 during this transition, using a well established technique called DamID, which is based on the ability of a bacterially-derived deoxyadenosine methylase (Dam), to modify genomic regions in close proximity. We expressed a fusion protein containing Dam and LMNB1 in OPC (OPCLMNB1-Dam) and either kept them proliferating or differentiated them into OL (OLLMNB1-Dam) and identified genes t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yattah C, Hernandez M, Huang D, Park H, Liao W, Casaccia P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Deuterium-Depleted Water (DDW) Against H2O2-Induced Oxidative Stress in Differentiated PC12 Cells Through the PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.
In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of deuterium-depleted water (DDW) against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in differentiated PC12 cells and the possible signaling pathways involved. The differentiated PC12 cell line was pretreated with DDW containing different concentrations (50-100 ppm) of deuterium and then treated with H2O2 to induce oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. We assessed cell survival, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, TUNEL assay, catalase (CAT), copper and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and performed Western blot ana...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu Y, Qin D, Yang H, Wang W, Xiao J, Zhou L, Fu H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Methylene Blue Protects Against Sevoflurane-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction by Suppressing Drp1 deSUMOylation in Aged Mice.
Abstract Exposure to sevoflurane and other inhalational anesthetics can induce cognitive impairment in elderly patients. Studies have indicated that methylene blue (MB) has beneficial effects on multiple neurodegenerative diseases and the mechanism involves mitochondrial function preservation. However, whether MB can attenuate the cognitive decline induced by sevoflurane in aged mice requires further investigation. Forty-five 18-month-old C57/BL mice were used to establish a model of sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in which the mice were exposed to 3% sevoflurane for 2 h. Mice in the MB group were in...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zheng F, Fang P, Chang J, Chen M, Zhong Q, Chen T, Chen C, Zhang Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astrocyte Diversity: Current Insights and Future Directions.
Abstract Astrocytes make up 20-40% of glial cells within the central nervous system (CNS) and provide several crucial functions, ranging from metabolic and structural support to regulation of synaptogenesis and synaptic transmission. Although these cells are morphologically and functionally complex, astrocytes have been historically regarded as homogenous cell populations and studied as one population of cells. Fortunately, recent evidence in RNA profiling and imaging data has begun to refute this view. These studies suggest heterogeneity of astrocytes across brain regions, differing in many aspects such as morpho...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 31, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Westergard T, Rothstein JD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Peroxiredoxin 2 in Neurological Disorders: A Review of its Molecular Mechanisms.
Abstract Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are closely related to the pathological processes of neurological disorders. Peroxiredoxin 2 (Prdx2) is an abundant antioxidant enzyme in the central nervous system. Prdx2 reduces the production of reactive oxygen species and participates in regulating various signaling pathways in neurons by catalyzing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), thereby protecting neurons against oxidative stress and an inflammatory injury. However, the spillage of Prdx2, as damage-associated molecular patterns, accelerates brain damage after stroke by activating an inflammatory response. The post-tr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu J, Su G, Gao J, Tian Y, Liu X, Zhang Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glutamate Transporters and Mitochondria: Signaling, Co-compartmentalization, Functional Coupling, and Future Directions.
Abstract In addition to being an amino acid that is incorporated into proteins, glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the mammalian CNS, the precursor for the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid, and one metabolic step from the tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediate α-ketoglutarate. Extracellular glutamate is cleared by a family of Na+-dependent transporters. These transporters are variably expressed by all cell types in the nervous system, but the bulk of clearance is into astrocytes. GLT-1 and GLAST (also called EAAT2 and EAAT1) mediate this activity and are extremely abundant...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Robinson MB, Lee ML, DaSilva S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis for the Identification of Key Molecules and Pathways in the Hippocampus of Rats After Traumatic Brain Injury.
In this study, four available expression datasets of fluid percussion injury (FPI) and sham samples from the hippocampus of rats were analysed. A total of 248 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 10 differentially expressed microRNAs (DEMIs) were identified. Then, functional annotation was performed using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses. Most of the DEGs were enriched for the term inflammatory immune response. The MCODE plug-in in the Cytoscape software was applied to build a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and 18 hub genes were demonstrated to be enric...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 30, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiao X, Bai P, Cao S, Jiang Y, Liang W, Wang T, Luo X, Guan Q, Gao L, Zhang L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Extrinsic Factors Driving Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cell Progression in CNS Development and Injury.
