The Potassium Channel Kv1.5 Expression Alters During Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, neurodegenerative disease with an autoimmune component. It was suggested that potassium channels, which are involved in crucial biological functions may have a role in different diseases, including MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). It was shown that voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.5 are responsible for fine-tuning in the immune physiology and influence proliferation and differentiation in microglia and astrocytes. Here, we explored the cellular distribution of the Kv1.5 channel, together with its transcript an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bozic I, Savic D, Milosevic A, Janjic M, Laketa D, Tesovic K, Bjelobaba I, Jakovljevic M, Nedeljkovic N, Pekovic S, Lavrnja I Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Icariin Ameliorates Amyloid Pathologies by Maintaining Homeostasis of Autophagic Systems in A β1-42-Injected Rats.
Icariin Ameliorates Amyloid Pathologies by Maintaining Homeostasis of Autophagic Systems in Aβ1-42-Injected Rats. Neurochem Res. 2019 Oct 15;: Authors: Jiang X, Chen LL, Lan Z, Xiong F, Xu X, Yin YY, Li P, Wang P Abstract Macroautophagy, a sole pathway for dysfunctional organelles or aggregated proteins turnover, has been implicated in the early development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have found that reversal of autophagy dysfunction in APP transgenic mice ameliorates amyloid pathologies. Icariin (ICA), the main component from traditional Chinese herb Epimedium brevicornu Maxim....
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jiang X, Chen LL, Lan Z, Xiong F, Xu X, Yin YY, Li P, Wang P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astrocytic Metabolism Focusing on Glutamate Homeostasis: A Short Review Dedicated to Vittorio Gallo.
Abstract A large number of studies have during the last several decades shown that astrocytes play a significant role in brain energy metabolism accounting for a considerable part of the oxygen uptake and the corresponding oxidative metabolism of glucose and lactate. Interestingly, it has become clear that in addition to these two major energy substrates, glutamate may be considered as an important alternative energy substrate and this is tightly coupled to its role as an excitatory neurotransmitter. Hence, this short review will link these events and provide an account of the role that Vittorio Gallo came to play...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schousboe A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA-26b/PTEN Signaling Pathway Mediates Glycine-Induced Neuroprotection in SAH Injury.
In this study, we show that glycine can reduce brain edema and protect neurons in SAH via a novel pathway. Following a hemorrhagic episode, there is evidence of downregulation of S473 phosphorylation of AKT (p-AKT), and this can be reversed with glycine treatment. We also found that administration of glycine can reduce neuronal cell death in SAH by activating the AKT pathway. Glycine was shown to upregulate miRNA-26b, which led to PTEN downregulation followed by AKT activation, resulting in inhibition of neuronal death. Inhibition of miRNA-26b, PTEN or AKT activation suppressed the neuroprotective effects of glycine. Glyci...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qin X, Akter F, Qin L, Xie Q, Liao X, Liu R, Wu X, Cheng N, Shao L, Xiong X, Liu R, Wan Q, Wu S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Heat Shock Protein 90 is Required for cAMP-Induced Differentiation in Rat Primary Schwann Cells.
Abstract Schwann cells (SCs) play an important role in producing myelin for rapid neurotransmission in the peripheral nervous system. Activation of the differentiation and myelination processes in SCs requires the expression of a series of transcriptional factors including Sox10, Oct6/Pou3f1, and Egr2/Krox20. However, functional interactions among several transcription factors are poorly defined and the important components of the regulatory network are still unknown. Until now, available evidence suggests that SCs require cAMP signaling to initiate the myelination program. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is known a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Han SH, Yun SH, Shin YK, Park HT, Park JI Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

A Selective M1 and M3 Receptor Antagonist, Penehyclidine Hydrochloride, Exerts Antidepressant-Like Effect in Mice.
Abstract Recent studies indicate that anti-muscarinic receptor is a prospective strategy to treat depression. Although non-selective antagonist of muscarinic receptor scopolamine exhibits rapid and robust antidepressant-like effect, it still has various side effects including abuse risk. Penehyclidine hydrochloride (PHC) is a novel clinical anti-cholinergic drug derived from scopolamine in China, which selectively blocks M1 and M3 muscarinic receptor. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate whether PHC would manifest antidepressant-like effects. Forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and...
