Effects of a Standardized Phenolic-Enriched Maple Syrup Extract on β-Amyloid Aggregation, Neuroinflammation in Microglial and Neuronal Cells, and β-Amyloid Induced Neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Effects of a Standardized Phenolic-Enriched Maple Syrup Extract on β-Amyloid Aggregation, Neuroinflammation in Microglial and Neuronal Cells, and β-Amyloid Induced Neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans. Neurochem Res. 2016 Jul 14; Authors: Ma H, DaSilva NA, Liu W, Nahar PP, Wei Z, Liu Y, Pham PT, Crews R, Vattem DA, Slitt AL, Shaikh ZA, Seeram NP Abstract Published data supports the neuroprotective effects of several phenolic-containing natural products, including certain fruit, berries, spices, nuts, green tea, and olive oil. However, limited data are available for phenolic-containing pla...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ma H, DaSilva NA, Liu W, Nahar PP, Wei Z, Liu Y, Pham PT, Crews R, Vattem DA, Slitt AL, Shaikh ZA, Seeram NP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Nerolidol Against Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Kindling, Oxidative Stress and Associated Behavioral Comorbidities in Mice.
In conclusion, the results of present study showed that nerolidol treatment has protective effect against PTZ-induced kindling and associated oxidative stress and behavioral comorbidities. PMID: 27418279 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kaur D, Pahwa P, Goel RK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ammonium Increases TRPC1 Expression Via Cav-1/PTEN/AKT/GSK3β Pathway.
Ammonium Increases TRPC1 Expression Via Cav-1/PTEN/AKT/GSK3β Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2016 Jul 14; Authors: Wang W, Gu L, Verkhratsky A, Peng L Abstract Hyperammonemia occurring following acute liver failure is the primary cause of hepatic encephalopathy. In the brain, ammonium is catabolised by glutamine synthetase expressed exclusively in astroglia; ammonium overload impairs astroglial homeostatic systems. Previously, we had reported that chronic treatment with 3 mM ammonia increased expression of transient receptor potential canonic 1 (TRPC1) channels and Ca(2+) release from intracellular ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang W, Gu L, Verkhratsky A, Peng L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Amino Acid Promoieties Alter Valproic Acid Pharmacokinetics and Enable Extended Brain Exposure.
In this study, we evaluated seven amino acid prodrugs of VPA that were targeted to utilize L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1), if they could alter the brain uptake mechanism and systemic pharmacokinetics of VPA. All prodrugs had affinity for LAT1 studied as competitive inhibition of [(14)C]-L-leucine in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line. However, since the ester prodrugs were unstable they were not studied further, instead the corresponding amide prodrugs were used to evaluate their systemic pharmacokinetics in rats and the uptake mechanism via LAT1 into the rat brain. All amide prodrugs were bound to a lesser exte...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gynther M, Peura L, Vernerová M, Leppänen J, Kärkkäinen J, Lehtonen M, Rautio J, Huttunen KM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) Function in the Brain as Revealed by the Cerebral Metabolism of (1-(13)C)-Glucose.
Abstract The mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate transporter Aralar/AGC1/Slc25a12 is critically involved in brain aspartate synthesis, and AGC1 deficiency results in a drastic fall of brain aspartate levels in humans and mice. It has recently been described that the uncoupling protein UCP2 transports four carbon metabolites including aspartate. Since UCP2 is expressed in several brain cell types and AGC1 is mainly neuronal, we set to test whether UCP2 could be a mitochondrial aspartate carrier in the brain glial compartment. The study of the cerebral metabolism of (1-(13)C)-glucose in vivo in wild type and UCP2-knoc...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 12, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Contreras L, Rial E, Cerdan S, Satrustegui J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Regulatory Mechanisms of Vitamin D3 on Production of Nitric Oxide and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Microglial BV-2 Cells.