Abstract Oligodendrocytes (OLs) generate myelin membranes for the rapid propagation of electrical signals along axons in the central nervous system (CNS) and provide metabolites to support axonal integrity and function. Differentiation of OLs from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) is orchestrated by a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the CNS. Disruption of this process, or OL loss in the developing or adult brain, as observed in various neurological conditions including hypoxia/ischemia, stroke, and demyelination, results in axonal dystrophy, neuronal dysfunction, and severe neurological impai...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Baydyuk M, Morrison VE, Gross PS, Huang JK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Interactions of 17 β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 10 and Cyclophilin D in Alzheimer's Disease.
Interactions of 17β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 10 and Cyclophilin D in Alzheimer's Disease. Neurochem Res. 2020 Jan 29;: Authors: Kristofikova Z, Springer T, Gedeonova E, Hofmannova A, Ricny J, Hromadkova L, Vyhnalek M, Laczo J, Nikolai T, Hort J, Petrasek T, Stuchlik A, Vales K, Klaschka J, Homola J Abstract The nucleus-encoded 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 10 (17β-HSD10) regulates cyclophilin D (cypD) in the mitochondrial matrix. CypD regulates opening of mitochondrial permeability transition pores. Both mechanisms may be affected by amyloid β peptides accumulated ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kristofikova Z, Springer T, Gedeonova E, Hofmannova A, Ricny J, Hromadkova L, Vyhnalek M, Laczo J, Nikolai T, Hort J, Petrasek T, Stuchlik A, Vales K, Klaschka J, Homola J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Iron-Doping of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Lowers Their Toxic Potential on C6 Glioma Cells.
Abstract Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are well known for their cytotoxicity which in part has been attributed to the release of copper ions from CuO-NPs. As iron-doping has been reported to reduce the susceptibility of CuO-NPs to dissolution, we have compared pure CuO-NPs and CuO-NPs that had been doped with 10% iron (CuO-Fe-NPs) for copper release and for their toxic potential on C6 glioma cells. Physicochemical characterization revealed that dimercaptosuccinate (DMSA)-coated CuO-NPs and CuO-Fe-NPs did not differ in their size or zeta potential. However, the redox activity and liberation of copper ions fr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 29, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Joshi A, Naatz H, Faber K, Pokhrel S, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intertwined ROS and Metabolic Signaling at the Neuron-Astrocyte Interface.
a-Cabrera R Abstract Metabolism and redox signalling share critical nodes in the nervous system. In the last years, a series of major findings have challenged the current vision on how neural reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced and handled in the nervous system. Once regarded as deleterious by-products, ROS are now shown to be essential for a metabolic and redox crosstalk. In turn, this coupling defines neural viability and function to control behaviour or leading to neurodegeneration when compromised. Findings like a different assembly of mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes in neurons and astrocytes s...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vicente-Gutiérrez C, Jiménez-Blasco D, Quintana-Cabrera R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Antioxidants and Neuron-Astrocyte Interplay in Brain Physiology: Melatonin, a Neighbor to Rely on.
Abstract This manuscript is a review focused onto the role of astrocytes in the protection of neurons against oxidative stress and how melatonin can contribute to the maintenance of brain homeostasis. The first part of the review is dedicated to the dependence of neurons on astrocytes by terms of survival under oxidative stress conditions. Additionally, the effects of melatonin against oxidative stress in the brain and its putative role in the protection against diseases affecting the brain are highlighted. The effects of melatonin on the physiology of neurons and astrocytes also are reviewed. PMID: 31989469 ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gonzalez A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Thiamine Deficiency Modulates p38MAPK and Heme Oxygenase-1 in Mouse Brain: Association with Early Tissue and Behavioral Changes.
va FM Abstract Thiamine deficiency (TD) produces severe neurodegenerative lesions. Studies have suggested that primary neurodegenerative events are associated with both oxidative stress and inflammation. Very little is known about the downstream effects on intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal death. The primary aim of this work was to evaluate the modulation of p38MAPK and the expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Behavioral, metabolic, and morphological parameters were assessed. Mice were separated into six groups: control (Cont), TD with pyrithiamine (Ptd), T...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 27, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Medeiros RCN, Moraes JO, Rodrigues SDC, Pereira LM, Aguiar HQDS, de Cordova CAS, Yim Júnior A, de Cordova FM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Reactive Astrocytes as Therapeutic Targets for Brain Degenerative Diseases: Roles Played by Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors.
