Astrocytes and Epilepsy
Neurochem Res. 2021 Mar 4. doi: 10.1007/s11064-021-03236-x. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTChanges in astrocyte channels, transporters, and metabolism play a critical role in seizure generation and epilepsy. In particular, alterations in astrocyte potassium, glutamate, water and adenosine homeostasis and gap junctional coupling have all been associated with hyperexcitability and epileptogenesis (largely in temporal lobe epilepsy). Distinct astrocytic changes have also been identified in other types of epilepsy, such as tuberous sclerosis, tumor-associated epilepsy and post-traumatic epilepsy. Together, the emerging literatu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 4, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Devin K Binder Christian Steinh äuser Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effects of Dexmedetomidine and Propofol on Gastrointestinal Tract Motility Involving Impaired Enteric Glia Ca < sup > 2+ < /sup > Response in Mice
Neurochem Res. 2021 Mar 3. doi: 10.1007/s11064-021-03280-7. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPropofol and dexmedetomidine are popular used for sedation in ICU, however, inadequate attention has been paid to their effect on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) motility. Present study aimed to compare the effect of propofol and dexmedetomidine on GIT motility at parallel level of sedation and explore the possible mechanism. Male C57BL/6 mice (8-10 weeks) were randomly divided into control, propofol and dexmedetomidine group. After intraperitoneal injection of propofol or dexmedetomidine, comparable sedative level was confirmed by sedat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yansong Li Yubo Wang Haiqing Chang Bo Cheng Jiwen Miao Shuang Li Hao Hu Liyu Huang Qiang Wang Source Type: research

Inhibitory Effects of Dexmedetomidine and Propofol on Gastrointestinal Tract Motility Involving Impaired Enteric Glia Ca < sup > 2+ < /sup > Response in Mice
Neurochem Res. 2021 Mar 3. doi: 10.1007/s11064-021-03280-7. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTPropofol and dexmedetomidine are popular used for sedation in ICU, however, inadequate attention has been paid to their effect on gastrointestinal tract (GIT) motility. Present study aimed to compare the effect of propofol and dexmedetomidine on GIT motility at parallel level of sedation and explore the possible mechanism. Male C57BL/6 mice (8-10 weeks) were randomly divided into control, propofol and dexmedetomidine group. After intraperitoneal injection of propofol or dexmedetomidine, comparable sedative level was confirmed by sedat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yansong Li Yubo Wang Haiqing Chang Bo Cheng Jiwen Miao Shuang Li Hao Hu Liyu Huang Qiang Wang Source Type: research

Gain of circBRAF Represses Glioma Progression by Regulating miR-1290/FBXW7 Axis
Neurochem Res. 2021 Mar 2. doi: 10.1007/s11064-021-03259-4. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTDysregulated circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been confirmed to partake in the modulation of the glioma progression. Here, we intended to explore the role of circBRAF in glioma and the possible action mechanism. The expression levels of circBRAF, microRNA (miR)-1290 and F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7 (FBXW7) were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) or western blot. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4, 5)-dimethylthiazole-2-y1)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Cell cycl...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jinchao Zhang Zhi Chen Xinjun Liu Chonglin Yang Donggen Xie Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Aquaporin-4 Deficiency on Longer-term Neurological Outcomes in a Mouse Model
Neurochem Res. 2021 Mar 2. doi: 10.1007/s11064-021-03272-7. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTTraumatic brain injury (TBI) has been a crucial health problem, with more than 50 million patients worldwide each year. Glymphatic system is a fluid exchange system that relies on the polarized water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) at the astrocytes, accounting for the clearance of abnormal proteins and metabolites from brain tissues. However, the dysfunction of glymphatic system and alteration of AQP4 polarization during the progression of TBI remain unclear. AQP4-/- and Wild Type (WT) mice were used to establish the TBI mouse model respe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiaosong Liu Yingxin Xie Xiangdong Wan Jianliang Wu Zhenzeng Fan Lijun Yang Source Type: research

Benefits of Iron Chelators in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
In conclusion, we indicated that overloaded intracellular iron contributes to neurons death via apoptosis and ferroptosis pathways, while DFO, an iron chelator, can inhibit ferroptosis in order to protect the neurons in vitro.PMID:33646533 | DOI:10.1007/s11064-021-03262-9 (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 1, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiaoyan Zeng Hedi An Fei Yu Kai Wang Lanlan Zheng Wei Zhou Yiwen Bao Jie Yang Nan Shen Dongya Huang Source Type: research