Source: Neurochemical Research - October 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun X, Sun C, Zhai L, Dong W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effects of ACY-1215 Against Chemotherapy-Related Cognitive Impairment and Brain Damage in Mice.
Abstract Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) is a potential long-term side effect during cancer treatment. There are currently no effective treatments for CRCI. Reduction or inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) has been considered a possible therapeutic strategy for cognitive deficits. HDAC6 inhibition recently has been shown to reverse chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy effectively. In the present study, we examined the effect of HDAC6 inhibitor ACY-1215 (Ricolinostat) on cisplatin-induced brain damage and cognitive deficits in mice. Our results showed that ACY-1215 ameliorated behavio...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang D, Wang B, Liu Y, Dong X, Su Y, Li S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Role of Astrocytes in Manganese Neurotoxicity Revisited.
Abstract Manganese (Mn) overexposure is a public health concern due to its widespread industrial usage and the risk for environmental contamination. The clinical symptoms of Mn neurotoxicity, or manganism, share several pathological features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Biologically, Mn is an essential trace element, and Mn in the brain is preferentially localized in astrocytes. This review summarizes the role of astrocytes in Mn-induced neurotoxicity, specifically on the role of neurotransmitter recycling, neuroinflammation, and genetics. Mn overexposure can dysregulate astrocytic cycling of glutamine (Gln) and g...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ke T, Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz M, Pajarillo E, Rizor A, Soares FAA, Lee E, Aschner M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Tissue Injury and Astrocytic Reaction, But Not Cognitive Deficits, Are Dependent on Hypoxia Duration in Very Immature Rats Undergoing Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia.
to CA Abstract Preterm birth and hypoxia-ischemia (HI) are major causes of neonatal death and neurological disabilities in newborns. The widely used preclinical HI model combines carotid occlusion with hypoxia exposure; however, the relationship between different hypoxia exposure periods with brain tissue loss, astrocyte reactivity and behavioral impairments following HI is lacking. Present study evaluated HI-induced behavioral and morphological consequences in rats exposed to different periods of hypoxia at postnatal day 3. Wistar rats of both sexes were assigned into four groups: control group, HI-120 min, ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 28, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Durán-Carabali LE, Sanches EF, Odorcyk FK, Nicola F, Mestriner RG, Reichert L, Aristimunha D, Pagnussat AS, Netto CA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotection of Andrographolide Against Microglia-Mediated Inflammatory Injury and Oxidative Damage in PC12 Neurons.
In conclusion, andrographolide protected neurons against inflammation-mediated injury via NF-κB inhibition and Nrf2/HO-1 activation and resisted oxidative damage via inhibiting ROS production. Our results will contribute to further exploration of the therapeutic potential of andrographolide in relation to neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID: 31562575 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu Y, Tang D, Wang J, Wei H, Gao J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Nestin Null Mice Show Improved Reversal Place Learning.
Abstract The intermediate filament protein nestin is expressed by neural stem cells, but also by some astrocytes in the neurogenic niche of the hippocampus in the adult rodent brain. We recently reported that nestin-deficient (Nes-/-) mice showed increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis, reduced Notch signaling from Nes-/- astrocytes to the neural stem cells, and impaired long-term memory. Here we assessed learning and memory of Nes-/- mice in a home cage set up using the IntelliCage system, in which the mice learn in which cage corner a nose poke earns access to drinking water. Nes-/- and wildtype mice showed com...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wilhelmsson U, Kalm M, Pekna M, Pekny M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Forced Physical Training Increases Neuronal Proliferation and Maturation with Their Integration into Normal Circuits in Pilocarpine Induced Status Epilepticus Mice.
In conclusion, PT increases hippocampal neurogenesis through increasing BDNF levels by some pathways other than demethylating BDNF CpGs and causes post SE newly-born neurons to integrate into normal circuits thus resulting in decreased spontaneous recurrent seizures and enhanced spatial memory. PMID: 31560103 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Iqbal M, Xiao XL, Zafar S, Yang PB, Si KW, Han H, Liu JX, Liu Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

TGF- β2/Smad3 Signaling Pathway Activation Through Enhancing VEGF and CD34 Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury After Isoflurane Post-conditioning in Rats.
