Melatonin Improves Memory Deficits in Rats with Cerebral Hypoperfusion, Possibly, Through Decreasing the Expression of Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels.
This study investigated the expression pattern, regulation of expression, and the role of hippocampal small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels in memory deficits after cerebral hypoperfusion (CHP) with or without melatonin treatment, in rats. Adults male Wistar rats (n = 20/group) were divided into (1) a sham (2) a sham + melatonin (3) a two-vessel occlusion (2-VO) model, and (4) a 2-VO + melatonin. Melatonin was administered (i.p.) to all rats at a daily dose of 10 mg kg-1 for 7 days starting at the time of 2-VO-induction. In contrast to 2-VO rats, mel...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 11, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Al Dera H, Alassiri M, Eleawa SM, AlKhateeb MA, Hussein AM, Dallak M, Sakr HF, Alqahtani S, Khalil MA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Integrity of White Matter is Compromised in Mice with Hyaluronan Deficiency.
Abstract Brain white matter is the means of efficient signal propagation in brain and its dysfunction is associated with many neurological disorders. We studied the effect of hyaluronan deficiency on the integrity of myelin in murine corpus callosum. Conditional knockout mice lacking the hyaluronan synthase 2 were compared with control mice. Ultrastructural analysis by electron microscopy revealed a higher proportion of myelin lamellae intruding into axons of knockout mice, along with significantly slimmer axons (excluding myelin sheath thickness), lower g-ratios, and frequent loosening of the myelin wrappings, ev...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sherpa AD, Guilfoyle DN, Naik AA, Isakovic J, Irie F, Yamaguchi Y, Hrabe J, Aoki C, Hrabetova S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

On the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Neuromodulation of the Claustrum.
Abstract G protein-coupled receptors modulate the synaptic glutamate and GABA transmission of the claustrum. The work focused on the transmitter-receptor relationships in the claustral catecholamine system and receptor-receptor interactions between kappa opioid receptors (KOR) and SomatostatinR2 (SSTR2) in claustrum. Methods used involved immunohistochemistry and in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) using confocal microscopy. Double immunolabeling studies on dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivities (IR) demonstrated that D1R IR existed in almost all claustral and dorsal en...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 6, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Borroto-Escuela DO, Fuxe K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Food Selection of Cafeteria Diet Affects Memory Dysfunction Related to Obesity.
es RP Abstract Cafeteria diet (CAF) mimics human Western diet and has been used in animal models to study obesity. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that our CAF model induces metabolic disorder related to obesity and affects recognition memory in Wistar rats. We also compared the intake of two different soft drinks, as part of the CAF, on recognition memory. Our results demonstrate that CAF-fed rats increased weight gain and visceral adiposity, and exhibited hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, high leptin and low insulin plasma levels. Moreover, CAF animals showed higher lipid peroxidation in the liver...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Feijó GDS, de Oliveira S, Thoen R, Schaab EE, de Moura AC, Franco F, Giovenardi M, Porawski M, Guedes RP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

TREM2 Attenuates A β1-42-Mediated Neuroinflammation in BV-2 Cells by Downregulating TLR Signaling.
In conclusion, TREM2 promoted clearance of Aβ1-42 by BV-2 cells and restored BV-2 cell viability from Aβ1-42-mediated neuroinflammation by downregulating TLRs. These findings suggest that TREM2 may be a target for LOAD therapy. PMID: 31134514 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Long H, Zhong G, Wang C, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Luo J, Shi S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Restraint Water-Immersion Stress-Induced Gastric Mucosal Damage on Astrocytes and Neurons in the Nucleus Raphe Magnus of Rats via the ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway.
Abstract Restraint water-immersion stress (RWIS) consists of psychological and physical stimulation, and it has been utilized in the research of gastric mucosal damage. It has been shown by previous studies that the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM) is closely involved in the gastrointestinal function, but its functions on the stress-induced gastric mucosal injury (SGMI) have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. Consequently, in this research, we aim to measure the expression of astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neuronal c-Fos, and phosphorylation extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) i...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fan F, Yang M, Geng X, Ma X, Sun H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Imaging features of immune-mediated genitourinary disease.