Benefits of Iron Chelators in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease
In conclusion, we indicated that overloaded intracellular iron contributes to neurons death via apoptosis and ferroptosis pathways, while DFO, an iron chelator, can inhibit ferroptosis in order to protect the neurons in vitro.PMID:33646533 | DOI:10.1007/s11064-021-03262-9 (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 1, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiaoyan Zeng Hedi An Fei Yu Kai Wang Lanlan Zheng Wei Zhou Yiwen Bao Jie Yang Nan Shen Dongya Huang Source Type: research

The Role of the Dopamine Transporter in the Effects of Amphetamine on Sleep and Sleep Architecture in Drosophila
Neurochem Res. 2021 Feb 25. doi: 10.1007/s11064-021-03275-4. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates the inactivation of released dopamine (DA) through its reuptake, and thereby plays an important homeostatic role in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Amphetamines exert their stimulant effects by targeting DAT and inducing the reverse transport of DA, leading to a dramatic increase of extracellular DA. Animal models have proven critical to investigating the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying transporter function and its modulation by psychostimulants such as amphetamine. Here we establi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Caline S Karam Brenna L Williams Sandra K Jones Jonathan A Javitch Source Type: research

The Role of the Dopamine Transporter in the Effects of Amphetamine on Sleep and Sleep Architecture in Drosophila
Neurochem Res. 2021 Feb 25. doi: 10.1007/s11064-021-03275-4. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates the inactivation of released dopamine (DA) through its reuptake, and thereby plays an important homeostatic role in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Amphetamines exert their stimulant effects by targeting DAT and inducing the reverse transport of DA, leading to a dramatic increase of extracellular DA. Animal models have proven critical to investigating the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying transporter function and its modulation by psychostimulants such as amphetamine. Here we establi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Caline S Karam Brenna L Williams Sandra K Jones Jonathan A Javitch Source Type: research

The Role of the Dopamine Transporter in the Effects of Amphetamine on Sleep and Sleep Architecture in Drosophila
Neurochem Res. 2021 Feb 25. doi: 10.1007/s11064-021-03275-4. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates the inactivation of released dopamine (DA) through its reuptake, and thereby plays an important homeostatic role in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Amphetamines exert their stimulant effects by targeting DAT and inducing the reverse transport of DA, leading to a dramatic increase of extracellular DA. Animal models have proven critical to investigating the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying transporter function and its modulation by psychostimulants such as amphetamine. Here we establi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Caline S Karam Brenna L Williams Sandra K Jones Jonathan A Javitch Source Type: research

The Role of the Dopamine Transporter in the Effects of Amphetamine on Sleep and Sleep Architecture in Drosophila
Neurochem Res. 2021 Feb 25. doi: 10.1007/s11064-021-03275-4. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTThe dopamine transporter (DAT) mediates the inactivation of released dopamine (DA) through its reuptake, and thereby plays an important homeostatic role in dopaminergic neurotransmission. Amphetamines exert their stimulant effects by targeting DAT and inducing the reverse transport of DA, leading to a dramatic increase of extracellular DA. Animal models have proven critical to investigating the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying transporter function and its modulation by psychostimulants such as amphetamine. Here we establi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Caline S Karam Brenna L Williams Sandra K Jones Jonathan A Javitch Source Type: research

The Impact of Differentiation on Cytotoxicity and Insulin Sensitivity in Streptozotocin Treated SH-SY5Y Cells
Neurochem Res. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s11064-021-03269-2. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecently neuronal insulin resistance was suggested playing a role in Alzheimer's disease. Streptozotocin (STZ) is commonly used to induce impairment in insulin metabolism. In our previous work on undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells the compound exerted cytotoxicity without altering insulin sensitivity. Nevertheless, differentiation of the cells to a more mature neuron-like phenotype may considerably affect the significance of insulin signaling and its sensitivity to STZ. We aimed at studying the influence of STZ treatment on insulin signa...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fruzsina Bagam éry Kamilla Varga Kitti Kecsm ár Istv án Vincze Éva Szökő Tam ás Tábi Source Type: research

The Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation in Nucleus Accumbens Suppress Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Propofol Self-administration in Rats
This study provides genetic and pharmacological evidence that NAc A2AR activation suppresses cue-induced propofol relapse in rats, possibly by interacting with D2R.PMID:33616808 | DOI:10.1007/s11064-021-03238-9 (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhanglei Dong Bingwu Huang Chenchen Jiang Jiangfan Chen Han Lin Qingquan Lian Binbin Wu Source Type: research

The Impact of Differentiation on Cytotoxicity and Insulin Sensitivity in Streptozotocin Treated SH-SY5Y Cells
Neurochem Res. 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.1007/s11064-021-03269-2. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTRecently neuronal insulin resistance was suggested playing a role in Alzheimer's disease. Streptozotocin (STZ) is commonly used to induce impairment in insulin metabolism. In our previous work on undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells the compound exerted cytotoxicity without altering insulin sensitivity. Nevertheless, differentiation of the cells to a more mature neuron-like phenotype may considerably affect the significance of insulin signaling and its sensitivity to STZ. We aimed at studying the influence of STZ treatment on insulin signa...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fruzsina Bagam éry Kamilla Varga Kitti Kecsm ár Istv án Vincze Éva Szökő Tam ás Tábi Source Type: research

The Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation in Nucleus Accumbens Suppress Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Propofol Self-administration in Rats
This study provides genetic and pharmacological evidence that NAc A2AR activation suppresses cue-induced propofol relapse in rats, possibly by interacting with D2R.PMID:33616808 | DOI:10.1007/s11064-021-03238-9 (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhanglei Dong Bingwu Huang Chenchen Jiang Jiangfan Chen Han Lin Qingquan Lian Binbin Wu Source Type: research

The Impact of Differentiation on Cytotoxicity and Insulin Sensitivity in Streptozotocin Treated SH-SY5Y Cells.
kő É, Tábi T Abstract Recently neuronal insulin resistance was suggested playing a role in Alzheimer's disease. Streptozotocin (STZ) is commonly used to induce impairment in insulin metabolism. In our previous work on undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells the compound exerted cytotoxicity without altering insulin sensitivity. Nevertheless, differentiation of the cells to a more mature neuron-like phenotype may considerably affect the significance of insulin signaling and its sensitivity to STZ. We aimed at studying the influence of STZ treatment on insulin signaling in SH-SY5Y cells differentiated by retin...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bagaméry F, Varga K, Kecsmár K, Vincze I, Szökő É, Tábi T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation in Nucleus Accumbens Suppress Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Propofol Self-administration in Rats.
This study provides genetic and pharmacological evidence that NAc A2AR activation suppresses cue-induced propofol relapse in rats, possibly by interacting with D2R. PMID: 33616808 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 22, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dong Z, Huang B, Jiang C, Chen J, Lin H, Lian Q, Wu B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Involvement of Protein Kinase A in Oxytocin Neuronal Activity in Rat Dams with Pup Deprivation.
This study highlights that PKA can be a novel target treating abnormal OT neuronal activity and its associated diseases. PMID: 33611682 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 21, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li D, Liu X, Li T, Wang X, Jia S, Wang P, Wang YF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