TGF-β2/Smad3 Signaling Pathway Activation Through Enhancing VEGF and CD34 Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury After Isoflurane Post-conditioning in Rats. Neurochem Res. 2019 Sep 25;: Authors: Peng L, Yin J, Wang S, Ge M, Han Z, Wang Y, Zhang M, Xie L, Li Y Abstract Evidence has shown the therapeutic potential of isoflurane (ISO) in cerebral stroke. The present study investigated the mechanism of ISO on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 expression in a rat model of stroke. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Peng L, Yin J, Wang S, Ge M, Han Z, Wang Y, Zhang M, Xie L, Li Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dysregulation of Hyaluronan Homeostasis During White Matter Injury.
Abstract Although the extra cellular matrix (ECM) comprises a major proportion of the CNS parenchyma, new roles for the ECM in regeneration and repair responses to CNS injury have only recently been appreciated. The ECM undergoes extensive remodeling following injury to the developing or mature CNS in disorders that -include perinatal hypoxic-ischemic cerebral injury, multiple sclerosis and age-related vascular dementia. Here we focus on recently described mechanisms involving hyaluronan (HA), which negatively impact myelin repair after cerebral white matter injury. Injury induced depolymerization of hyaluronan (H...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 21, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Srivastava T, Sherman LS, Back SA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

PKC γ and PKCε are Differentially Activated and Modulate Neurotoxic Signaling Pathways During Oxygen Glucose Deprivation in Rat Cortical Slices.
This study clearly suggests that PKC family of isozymes; specifically PKCγ and PKCε are involved in OGD induced intracellular responses which lead to neuronal death. Thus isozyme specific modulation of PKC activity may serve as a promising therapeutic route for the treatment of acute cerebral ischemic injury. PMID: 31541352 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Surendran D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Ibuprofen on Autophagy of Astrocytes During Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Epilepsy and its Significance: An Experimental Study.
This study investigated the effect and significance of ibuprofen on autophagy of astrocytes during pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced epilepsy. 60 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group (received normal saline), PTZ group, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) + PTZ group, ibuprofen + PTZ group and 3-MA + ibuprofen + PTZ group. Dose of each agent was 35 mg/kg (PTZ), 10 mg/kg (3-MA) and 30 mg/kg (ibuprofen) and all drugs were administered intraperitoneally 15 times on alternate days (29 days). Human astrocytes were culture...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Peng J, Wu S, Guo C, Guo K, Zhang W, Liu R, Li J, Hu Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Mitochondrial Targets of Neuroprotective Drug Vinpocetine on Primary Neuron Cultures, Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells, Synaptosomes, and Brain Mitochondria.
r L Abstract Vinpocetine is considered as neuroprotectant drug and used for treatment of brain ischemia and cognitive deficiencies for decades. A number of enzymes, channels and receptors can bind vinpocetine, however the mechanisms of many effects' are still not clear. The present study investigated the effects of vinpocetine from the mitochondrial bioenergetic aspects. In primary brain capillary endothelial cells the purinergic receptor-stimulated mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and efflux were studied. Vinpocetine exerted a partial inhibition on the mitochondrial calcium efflux. In rodent brain synaptosomes vinpoceti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Svab G, Doczi J, Gerencser AA, Ambrus A, Gallyas F, Sümegi B, Tretter L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dcf1 Affects Memory and Anxiety by Regulating NMDA and AMPA Receptors.
Abstract The hippocampus is critical for memory and emotion and both N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl- 4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are known to contribute for those processes. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously found that mice undergo memory decline upon dcf1 deletion through ES gene knockout. In the present study, a nervous system-specific dcf1 knockout (NKO) mouse was constructed, which was found to present severely damaged neuronal morphology. The damaged neurons caused structural abnormalities in dendritic spi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang Y, Liu Q, Xie J, Feng R, Ma F, Wang F, Shen S, Wen T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

A Natural Product with High Affinity to Sigma and 5-HT7 Receptors as Novel Therapeutic Drug for Negative and Cognitive Symptoms of Schizophrenia.
