Oxabicycloheptene Sulfonate Protects Against β-Amyloid-induced Toxicity by Activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK Signaling Pathways Via GPER1 in C6 Cells.
Oxabicycloheptene Sulfonate Protects Against β-Amyloid-induced Toxicity by Activation of PI3K/Akt and ERK Signaling Pathways Via GPER1 in C6 Cells. Neurochem Res. 2017 Apr 04;: Authors: Deng LJ, Cheng C, Wu J, Wang CH, Zhou HB, Huang J Abstract Oxabicycloheptene sulfonate (OBHS) is a novel bicyclic core selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) with estrogen receptor (ER) antagonistic-activity and anti-inflammatory activity. However, little is known about protective action of OBHS on neurodegenerative disorders. In the present study, OBHS demonstrated a remarkably protective effect against amy...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Deng LJ, Cheng C, Wu J, Wang CH, Zhou HB, Huang J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ultra-High Field Proton MR Spectroscopy in Early-Stage Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.
In this study, we measured neurochemical profiles using single-voxel (1)H-MRS at 7 T (T) and glutathione (GSH) levels using edited MRS at 3 T in 19 subjects with ALS who had relatively high functional status [ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) mean ± SD = 39.8 ± 5.6] and 17 healthy controls. We observed significantly lower total N-acetylaspartate over mIns (tNAA/mIns) ratio in the motor cortex and pons of subjects with ALS versus healthy controls. No group differences were detected in GSH at 3 and 7 T. In subjects with ALS, the levels of tNA...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cheong I, Marjańska M, Deelchand DK, Eberly LE, Walk D, Öz G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inactivation of the Tuberomammillary Nucleus by GABAA Receptor Agonist Promotes Slow Wave Sleep in Freely Moving Rats and Histamine-Treated Rats.
In this study, alterations of sleep-wake states and cortical EEG power spectral density were investigated following muscimol, a GABAA-receptor agonist, microinjected bilaterally into the TMN in freely moving rats and HA pretreated rats, respectively. Muscimol dosed at 0.25 and 0.50 μg/side into the TMN during dark period dose-dependently increased slow wave sleep (SWS) accompanied by an increase in cortical EEG delta (0.5-4 Hz) and spindle (8.2-12 Hz) activities. In the meanwhile, wakefulness and EEG beta (12.2-30 Hz) activity were decreased significantly, while paradoxical sleep and EEG theta (4.2-8...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xie JF, Fan K, Wang C, Xie P, Hou M, Xin L, Cui GF, Wang LX, Shao YF, Hou YP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Protect Oligodendrocytes from Acute Ischemia in the Mouse Optic Nerve.
Abstract Studies by Bruce Ransom and colleagues have made a major contribution to show that white matter is susceptible to ischemia/hypoxia. White matter contains axons and the glia that support them, notably myelinating oligodendrocytes, which are highly vulnerable to ischemic-hypoxic damage. Previous studies have shown that metabotropic GluRs (mGluRs) are cytoprotective for oligodendrocyte precursor cells and immature oligodendrocytes, but their potential role in adult white matter was unresolved. Here, we report that group 1 mGluR1/5 and group 2 mGluR3 subunits are expressed in optic nerves from mice aged postn...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 1, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Butt AM, Vanzulli I, Papanikolaou M, De La Rocha IC, Hawkins VE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Senicapoc: Repurposing a Drug to Target Microglia KCa3.1 in Stroke.
r T Abstract Stroke is the leading cause of serious long-term disability and the fifth leading cause of death in the United States. Treatment options for stroke are few in number and limited in efficacy. Neuroinflammation mediated by microglia and infiltrating peripheral immune cells is a major component of stroke pathophysiology. Interfering with the inflammation cascade after stroke holds the promise to modulate stroke outcome. The calcium activated potassium channel KCa3.1 is expressed selectively in the injured CNS by microglia. KCa3.1 function has been implicated in pro-inflammatory activation of microglia an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Staal RG, Weinstein JR, Nattini M, Cajina M, Chandresana G, Möller T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Transient Cerebral Ischemia Alters GSK-3 β and p-GSK-3β Immunoreactivity in Pyramidal Neurons and Induces p-GSK-3β Expression in Astrocytes in the Gerbil Hippocampal CA1 Area.