A Novel Pharmacological Protective Role for Safranal in an Animal Model of Huntington's Disease.
In conclusion our results showed that safranal prevented the motor dysfunction induced by 3-NP in animal model of Huntington's disease. This effect might be due to its modulating effect on oxidants-antioxidant balance. PMID: 33611726 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 21, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fotoohi A, Moloudi MR, Hosseini S, Hassanzadeh K, Feligioni M, Izadpanah E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Long Noncoding RNA SNHG14 Promotes Ischemic Brain Injury via Regulating miR-199b/AQP4 Axis.
CONCLUSIONS: Knockdown of SNHG14 attenuated ischemic brain injury by inhibiting inflammation and oxidative stress through the miR-199b/AQP4 axis. PMID: 33609254 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 20, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang G, Li T, Chang X, Xing J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Heteromeric Amino Acid Transporters in Brain: from Physiology to Pathology.
e;n M Abstract In humans, more than 50 transporters are responsible for the traffic and balance of amino acids within and between cells and tissues, and half of them have been associated with disease [1]. Covering all common amino acids, Heteromeric Amino acid Transporters (HATs) are one class of such transporters. This review first highlights structural and functional studies that solved the atomic structure of HATs and revealed molecular clues on substrate interaction. Moreover, this review focuses on HATs that have a role in the central nervous system (CNS) and that are related to neurological diseases, includi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 19, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Errasti-Murugarren E, Palacín M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Naringenin Ameliorates Chronic Sleep Deprivation-Induced Pain via Sirtuin1 Inhibition.
In this study, mice were chronically sleep-deprived for 8 h a day for five days a week with the weekend as a free sleep period and continued for nine weeks using a modified multiple platform method. The pain behavioral tests were conducted at the end of the fourth week to assess the development of hyperalgesia followed by the administration of NGN and a combination of NGN with Sirtinol (SIR, a sirtuin1 inhibitor) till the end of the study. After nine weeks, pain behavioral tests, along with oxidative stress and inflammatory parameters in cortex and striatum, were assessed. Results indicated that CSD-induced hyperalgesia in...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 18, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Arora S, Venugopalan A, Dharavath RN, Bishnoi M, Kondepudi KK, Chopra K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Activated Microglia Exosomes Mediated miR-383-3p Promotes Neuronal Necroptosis Through Inhibiting ATF4 Expression in Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
In this study, ICH model was construct in rats and cells. Injury of cells in brain was detected by PI staining. Necroptosis in rats and cells was detected by western blot and flow cytometry. The expression of miR-383-3p was detected by RT-qPCR. The roles of activated microglia-secreted exosomes and exosome-contained miR-383-3p were detected through co-culturing medium or exosomes with neurons. The target gene of miR-383-3p was determined by luciferase assay and the expression of target gene was detected by western blot. Rescue experiments were used to confirm the mechanism of miR-383-3p in neurons necroptosis. The miR-383-...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 16, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei M, Li C, Yan Z, Hu Z, Dong L, Zhang J, Wang X, Li Y, Zhang H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Focal Ischemic Stroke.
Abstract Focal ischemic stroke (FIS) is a leading cause of human debilitation and death. Following the onset of a FIS, the brain experiences a series of spatiotemporal changes which are exemplified in different pathological processes. One prominent feature of FIS is the development of reactive astrogliosis and glial scar formation in the peri-infarct region (PIR). During the subacute phase, astrocytes in PIR are activated, referred to as reactive astrocytes (RAs), exhibit changes in morphology (hypotrophy), show an increased proliferation capacity, and altered gene expression profile, a phenomenon k...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 16, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Z, Sun GY, Ding S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hypermethylation of Mitochondrial Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c Oxidase II Genes with Decreased Mitochondrial DNA Copy Numbers in the APP/PS1 Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.
We examined mtDNA copy numbers and the levels of expression by quantitative real-time PCR. Average methylation levels of different CpG sites were ≤ 4.0%. Methylated mtDNA accounted for only a small part of the total mtDNA. We also observed hypermethylation of mitochondrial CYTB and COX II genes with decreased mtDNA copy numbers and expression in the hippocampi of APP/PS1 transgenic mice. mtDNA methylation may play an important role in AD pathology, which may open a new window for AD therapy. PMID: 33580369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 12, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu Y, Cheng L, Sun J, Li F, Liu X, Wei Y, Han M, Zhu Z, Bi J, Lai C, Wang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