Abstract Inhibition of pro-inflammatory functions of microglia has been considered a promising strategy to prevent pathogenic events in the central nervous system under neurodegenerative conditions. Here we examined potential inhibitory effects of nuclear receptor ligands on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in microglial BV-2 cells. We demonstrate that a vitamin D receptor agonist 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (VD3) and a retinoid X receptor agonist HX630 affect LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory factors. Specifically, both VD3 and HX630 inhibited expression of mRNAs encoding inducible ni...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Dulla YA, Kurauchi Y, Hisatsune A, Seki T, Shudo K, Katsuki H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of the LRRK2 Kinase Inhibitor PF-06447475 in Human Nerve-Like Differentiated Cells Exposed to Oxidative Stress Stimuli: Implications for Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) has been implicated in oxidative stress (OS) and neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the pathophysiological mechanism of the LRRK2 kinase in neurons under stress stimuli is not yet understood. We demonstrate that rotenone (ROT), a mitochondria complex I inhibitor frequently used to generate in vitro and in vivo experimental models of PD, induces LRRK2 phosphorylation at serine 935 p-(S935) concomitant with cell death in nerve-like differentiated cells (NLCs). Indeed, ROT (50 µM) at 6 h exposure significantly increased reactive oxygen...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mendivil-Perez M, Velez-Pardo C, Jimenez-Del-Rio M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Fucoxanthin Activates Apoptosis via Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway and Suppresses Invasion and Migration by Restriction of p38-MMP-2/9 Pathway in Human Glioblastoma Cells.
The objective of this study was to investigate the role of fucoxanthin on apoptosis, invasion and migration of glioma cells. Firstly, fucoxanthin showed obvious cytotoxicity against human glioma cancer cell line U87 and U251, however, there was no inhibitory effect on normal neuron. And then, fucoxanthin induced apoptotic cell death showed by the condensation of chromatin material stained with Hoechest 33342, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential via DIOC6(3) staining, and enhanced apoptosis by annexin V-FITC/SYTOX Green double staining on U87 and U251 cell lines. Transmission electron microscopy and western blottin...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Y, Zheng J, Zhang Y, Wang Z, Yang Y, Bai M, Dai Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Oligodendrocytes Do Not Export NAA-Derived Aspartate In Vitro.
We report here that aspartoacylase mRNA expression increases when primary rat oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) differentiate into mature cells in culture. Moreover, characterising metabolic functions of acetyl coenzyme A and aspartate from NAA catabolism in mature oligodendrocyte cultures after 5 days using isotope-labelled glucose after 5-days of differentiation we found evidence of extensive NAA metabolism. Incubation with [1,6-(13)C]glucose followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography analyses of cell extracts and media in the presence and absence of NAA establi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: I Amaral A, Hadera MG, Kotter M, Sonnewald U Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of Hydrogen-Rich Saline in Global Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Rats: Up-Regulated Tregs and Down-Regulated miR-21, miR-210 and NF-κB Expression.
Neuroprotective Effect of Hydrogen-Rich Saline in Global Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Rats: Up-Regulated Tregs and Down-Regulated miR-21, miR-210 and NF-κB Expression. Neurochem Res. 2016 Jul 7; Authors: Li Q, Yu P, Zeng Q, Luo B, Cai S, Hui K, Yu G, Zhu C, Chen X, Duan M, Sun X Abstract Recently, it has been suggested that molecular hydrogen (H2) can selectively reduce the levels of hydroxyl radicals (.OH), and ameliorate oxidative and inflammatory injuries to organs in global cerebral ischemia reperfusion models. Global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) can induce a sudden activation of inf...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 7, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li Q, Yu P, Zeng Q, Luo B, Cai S, Hui K, Yu G, Zhu C, Chen X, Duan M, Sun X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Repair of Neurological Function in Response to FK506 Through CaN/NFATc1 Pathway Following Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.
Abstract Tacrolimus (FK506), an immunophilin ligand, has been widely shown to be neuroprotective in a posttraumatic period. The nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) pathway plays an important role in regenerating neurological function following traumatic brain injury (TBI), but the precise mechanism underlying FK506-induced repair of neurological functions remains unclear. In the present study, a total of 210 SD rats were enrolled and randomly divided into sham group, TBI group and FK506 group. The rats in the TBI and FK506 groups were inflicted with moderate TBI left lateral fluid percussion impact. A mod...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 7, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu Q, Liu G, Xu L, Wen X, Cai Y, Fan W, Yao X, Huang H, Li Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

5-LOX Inhibitor Zileuton Reduces Inflammatory Reaction and Ischemic Brain Damage Through the Activation of PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Previous studies from our laboratories showed that an anti-inflammatory drug, 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor zileuton, attenuates ischemic brain damage via inhibiting inflammatory reaction. However, it was elusive whether zileuton attenuates inflammatory reaction and ischemic brain damage through the modulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. In the present study, we, for the first time, investigated whether PI3K/Akt pathway was involved in zileuton's anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties against brain damage following experimental ischemic stroke. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cereb...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 5, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tu XK, Zhang HB, Shi SS, Liang RS, Wang CH, Chen CM, Yang WZ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Complex Effect of RNA Spliceosome Inhibition on Amyloid Precursor Protein Expression.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a worldwide health problem that requires more effective cures and better understanding. Evidence of both pathology and genetics strongly points to the amyloid precursor protein (APP) in the pathogenesis of this devastating disease. Recent studies demonstrated U1 spliceosomal proteopathy and RNA splicing deficiency in AD brains; and inhibition of certain U1 components (U1-70K and snRNA) increased APP protein level as well as its amyloidogenic cleavage products. This intriguing discovery provides a potential mechanism for amyloid formation in AD brains. To determine whether ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 1, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang N, He L, Feng H, Kong Y, Wang J, Zhang J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Depression-Like Adult Behaviors may be a Long-Term Result of Experimental Pneumococcal Meningitis in Wistar Rats Infants.