In conclusion, GSK-3β and p-GSK-3β were significantly changed in pyramidal cells and/or astrocytes in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 area following 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. This finding indicates that GSK-3β and p-GSK-3β are closely related to delayed neuronal death. PMID: 28349361 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen BH, Ahn JH, Park JH, Shin BN, Lee YL, Kang IJ, Hong S, Kim YH, Jeon YH, Kim IH, Cho JH, Lee TK, Lee JC, Won MH, Cho JH, Moon JB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Lacosamide in Norway: Focus on Pharmacokinetic Variability, Efficacy and Tolerability.
Abstract Lacosamide (LCM) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED). Experience from therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in clinical practice is limited. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pharmacokinetic variability of LCM in relation to efficacy and tolerability in patients with refractory epilepsy in a real-life setting. Variables included age, gender, daily doses and serum concentrations of LCM and other AEDs from the TDM-database at the National Center for Epilepsy in Norway. Clinical data regarding efficacy and tolerability were collected from medical records. The Norwegian Prescription Database (NorPD) was ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Svendsen T, Brodtkorb E, Baftiu A, Burns ML, Johannessen SI, Johannessen Landmark C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Decreased Glutamatergic Activity in the Frontal Cortex of Single Prolonged Stress Model: In vivo and Ex Vivo Proton MR Spectroscopy.
Abstract Single prolonged stress (SPS) is one of the preclinical models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. Not every traumatized person develops PTSD and the onset of the disease varies from months to many years after exposure to life-threatening events. The pathogenetic neurometabolites in PTSD have not been investigated to date, and could provide a means for therapeutic interventions. Therefore the present study aimed to evaluate neurochemical changes in the frontal cortex in the SPS model during time-dependent sensitization using in vivo and ex vivo proton magnetic spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS). Twent...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lim SI, Song KH, Yoo CH, Woo DC, Choe BY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inwardly Rectifying K(+) Currents in Cultured Oligodendrocytes from Rat Optic Nerve are Insensitive to pH.
telo M, Matute C, Arellano RO Abstract Inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channel expression signals at an advanced stage of maturation during oligodendroglial differentiation. Knocking down their expression halts the generation of myelin and produces severe abnormalities in the central nervous system. Kir4.1 is the main subunit involved in the tetrameric structure of Kir channels in glial cells; however, the precise composition of Kir channels expressed in oligodendrocytes (OLs) remains partially unknown, as participation of other subunits has been proposed. Kir channels are sensitive to H(+); thus, intracellular aci...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pérez-Samartín A, Garay E, Moctezuma JP, Cisneros-Mejorado A, Sánchez-Gómez MV, Martel-Gallegos G, Robles-Martínez L, Canedo-Antelo M, Matute C, Arellano RO Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Paullinia cupana Mart. Commercial Extract During the Aging of Middle Age Wistar Rats: Differential Effects on the Hippocampus and Striatum.
Moreira JC Abstract During aging, there is a marked decline in the antioxidant capacity of brain tissue, leading to a gradual loss of the antioxidant/oxidant balance, which causes oxidative damage. The effects of Paullinia cupana Mart. extract, which is described as being rich in caffeine and many polyphenol compounds, on the central nervous system have not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to therefore investigate the effect of a commercial guarana extract (CGE) on cognitive function, oxidative stress, and brain homeostasis proteins related to cognitive injury and senescence in middle age,...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mingori MR, Heimfarth L, Ferreira CF, Gomes HM, Moresco KS, Delgado J, Roncato S, Zeidán-Chuliá F, Gelain DP, Moreira JC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Metabolism of Mannose in Cultured Primary Rat Neurons.
Abstract Glucose is the main peripheral substrate for energy production in the brain. However, as other hexoses are present in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, we have investigated whether neurons have the potential to metabolize, in addition to glucose, also the hexoses mannose, fructose or galactose. Incubation of primary cerebellar granule neurons in the absence of glucose caused severe cell toxicity within 24 h, which could not be prevented by application of galactose or fructose, while the cells remained viable during incubation in the presence of either mannose or glucose. In addition, cultured neurons pr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rastedt W, Blumrich EM, Dringen R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Efflux Transporter Inhibition on the Distribution of Fluconazole in the Rat Brain.