Abstract Dehydrocorybulbine (DHCB), an alkaloid from Corydalis yanhusuo. W.T, has been identified as a dopamine receptor antagonist. We extended our assessment of its pharmacological profile and found that DHCB exhibits high to moderate binding affinities to sigma 1 and 2 receptors, serotonin 5-HT7 receptor, and histamine H2 receptors. This led us to evaluate DHCB properties in pharmacological (apomorphine and MK-801) animal models of schizophrenia in mice. The pharmacological profile of DHCB was screened through radioligand receptor binding assays. Single dose of DHCB reversed the locomotor hyperactivity, stereot...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang L, Zhang Y, Wang C, Zhang X, Wang Z, Liang X, Alachkar A, Civelli O Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Stretch-Induced Deformation as a Model to Study Dopaminergic Dysfunction in Traumatic Brain Injury.
In this study, we evaluated the effects of in vitro simulated TBI on human dopaminergic neurons. To simulate TBI, neurons were subjected to 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 25% and 50% deformation. 24 h after injury, cell viability and apoptosis were determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and DNA fragmentation, as well as ethidium homodimer and caspase 3/7 staining. Dopamine (DA) levels were determined by ELISA. Levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA transporter (DAT) were determined by western blot. Only 50% stretch increased LDH release and ethidium homodimer staining, suggesting the induction of necrosis. On the contrar...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rosas-Hernandez H, Burks SM, Cuevas E, Ali SF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Anticonvulsant and Neuroprotective Effects of Paeonol in Epileptic Rats.
In this study, we found that paeonol reduced the seizure scores of epileptic rats and attenuated the duration and onset latency of seizures. Paeonol can also increase the activities of total antioxidant capacity, SOD and catalase activity and reduce MDA content as well. This suggests that paeonol can improve the level of oxidative stress in rats. More significantly, paeonol can improve neuronal loss and apoptosis in epileptic rats. These results indicate that paeonol has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects in epileptic rats. This effect may be caused by reducing oxidative stress. PMID: 31520267 [PubMed - as sup...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu DH, Agbo E, Zhang SH, Zhu JL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Ubiquitination of Spinal MrgC Alleviates Bone Cancer Pain and Reduces Intracellular Calcium Concentration in Spinal Neurons in Mice.
Abstract Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor subtype C (MrgC) has been shown to play an important role in the development of bone cancer pain. Ubiquitination is reported to participate in pain. However, whether MrgC ubiquitination plays a role in bone cancer pain remains unclear. To answer this question, we designed and performed this study. Osteosarcoma cells were implanted into the intramedullary space of the right femurs of C3H/HeJ mice to induce progressive bone cancer pain. MrgC agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM 8-22) or MrgC antagonist anti-MrgC antibody were injected intrathecally on day 14 after ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 12, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun YE, Xu HY, Hao J, Huo WW, Qian Y, Hou BL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sodium Valproate Reduces Neuronal Apoptosis in Acute Pentylenetetrzole-Induced Seizures via Inhibiting ER Stress.
Abstract Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been indicated to be involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Sodium valproate (VPA), one of the most commonly used antiepileptic drugs, is reported to regulate ER stress in many neurological diseases. However, the effect of VPA on ER stress in epilepsy remains unclear. The current study was performed to investigate the role of ER stress in the neuroprotection of VPA against seizure induced by pentylenetetrzole (PTZ). Our results showed that VPA treatment could inhibit the increased expressions of ER stress proteins (GRP78 and CHOP), and significantly reduce neuronal...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fu J, Peng L, Wang W, He H, Zeng S, Chen TC, Chen Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Guest Editorial.
PMID: 31486965 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chinopoulos C, Starkov A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sepantronium Bromide (YM155), A Small Molecule Survivin Inhibitor, Promotes Apoptosis by Induction of Oxidative Stress, Worsens the Behavioral Deficits and Develops an Early Model of Toxic Demyelination: In Vivo and In-Silico Study.
In conclusion, this modified model promotes cup-induced redox and apoptosis signaling, elevates behavioral deficits, saves time, minimizes variations, and can be employed for early evaluation of novel neuroprotective agents in oligodendropathies. PMID: 31489534 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Reiszadeh-Jahromi S, Sepand MR, Ramezani-Sefidar S, Shahlaei M, Moradi S, Yazdankhah M, Sanadgol N Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Higher Circulating Trimethylamine N-oxide Sensitizes Sevoflurane-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in Aged Rats Probably by Downregulating Hippocampal Methionine Sulfoxide Reductase A.