ta KS Abstract Astrocytes are well known to play critical roles in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, recent reports indicate that these cells are heterogeneous with respect to the molecules they express and the functions they exhibit in the quiescent or activated state. Because astrocytes also contribute to pathology, promising new results raise the possibility of manipulating specific astroglial populations for therapeutic roles. In this mini-review, we highlight the function of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), in particular mGluR3 and mGluR5, in reactive ast...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Planas-Fontánez TM, Dreyfus CF, Saitta KS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Oligodendrocytes Death Induced Sensorimotor and Cognitive Deficit in N-nitro-L-arginine methyl Rat Model of Pre-eclampsia.
Abstract Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy complicated syndrome that affects multiple organs including the brain that continue post- delivery in both mother and the offspring. We evaluated the expression of oligodendrocytes in the brain of PE rat model through development as well as the cognitive changes and other behavioural modifications that may occur later in the life of offspring of PE-like rat model. Pregnant rats divided into early-onset and late-onset groups were administered with N-nitro- L-arginine methyl (L-NAME) through drinking water at gestational days (GD) 8-17. Rats were allowed free access to wate...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 25, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ijomone OK, Shallie PD, Naicker T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ifenprodil Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization Through the GluN2B-PP2A-AKT Cascade in the Dorsal Striatum of Mice.
In this study, we measured the level of phosphorylated (p-) GluN2B (Serine; Ser 1303), PP2A/B (a regulatory subunit of PP2A), and PP2A/C (a catalytic subunit of PP2A) in different brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFc), nucleus accumbens (NAc), dorsal striatum (DS), and hippocampus (Hip). We also used ifenprodil, a selective antagonist of GluN2B to clarify the relationship between GluN2B and PP2A. The results showed that METH increased the level of p-GluN2B (Ser 1303) and PP2A/B in the DS and ifenprodil blocked this increase. We further examined the interaction between PP2A/B and PP2A/C in the DS and found that ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen G, Li T, Xiao J, Wang J, Shang Q, Qian H, Qiao C, Zhang P, Chen T, Liu X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Amino Acid Transporters and Exchangers from the SLC1A Family: Structure, Mechanism and Roles in Physiology and Cancer.
Abstract The Solute Carrier 1A (SLC1A) family includes two major mammalian transport systems-the alanine serine cysteine transporters (ASCT1-2) and the human glutamate transporters otherwise known as the excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT1-5). The EAATs play a critical role in maintaining low synaptic concentrations of the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, and hence they have been widely researched over a number of years. More recently, the neutral amino acid exchanger, ASCT2 has garnered attention for its important role in cancer biology and potential as a molecular target for cancer therapy. The...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Freidman N, Chen I, Wu Q, Briot C, Holst J, Font J, Vandenberg R, Ryan R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Aerobic Glycolysis in the Brain: Warburg and Crabtree Contra Pasteur.
a-Lehnert F Abstract Information processing is onerous. Curiously, active brain tissue does not fully oxidize glucose and instead generates a local surplus of lactate, a phenomenon termed aerobic glycolysis. Why engage in inefficient ATP production by glycolysis when energy demand is highest and oxygen is plentiful? Aerobic glycolysis is associated to classic biochemical effects known by the names of Pasteur, Warburg and Crabtree. Here we discuss these three interdependent phenomena in brain cells, in light of high-resolution data of neuronal and astrocytic metabolism in culture, tissue slices and in vivo, acquire...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 24, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Barros LF, Ruminot I, San Martín A, Lerchundi R, Fernández-Moncada I, Baeza-Lehnert F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glial Factors Regulating White Matter Development and Pathologies of the Cerebellum.