Abstract Multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) and organic anion transporters (OATs) are expressed on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB), preventing the entry of or the pumping out of numerous molecules. Fluconazole is widely used to treat fungal meningoencephalitis. The effect of these transporters on the distribution of fluconazole in the brain is unclear. We used microdialysis to compare the distribution of fluconazole in the rat brain with and without co-administration of probenecid, a MRP and OAT inhibitor. Additionally, we also observed the difference in flu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang W, Zheng N, Zhang J, Huang X, Yu S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

A Mesiotemporal Lobe Epilepsy Mouse Model.
Abstract Among the different forms of epilepsies, mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is one of the most common and represents the main pharmaco-resistant form of epilepsy. There is therefore an urgent need to better understand this form of epilepsy to develop better anti-epileptic drugs. Many rodent models are mimicking some aspects of the human temporal lobe epilepsy but only few are addressing most of the human mesiotemporal lobe epilepsy. In this article, we describe the main characteristics of a mouse of model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. This model is generated by a single injection of kainic acid into t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 23, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Venceslas D, Corinne R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

c-Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase is Involved in Valproic Acid-Mediated Neuronal Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic NSCs and Neurite Outgrowth of NSC-Derived Neurons.
Abstract Valproic acid (VPA), an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug, can induce neuronal differentiation, promote neurite extension and exert a neuroprotective effect in central nervous system (CNS) injuries; however, comparatively little is known regarding its action on mouse embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) and the underlying molecular mechanism. Recent studies suggested that c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is required for neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation during neuronal development. In the present study, we cultured mouse embryonic NSCs and treated the cells with 1 mM VPA for up to 7&nb...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lu L, Zhou H, Pan B, Li X, Fu Z, Liu J, Shi Z, Chu T, Wei Z, Ning G, Feng S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

β-Hydroxybutyrate Boosts Mitochondrial and Neuronal Metabolism but is not Preferred Over Glucose Under Activated Conditions.
β-Hydroxybutyrate Boosts Mitochondrial and Neuronal Metabolism but is not Preferred Over Glucose Under Activated Conditions. Neurochem Res. 2017 Mar 18;: Authors: Achanta LB, Rowlands BD, Thomas DS, Housley GD, Rae CD Abstract The ketone body, β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB), is metabolised by the brain alongside the mandatory brain fuel glucose. To examine the extent and circumstances by which βOHB can supplement glucose metabolism, we studied guinea pig cortical brain slices using increasing concentrations of [U-(13)C]D-βOHB in conjunction with [1-(13)C]D-glucose under conditions o...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Achanta LB, Rowlands BD, Thomas DS, Housley GD, Rae CD Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hemin protects against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced apoptosis activation via neuroglobin in SH-SY5Y cells.
This study aimed to investigate the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of hemin in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated neurons. OGD-treated SH-SY5Y cells (human neuroblastoma cells) were used in the study. The cellular viability of SH-SY5Y cells was assessed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the cell apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry analysis with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate and propidium iodide staining with or without hemin pretreatment. Cell viability and apoptotic activation were detected after hemin administration combined with neuro...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang YJ, Peng QY, Deng SY, Chen CX, Wu L, Huang L, Zhang LN Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Suppression of Inner Mitochondrial Membrane Peptidase 2-Like (IMMP2L) Gene Exacerbates Hypoxia-Induced Neural Death Under High Glucose Condition.
In conclusion, our study demonstrated that deficiency of IMMP2L in cells, cultured under hypoxia, high glucose and acidic conditions, exacerbated neuronal death under a condition that mimics in vivo cerebral ischemia in diabetic condition. PMID: 28316022 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ma Y, Zhang Z, Chen Z, Ma N, Sun S, Zhang J, Ni X, Zhang J, Li PA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Three Types of A11 Neurons Project to the Rat Spinal Cord.