Abstract Gut microbiota-derived metabolite trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) has recently been shown to promote oxidative stress and inflammation in the peripheral tissues, contributing to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Here we examined whether pre-existing higher circulating TMAO would influence cognitive function in aged rats after anesthetic sevoflurane exposure. Aged rats received vehicle or TMAO treatment for 3 weeks. After 2 weeks of treatment, these animals were exposed to either control or 2.6% sevoflurane for 4 h. One week after exposure, freezing as measured by fear conditioning test,...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao L, Zhang C, Cao G, Dong X, Li D, Jiang L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Enhanced Expression of PD-L1 on Microglia After Surgical Brain Injury Exerts Self-Protection from Inflammation and Promotes Neurological Repair.
This study aimed to evaluate the expression and the role of PD-L1 in a mouse model of SBI induced inflammation and to further study the potential therapeutic effects of PD-L1 on SBI. Here we showed that PD-L1 expression was markedly elevated in the surrounding peri-resection brain tissue post-SBI in vivo. PD-L1 was up-regulated through ERK signal pathway in LPS-treated BV-2 cells in vitro. Furthermore, blockade of the PD-L1 checkpoint using PD-L1 antibody significantly enhanced brain edema, exacerbated apoptosis and increased neurodeficits post-SBI. Moreover, activated PD-1/PD-L1 with PD-L1 protein significantly attenuated...
Source: Neurochemical Research - September 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen Q, Xu L, Du T, Hou Y, Fan W, Wu Q, Yan H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: c-Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase is Involved in Valproic Acid-Mediated Neuronal Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic NSCs and Neurite Outgrowth of NSC-Derived Neurons.
Abstract In the original version of this article, unfortunately, the images in Fig. 4 and 7 are mixed. The correct version of the Fig.4 and 7 is given below. PMID: 31432305 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lu L, Zhou H, Pan B, Li X, Fu Z, Liu J, Shi Z, Chu T, Wei Z, Ning G, Feng S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ilex paraguariensis Attenuates Changes in Mortality, Behavioral and Biochemical Parameters Associated to Methyl Malonate or Malonate Exposure in Drosophila melanogaster.
This study confirm the hypothesis that supplementation with IP offers protection against changes associated to MMA or MA exposure in DM, due, at least in part, to its antioxidant effect. PMID: 31422521 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Portela JL, Bianchini MC, Boligon AA, Carriço MRS, Roehrs R, Soares FAA, de Gomes MG, Hassan W, Puntel RL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

CXCL1 and CXCL2 Inhibit the Axon Outgrowth in a Time- and Cell-Type-Dependent Manner in Adult Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons.
In this study we investigated the effects of long-term incubation (24, 48 and 72 h) with different concentrations of CXCL1 (0.4, 4 or 40 nM) or CXCL2 (0.36, 3.6 or 36 nM) on the axon outgrowth of adult rat dorsal root ganglia neurons in culture. The results showed that both chemokines significantly inhibited the axon outgrowth, with large and medium NF200 (NeuroFilament 200) (+) dorsal root ganglia neurons affected quicker, compared to small IB4 (Isolectin B4) (+) dorsal root ganglia neurons which were affected after longer exposure. Blocking CXCR2 (C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 2) which mediates the effect...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Deftu AT, Ciorescu R, Gheorghe RO, Mihăilescu D, Ristoiu V Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Elevated Neuroglobin Lessens Neuroinflammation and Alleviates Neurobehavioral Deficits Induced by Acute Inhalation of Combustion Smoke in the Mouse.
Abstract Acute inhalation of combustion smoke produces long-term neurologic deficits in survivors. To study the mechanisms that contribute to the development of neurologic deficits and identify targets for prevention, we developed a mouse model of acute inhalation of combustion smoke, which supports longitudinal investigation of mechanisms that underlie the smoke induced inimical sequelae in the brain. Using a transgenic mouse engineered to overexpress neuroglobin, a neuroprotective oxygen-binding globin protein, we previously demonstrated that elevated neuroglobin preserves mitochondrial respiration and attenuate...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gorgun MF, Zhuo M, Dineley KT, Englander EW Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Aspects of cAMP Signaling in Epileptogenesis and Seizures and Its Potential as Drug Target.