In this study infant Wistar rats, postnatal day 11, received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or a Streptococcus pneumoniae suspension to a concentration of 1 × 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU). 18 h later animals received antibiotic treatment as usual during 7 days. On postnatal day 46, the animals received imipramine intraperitoneal (i.p.) or sterile NaCl during 14 days (postnatal days 46-60). Then, on postnatal days 59-60 we evaluated the consumption of sweet food (an index of anhedonia). On postnatal day 60 the animals were submitted to the ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Barichello T, Simões LR, Generoso JS, Sharin VS, Souza LB, Jornada LK, Dominguini D, Valvassori SS, Teixeira AL, Quevedo J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG) Inhibits Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation: A Potential Agent for Parkinson's Disease.
In this study, we suggested that EGCG could be a potent remodeling agent of SNCA aggregates and a potential disease modifying drug for the treatment of PD and other α-synucleinopathies. PMID: 27364962 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu Y, Zhang Y, Quan Z, Wong W, Guo J, Zhang R, Yang Q, Dai R, McGeer PL, Qing H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Transplantation of Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Functional Recovery in a Rat Model of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury.
In this study, we assessed whether hAMSCs transplantation promotes neurological functional recovery in rats after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). In addition, the potential mechanisms underlying the possible benefits of this therapy were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SCI using a weight drop device and then hAMSCs, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were immediately injected into the contused dorsal spinal cord at 2 mm rostral and 2 mm caudal to the injury site. Our results indicated that transplanted hAMSCs migrated in the host spinal cord without differentiating into neuronal or ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhou HL, Zhang XJ, Zhang MY, Yan ZJ, Xu ZM, Xu RX Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

A Group of Weakly Bound to Neurons Extracellular Metallopeptidases (NEMPs).
Abstract We have found that isolated from mammalian brain (rat, bovine) axonal endings (synaptosomes) degrade peptides of different composition. With the use of low concentration of non ionic detergent Triton X-100 (0.05-0.1 %) four low specific metallopeptidases were detached from synaptosomes. These peptidases were named Neuronal EctoMetalloPeptidases (NEMPs). Using specially designed test-peptides they were characterized as: carboxypeptidase (NEMP1), aminopeptidase (NEMP2) and endopeptidases NEMP3 and NEMP4. NEMPs are true peptidases (oligopeptidases), because they are able efficiently degrade peptides c...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kropotova ES, Mosevitsky MI Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

SIRT2 Plays Significant Roles in Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Neuroinflammation and Brain Injury in Mice.
Abstract Several recent studies have suggested seemingly contrasting roles of SIRT2 in inflammation: Our previous cell culture study has indicated that SIRT2 siRNA-produced decrease in SIRT2 levels can lead to significant inhibition of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced activation of BV2 microglia, suggesting that SIRT2 is required for LPS-induced microglial activation. In contrast, some studies have suggested that SIRT2 deficiency can lead to increased inflammation. In our current study, we used a mouse model of neuroinflammation to determine the roles of SIRT2 in LPS-induced inflammation. We found that administra...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang B, Zhang Y, Cao W, Wei X, Chen J, Ying W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Peumus boldus (Boldo) Aqueous Extract Present Better Protective Effect than Boldine Against Manganese-Induced Toxicity in D. melanogaster.