SAHA Improves Depressive Symptoms, Cognitive Impairment and Oxidative Stress: Rise of a New Antidepressant Class.
Abstract Depression is a disabling psychiatric disorder affecting millions of people all around the world. Under current therapeutic choices, a portion of patients are not responsive, have relapses, or experience cognitive side effects. Hence, the present study aimed to find other antidepressant compounds lacking the mentioned deficiency. Since epigenetic regulations have attracted more attention in etiology of depression, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have gained more importance due to their possible antidepressant activity. We selected a promising member of HDAC inhibitors named suberanilohydroxamic acid...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 12, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ershadi ASB, Amini-Khoei H, Hosseini MJ, Dehpour AR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuropathological and Cognitive Effects Induced by CuO-NPs in Rats and Trials for Prevention Using Pomegranate Juice.
Abstract Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are extensively utilized in several industries and in pharmaceutical production. This excess exposure elevates the concern about its expected poisonous impacts on humans and animals. Pomegranate juice (PJ) is a natural source of polyphenols and exhibits potent antioxidant activities. Our experiment intended to explore the neurobehavioral and toxicopathological impacts of CuO-NPs and to explain the mechanistic role of PJ to reduce their toxicity. Thirty Wistar albino rats received the subsequent materials through oral gavage, every day for 28d: (1) normal saline, (2) 3&...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 11, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hassanen EI, Ibrahim MA, Hassan AM, Mehanna S, Aljuaydi SH, Issa MY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MiR-122-5p suppresses neuropathic pain development by targeting PDK4.
This study aims to investigate the functional role of miR-122-5p in the development of neuropathic pain. Down-regulation of miR-122-5p was observed in spinal cords of rats with neuropathic pain. We also found that overexpressing miR-122-5p by intrathecal injection of miR-122-5p lentivirus in a mouse model of chronic sciatic nerve injury (CCI) prevented neuropathic pain behavior. In HEK-293 T cells, luciferase activity was significantly decreased in the transfection group with mimic-miR-122-5p in wild-type PDK4 reporter, compared with mutant PDK4 reporter. Increased PDK4 expression was also observed during the progress...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 10, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wan L, Su Z, Li F, Gao P, Zhang X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

On the Role of a Conserved Methionine in the Na+-Coupling Mechanism of a Neurotransmitter Transporter Homolog.
ez JD Abstract Excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT) play a key role in glutamatergic synaptic communication. Driven by transmembrane cation gradients, these transporters catalyze the reuptake of glutamate from the synaptic cleft once this neurotransmitter has been utilized for signaling. Two decades ago, pioneering studies in the Kanner lab identified a conserved methionine within the transmembrane domain as key for substrate turnover rate and specificity; later structural work, particularly for the prokaryotic homologs GltPh and GltTk, revealed that this methionine is involved in the coordination of one of t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 9, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhou W, Trinco G, Slotboom DJ, Forrest LR, Faraldo-Gómez JD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Metforminium Decavanadate (MetfDeca) Treatment Ameliorates Hippocampal Neurodegeneration and Recognition Memory in a Metabolic Syndrome Model.
The objective of the work was to evaluate the effect of MetfDeca on hippocampal neurodegeneration and recognition memory in rats with MS. Administration of MetfDeca for 60 days in MS rats improved object recognition memory (NORt). In addition, MetfDeca reduced markers of oxidative stress and hippocampal neuroinflammation. Accompanied by an increase in the density and length of the dendritic spines of the hippocampus of rats with MS. We conclude that MetfDeca represents an important therapeutic agent to treat MS and induce neuronal and cognitive restoration mechanisms. PMID: 33559829 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 9, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Diaz A, Muñoz-Arenas G, Venegas B, Vázquez-Roque R, Flores G, Guevara J, Gonzalez-Vergara E, Treviño S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MiR-101a-3p Attenuated Pilocarpine-Induced Epilepsy by Downregulating c-FOS.
This study aimed to explore the effects and function of microRNA-101a-3p (miR-101a-3p) in epilepsy. Rat model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy was established and the seizure frequency was recorded. Expression of miR-101a-3p and c-Fos in hippocampus tissues of Rat models were detected by qRT-PCR and western blot. Besides, we established a hippocampal neuronal culture model of acquired epilepsy using Mg2+ free medium to evaluate the effects of miR-101a-3p and c-Fos in vitro. Cells were transfected with miR-101a-3p mimic, si-c-FOS, miR-101a-3p + c-FOS and its corresponding controls. MTT assay was used to detect ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 9, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Geng J, Zhao H, Liu X, Geng J, Gao Y, He B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cocaine-Specific Effects on Exosome Biogenesis in Microglial Cells.
In this study, we hypothesized that cocaine affects exosome biogenesis and composition in BV2 microglial cells. BV2 microglial cells were cultured in exosome-depleted RPMI-1640 media and were treated according to the experimental designs. We observed that cell viability decreased by 11% at 100 µM cocaine treatment but was unaffected at other concentrations. After treatments, the exosomes were isolated from the condition media. Purified exosomes were characterized and quantified using transmission electron microscope (TEM) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). By NTA, there was a significant decrease in ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kumar S, Crenshaw BJ, Williams SD, Bell CR, Matthews QL, Sims B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hippocampal Aromatase Knockdown Aggravates Ovariectomy-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment, A β Accumulation and Neural Plasticity Deficiency in Adult Female Mice.
In conclusion, the above results clearly demonstrated the crucial role of hippocampal E2 in the regulation of the structure and function of hippocampus besides ovarian E2, indicating that hippocampal E2 content should also be taken into consideration during estrogenic replacement. PMID: 33559105 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lan Z, Meng Z, Lian B, Liu M, Sun T, Sun H, Liu Z, Hu Z, Guo Q, Zhang J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Physiological and Pathological Ageing of Astrocytes in the Human Brain.
Abstract Ageing is the greatest risk factor for dementia, although physiological ageing by itself does not lead to cognitive decline. In addition to ageing, APOE ε4 is genetically the strongest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease and is highly expressed in astrocytes. There are indications that human astrocytes change with age and upon expression of APOE4. As these glial cells maintain water and ion homeostasis in the brain and regulate neuronal transmission, it is likely that age- and APOE4-related changes in astrocytes have a major impact on brain functioning and play a role in age-related diseases. In t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Verkerke M, Hol EM, Middeldorp J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Licochalcone A Attenuates Chronic Neuropathic Pain in Rats by Inhibiting Microglia Activation and Inflammation.
Abstract Immune response plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. Immune response-targeted therapy becomes an effective strategy for treating neuropathic pain. Licochalcone A (Lic-A) possesses anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. However, the potential of Lic-A to attenuate neuropathic pain has not been well explored. To investigate the protective effect and evaluate the underlying mechanism of Lic-A against neuropathic pain in a rat model. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) surgery was employed in rats to establish neuropathic pain model. Rats were intraperitoneally administrated with ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 8, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li P, Yu C, Zeng FS, Fu X, Yuan XJ, Wang Q, Fan C, Sun BL, Sun QS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