Abstract The authors regret that they neglected to cite their conference report on the technical part of a 'preliminary study' presented at, and published in, the Biomedical Sciences and Engineering Conference (BSEC), 2010, May 25-26 (Fully automated segmentation and characterization of the dendritic trees of retinal horizontal neurons -DOI: 10.1109/BSEC.2010.5510843 ), as it related to the larger dataset presented as validation of the method in the Neurochemical Research article (Automated Tracing of Horizontal Neuron Processes During Retinal Development- Neurochem Res. 2011 Apr;36(4):583-93). This resulted in th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kerekes RA, Martins RAP, Davis D, Karakaya M, Gleason S, Dyer MA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Protective Effects of Levetiracetam on a Human iPSCs-Derived Spinal Muscular Atrophy Model.
Abstract Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited disease characterized by progressive motor neuron death and subsequent muscle weakness and is caused by deletion or mutation of survival motor neuron (SMN) 1 gene. Protecting spinal motor neuron is an effective clinical strategy for SMA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effect of an anti-epileptic drug levetiracetam on SMA. In the present study, we used differentiated spinal motor neurons (MNs) from SMA patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (SMA-iPSCs) to investigate the effect of levetiracetam. Levetiracetam promoted neurite...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ando S, Funato M, Ohuchi K, Inagaki S, Sato A, Seki J, Kawase C, Saito T, Nishio H, Nakamura S, Shimazawa M, Kaneko H, Hara H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Silibinin Alleviates the Learning and Memory Defects in Overtrained Rats Accompanying Reduced Neuronal Apoptosis and Senescence.
In this study, rats were subjected to overtraining exercise, and the protective effects of silibinin were investigated in these models. Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests showed that silibinin significantly attenuated memory defects in overtrained rats. At the same time, the results of Nissl, TUNEL and SA-β-gal staining showed that silibinin reversed neuronal loss caused by apoptosis, and delayed cell senescence of the hippocampus in the overtrained rats, respectively. In addition, silibinin decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) levels which is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Sili...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 17, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu B, Liu W, Liu P, Liu X, Song X, Hayashi T, Onodera S, Ikejima T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Intrinsic Effects of Gold Nanoparticles on Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation/Reperfusion Injury in Rat Cortical Neurons.
This study aimed to investigate the potential effects of gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) on rat cortical neurons exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) and to elucidate the corresponding mechanisms. Primary rat cortical neurons were exposed to OGD/R, which is commonly used in vitro to mimic ischemic injury, and then treated with 5- or 20-nm Au-NPs. We then evaluated cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial respiration in these neurons. We found that 20-nm Au-NPs increased cell viability, alleviated neuronal apoptosis and oxidative stress, and improved mitochondrial respiration after OGD...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zheng Y, Wu Y, Liu Y, Guo Z, Bai T, Zhou P, Wu J, Yang Q, Liu Z, Lu X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Coenzyme Q10 Protects Astrocytes from Ultraviolet B-Induced Damage Through Inhibition of ERK 1/2 Pathway Overexpression.
Abstract Overexpression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase ½ (ERK ½) signaling pathway leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which induces oxidative stress. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) scavenges ROS and protects cells against oxidative stress. The present study was designed to examine whether the protection of Coenzyme Q10 against oxidative damage in astrocytes is through regulating ERK 1/2 pathway. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation was chosen as a tool to induce oxidative stress. Murine astrocytes were treated with 10 μg/ml and 25 μg/ml of CoQ10 for 24 h prior to...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao Q, Ma YM, Jing L, Zheng TX, Jiang HF, Li PA, Zhang JZ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ethanol Induces Sedation and Hypnosis via Inhibiting Histamine Release in Mice.