Abstract The cerebellum is a brain region that undergoes extremely dynamic growth during perinatal and postnatal development which is regulated by the proper interaction between glial cells and neurons with a complex concert of growth factors, chemokines, cytokines, neurotransmitters and transcriptions factors. The relevance of cerebellar functions for not only motor performance but also for cognition, emotion, memory and attention is increasingly being recognized and acknowledged. Since perturbed circuitry of cerebro-cerebellar trajectories can play a role in many central nervous system pathologies and thereby co...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 23, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Revuelta M, Scheuer T, Chew LJ, Schmitz T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Involvement of Orexinergic System Within the Nucleus Accumbens in Pain Modulatory Role of the Lateral Hypothalamus in Orofacial Pain Model.
In this study, we investigated the role of accumbal orexinergic receptors in the LH-induced antinociception during formalin-induced orofacial pain. Male adult Wistar rats weighing 230-250 g were used in this study. Cannulae were unilaterally implanted in their skull for microinjections. SB334867 (OX1 receptor antagonist) or TCS OX2 29 (OX2 receptor antagonist) at the doses of 3, 10 and 30 nM were injected into the NAc with/without intra-LH microinjection of carbachol (250 nM/rat). Carbachol was used for chemical stimulation of orexinergic neurons in the LH. Our results showed that intra-LH carbachol following injection of ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 21, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Haghparast A, Matini T, Rezaee L, Rahban M, Tehranchi A, Haghparast A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Bacosides Encapsulated in Lactoferrin Conjugated PEG-PLA-PCL-OH Based Polymersomes Act as Epigenetic Modulator in Chemically Induced Amnesia.
Abstract The present study demonstrates the epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effect of Bacoside rich extract of Bacopa monniera-a nootropic herb, on scopolamine treated amnesic mice conferred via chromatin modifying enzymes. The focus of the work was to elucidate the modulation of the chromatin modifying enzymes: DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, HDAC2, HDAC5 and CPB in scopolamine induced amnesic mice after treatment with bacoside rich extract of Bacopa monniera (BA) and BA encapsulated in lactoferrin conjugated PEG-PLA-PCL-OH based polymersomes (BAN). We observed remarkable difference between the results obtained after...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 20, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Goyal K, Konar A, Kumar A, Koul V Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Extracellular Vesicles Derived from Epidural Fat-Mesenchymal Stem Cells Attenuate NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Improve Functional Recovery After Spinal Cord Injury.
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event which caused high mortality and morbidity. Recently, nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been showed to act a critical t role in the secondly injury phase of SCI. In current study, we aimed to investigate the effect and underlying molecular mechanisms of extracellular vesicles derived from epidural fat (EF)- mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the treatment of SCI. Ninety-six Sprague-Dawley rats were used for current study and randomly divided into four groups: sham group, SCI group, SCI + Saline group, SCI&...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 17, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang JH, Fu CH, Xu Y, Yin XM, Cao Y, Lin FY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Pedunculopontine Nucleus Deep Brain Stimulation Improves Gait Disorder in Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
Abstract Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been proposed as a treatment strategy for gait disorder in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We thus performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials to assess the effect of this treatment on gait disorder in patients with PD. We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Knowledge, Wan Fang and WIP for randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials (published before July 29, 2014; no language restrictions) comparing PPN-DBS with other treatments. We assessed pooled data usin...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lin F, Wu D, Lin C, Cai H, Chen L, Cai G, Ye Q, Cai G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

miR-124-5p/NOX2 Axis Modulates the ROS Production and the Inflammatory Microenvironment to Protect Against the Cerebral I/R Injury.
In conclusion, miR-124-5p/NOX2 axis modulates NOX-mediated ROS production, the inflammatory microenvironment, subsequently the apoptosis of neurons, finally affecting the cerebral I/R injury. PMID: 31950451 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu Y, Yao J, Feng K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Impaired EAT-4 Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Leads to Defective Nocifensive Response of Caenorhabditis elegans to Noxious Heat.
Abstract In mammals, glutamate is an important excitatory neurotransmitter. Glutamate and glutamate receptors are found in areas specifically involved in pain sensation, transmission and transduction such as peripheral nervous system, spinal cord and brain. In C. elegans, several studies have suggested glutamate pathways are associated with withdrawal responses to mechanical stimuli and to chemical repellents. However, few evidences demonstrate that glutamate pathways are important to mediate nocifensive response to noxious heat. The thermal avoidance behavior of C. elegans was studied and results illustrated that...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Leonelli S, Nkambeu B, Beaudry F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Daphnetin Ameliorates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Through Regulating Heme Oxygenase-1.