DNMT3b SUMOylation Mediated MMP-2 Upregulation Contribute to Paclitaxel Induced Neuropathic Pain.
Abstract Paclitaxel is a common chemotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment, while it often causes chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), which manifested as hyperalgesia and allodynia, and its mechanism remains largely unknown. The previous study has shown that matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) plays a pivotal role in spinal nerve ligation (SNL) induced neuropathic pain, but its function in CIPN and exact molecular mechanisms underlying upregulation is not explored. Our present study revealed that MMP-2 is also upregulated in paclitaxel induced neuropathic pain (NP), and knockdown it by...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang H, Shen YJ, Li XJ, Xia J, Sun L, Xu Y, Ma Y, Li D, Xiong YC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Pre-Steady-State Kinetics and Reverse Transport in Rat Glutamate Transporter EAAC1 with an  Immobilized Transport Domain.
Pre-Steady-State Kinetics and Reverse Transport in Rat Glutamate Transporter EAAC1 with an Immobilized Transport Domain. Neurochem Res. 2021 Feb 06;: Authors: Wang J, Zielewicz L, Dong Y, Grewer C Abstract Plasma membrane glutamate transporters move glutamate across the cell membrane in a process that is thought to involve elevator-like movement of the transport domain relative to the static trimerization domain. Conformational changes associated with this elevator-like movement have been blocked by covalent crosslinking of cysteine pairs inserted strategically in several positions in the tr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang J, Zielewicz L, Dong Y, Grewer C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of 3-[(4-Chlorophenyl)selanyl]-1-methyl-1H-indole on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Oxidative Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells.
Savegnago L Abstract Extensive data have reported the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders, prompting the pursuit of antioxidant molecules that could become adjuvant pharmacological agents for the management of oxidative stress-associated disorders. The 3-[(4-chlorophenyl)selanyl]-1-methyl-1H-indole (CMI) has been reported as an antioxidant and immunomodulatory compound that improves depression-like behavior and cognitive impairment in mice. However, the exact effect of CMI on specific brain cells is yet to be studied. In this context, the present study aimed to evaluat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 6, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Casaril AM, Segatto N, Simões L, Paschoal J, Domingues M, Vieira B, Sousa FSS, Lenardão EJ, Seixas FK, Collares T, Savegnago L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sintocalmy, a Passiflora incarnata Based Herbal, Attenuates Morphine Withdrawal in Mice.
This study shows anti-addiction effects for a commercial standardized extract of P. incarnata and suggests the relevance of proper clinical assessment. PMID: 33544325 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dos Reis Izolan L, da Silva DM, Oliveira HBL, de Oliveira Salomon JL, Peruzzi CP, Garcia SC, Dallegrave E, Zanotto C, Elisabetsky E, Gonçalves CA, Arbo MD, Konrath EL, Leal MB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Long Non-coding RNAs in Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and is associated with a range of motor and non-motor clinical symptoms. The underlying molecular pathogenesis of PD involves a variety of pathways and mechanisms, including α-synuclein proteostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, autophagy and apoptosis, neuroinflammation, and epigenetic regulation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the regulation of multiple pathological processes of PD. In this review, we provide an overview of large-scale studies on lncRNA expression profiling in PD patien...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xin C, Liu J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