Abstract The A11 dopaminergic cell group is the only group among the A8-A16 dopaminergic cell groups that includes neurons innervating the spinal cord, and a decrease in dopaminergic transmission at the spinal cord is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome. However, the mechanisms regulating the neuronal activity of A11 dopaminergic neurons remain to be elucidated. Unraveling the neuronal composition, distribution and connectivity of A11 neurons would provide insights into the mechanisms regulating the spinal dopaminergic system. To address this, we performed immunohistochemistry for c...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ozawa H, Yamaguchi T, Hamaguchi S, Yamaguchi S, Ueda S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

N-acetylcysteine Prevents Alcohol Related Neuroinflammation in Rats.
Abstract Alcoholism has been characterized as a systemic pro-inflammatory condition and alcohol withdrawal has been linked to various changes in the brain homeostasis, including oxidative stress and glutamate hyperactivity. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant multi-target drug with promising results in psychiatry, including drug addiction. We assessed the effects of NAC on the serum and brain inflammatory cytokines after cessation of chronic alcohol treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats received 2 g/kg alcohol or vehicle twice a day by oral gavage for 30 days. Rats were treated, from ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schneider R, Bandiera S, Souza DG, Bellaver B, Caletti G, Quincozes-Santos A, Elisabetsky E, Gomez R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Validation of a Preclinical Drug Screening Platform for Pharmacoresistant Epilepsy.
Abstract The successful identification of promising investigational therapies for the treatment of epilepsy can be credited to the use of numerous animal models of seizure and epilepsy for over 80 years. In this time, the maximal electroshock test in mice and rats, the subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol test in mice and rats, and more recently the 6 Hz assay in mice, have been utilized as primary models of electrically or chemically-evoked seizures in neurologically intact rodents. In addition, rodent kindling models, in which chronic network hyperexcitability has developed, have been used to identify new ag...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Barker-Haliski ML, Johnson K, Billingsley P, Huff J, Handy LJ, Khaleel R, Lu Z, Mau MJ, Pruess TH, Rueda C, Saunders G, Underwood TK, Vanegas F, Smith MD, West PJ, Wilcox KS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Pregnane X Receptor Not Nuclear Factor-kappa B Up-regulates P-glycoprotein Expression in the Brain of Chronic Epileptic Rats Induced by Kainic Acid.
This study was extended further to investigate the interaction effect of NF-κB and pregnane X receptor (PXR) on P-gp expression at the brain of chronic epileptic rats treated with carbamazepine (CBZ). The chronic epileptic models were induced by the micro-injection of kainic acid (KA) into rats' hippocampus. Subsequently, the successful models were treated with different intervention agents of CBZ; PMA(a non-specific PXR activity inhibitor) or PDTC(a specific NF-κB activity inhibitor) respectively. The expression levels of P-gp and its encoded gene mdr1a/b were significantly up-regulated on the brain of KA-indu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yu N, Zhang YF, Zhang K, Cheng YF, Ma HY, Di Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The BTBR Mouse, Sociability, and Reduced Glutamate Release: A Role for Endogenous Dynorphin?
PMID: 28303500 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fluegge K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Isoflurane Postconditioning Inhibits tPA-Induced Matrix Metalloproteinases Activation After Hypoxic Injury via Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein and Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Pathway.
Abstract Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only recommended pharmacological treatment for acute ischemic stroke. However, tPA can induce intracerebral hemorrhage by blood-brain barrier breakdown through an increase in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Previously, we showed that isoflurane postconditioning reduced intracranial hemorrhage following tPA treatment after cerebral ischemia. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which isoflurane postconditioning reduces tPA-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activation following hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in brain endothelial cells. Mouse brain endothelial cells (bEnd.3) ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kim SY, Cheon SY, Kim EJ, Lee JH, Kam EH, Kim JM, Park M, Koo BN Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erratum to: Ketimine Reductase: Reciprocal Control of Thyroid Binding Hormone and the Pipecolate Pathway in Brain.
PMID: 28303502 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hallen A, Cooper AJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of Calcineurin A by FK506 Suppresses Seizures and Reduces the Expression of GluN2B in Membrane Fraction.