Abstract Ethanol is one of the most highly abused psychoactive compounds worldwide and induces sedation and hypnosis. The histaminergic system is involved in the regulation of sleep/wake function and is a crucial player in promoting wakefulness. To explore the role and mechanism of the histaminergic system in ethanol-induced sedation and hypnosis, we recorded locomotor activity (LMA) and electroencephalography (EEG)/electromyography (EMG) in mice using an infrared ray passive sensor recording system and an EEG/EMG recording system, respectively, after administration of ethanol. In vivo microdialysis coupled with h...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ma Z, Wang W, Wang T, Xu W, Qu W, Huang Z, Hong Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Knockdown of microRNA-17-5p Enhances the Neuroprotective Effect of Act A/Smads Signal Loop After Ischemic Injury.
Abstract Cerebral ischemic injury is a leading cause of human mortality and disability, seriously threatening human health in the world. Activin A (Act A), as a well-known neuroprotective factor, could alleviate ischemic brain injury mainly through Act A/Smads signaling. In our previous study, a noncanonical Act A/Smads signal loop with self-amplifying property was found, which strengthened the neuroprotective effect of Act A. However, this neuroprotective effect was limited due to the self-limiting behavior mediated by Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. It was reported that microRNA-17-5p (miR-17...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang JQ, Dong Y, Li SJ, Pan CL, Liu HY, Wang YK, Xu L, Yang JH, Cui YX, He JT, Mang J, Xu ZX Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Axonal Protection by Tacrolimus with Inhibition of NFATc1 in TNF-Induced Optic Nerve Degeneration.
In this study, we investigated whether tacrolimus modulates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated axonal degeneration and whether it alters nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc), a downstream effector of CaN signaling. Immunoblot analysis showed no significant difference in CaNAα protein levels in optic nerve on day 3, 7, or 14 after TNF injection compared with PBS injection. However, a significant increase in NFATc1 protein level was observed in optic nerve 7 days after TNF injection. This increase was negated by simultaneous administration of tacrolimus. Administration of tacrolimus alone did not change t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tsukahara C, Sase K, Fujita N, Takagi H, Kitaoka Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Palmitic Acid-Induced NAD+ Depletion is Associated with the Reduced Function of SIRT1 and Increased Expression of BACE1 in Hippocampal Neurons.
;lez-Barrios R, Arias C Abstract Increased levels of circulating fatty acids, such as palmitic acid (PA), are associated with the development of obesity, insulin resistance, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, these diseases are linked to an increased risk of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, mild cognitive impairment and even Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the precise actions of elevated PA levels on neurons and their association with neuronal metabolic disruption that leads to the expression of pathological markers of AD, such as the overproduction and accumulation of the amyloid-β pepti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Flores-León M, Pérez-Domínguez M, González-Barrios R, Arias C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

PGC-1 α, Sirtuins and PARPs in Huntington's Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Conditions: NAD+ to Rule Them All.
PGC-1α, Sirtuins and PARPs in Huntington's Disease and Other Neurodegenerative Conditions: NAD+ to Rule Them All. Neurochem Res. 2019 May 07;: Authors: Lloret A, Beal MF Abstract In this review, we summarize the available published information on the neuroprotective effects of increasing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) levels in Huntington's disease models. We discuss the rationale of potential therapeutic benefit of administering nicotinamide riboside (NR), a safe and effective NAD+ precursor. We discuss the agonistic effect on the Sirtuin1-PGC-1α-PPAR pathway as well as Sirtuin ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 7, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lloret A, Beal MF Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Purinergic Signalling in Parkinson's Disease: A Multi-target System to Combat Neurodegeneration.
aacute;gh B Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons that results in characteristic motor and non-motor symptoms. L-3,4 dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the gold standard therapy for the treatment of PD. However, long-term use of L-DOPA leads to side effects such as dyskinesias and motor fluctuation. Since purines have neurotransmitter and co-transmitter properties, the function of the purinergic system has been thoroughly studied in the nervous system. Adenosine and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) are modula...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tóth A, Antal Z, Bereczki D, Sperlágh B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Diffusion Tensor Imaging: Tool for Tracking Injured Spinal Cord Fibres in Rat.