k LK Abstract Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological conditions. Today, close to 30 different medications to prevent epileptic seizures are in use; yet, far from all patients become seizure free upon medical treatment. Thus, there is a need for new pharmacological approaches including novel drug targets for the management of epilepsy. Despite the fact that a role for cAMP signaling in epileptogenesis and seizures was first suggested some four decades ago, none of the current medications target the cAMP signaling system. The reasons for this are probably many including limited knowledge of the unde...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mertz C, Krarup S, Jensen CD, Lindholm SEH, Kjær C, Pinborg LH, Bak LK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hippocampal Up-Regulation of Apolipoprotein D in a Rat Model of Maternal Hypo- and Hyperthyroidism: Implication of Oxidative Stress.
Abstract Thyroid disorders impair various functions of the hippocampus where thyroid hormone receptors are localized in the brain. Hyper and hypothyroidism are associated with large changes in brain oxidative stress. Apolipoprotein D (APOD) is a conserved glycoprotein that increased in response to oxidative stress in the brain and has been suggested function as an antioxidant in the brain. Thus, the goal of this work was to explore the effect of maternal hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the Apod expression in the pup's brain regarding changes in oxidative stress. For induction hypo and hyperthyroidism in adult female ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Salami M, Bandegi AR, Sameni HR, Vafaei AA, Pakdel A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Uptake of Intact Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Causes Acute Toxicity in Cultured Glial Cells.
Abstract Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) dispersions are known for their high cell toxic potential but contaminating copper ions in such dispersions are a major hurdle in the investigation of specific nanoparticle-mediated toxicity. In order to distinguish between the adverse effects exhibited by CuO-NPs and/or by contaminating ionic copper, the membrane-impermeable copper chelator bathocuproine disulfonate (BCS) was added in a low molar ratio (20% of the total copper applied) in order to chelate the copper ions that had been released extracellularly from the CuO-NPs before or during the incubation. Physicoch...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 14, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Joshi A, Thiel K, Jog K, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Knockdown of TRIM32 Protects Hippocampal Neurons from Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Injury.
Abstract Tripartite motif 32 (TRIM32) is a member of TRIM family that plays a potential role in neural regeneration. However, the biological function of TRIM32 in cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury has not been investigated. In the present study, we evaluated the expression level of TRIM32 in hippocampal neurons following oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R). The results showed that TRIM32 expression was significantly elevated in hippocampal neurons subjected to OGD/R as compared to the neurons cultured in the normoxia condition. To further evaluate the role of TRIM32, hippocampal neurons were transfec...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei L, Zhang JS, Ji SF, Xu H, Zhao ZH, Zhang L, Pang L, Zhang JF, Yang PB, Ma H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Role of PGC-1 α in Mitochondrial Quality Control in Neurodegenerative Diseases.
Role of PGC-1α in Mitochondrial Quality Control in Neurodegenerative Diseases. Neurochem Res. 2019 Aug 13;: Authors: Zhang Q, Lei YH, Zhou JP, Hou YY, Wan Z, Wang HL, Meng H Abstract As one of the major cell organelles responsible for ATP production, it is important that neurons maintain mitochondria with structural and functional integrity; this is especially true for neurons with high metabolic requirements. When mitochondrial damage occurs, mitochondria are able to maintain a steady state of functioning through molecular and organellar quality control, thus ensuring neuronal function. And whe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Q, Lei YH, Zhou JP, Hou YY, Wan Z, Wang HL, Meng H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Struggle to Make CNS Axons Regenerate: Why Has It Been so Difficult?
Abstract Axon regeneration in the CNS is inhibited by many extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Because these act in parallel, no single intervention has been sufficient to enable full regeneration of damaged axons in the adult mammalian CNS. In the external environment, NogoA and CSPGs are strongly inhibitory to the regeneration of adult axons. CNS neurons lose intrinsic regenerative ability as they mature: embryonic but not mature neurons can grow axons for long distances when transplanted into the adult CNS, and regeneration fails with maturity in in vitro axotomy models. The causes of this loss of regeneration inc...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fawcett JW Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Binding Mechanisms and Inhibitory Effect of Intravenous Anesthetics on AChE In Vitro and In Vivo: Kinetic Analysis and Molecular Docking.