Abstract FK506, a calcineurin inhibitor, shows neuroprotective effects and has been associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Calcineurin A (CaNA), a catalytic subunit of calcineurin, mediates the dephosphorylation of various proteins. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (GluN) is closely related to epileptogenesis, and various phosphorylation sites of GluN2B, a regulatory subunit of the GluN complex, have different functions. Thus, we hypothesized that one of the potential anti-epileptic mechanisms of FK506 is mediated by its ability to promote the phosphorylation of GluN2B and reduce the expression of GluN2B in memb...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 15, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wen Y, Fu P, Wu K, Si K, Xie Y, Dan W, Zhan Y, Shi Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effects of Acute GABA Treatment on the Functional Connectivity and Network Topology of Cortical Cultures.
Abstract γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory transmitter, acting on receptor channels to reduce neuronal excitability in matured neural systems. However, electrophysiological responses of whole neuronal ensembles to the exposure to GABA are still unclear. We used micro-electrode arrays (MEAs) to study the effects of the increasing amount of GABA on functional network of cortical neural cultures. Then the recorded data were analyzed by the cross-covariance analysis and graph theory. Results showed that after the GABA treatment, the activity parameters of firing rate, bursting rate, bursting duration a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Han Y, Li H, Lang Y, Zhao Y, Sun H, Zhang P, Ma X, Han J, Wang Q, Zhou J, Wang C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Animal Models of Seizures and Epilepsy: Past, Present, and Future Role for the Discovery of Antiseizure Drugs.
r W Abstract The identification of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of epilepsy requires the use of seizure models. Except for some early treatments, including bromides and phenobarbital, the antiseizure activity of all clinically used drugs was, for the most part, defined by acute seizure models in rodents using the maximal electroshock and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure tests and the electrically kindled rat. Unfortunately, the clinical evidence to date would suggest that none of these models, albeit useful, are likely to identify those therapeutics that will effectively manage patients wi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Löscher W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Spinal Cord Injury Impairs Neurogenesis and Induces Glial Reactivity in the Hippocampus.
Abstract The incorporation of newborn neurons with increased synaptic remodeling and activity-dependent plasticity in the dentate gyrus enhances hippocampal-dependent learning performances. Astrocytes and microglial cells are components of the neurogenic niche and regulate neurogenesis under normal and neurophatological conditions leading to functional consequences for learning and memory. Although cognitive impairments were reported in patients after spinal cord injury (SCI), only few studies have considered remote changes in brain structures which are not related with sensory and motor cortex. Thus, we examined ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 13, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jure I, Pietranera L, De Nicola AF, Labombarda F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

NAAG Peptidase Inhibitors Act via mGluR3: Animal Models of Memory, Alzheimer's, and Ethanol Intoxication.
Abstract Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) inactivates the peptide neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) following synaptic release. Inhibitors of GCPII increase extracellular NAAG levels and are efficacious in animal models of clinical disorders via NAAG activation of a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor. mGluR2 and mGluR3 knock-out (ko) mice were used to test the hypothesis that mGluR3 mediates the activity of GCPII inhibitors ZJ43 and 2-PMPA in animal models of memory and memory loss. Short- (1.5 h) and long- (24 h) term novel object recognition tests were used to assess memory. ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Olszewski RT, Janczura KJ, Bzdega T, Der EK, Venzor F, O'Rourke B, Hark TJ, Craddock KE, Balasubramanian S, Moussa C, Neale JH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glutamine Addiction In Gliomas.
n M, Campos-Sandoval JA Abstract Cancer cells develop and succeed by shifting to different metabolic programs compared with their normal cell counterparts. One of the classical hallmarks of cancer cells is their higher glycolysis rate and lactate production even in the presence of abundant O2 (Warburg effect). Another common metabolic feature of cancer cells is a high rate of glutamine (Gln) consumption normally exceeding their biosynthetic and energetic needs. The term Gln addiction is now widely used to reflect the strong dependence shown by most cancer cells for this essential nitrogen substrate after metabolic...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Márquez J, Alonso FJ, Matés JM, Segura JA, Martín-Rufián M, Campos-Sandoval JA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Anticonvulsant Screening Program of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH: History and Contributions to Clinical Care in the Twentieth Century and Beyond.