Abstract The cellular, intracellular and molecular mechanism(s) underlying the toxicity of Mn are still incompletely understood, although several points concerning Mn neurotoxicity have been addressed. Importantly, oxidative changes have been reported to be involved in Mn-induced toxicity. As a consequence, antioxidants are expected to offer protection in Drosophila melanogaster exposed to this metal. So, in this study we evaluated the hypothesis that the aqueous extract of boldo (Peumus boldus), and its alkaloids boldine, could prevent/ameliorate behavioral and oxidative alterations induced by Mn in a D. melanoga...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bianchini MC, Gularte CO, Escoto DF, Pereira G, Gayer MC, Roehrs R, Soares FA, Puntel RL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Pre-stroke Metformin Treatment is Neuroprotective Involving AMPK Reduction.
Abstract Long-term metformin treatment reduces the risk of stroke. However, the effective administration pattern and indications of metformin on acute cerebral ischemia are unclear. To investigate the neuroprotective treatment duration and dosage of metformin on focal ischemia mice and the association of neuroprotection with 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulations, male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to permanent or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and metformin of 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg was intraperitoneally injected 1, 3 or 7 days prior to MCAO, or at the onset,...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Deng T, Zheng YR, Hou WW, Yuan Y, Shen Z, Wu XL, Chen Y, Zhang LS, Hu WW, Chen Z, Zhang XN Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Disulfide Stress Targets Modulators of Excitotoxicity in Otherwise Healthy Brains.
We reported recently (Foley et al., Neurochem Res 39:2030-2039, 2014) that two-electron oxidations, to disulfides, of protein vicinal thiols can vary markedly in association with more modest oxidations of the glutathione redox couple in brains from healthy adolescent rats whereas levels of protein S-glutathionylation were low and unchanged. Here, we demonstrate that the selective oxidations of protein vicinal thiols, occurring only in the more oxidized brains under study, were linked specifically to a peroxide stress as evidenced by increased oxidations, to disulfides, of the presumed catalytic vicinal thiols of peroxiredo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Foley TD, Katchur KM, Gillespie PF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Heterologous, PKC-Mediated Desensitization of Human Histamine H3 Receptors Expressed in CHO-K1 Cells.
ute;ndez U, Arias-Montaño JA Abstract Desensitization is a major mechanism to regulate the functional response of G protein-coupled receptors. In this work we studied whether the human histamine H3 receptor of 445 amino acids (hH3R445) experiences heterologous desensitization mediated by PKC activation. Bioinformatic analysis indicated the presence of Serine and Threonine residues susceptible of PKC-mediated phosphorylation on the third intracellular loop and the carboxyl terminus of the hH3R445. In CHO-K1 cells stably transfected with the hH3R445 direct PKC activation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TP...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Montejo-López W, Rivera-Ramírez N, Escamilla-Sánchez J, García-Hernández U, Arias-Montaño JA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

ESE1 is Associated with Neuronal Apoptosis in Lipopolysaccharide Induced Neuroinflammation.
Abstract Neuronal apoptosis induced by the over-activation of microglia during neuroinflammation contributes to the pathology of central nervous system (CNS) degenerative diseases. ESE1 regulates apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis via accelerating NF-κB activation. NF-κB activation participates in neuronal apoptosis. However, the expression and functions of ESE1 in neuronal apoptosis during CNS inflammatory response remain unclear. In present study, ESE1 expression significantly increased in cerebral cortex after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intracerebroventricular injection. Im...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Feng Y, Xue H, Zhu J, Yang L, Zhang F, Qian R, Lin W, Wang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of GnRH on Neurite Outgrowth, Neurofilament and Spinophilin Proteins Expression in Cultured Spinal Cord Neurons of Rat Embryos.
dez-Jasso I Abstract It has been previously described the presence of GnRH receptor in spinal cord neurons of rat embryos and adult rats. However, the functional role of these receptors has not been studied. In this work, the effect of GnRH on neurite outgrowth and cytoskeletal protein expression in cultured spinal cord neurons of rat embryos was analyzed. Specifically, neurofilaments of 68 and 200 kDa by immunoblot assays and spinophilin mRNA expression by RT-PCR. Results show that GnRH stimulates neurite outgrowth in addition to an increase in neurofilaments and spinophilin expression. These findings sugges...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Quintanar JL, Calderón-Vallejo D, Hernández-Jasso I Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Temporal and Spatial Expression of LGR5 After Acute Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Rats.