This study on anesthetic agents that are now widely used in surgical applications, have provided a molecular basis for investigating the drug-enzyme interactions mechanism. In addition, the study is important in understanding the molecular mechanism of inhibitors that are effective in the treatment of AD. PMID: 31385137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Işık M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Apelin-13 Protects PC12 Cells Against Methamphetamine-Induced Oxidative Stress, Autophagy and Apoptosis.
In this study, PC12 cells were exposed to both METH (0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 mmol/L) and Apelin-13 (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0 μmol/L) in vitro for 24 h to measure determined dose, and then downstream pathways were measured to investigate apoptosis, autophagy, and ROS responses. The results have indicated that Apelin-13 decreased the apoptotic response post-METH exposure in PC12 cells by increasing cell viability, reducing apoptotic rates. In addition, the study has revealed Apelin-13 decreased gene expression of Beclin-1 by Real-Time PCR and LC3-II by western blotting in METH-induced PC12 cells, which demonstrat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 5, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Foroughi K, Khaksari M, Rahmati M, Bitaraf FS, Shayannia A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Diagnostic Efficacy of 18F-FDG PET/MRI in Peripheral Nerve Injury Models.
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of 18F-FDG PET/MRI in two different peripheral neuropathic pain models using the injured rat sciatic nerves. Twelve rats, with operation on left sciatic nerves, were evenly divided into three groups: sham surgery (control group), crushing injury and chronic constriction injury (CCI) (experimental groups). The nerve damage was assessed at 3 weeks postoperatively using following methods: paw withdrawal threshold values (RevWT), maximum standardized uptake values on PET/MRI images (SUVR), and counting the number of myelinated axons in proxima...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nam JW, Lee MJ, Kim HJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Experimental Characterization of the Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain Model in Mice.
This study dissects and characterises the CCI model, ascertaining a more uniform animal model to surrogate actual neuropathic pain condition. PMID: 31376053 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gopalsamy B, Sambasevam Y, Zulazmi NA, Chia JSM, Omar Farouk AA, Sulaiman MR, Tengku Mohamad TAS, Perimal EK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

NGF, BDNF and Arc mRNA Expression in the Hippocampus of Rats After Administration of Morphine.
Abstract Morphine can influence immediate early genes (IEG) of activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) which are activated in response to physiological stimuli during learning, as well as the nerve growth factor (NGF) gene which increases the expression of several IEGs for memory formation. The purpose of the current study was first to evaluate the effect of acute (1-day) and subchronic (15-days) morphine administration on memory retrieval of rats and second to determine the hippocampal expression of NGF, BDNF and Arc genes as potential contributors in ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rouhani F, Khodarahmi P, Naseh V Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effect of SPTLC2 on Promoting Neuronal Apoptosis is Alleviated by MiR-124-3p Through TLR4 Signalling Pathway.
Abstract To investigate the role and mechanism of microRNA-124-3p (miR-124-3p) and serine palmitoyltransferase long chain base subunit 2 (SPTLC2) in neuronal apoptosis induced by mechanical injury. Transient transfection was used to modify the expression of miR-124-3p and SPTLC2. After transfection, neuronal apoptosis was evaluated in an in vitro injury model of primary neurons using TUNEL staining and western blot. The correlation between miR-124-3p and SPTLC2 was identified through a dual luciferase reporter assay in HEK293 cells. A rescue experiment in primary neurons was performed to further confirm the result...
Source: Neurochemical Research - August 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Su X, Ye Y, Yang Y, Zhang K, Bai W, Chen H, Kang E, Kong C, He X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

GLAST Activity is Modified by Acute Manganese Exposure in Bergmann Glial Cells.
ilde;uelos TN, Ortega A Abstract Glutamate is the major excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. It exerts its actions through the activation of specific plasma membrane receptors expressed in neurons and glial cells. Overactivation of glutamate receptors results in neuronal death, known as excitotoxicity. A family of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters enriched in glial cells are responsible of the vast majority of the removal of this amino acid form the synaptic cleft. Therefore, a precise and exquisite regulation of these proteins is required not only for a proper glutamatergic transm...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Escalante M, Soto-Verdugo J, Hernández-Kelly LC, Hernández-Melchor D, López-Bayghen E, Olivares-Bañuelos TN, Ortega A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Roles Played by the Na+/Ca2+ Exchanger and Hypothermia in the Prevention of Ischemia-Induced Carrier-Mediated Efflux of Catecholamines into the Extracellular Space: Implications for Stroke Therapy.