Abstract To assess the potential role of daphnetin, a clinically used anti-inflammatory agent, on the development of the inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease, we investigated its immune regulatory function in a murine model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Significantly, lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-17, interferon-γ, Il6, Il12a, and Il23a were observed in brains of daphnetin-treated EAE mice, compared with those in control littermates. We also confirmed that daphnetin suppressed the production of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-&al...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 16, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang D, Zhu B, Liu X, Han Q, Ge W, Zhang W, Lu Y, Wu Q, Shi L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Activation of PPAR- β/δ Attenuates Brain Injury by Suppressing Inflammation and Apoptosis in a Collagenase-Induced Intracerebral Hemorrhage Mouse Model.
Activation of PPAR-β/δ Attenuates Brain Injury by Suppressing Inflammation and Apoptosis in a Collagenase-Induced Intracerebral Hemorrhage Mouse Model. Neurochem Res. 2020 Jan 14;: Authors: Tang X, Yan K, Wang Y, Wang Y, Chen H, Xu J, Lu Y, Wang X, Liang J, Zhang X Abstract Brain injury has been proposed as the major cause of the poor outcomes associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Emerging evidence indicates that the nuclear receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPAR-β/δ), plays a crucial role in the pathological process of central nervous...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tang X, Yan K, Wang Y, Wang Y, Chen H, Xu J, Lu Y, Wang X, Liang J, Zhang X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Activation of BDNF-AS/ADAR/p53 Positive Feedback Loop Inhibits Glioblastoma Cell Proliferation.
This study firstly demonstrated that BDNF-AS acted as a tumor suppressor in GBM and the positive feedback circuit of BDNF-AS/ADAR/p53 served an important mechanism to control GBM proliferation. Targeting this auto-regulatory loop may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for GBM patients. PMID: 31939089 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lv X, Gu C, Guo S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Proteasome Composition in Cytokine-Treated Neurons and Astrocytes is Determined Mainly by Subunit Displacement.
In this study, we investigated if subunit displacement and/or alterations in proteasome biosynthesis are responsible for the changes in the levels of constitutive proteasomes (c-20S), immunoproteasomes (i-20S) and the activators PA28 and PA700 in neurons and astrocytes cultured with a cytokine mixture (IFN-γ/TNF-α/IL-1β). Exposure of both cell types to cytokines for 24 h increases mRNA and protein expression of the i-20S-specific subunit β5i and PA28α/β, and leads to a decline in the amount of the c-20S-specific subunit β5. Since β5 mRNA levels are unchanged by the cytokine t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 14, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shanley KL, Hu CL, Bizzozero OA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sodium-Calcium Exchangers of the SLC8 Family in Oligodendrocytes: Functional Properties in Health and Disease.
uss B Abstract The solute carrier 8 (SLC8) family of sodium-calcium exchangers (NCXs) functions as an essential regulatory system that couples opposite fluxes of sodium and calcium ions across plasmalemmal membranes. NCXs, thereby, play key roles in maintaining an ion homeostasis that preserves cellular integrity. Hence, alterations in NCX expression and regulation have been found to lead to ionic imbalances that are often associated with intracellular calcium overload and cell death. On the other hand, intracellular calcium has been identified as a key driver for a multitude of downstream signaling events that ar...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 11, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Spencer SA, Suárez-Pozos E, Escalante M, Myo YP, Fuss B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

SNHG16 Silencing Inhibits Neuroblastoma Progression by Downregulating HOXA7 via Sponging miR-128-3p.
Abstract Neuroblastoma (NB) is a common intracranial solid tumor with high mortality. Small nucleolar RNA host gene 16 (SNHG16), one of the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), has been reported to be linked to the poor prognosis of NB. However, the mechanisms of SNHG16 in regulating NB progression remain poorly understood. The expression level of SNHG16 was measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The starBase was employed to predict the interaction of miR-128-3p and SNHG16 or HOXA7, which was verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assay. Cell prolife...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 9, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bao J, Zhang S, Meng Q, Qin T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Amphetamine Stimulates Endocytosis of the Norepinephrine and Neuronal Glutamate Transporters in Cultured Locus Coeruleus Neurons.