In this study, we examined LGR5 expression and cellular localization in rats following acute SCI. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry exhibited an important upregulation of LGR5 in injury spinal cord. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that LGR5 was co-expressed with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Moreover, we detected that PCNA had colocalization with LGR5 and GFAP after SCI. In the vitro model, we could find the enhanced expression of LGR5 in the primary astrocyte which was induced by the lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In particular, we found the significantly decreased ability for proliferation whe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen X, Hao J, Fu T, Liu J, Yu M, He S, Qian R, Zhang F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ifenprodil Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization and Activation of Ras-ERK-∆FosB Pathway in the Caudate Putamen.
In conclusion, these results demonstrated that 2.5 mg/kg ifenprodil could attenuate METH-induced behavioral sensitization. Moreover, GluN2B-containing NMDARs and their downstream Ras-ERK-∆FosB signaling pathway in the CPu might be involved in METH-induced behavioral sensitization. PMID: 27339870 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li L, Liu X, Qiao C, Chen G, Li T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Expression of VHL (Von Hippel-Lindau) After Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury and Its Role in Neuronal Apoptosis.
In conclusion, these data suggested that the change of VHL protein expression was related to neuronal apoptosis after SCI. PMID: 27324785 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hao J, Chen X, Fu T, Liu J, Yu M, Han W, He S, Qian R, Zhang F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cortical Astrocytes Acutely Exposed to the Monomethylarsonous Acid (MMA(III)) Show Increased Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Gene Expression that is Consistent with APP and BACE-1: Over-expression.
fi AJ Abstract Long-term exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water has been associated with cognitive impairment in children and adults; however, the related pathogenic mechanisms have not been completely described. Increased or chronic inflammation in the brain is linked to impaired cognition and neurodegeneration; iAs induces strong inflammatory responses in several cells, but this effect has been poorly evaluated in central nervous system (CNS) cells. Because astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the CNS and play a critical role in brain homeostasis, including regulation of the inflammatory...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 20, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Escudero-Lourdes C, Uresti-Rivera EE, Oliva-González C, Torres-Ramos MA, Aguirre-Montes P, Gandolfi AJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sildenafil Treatment Eliminates Pruritogenesis and Thermal Hyperalgesia in Rats with Portacaval Shunts.
Abstract Pruritus is a common symptom in chronic liver diseases, which may also alter thermal sensitivity. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear and treatments are not satisfactory. Portal-systemic shunting has been proposed to alter thermal sensitivity in cirrhotics. Inflammation-induced enhanced activity of the Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) may contribute to pruritus and thermal hyperalgesia. Sildenafil reduces neuroinflammation in portacaval shunt (PCS) rats. The aims were to assess whether: (1) PCS rats show enhanced scratching or thermal sensitivity; (2) TRPV1 activity is enhanced in PCS...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 20, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Belghiti M, Agusti A, Hernandez-Rabaza V, Cabrera-Pastor A, Llansola M, Felipo V Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erratum to: Mdivi-1 Protects Epileptic Hippocampal Neurons from Apoptosis via Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Vitro.
PMID: 27311828 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 16, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xie N, Wang C, Wu C, Cheng X, Gao Y, Zhang H, Zhang Y, Lian Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Prenatal Exposure to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Affects Gene Expression of Autism-Related Molecules and Delays Neuronal Maturation.
Abstract Valproic acid (VPA) is a multi-target drug and an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC). We have previously demonstrated that prenatal exposure to VPA at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5), but not at E14.5, causes autism-like behavioral abnormalities in male mouse offspring. We have also found that prenatal VPA exposure causes transient histone hyperacetylation in the embryonic brain, followed by decreased neuronal cell numbers in the prefrontal and somatosensory cortices after birth. In the present study, we examined whether prenatal HDAC inhibition affects neuronal maturation in primary mouse cortical neuron...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kawanai T, Ago Y, Watanabe R, Inoue A, Taruta A, Onaka Y, Hasebe S, Hashimoto H, Matsuda T, Takuma K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA-93 Downregulation Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemic Injury Through the Nrf2/HO-1 Defense Pathway.
Abstract The present study was designed to evaluate the potential role of miR-93 in cerebral ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. The stroke model was produced in C57BL/6 J mice via middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1 h followed by reperfusion. And miR-93 antagomir was transfected to down-regulate the miR-93 level. Our results showed that miR-93 levels in the cerebral cortex of mice increased at 24 and 48 h after reperfusion. Importantly, in vivo study demonstrated that treatment with miR-93 antagomir reduced cerebral infarction volume, neural apoptosis and restored the neurological ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang P, Liang X, Lu Y, Zhao X, Liang J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Multifactorial Effects on Different Types of Brain Cells Contribute to Ammonia Toxicity.