A Review on Potential Footprints of Ferulic Acid for Treatment of Neurological Disorders.
Abstract Ferulic acid is being screened in preclinical settings to combat various neurological disorders. It is a naturally occurring dietary flavonoid commonly found in grains, fruits, and vegetables such as rice, wheat, oats, tomatoes, sweet corn etc., which exhibits protective effects against a number of neurological diseases such as epilepsy, depression, ischemia-reperfusion injury, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Ferulic acid prevents and treats different neurological diseases pertaining to its potent anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, beside modulating unique neuro-signaling pathways...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Thapliyal S, Singh T, Handu S, Bisht M, Kumari P, Arya P, Srivastava P, Gandham R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Protective Action of Rubus sp. Fruit Extract Against Oxidative Damage in Mice Exposed to Lipopolysaccharide.
lo FM Abstract Neuroinflammation is an event that occurs in several pathologies of brain. Rubus sp. (blackberry) is a powerful antioxidant fruit, and its extract has neuroprotective activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the blackberry extract properties on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation, in relation to oxidative parameters and acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain structures of mice. We also investigated interleukin-10 levels in serum. Mice were submitted to Rubus sp. extract treatment once daily for 14 days. On the fifteenth day, LPS was injected in a single dose. LPS in...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 5, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Soares MSP, Luduvico KP, Chaves VC, Spohr L, Meine BM, Lencina CL, Reginatto FH, Spanevello RM, Simões CMO, Stefanello FM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Downregulation of HOTAIR reduces neuronal pyroptosis by targeting miR-455-3p/NLRP1 axis in propofol-treated neurons in vitro.
In this study, propofol treatment significantly reduced neuronal the viability of neurons, and promoted the expression of inflammation-related factors. Propofol treatment also promoted neuron death and neuronal pyroptosis. All the above effects might be related to the propofol-induced overexpression of HOTAIR. Interestingly, knockdown of HOTAIR by shRNA (sh-HOTAIR) significantly inhibited neuronal pyroptosis, but increased neuronal viability. Further analysis showed that HOTAIR and Nod-like receptor protein1 (NLRP1) were the targets of miR-455-3p, respectively. Notably, propofol treatment decreased the level of miR-455-3p,...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gong H, Wan X, Zhang Y, Liang S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

SIRT1 Mediates H2S-Ameliorated Diabetes-Associated Cognitive Dysfunction in Rats: Possible Involvement of Inhibiting Hippocampal Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Synaptic Dysfunction.
Abstract Diabetes-associated cognitive dysfunction (DACD) characterized by hippocampal injury increases the risk of major cerebrovascular events and death. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and synaptic dysfunction play vital roles in the pathological process. At present, no specific treatment exists for the prevention and/or the therapy of DACD. We have recently reported that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exhibits therapeutic potential for DACD, but the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) has been shown to play a role in regulating the progression of diabetes and is...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 3, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: He J, Chen Z, Kang X, Wu L, Jiang JM, Liu SM, Wei HJ, Chen YJ, Zou W, Wang CY, Zhang P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Involvement of Supraoptic Astrocytes in Basilar Artery Occlusion-Evoked Differential Activation of Vasopressin Neurons and Vasopressin Secretion in Rats.
Abstract Vasopressin (VP) is a key factor in the development of brain injury in ischemic stroke. However, the regulation of VP secretion in basilar artery occlusion (BAO) remains unclear. To clarify the regulation of VP secretion in BAO and the underlying mechanisms, we performed this study in a rat model of BAO with (BC) or without common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO). The results showed that BAO and BC time-dependently increased neurological scores and that BC also increased water contents in the medulla at 2 h and in the pontine at 8 h. Moreover, plasma VP level increased significantly at BAO-8 ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li D, Cui D, Jia S, Liu X, Wang X, Qiu D, Wang YF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