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a severe disorder of the CNS leading to tissue damage and disability. Because it is critical to understand the pathological processes, it is important to find efficient ways to diagnose the severity of injured spinal cord tracts in situ from beginning up to a certain level of recovery following therapeutic interventions. In the current study, we set-up the criteria for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in order to capture changes of nerve fibre tracts in rat spinal cord compression injury. We tested four DTI parameters, such as fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffus...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Murgoci AN, Baciak L, Cubinkova V, Smolek T, Tvrdik T, Juranek I, Kafka J, Cizkova D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Acetyl-L-carnitine Used for Protection of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury on Acute Kidney Changes in Male and Female Rats.
Abstract Neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is a common cause of brain injury in infants. Acute kidney injury frequently occurs after birth asphyxia and is associated with adverse outcome. Treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) after HI protects brain and improves outcome. Rat pups underwent carotid ligation and 75 min hypoxia on postnatal day 7 to determine effects of HI on kidney which is understudied in this model. HI + ALCAR pups were treated at 0, 4 and 24 h after HI. The organic cation/carnitine transporter 2 (OCTN2), transports ALCAR and functions to reabsorb carnitine and acylcarniti...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 30, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang AG, Diamond M, Waddell J, McKenna MC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Characterization of Functional Primary Cilia in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons.
Abstract Recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) offer new possibilities for biomedical research and clinical applications. Neurons differentiated from hiPSCs may be promising tools to develop novel treatment methods for various neurological diseases. However, the detailed process underlying functional maturation of hiPSC-derived neurons remains poorly understood. Here, we analyze the developmental architecture of hiPSC-derived cortical neurons, iCell GlutaNeurons, focusing on the primary cilium, a single sensory organelle that protrudes from the surface of most growth-arrested vertebrate ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 29, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miki D, Kobayashi Y, Okada T, Miyamoto T, Takei N, Sekino Y, Koganezawa N, Shirao T, Saito Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Biomaterials and Magnetic Stem Cell Delivery in the Treatment of Spinal Cord Injury.
e; Š Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious trauma, which often results in a permanent loss of motor and sensory functions, pain and spasticity. Despite extensive research, there is currently no available therapy that would restore the lost functions after SCI in human patients. Advanced treatments use regenerative medicine or its combination with various interdisciplinary approaches such as tissue engineering or biophysical methods. This review summarizes and critically discusses the research from specific interdisciplinary fields in SCI treatment such as the development of biomaterials as scaffold...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kubinová Š Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Provocative Question: Should Ketogenic Metabolic Therapy Become the Standard of Care for Glioblastoma?
Abstract No major advances have been made in improving overall survival for glioblastoma (GBM) in almost 100 years. The current standard of care (SOC) for GBM involves immediate surgical resection followed by radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy. Corticosteroid (dexamethasone) is often prescribed to GBM patients to reduce tumor edema and inflammation. The SOC disrupts the glutamate-glutamine cycle thus increasing availability of glucose and glutamine in the tumor microenvironment. Glucose and glutamine are the prime fermentable fuels that underlie therapy resistance and drive GBM growth thr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Seyfried TN, Shelton L, Arismendi-Morillo G, Kalamian M, Elsakka A, Maroon J, Mukherjee P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Response to Stimulation in Neurons and Astrocytes.