Abstract Effects of ammonia on astrocytes play a major role in hepatic encephalopathy, acute liver failure and other diseases caused by increased arterial ammonia concentrations (e.g., inborn errors of metabolism, drug or mushroom poisoning). There is a direct correlation between arterial ammonia concentration, brain ammonia level and disease severity. However, the pathophysiology of hyperammonemic diseases is disputed. One long recognized factor is that increased brain ammonia triggers its own detoxification by glutamine formation from glutamate. This is an astrocytic process due to the selective expression of th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hertz L, Song D, Peng L, Chen Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Rats with Malformations of Cortical Development Exhibit Decreased Length of AIS and Hypersensitivity to Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus.
Abstract Malformations of cortical development (MCD) are critical brain development disorders associated with varied abnormalities in both anatomic structures and neural functioning. It is also a very common etiology to the epilepsy, in which the alteration on excitability of cortical neurons is hypothesized as one of important causes to the epileptic seizures. Due to the key role in regulating neuron firing properties, the plasticity of axon initial segment (AIS) was investigated in present study to further determine the relation between MCD and epilepsy. Our results showed a prolonged decrease in the length of A...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang Y, Sun D, Yue Z, Tang W, Xiao B, Feng L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Endothelins Inhibit Osmotic Swelling of Rat Retinal Glial and Bipolar Cells by Activation of Growth Factor Signaling.
Abstract Water accumulation in retinal glial (Müller) and neuronal cells resulting in cellular swelling contributes to the development of retinal edema and neurodegeneration. Here, we show that endothelin-1 (ET-1) dose-dependently inhibits the hypoosmotic swelling of Müller cells in freshly isolated retinal slices of control and diabetic rats, with a maximal inhibition at 100 nM. Osmotic Müller cell swelling was also inhibited by ET-2. The effect of ET-1 was mediated by activation of ETA and ETB receptors resulting in transactivation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, purinergic P2Y1, and ade...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vogler S, Grosche A, Pannicke T, Wiedemann P, Reichenbach A, Bringmann A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Experimental Evidence that 3-Methylglutaric Acid Disturbs Mitochondrial Function and Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain Synaptosomes: New Converging Mechanisms.
M, Santamaría A Abstract 3-Methylglutaric acid (3MGA) is an organic acid that accumulates in various organic acidemias whose patients present neurodegeneration events in children coursing with metabolic acidurias. Limited evidence describes the toxic mechanisms elicited by 3MGA in the brain. Herein, we explored the effects of 3MGA on different toxic endpoints in synaptosomal and mitochondrial-enriched fractions of adult rat brains to provide novel information on early mechanisms evoked by this metabolite. At 1 and 5 mM concentration, 3MGA increased lipid peroxidation, but decreased mitochondrial funct...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Colín-González AL, Paz-Loyola AL, de Lima ME, Galván-Arzate S, Seminotti B, Ribeiro CA, Leipnitz G, Souza DO, Wajner M, Santamaría A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Protein Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Tyrphostin 23 Strongly Accelerates Glycolytic Lactate Production in Cultured Primary Astrocytes.
Abstract Tyrphostin 23 (T23) is a well-known inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases. To investigate potential acute effects of T23 on the viability and the glucose metabolism of brain cells, we exposed cultured primary rat astrocytes to T23 for up to 4 h. While the viability and the morphology of the cultured astrocytes were not acutely affected by the presence of T23 in concentrations of up to 300 µM, this compound caused a rapid, time- and concentration-dependent increase in glucose consumption and lactate release. Maximal effects on glycolytic flux were found for incubations with 100 µ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Blumrich EM, Kadam R, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

BDNF Overexpression Exhibited Bilateral Effect on Neural Behavior in SCT Mice Associated with AKT Signal Pathway.
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI), a severe health problem in worldwide, was commonly associated with functional disability and reduced quality of life. As the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was substantial event in injured spinal cord, we hypothesized whether BDNF-overexpression could be in favor of the recovery of both sensory function and hindlimb function after SCI. By using BDNF-overexpression transgene mice [CMV-BDNF 26 (CB26) mice] we assessed the role of BDNF on the recovery of neurological behavior in spinal cord transection (SCT) model. BMS score and tail-flick test was performed ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen MR, Dai P, Wang SF, Song SH, Wang HP, Zhao Y, Wang TH, Liu J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1) Inhibitors Reduce Reactive Gliosis and Improve Angiostatin Levels in Retina of Diabetic Rats.