LncRNA SNHG15 Knockdown Protects Against OGD/R-Induced Neuron Injury by Downregulating TP53INP1 Expression via Binding to miR-455-3p.
This study aims to reveal the effects of lncRNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 15 (SNHG15) on oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R)-induced neuron injury and underlying mechanism. The expression levels of SNHG15, microRNA-455-3p (miR-455-3p) and tumour protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1) mRNA were determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction in P12 cells. The protein levels of TP53INP1, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma-2 and BCL2-associated x protein (Bax) were detected by western blot in P12 cells. Cell viability and apoptosis were revealed by cell counting kit-8...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fan Y, Wei L, Zhang S, Song X, Yang J, He X, Zheng X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MiR-122-5p Mitigates Inflammation, Reactive Oxygen Species and SH-SY5Y Apoptosis by Targeting CPEB1 After Spinal Cord Injury Via the PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a threatening disease that lead to severe motor and sensory deficits. Previous research has revealed that miRNAs are involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases. However, whether miR-122-5p was involved in SCI was rarely investigated. In our study, we intended to probe role of miR-122-5p in the regulation of inflammatory response, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and SH-SY5Y apoptosis. We found miR-122-5p was downregulated in SCI mouse model and LPS-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, miR-122-5p overexpression alleviated inflammatory response, ROS and SH-SY5Y apoptosis in S...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 2, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei Z, Liu J, Xie H, Wang B, Wu J, Zhu Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Systematic Review of Erythropoietin (EPO) for Neuroprotection in Human Studies.
Abstract Erythropoietin (EPO) is an exciting neurotherapeutic option. Despite its potential, concerns exist regarding the potential for thrombosis and adverse events with EPO administration in normonemic adults. Systematic review of literature using PRISMA guidelines to examine the application and risks of EPO as a treatment option for neuroprotection in normonemic adults. Independent, systematic searches were performed in July 2019. PubMed (1960-2019) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (1960-2019) were screened. Search terms included erythropoietin, neuroprotection, and humans. The PubMed search resulted...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 1, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hemani S, Lane O, Agarwal S, Yu SP, Woodbury A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Comparative Assessment of the Proteolytic Stability and Impact of Poly-Arginine Peptides R18 and R18D on Infarct Growth and Penumbral Tissue Preservation Following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in the Sprague Dawley Rat.
Abstract Poly-arginine peptides R18 and R18D have previously been demonstrated to be neuroprotective in ischaemic stroke models. Here we examined the proteolytic stability and efficacy of R18 and R18D in reducing infarct core growth and preserving the ischaemic penumbra following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in the Sprague Dawley rat. R18 (300 or 1000 nmol/kg), R18D (300 nmol/kg) or saline were administered intravenously 10 min after MCAO induced using a filament. Serial perfusion and diffusion-weighted MRI imaging was performed to measure changes in the infarct core and penumbra from tim...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 1, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Milani D, Clark VW, Feindel KW, Blacker DJ, Bynevelt M, Edwards AB, Anderton RS, Knuckey NW, Meloni BP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Satellite Glial Cells and Astrocytes, a Comparative Review.
Abstract Astroglia are neural cells, heterogeneous in form and function, which act as supportive elements of the central nervous system; astrocytes contribute to all aspects of neural functions in health and disease. Through their highly ramified processes, astrocytes form close physical contacts with synapses and blood vessels, and are integrated into functional syncytia by gap junctions. Astrocytes interact among themselves and with other cells types (e.g., neurons, microglia, blood vessel cells) by an elaborate repertoire of chemical messengers and receptors; astrocytes also influence neural plasticity and syna...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 1, 2021 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hanani M, Verkhratsky A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research