Abstract The anticonvulsant screening program (ASP) of the national institute of neurological disorders and stroke (NINDS), National Institutes of Health has made substantial contributions to the drug armamentarium of the clinical neurologist. This program, originally a part of the overall Drug Development Program of the Epilepsy Branch, has been fortunate to have talented leadership, both at NINDS in Maryland and at the major contract site, the University of Utah-over a remarkable period of more than 40 years. Future discoveries by the ASP (now renamed the Epilepsy Therapy Screening) can be expected to make addit...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Porter RJ, Kupferberg HJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Design and Comparative Evaluation of the Anticonvulsant Profile, Carbonic-Anhydrate Inhibition and Teratogenicity of Novel Carbamate Derivatives of Branched Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids with 4-Aminobenzensulfonamide.
Abstract Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological diseases, with between 34 and 76 per 100,000 people developing epilepsy annually. Epilepsy therapy for the past 100(+) years is based on the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Despite the availability of more than twenty old and new AEDs, approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy are not seizure-free with the existing medications. In addition, the clinical use of the existing AEDs is restricted by their side-effects, including the teratogenicity associated with valproic acid that restricts its use in women of child-bearing age. Thus, there is an unmet clin...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bibi D, Mawasi H, Nocentini A, Supuran CT, Wlodarczyk B, Finnell RH, Bialer M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Simultaneous Interference with HER1/EGFR and RAC1 Signaling Drives Cytostasis and Suppression of Survivin in Human Glioma Cells in Vitro.
In conclusion, we demonstrate that combined treatment of human glioma cell lines in vitro with erlotinib and NSC23766 markedly inhibits cell division, induces apoptosis independent of caspase-3 activation and induces autophagy concomitant with suppression of survivin. PMID: 28271323 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Karpel-Massler G, Westhoff MA, Kast RE, Dwucet A, Karpel-Massler S, Nonnenmacher L, Siegelin MD, Wirtz CR, Debatin KM, Halatsch ME Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

5-HT6 Receptor Agonist and Antagonist Against β-Amyloid-Peptide-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC-12 Cells.
5-HT6 Receptor Agonist and Antagonist Against β-Amyloid-Peptide-Induced Neurotoxicity in PC-12 Cells. Neurochem Res. 2017 Mar 07;: Authors: Bokare AM, Praveenkumar AK, Bhonde M, Nayak Y, Pal R, Goel R Abstract Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) induced neurotoxicity is considered as a hallmark of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study demonstrated the neuroprotective role of 5-HT6 receptors against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in PC-12 cells. The 5-HT6 receptor agonist EMD-386088 and antagonist SB-399885 were used as pharmacological tools. The NMDA receptor antagonist, meman...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Bokare AM, Praveenkumar AK, Bhonde M, Nayak Y, Pal R, Goel R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Nebulization of RNS60, a Physically-Modified Saline, Attenuates the Adoptive Transfer of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis in Mice: Implications for Multiple Sclerosis Therapy.
Abstract Developing a new and effective therapeutic approach against multiple sclerosis (MS) is always an important area of research. RNS60 is a bioactive aqueous solution generated by subjecting normal saline to Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille flow under elevated oxygen pressure. Recently we have demonstrated that RNS60, administered through intraperitoneal injection, ameliorated clinical symptoms and disease progression of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Since the intravenous route is not preferred for treating a chronic condition, we tested if nebulization of RNS60 could attenuat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mondal S, Rangasamy SB, Ghosh S, Watson RL, Pahan K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Vesicular Glutamate Transporter Inhibitors: Structurally Modified Brilliant Yellow Analogs.
Abstract Glutamate uptake into synaptic vesicles in nerve terminals is a pivotal step in glutamate synaptic transmission. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and, as such, the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) responsible for this uptake is involved in a variety of nervous system functions and various types of pathophysiology. As yet, no VGLUT-specific, membrane-permeable agents have been developed to affect neuronal function in intact neurons, although two potent VGLUTspecific inhibitors are known. These compounds contain diazo and highly charged sulfonic acid groups, rendering them membrane-...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kehrl J, Althaus JC, Showalter HD, Rudzinski DM, Sutton MA, Ueda T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intranasal Administration of GDNF Protects Against Neural Apoptosis in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Through PI3K/Akt/GSK3 β Pathway.