This study was organized to elucidate whether poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibition could attenuate diabetes-induced damage to macroglia and correct angiogenic disbalance in diabetic rat retina. After 8 weeks of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, Wistar male rats were treated with PARP-1 inhibitors, nicotinamide (NAm) or 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB) (100 and 30 mg/kg/daily i.p., respectively), for 14 days. After the 10-weeks experiment period, retinas were undergone an immunohistochemical staining for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), while western blots were performed to evaluate effects of...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guzyk MM, Tykhomyrov AA, Nedzvetsky VS, Prischepa IV, Grinenko TV, Yanitska LV, Kuchmerovska TM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Taurine Pretreatment Prevents Isoflurane-Induced Cognitive Impairment by Inhibiting ER Stress-Mediated Activation of Apoptosis Pathways in the Hippocampus in Aged Rats.
Abstract Isoflurane, a commonly used inhalation anesthetic, may induce neurocognitive deficits, especially in elderly patients after surgery. Recent study demonstrated that isoflurane caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent neuronal apoptosis in the brain, contributing to cognitive deficits. Taurine, a major intracellular free amino acid, has been shown to inhibit ER stress and neuronal apoptosis in several neurological disorders. Here, we examined whether taurine can prevent isoflurane-induced ER stress and cognitive impairment in aged rats. Thirty minutes prior to a 4-h 1.3 % isoflurane ex...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Y, Li D, Li H, Hou D, Hou J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cognition Enhancing Activity of Sulforaphane Against Scopolamine Induced Cognitive Impairment in Zebra Fish (Danio rerio).
This study was undertaken to examine the effect of sulforaphane on cognitive impairment in zebra fish model using a novel method of fear conditioning. Initially, the normal behaviour of zebra fishes was studied in light-dark tank for 10 min daily for 10 days. Fishes were then divided into seven groups of twelve in each. Group I served as normal, group II served as fear conditioned control, group III and group IV were sulforaphane (25 µM/L) and piracetam (200 mg/L) treated respectively. Group V served as scopolamine (400 µM/L) induced memory impairment fishes. Group VI and VII were sulfo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rajesh V, Ilanthalir S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Arecoline Induces Neurotoxicity to PC12 Cells: Involvement in ER Stress and Disturbance of Endogenous H2S Generation.
Abstract Arecoline is a major alkaloid of areca nut and has been effect on central nervous system. Although arecoline-induced neurotoxicity has been reported, the possible underlying neurotoxic mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. Increasing evidences have shown that both excessive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and disturbance of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production are involved in the pathophysiology of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. Here, the purpose of present study was to verify whether ER stress and the disturbance of endogenous H2S generation are also involved in arecoline-caused neurotoxicity. We...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jiang JM, Wang L, Gu HF, Wu K, Xiao F, Chen Y, Guo RM, Tang XQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

RNA Interference Silencing of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Inhibites Tau Phosphorylation in Mice with Alzheimer Disease.
RNA Interference Silencing of Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Inhibites Tau Phosphorylation in Mice with Alzheimer Disease. Neurochem Res. 2016 Jun 2; Authors: Bian H, Bian W, Lin X, Ma Z, Chen W, Pu Y Abstract To explore the effect of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) silencing on Tau-5 phosphorylation in mice suffering Alzheimer disease (AD). GSK-3β was firstly silenced in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells using special lentivirus (LV) and the content of Tau (A-12), p-Tau (Ser396) and p-Tau (PHF-6) proteins. GSK-3β was also silenced in APP/PS1 mouse model of AD mice, which we...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 2, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bian H, Bian W, Lin X, Ma Z, Chen W, Pu Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Kukoamine a against Radiation-induced Rat Brain Injury through Inhibition of Oxidative Stress and Neuronal Apoptosis.
Abstract Radiation-induced brain injury (RIBI) is a prominent side effect of radiotherapy for cranial tumors. Kukoamine A (KuA) has the ability of anti-oxidative stress and anti-apoptosis in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether KuA would prevent the detrimental effect of ionizing radiation on hippocampal neurons. For this study, male Wistar rats were received either sham irradiation or whole brain irradiation (30 Gy single dose of X-rays) followed by the immediate injection of either KuA or vehicle intravenously. The dose of KuA was 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg respectively. The protective effec...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Y, Cheng Z, Wang C, Ma H, Meng W, Zhao Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

In Vivo Neurochemical Characterization of Developing Guinea Pigs and the Effect of Chronic Fetal Hypoxia.