B, Del Arco A, Satrústegui J Abstract The brain uses mainly glucose as fuel with an index of glucose to oxygen utilization close to 6, the maximal index if all glucose was completely oxidized. However, this high oxidative index, contrasts with the metabolic traits of the major cell types in the brain studied in culture, neurons and astrocytes, including the selective use of the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS) in neurons and the glycerol-phosphate shuttle in astrocytes. Metabolic interactions among these cell types may partly explain the high oxidative index of the brain. In vivo, neuronal activation results ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 23, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Juaristi I, Contreras L, González-Sánchez P, Pérez-Liébana I, González-Moreno L, Pardo B, Del Arco A, Satrústegui J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Quercetin and Sodium Butyrate Synergistically Increase Apoptosis in Rat C6 and Human T98G Glioblastoma Cells Through Inhibition of Autophagy.
This study investigated the efficacy of quercetin (QCT) in combination with sodium butyrate (NaB) in enhancing apoptosis in rat C6 and human T98G glioblastoma cells though blockage of autophagy under nutrient-starvation. The most synergistic doses of the drugs were determined to be 25 µM QCT and 1 mM NaB in both cell lines. After QCT and QCT + NaB treatments, autophagy quantification with acridine orange staining showed a drastic decrease in protective autophagy in the cells under nutrient-starvation. Decrease in autophagy was correlated with decreases in expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B II. Co...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Taylor MA, Khathayer F, Ray SK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Dual Role of HIV-1 gp120 V3 Loop-Induced Autophagy in the Survival and Apoptosis of the Primary Rat Hippocampal Neurons.
In this study, we demonstrated that autophagy was significantly increased in rat primary hippocampal neurons in response to treatment of HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop. Importantly, HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop-induced autophagy played a dual role in the cell survival and death. An increase in autophagy for a short period inhibited apoptosis of neurons, while persistent autophagy over an extended period of time played a detrimental role by augmenting the apoptotic cascade in rat primary hippocampal neurons. In addition, we found that the HIV-1 gp120 V3 loop induced autophagy via AMPK/mTOR-dependent and calpain/mTOR-independent pathways, and t...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu S, Xing Y, Wang J, Pan R, Li G, Tang H, Chen G, Yan L, Guo L, Jiang M, Gong Z, Lin L, Dong J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Regulation of Neprilysin Activity and Cognitive Functions in Rats After Prenatal Hypoxia.
Abstract The amyloid-degrading enzyme neprilysin (NEP) is one of the therapeutic targets in prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As we have shown previously NEP expression in rat parietal cortex (Cx) and hippocampus (Hip) decreases with age and is also significantly reduced after prenatal hypoxia. Following the paradigms for enhancement of NEP expression and activity developed in cell culture, we analysed the efficacy of various compounds able to upregulate NEP using our model of prenatal hypoxia in rats. In addition to the previous data demonstrating that valproic acid can upregulate NEP expressi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhuravin IA, Dubrovskaya NM, Vasilev DS, Kozlova DI, Kochkina EG, Tumanova NL, Nalivaeva NN Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Spinal Cord Injury: Animal Models, Imaging Tools and the Treatment Strategies.
Abstract Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to irreversible neuro-degenerative changes with life-long consequences. While there is still no effective therapy available, the results of past research have led to improved quality of life for patients suffering from partial or permanent paralysis. In this review we focus on the need, importance and the scientific value of experimental animal models simulating SCI in humans. Furthermore, we highlight modern imaging tools determining the location and extent of spinal cord damage and their contribution to early diagnosis and selection of appropriate treatment. Finally,...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 20, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cizkova D, Murgoci AN, Cubinkova V, Humenik F, Mojzisova Z, Maloveska M, Cizek M, Fournier I, Salzet M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of MicroRNA-195 Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Targeting Patched1 and Inhibiting SHH Signaling Pathway Activation.