This study was to determine the effect and mechanisms of GDNF on the apoptosis of neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced Parkinson's disease model of rats. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (220-240 g) were randomly divided into six groups (n = 10). 6-OHDA was used to establish the PD rat model. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunohistochemistry was used to assess the neuron loss in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. TUNEL and western blot were used to identify the effects and mechanisms of GDNF in the rat model of PD. The numbers of TH-positive neurons in the 6-OHDA-injected lesioned substantia nigra (SN) decrease...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yue P, Gao L, Wang X, Ding X, Teng J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Dexmedetomidine Regulates 6-hydroxydopamine-Induced Microglial Polarization.
Abstract Microglia have undergone extensive characterization and have been shown to present distinct phenotypes, such as the M1 or M2 phenotypes, depending on their stimuli. As a highly specific neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) can be used to further our understanding of the immune response in Parkinson's disease (PD). Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a centrally selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, performs very well as an anti-anxiety medication, sedative and analgesic. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DEX on 6-OHDA-induced microglial polarization. Our results indicate that treatment with 6-O...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang P, Li Y, Han X, Xing Q, Zhao L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The NLRP3 Inflammasome is Involved in the Pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease in Rats.
In this study, we investigated the role of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing (NLRP) 3 inflammasome, consisting of NLRP3, caspase-1 and cytokines of the IL-1 family, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD rats. Microinjection of different doses of caspase-1 inhibitor (Ac-YVAD-CMK, 300 or 1200 ng/rat) was performed for seven consecutive days. Then, rotational behavior, the number of dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), and the mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 inflammasome component...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 28, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mao Z, Liu C, Ji S, Yang Q, Ye H, Han H, Xue Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Quantifying Filopodia in Cultured Astrocytes by an Algorithm.
uiche A Abstract Astrocytes in vivo extend thin processes termed peripheral astrocyte processes (PAPs), in particular around synapses where they can mediate glia-neuronal communication. The relation of PAPs to synapses is not based on coincidence, but it is not clear which stimuli and mechanisms lead to their formation and are active during process extension/ retraction in response to neuronal activity. Also, the molecular basis of the extremely fine PAP morphology (often 50 to 100 nm) is not understood. These open questions can be best investigated under in vitro conditions studying glial filopodia. We have ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Aumann G, Friedländer F, Thümmler M, Keil F, Brunkhorst R, Korf HW, Derouiche A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Up-regulation of GBP2 is Associated with Neuronal Apoptosis in Rat Brain Cortex Following Traumatic Brain Injury.
This study demonstrates that GBP2 is an important positive regulator of TBI and is a promising therapeutic target for brain injury. PMID: 28239766 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miao Q, Ge M, Huang L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Down-regulation of Pin1 in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Patients and Mouse Model.
Abstract Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) is a unique PPIase belonging to the parvulin family, and it isomerizes peptide bond between phospho-(Ser/Thr) and Pro. Pin1 has been linked to the pathogenesis of various human diseases; however, its exact biological functions remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to explore the expression pattern of Pin1 in patients with refractory epilepsy and in a chronic pilocarpine-induced epileptic mouse model. Using Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation analysis, we found that Pin1 protein was mainly distributed in neurons, d...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tang L, Zhang Y, Chen G, Xiong Y, Wang X, Zhu B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Prostaglandin E2 EP4 Receptor Activation Attenuates Neuroinflammation and Early Brain Injury Induced by Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.
This study was designed to research the effects of EP4 modulation on early brain injury (EBI) after experimental SAH in rats. We found that the administration of EP4 selective agonist AE1-329 significantly improved neurological dysfunction, blood brain barrier (BBB) damage and brain edema at 24 h after SAH. Furthermore, AE1-329 obviously reduced the number of activated microglia and the mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased Ser1177 phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Ser1177 p-eNOS). Moreover, AE1-329 significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and active caspa...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 27, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu J, Xu Z, Yan A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ethyl Pyruvate Attenuates Early Brain Injury Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in the Endovascular Perforation Rabbit Model Possibly Via Anti-inflammation and Inhibition of JNK Signaling Pathway.