Abstract The guinea pig is a frequently used animal model for human pregnancy complications, such as oxygen deprivation or hypoxia, which result in altered brain development. To investigate the impact of in utero chronic hypoxia on brain development, pregnant guinea pigs underwent either normoxic or hypoxic conditions at about 70 % of 65-day term gestation. After delivery, neurochemical profiles consisting of 19 metabolites and macromolecules were obtained from the neonatal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum from birth to 12 weeks postpartum using in vivo (1)H MR spectroscopy at 9.4 T. The effects of chro...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang WT, Lee P, Dong Y, Yeh HW, Kim J, Weiner CP, Brooks WM, Choi IY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Curcumin Attenuated Bupivacaine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells Via Activation of the Akt Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Bupivacaine is widely used for regional anesthesia, spinal anesthesia, and pain management. However, bupivacaine could cause neuronal injury. Curcumin, a low molecular weight polyphenol, has a variety of bioactivities and may exert neuroprotective effects against damage induced by some stimuli. In the present study, we tested whether curcumin could attenuate bupivacaine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Cell injury was evaluated by examining cell viability, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. We also investigated the levels of activation of the Akt signaling pathway and the effect of Akt inhibition ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 27, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fan YL, Li HC, Zhao W, Peng HH, Huang F, Jiang WH, Xu SY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hypothalamic Proteomic Analysis Reveals Dysregulation of Glutamate Balance and Energy Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depression.
Abstract Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity is observed in many patients suffering from depression. However, the mechanism underlying the dysfunction of the HPA axis is not well understood. Moreover, dysfunction of the hypothalamus, the key brain region of the HPA axis, has not been well-explored. The aim of our study was to examine possible alterations in hypothalamus protein expression in a model of depression using proteomic analysis. In order to achieve this aim, mice were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), as the paradigm results in hyperactivity of the HPA axis. Differe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rao C, Shi H, Zhou C, Zhu D, Zhao M, Wang Z, Yang Y, Chen J, Liao L, Tang J, Wu Y, Zhou J, Cheng K, Xie P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Alteration of Cytokines Levels in the Striatum of Rats: Possible Participation in Vacuous Chewing Movements Induced by Antipsycotics.
Abstract Antipsychotic drugs have been used in the treatment of schizophrenia and their long-term use can cause movement disorders, such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) in humans mainly typical ones such as haloperidol. Neuroinflammation has been implicated to the use of antipsychotics besides its participation in TD remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the relation of cytokines with vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rats comparing typical and atypical antipsychotics. Rats were treated with haloperidol or risperidone for 28 days. On day 29, rats were subjected to behavioral analysis (q...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Peroza LR, Schaffer LF, De Freitas CM, Leal CQ, Ferrari MC, Duarte MM, Fachinetto R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lamotrigine Attenuates Proteasome Inhibition-Induced Apoptosis by Suppressing the Activation of the Mitochondrial Pathway and the Caspase-8- and Bid-Dependent Pathways.
Abstract Proteasome impairment has been shown to be involved in neuronal degeneration. Antiepileptic lamotrigine has been demonstrated to have a neuroprotective effect. However, the effect of lamotrigine on the proteasome inhibition-induced neuronal cell death has not been studied. Therefore, we assessed the effect of lamotrigine on the proteasome inhibition-induced neuronal cell apoptosis in relation to cell death process using differentiated PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132 and MG115 induced a decrease in the levels of Bid and Bcl-2 proteins, an increase in the levels of Bax and p53,...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nam YJ, Kim A, Lee MS, Shin YK, Sohn DS, Lee CS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Hindlimb Unweighting on MBP and GDNF Expression and Morphology in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons.
In conclusion, HU treatment induced damage of L5 DRG neurons, which was correlated with decreased total MBP protein expression, increased dgen-MBP expression, and reduced GDNF protein and mRNA expression. Importantly, these changes were more severe in F-HU rats compared with M-HU rats. PMID: 27230884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang H, Ren NT, Zhou FQ, Li J, Lei W, Liu N, Bi L, Wu ZX, Zhang R, Zhang YG, Cui G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research