Abstract Amphetamines and amphetamine-derivatives elevate neurotransmitter concentrations by competing with endogenous biogenic amines for reuptake. In addition, AMPHs have been shown to activate endocytosis of the dopamine transporter (DAT) which further elevates extracellular dopamine (DA). We previously found that the biochemical cascade leading to this cellular process involves entry of AMPH into the cell through the DAT, stimulation of an intracellular trace amine-associated receptor, TAAR1, and activation of the small GTPase, RhoA. We also showed that the neuronal glutamate transporter, EAAT3, undergoes endo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 7, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Underhill SM, Colt MS, Amara SG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

lncRNA ANRIL Ameliorates Oxygen and Glucose Deprivation (OGD) Induced Injury in Neuron Cells via miR-199a-5p/CAV-1 Axis.
In this study, we aim to explore the mechanism by which ANRIL exhibits protective effect. Middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse models were applied and infarction areas were assessed by TTC assay. The expression of ANRIL and miR-199a-5p were determined by qPCR. Oxygen and glucose deprivation treatment was applied to mimic in vitro ischemia injury in N-2a cells. The levels of BCL-2, BAX, MEK, ERK, CAV-1 were determined by western blot. Cell viability were assessed by MTT assay. The direct interaction among miR-199a-5p and ANRIL, miR-199a-5p and CAV-1 were demonstrated by dual Luciferase report assay. ANRIL and miR-199a-5p ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 6, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhong W, Li YC, Huang QY, Tang XQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Menadione-Mediated WST1 Reduction by Cultured Astrocytes Depends on NQO1 Activity and Cytosolic Glucose Metabolism.
Abstract The reduction of water-soluble tetrazolium salts (WSTs) is frequently used to determine the metabolic integrity and the viability of cultured cells. Recently, we have reported that the electron cycler menadione can efficiently connect intracellular oxidation reactions in cultured astrocytes with the extracellular reduction of WST1 and that this menadione cycling reaction involves an enzyme. The enzymatic reaction involved in the menadione-dependent WST1 reduction was found strongly enriched in the cytosolic fraction of cultured astrocytes and is able to efficiently use both NADH and NADPH as electron dono...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 4, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ehrke E, Steinmeier J, Stapelfeldt K, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effects of IL-1 β on Astrocytes are Conveyed by Extracellular Vesicles and Influenced by Age.
In this study, we hypothesized that the response of astrocytes to mechanical and inflammatory stimulation would differ with long-term culture. We report that naïve short-term cultured (young) and long-term cultured astrocytes (aged) exhibit similar recovery to a scratch wound assay. However, in response to IL-1β young astrocytes have an arrested recovery which is not observed in IL-1β treated aged astrocytes. We had recently reported that astrocytes release extracellular vesicles (EVs) in response to IL-1β treatment. Given the disparate phenotypes between young and aged astrocytes, we next examined whet...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 3, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Willis CM, Sutter P, Rouillard M, Crocker SJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neurochemical Evidence of Preclinical and Clinical Reports on Target-Based Therapy in Alcohol Used Disorder.
Abstract Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic relapsing disorder, which enforces a person to compulsively seek alcohol, restricting control over alcohol intake leads to emergence of an undesired emotional state during abstinence. There are recent advances for better understanding of neurocircuitry involved in the pathophysiology of AUD. Alcohol interaction with neuronal membrane proteins results in changes in neuronal circuits. It is also linked with the potential medication and their clinical validation concerning their pharmacological targets for alcoholic abstinence. This review covers research work from the...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Prajapati SK, Bhaseen S, Krishnamurthy S, Sahu AN Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Combined Therapy of Berberine Treatment with lncRNA BACE1-AS Depletion Attenuates A β25-35 Induced Neuronal Injury Through Regulating the Expression of miR-132-3p in Neuronal Cells.