gh B, Vizi ES Abstract The release of [3H]dopamine ([3H]DA) and [3H]noradrenaline ([3H]NA) in acutely perfused rat striatal and cortical slice preparations was measured at 37 °C and 17 °C under ischemic conditions. The ischemia was simulated by the removal of oxygen and glucose from the Krebs solution. At 37 °C, resting release rates in response to ischemia were increased; in contrast, at 17 °C, resting release rates were significantly reduced, or resting release was completely prevented. The removal of extracellular Ca2+ further increased the release rates of [3H]DA and [3H]NA ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lakatos M, Baranyi M, Erőss L, Nardai S, Török TL, Sperlágh B, Vizi ES Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Methamphetamine Exposure on Fear Learning and Memory in Adult and Adolescent Rats.
Abstract Methamphetamine (meth) use is often comorbid with anxiety disorders, with both conditions predominant during adolescence. Conditioned fear extinction is the most widely used model to study the fear learning and regulation that are relevant for anxiety disorders. The present study investigates how meth binge injections or meth self-administration affect subsequent fear conditioning, extinction and retrieval in adult and adolescent rats. In experiment 1, postnatal day 35 (P35-adolescent) and P70 (adult) rats were intraperitoneally injected with increasing doses of meth across 9 days. At P50 or P85, the...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luikinga SJ, Perry CJ, Madsen HB, Lawrence AJ, Kim JH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Genetic Difference of Hypothyroidism-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction in C57BL/6j and 129/Sv Mice.
Abstract Adult-onset hypothyroidism induces cognitive impairments in learning and memory. Thyroxin (T4) replacement therapy appears to be effective in biochemically restoring euthyroidism, as evidenced by serum T4 and triiodothyronine concentrations within the normal range, although some the patients still exhibit cognitive dysfunctions. Here, we investigated the cognitive functions of propylthiouracil-induced hypothyroid mice in C57BL/6j and 129/Sv strains using the passive avoidance task and the novel object recognition test. Cognitive dysfunctions in hypothyroid mice were found only in the C57BL/6j strain, not ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu YX, Sun Y, Cheng J, Xia Q, Liu TT, Zhu DF, Xu Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Identification of Key Genes and Pathways Involved in the Heterogeneity of Intrinsic Growth Ability Between Neurons After Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Zebrafish.
This study identified DEG candidate genes and pathways involved in the heterogeneity of the intrinsic growth ability between neurons after spinal cord injury in adult zebrafish, which could facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying axon regeneration, and these candidate genes and pathways could be therapeutic targets for the treatment of CNS injury. PMID: 31325155 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fu H, Han G, Li H, Liang X, Hu D, Zhang L, Tang P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Melatonin Enhances Autophagy and Reduces Apoptosis to Promote Locomotor Recovery in Spinal Cord Injury via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway.
In this study, we discovered that MT treatment improved motor function recovery in a rat SCI model. Indeed, MT upregulated the expression of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), while expression of protein kinase B (AKT) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) was downregulated after SCI. Additionally, MT increased the expression of autophagy-activating proteins, while the expression of apoptosis-activating proteins in neurons was decreased following SCI. Furthermore, autophagy was inhibited, while apoptosis was induced in SCI model rats and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary neurons by treatment with MT, th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li Y, Guo Y, Fan Y, Tian H, Li K, Mei X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptors in the Prelimbic Cortex are Critical for the Maintenance of Neuropathic Pain.
Abstract The mechanisms underlying chronic and neuropathic pain pathology involve peripheral and central sensitisation. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) seems to participate in pain chronification, and glutamatergic neurotransmission may be involved in this process. Thus, the aim of the present work was to investigate the participation of the prelimbic (PrL) area of the mPFC in neuropathic pain as well as the role of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in neuropathic pain induced by a modified sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI) protocol in Wistar rats. Neural inputs to the PrL cortex we...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Medeiros P, Negrini-Ferrari SE, Palazzo E, Maione S, Ferreira SH, de Freitas RL, Coimbra NC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research