In conclusion, the present study supported that EP afforded neuroprotective effects possibly via reducing TNF-α expression and inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. Therefore, EP may be a potent therapeutic agent to attenuate EBI following SAH. PMID: 28236213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lv T, Miao YF, Jin YC, Yang SF, Wu H, Dai J, Zhang XH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Expanded and Wild-type Ataxin-3 Modify the Redox Status of SH-SY5Y Cells Overexpressing α-Synuclein.
Expanded and Wild-type Ataxin-3 Modify the Redox Status of SH-SY5Y Cells Overexpressing α-Synuclein. Neurochem Res. 2017 Feb 25;: Authors: Noronha C, Perfeito R, Laço M, Wüllner U, Rego AC Abstract Neurodegenerative diseases are considered to be distinct clinical entities, although they share the formation of proteinaceous aggregates and several neuropathological mechanisms. Increasing evidence suggest a possible interaction between proteins that have been classically associated to distinct neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, common molecular and cellular pathways might explain similar...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Noronha C, Perfeito R, Laço M, Wüllner U, Rego AC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Prenatal Stress Impairs Spatial Learning and Memory Associated with Lower mRNA Level of the CAMKII and CREB in the Adult Female Rat Hippocampus.
Abstract Prenatal stress (PS) results in various behavioral and emotional alterations observed in later life. In particular, PS impairs spatial learning and memory processes but the underlying mechanism involved in this pathogenesis still remains unknown. Here, we reported that PS lowered the body weight in offspring rats, particularly in female rats, and impaired spatial learning and memory of female offspring rats in the Morris water maze. Correspondingly, the decreased CaMKII and CREB mRNA in the hippocampus were detected in prenatally stressed female offspring, which partially explained the effect of PS on the...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun H, Wu H, Liu J, Wen J, Zhu Z, Li H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

β-Caryophyllene Pretreatment Alleviates Focal Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway.
β-Caryophyllene Pretreatment Alleviates Focal Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Activating PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2017 Feb 24;: Authors: Zhang Q, An R, Tian X, Yang M, Li M, Lou J, Xu L, Dong Z Abstract β-Caryophyllene (BCP) has been reported to be protective against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory features. Recent study demonstrates that the BCP exhibits potential neuroprotection against I/R injury induced apoptosis, however, the mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigate the underlying anti-apo...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Q, An R, Tian X, Yang M, Li M, Lou J, Xu L, Dong Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Probing the Bi-directional Interaction Between Microglia and Gliomas in a Tumor Microenvironment on a Microdevice.
In conclusion, we have developed a potential quantitative method for in vitro study of glioma immunity and provided evidence for the duality of glioma-associated microglia. PMID: 28236212 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gu R, Zhang X, Zhang G, Tao T, Yu H, Liu L, Dou Y, Li A, Qin J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Brief Social Isolation in the Adolescent Wistar-Kyoto Rat Model of Endogenous Depression Alters Corticosterone and Regional Monoamine Concentrations.
Abstract The Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) model has been suggested as a model of adult and adolescent depression though face, predictive and construct validities of the model to depression remain equivocal. The suitability of the WKY as a diathesis model that tests the double-hit hypothesis, particularly during critical periods of brain and behavioural development remains to be established. Here, effects of post-weaning social isolation were assessed during early adolescence (~30pnd) on behavioural despair and learned helplessness in the forced swim test (FST), plasma corticosterone levels and tissue monoamine concentra...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shetty RA, Sadananda M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Amphotericin B Increases Transglutaminase 2 Expression Associated with Upregulation of Endocytotic Activity in Mouse Microglial Cell Line BV-2.
Abstract Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene antibiotic, is reported to cause the microglial activation to induce nitric oxide (NO) production and proinflammatory cytokines expression, and change neurotrophic factors expression in cultured microglia (Motoyoshi et al. in Neurochem Int 52:1290-1296, 2008). On the other hand, tissue-type transglutaminase (TG2) is involved in connection to phagocytes with apoptotic cells. Engulfment of neurons by activated microglia is thought to cause neurodegenerative diseases but detail is unclear, and involvement of TG2 in phagocytosis has been reported in our previous study using lip...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kawabe K, Takano K, Moriyama M, Nakamura Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research