The Combined Therapy of Berberine Treatment with lncRNA BACE1-AS Depletion Attenuates Aβ25-35 Induced Neuronal Injury Through Regulating the Expression of miR-132-3p in Neuronal Cells. Neurochem Res. 2020 Jan 02;: Authors: Ge Y, Song X, Liu J, Liu C, Xu C Abstract Accumulating articles reported that berberine (Ber) played a neuroprotective role in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as biomarkers and therapeutic targets of AD. However, the precise mechanism by which lncRNA β-amyloid cleaving enzyme 1 antisense RNA (BACE1-AS)regulates the progression o...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ge Y, Song X, Liu J, Liu C, Xu C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Amelioration of Repeated Restraint Stress-Induced Behavioral Deficits and Hippocampal Anomalies with Taurine Treatment in Mice.
Abstract Taurine, an essential neutraceutical, has been reported to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Substantial evidence indicates that prolonged stress is one of the leading causes of psychological and physiological anomalies. Restraint stress (RS) rat model is the most widely used experimental model for the induction of chronic psycho-emotional stress. In the present study, Swiss albino male mice were restrained for 6 h/day for 28 consecutive days. Animals were divided into four groups: control, RS, RS + taurine, and taurine control group. Taurine, a potent antioxidant, w...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jangra A, Rajput P, Dwivedi DK, Lahkar M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Modulatory Effects of Ginkgo biloba Against Amyloid Aggregation Through Induction of Heat Shock Proteins in Aluminium Induced Neurotoxicity.
In conclusion, our results indicate that GBE prevents the symptoms of Al induced AD like pathophysiology by upregulating the HSPs levels and decreasing the aggregation load. PMID: 31894463 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 2, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Verma S, Sharma S, Ranawat P, Nehru B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Systemic Administration of an Apelin Receptor Agonist Prevents NMDA-Induced Loss of Retinal Neuronal Cells in Mice.
Abstract Glutamate excitotoxicity via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors is thought to be a factor involved in the loss of retinal neuronal cells, including retinal ganglion cells, in retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and acute angle closure glaucoma. Herein we report the protective effect of systemic administration of ML233, an apelin receptor agonist, against retinal neuronal cell death induced by the intravitreal injection of NMDA into mice. Intraperitoneal administration of ML233 prevented the NMDA-induced reduction in the amplitude of scotopic threshold responses (STR), which mainly reflect the...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shibagaki F, Ishimaru Y, Sumino A, Yamamuro A, Yoshioka Y, Maeda S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Prolonged Amphetamine Treatments Cause Long-Term Decrease of Dopamine Uptake in Cultured Cells.
Abstract Amphetamine (AMPH) is a systemic stimulant used to treat a variety of diseases including Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, narcolepsy and obesity. Previous data showed that by binding to catecholamine transporters, AMPH prevents the reuptake of the neurotransmitters dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE). Because AMPH, either used therapeutically at final concentrations of 1-10 µM or abused as recreational drug (50-200 µM), is taken over long periods of time, we investigated the prolonged effects of this drug on the uptake of DA. We found that, in LLC-PK1 cells stably expressing the human...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ferdous N, Kudumala S, Sossi S, Carvelli L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dendrobium Alkaloids Promote Neural Function After Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Through Inhibiting Pyroptosis Induced Neuronal Death in both In Vivo and In Vitro Models.
In this study, we investigated whether DNLA exerted therapeutic benefits against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) damage via ameliorating pyroptosis and inflammation. OGD/R damage was induced in HT22 cells pretreated with DNLA (0.03, 0.3, or 3 mg/ml, 24 h prior to OGD/R), MCC950 (10 ng/ml, 1 h prior), and VX765 (10 ng/ml, 1 h prior). Neuronal apoptosis, necrosis, pyroptosis, and pathological changes were analyzed 24 h following OGD/R. Further to this, male C57/BL mice pretreated with different concentrations of DNLA (0.5 or 5 mg/kg, ip.) for 24 h and VX765 (50 mg/kg, ip....
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu D, Dong Z, Xiang F, Liu H, Wang Y, Wang Q, Rao J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Autophagy Dysfunction and mTOR Hyperactivation Is Involved in Surgery: Induced Behavioral Deficits in Aged C57BL/6J Mice.
Abstract Autophagy is crucial for cell survival, development, division, and homeostasis. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is the foremost negative controller of autophagy, plays a key role in many endogenous processes. The present study investigated whether rapamycin can ameliorate surgery-induced cognitive deficits by inhibiting mTOR and activating autophagy in the hippocampus. Both adult and aged C57BL/6J mice received an intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin (10 mg/kg/day) for 5 days per week for one and a half months. Mice were then subjected to partial hepatectomy under general anest...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jiang Y, Zhou Y, Ma H, Cao X, Li Z, Chen F, Wang H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Introduction: Special Issue in Honor of Eva Sykov á.
Introduction: Special Issue in Honor of Eva Syková. Neurochem Res. 2019 Dec 20;: Authors: Abbott NJ, Nicholson C, Verkhratsky A PMID: 31858377 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Abbott NJ, Nicholson C, Verkhratsky A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Desflurane and Surgery Exposure During Pregnancy Decrease Synaptic Integrity and Induce Functional Deficits in Juvenile Offspring Mice.
This study tested the hypothesis that exposure to desflurane during pregnancy may impair cognition and memory functions of juvenile offspring. Pregnant mice (at gestational day 14) were administered 10% desflurane for 3 h and compared to sham control and sciatic nerve hemi-transection surgery. Hippocampal tissues of both fetal (G14) and offspring mice (postnatal day 31) were collected and analyzed by real-time qPCR and Western blot. Functional tests were performed to assess fear and memory functions in offspring mice. Primary hippocampal neuronal cultures from postnatal day 0 (without desflurane exposure) were examine...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zou S, Wei ZZ, Yue Y, Zheng H, Jiang MQ, Wu A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Silencing of TXNIP Alleviated Oxidative Stress Injury by Regulating MAPK-Nrf2 Axis in Ischemic Stroke.
This study aimed to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism and propose the potential therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Bioinformatics analysis based on a public microarray profile (GSE 61616) of ischemic stroke rats was performed as a pilot research. Oxidative stress was enriched as a significantly gene ontology item, and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and MAPK signaling were identified as the hub gene and pathway, respectively. The experiments in middle cerebral artery occlusion rats demonstrated that ischemia induced the activation of oxidative stress. The expressions of TXNIP, p-p38, p-JNK, p-ER...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tian Y, Su Y, Ye Q, Chen L, Yuan F, Wang Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Amino Terminus of LeuT Changes Conformation in an Environment Sensitive Manner.
r T Abstract Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters are highly expressed in the human brain and catalyze the uptake of substrate through the plasma membrane by using the electrochemical gradient of sodium as the energy source. The bacterial homolog LeuT, a small amino acid transporter isolated from the bacteria Aquifex aeolicus, is the founding member of the family and has been crystallized in three conformations. The N-terminus is structurally well defined and strongly interacts with the transporter core in the outward-facing conformations. However, it could not be resolved in the inward-facing conformation, which in...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Khan JA, Sohail A, Jayaraman K, Szöllősi D, Sandtner W, Sitte HH, Stockner T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Betanin Attenuates Oxidative Stress Induced by 6-OHDA in PC12 Cells via SAPK/JNK and PI3 K Pathways.
Abstract Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder which accompanied with cognitive decline, chorei form moves and behavioral difficulties. Oxidative stress which promote the apoptotic cell death are responsible for neurodegeneration in Parkinson. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the protective effects of betanin against toxicity and oxidative damage induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in PC12 cells as an appropriate model of Parkinson's cell damage. PC12 cells pretreated with betanin (1-200 µM) for 24 h, and exposed to either 6-OHDA (100 µM) or H2O2 (15...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hadipour E, Fereidoni M, Tayarani-Najaran Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Resveratrol Downregulates STAT3 Expression and Astrocyte Activation in Primary Astrocyte Cultures of Rat.
In this study, we investigated the effects of RES on STAT3 expression and phosphorylation, and then on the proliferation and activation of astrocytes, a critical process in reactive astrogliosis, in rat primary cultured astrocytes and an in vitro scratch-wound model. RES downregulated the expression levels of STAT3, P-STAT3 and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein) in cultured astrocytes. The positive index of Ki67 was apparently reduced in cultured astrocytes after RES treatment. Meanwhile, cultured astrocyte proliferation and activation were attenuated by RES. Moreover, in the established in vitro scratch-wound model th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu M, Wang L, Li F, Hu R, Ma J, Zhang K, Cheng X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research