Abstract Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a type of chronic neuropathic pain that is caused by peripheral nerve lesions that result from various conditions, including the compression of vessels, tumors and viral infections. MicroRNAs (miRs) are increasingly recognized as potential regulators of neuropathic pain. Previous evidence has demonstrated that miR-195 is involved in neuropathic pain, but the mechanism remains unclear. To investigate the pathophysiological role of miR-195 and Shh signaling in TN, persistent facial pain was induced by infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI-IoN), and facial pain resp...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang X, Wang H, Zhang T, He M, Liang H, Wang H, Xu L, Chen S, Xu M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Possible Molecular Mediators Involved and Mechanistic Insight into Fibromyalgia and Associated Co-morbidities.
Abstract Fibromyalgia is a chronic complex syndrome of non-articulate origin characterized by musculoskeletal pain, painful tender points, sleep problems and co-morbidities including depression, migraine. The etiopathogenesis of fibromyalgia is complex, variable and remains inconclusive. The etiological factors that have been defined include stress, genetic predisposition and environmental components. As per the reports of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) the prevalence of fibromyalgia varies from 2 to 22% among the general population with poor diagnostic features primarily pain. Fibromyalgia encompasses...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Singh L, Kaur A, Bhatti MS, Bhatti R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Reduction of Dimensionality in Monte Carlo Simulation of Diffusion in Extracellular Space Surrounding Cubic Cells.
Abstract The real-time iontophoretic method has measured volume fraction and tortuosity of the interstitial component of extracellular space in many regions and under different conditions. To interpret these data computer models of the interstitial space (ISS) of the brain are constructed by representing cells as Basic Cellular Structures (BCS) surrounded by a layer of ISS and replicating this combination to make a 3D ensemble that approximates brain tissue with a specified volume fraction. Tortuosity in such models is measured by releasing molecules of zero size into the ISS and allowing them to execute random wa...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nicholson C, Kamali-Zare P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lidocaine Attenuates Cognitive Impairment After Isoflurane Anesthesia by Reducing Mitochondrial Damage.
In this study, we hypothesized that lidocaine could attenuate isoflurane anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment by reducing mitochondrial damage. H4 human neuroglioma cells and 18-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were exposed to isoflurane or isoflurane plus lidocaine. Cognitive function was tested at 14 days after treatment by the Barnes Maze test in male Fischer 344 rats. Morphology was observed under electron microscope, and mitochondrial transmembrane potential, electron transfer chain (ETC) enzyme activity, complex-I-IV activity, immunofluorescence and flow cytometry of annexin V-FITC binding, TUNEL assay, and We...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li J, Zhu X, Yang S, Xu H, Guo M, Yao Y, Huang Z, Lin D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

In Vivo Phenotyping of Familial Parkinson's Disease with Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Proof-of-Concept Study.
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. We have previously developed a disease-in-a-dish model for familial PD using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from two patients carrying the p.A53T α-synuclein (αSyn) mutation. By directed differentiation, we generated a model that displays disease-relevant phenotypes, including protein aggregation, compromised neurite outgrowth, axonal neuropathology and synaptic defects. Here we investigated the in vivo phenotypes of iPSCs, derived from one patient, after transplantation in a lesion mouse model established b...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 15, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zygogianni O, Antoniou N, Kalomoiri M, Kouroupi G, Taoufik E, Matsas R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

AdipoRon Protects Against Secondary Brain Injury After Intracerebral Hemorrhage via Alleviating Mitochondrial Dysfunction: Possible Involvement of AdipoR1-AMPK-PGC1 α Pathway.
This study first showed that activation of adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) by AdipoRon could attenuate mitochondrial dysfunction after ICH. In vivo, experimental ICH model was established by autologous blood injection in mice. AdipoRon was injected intraperitoneally (50 mg/kg). Immunofluorescence staining were performed to explicit the location of AdipoR1, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1a (PGC1α). The PI staining was used to quantify neuronal survival. The expression of AdipoR1 and its downstream signaling molecules were detected by Wester...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 13, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yu J, Zheng J, Lu J, Sun Z, Wang Z, Zhang J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Primary Coenzyme Q deficiency Due to Novel ADCK3 Variants, Studies in Fibroblasts and Review of Literature.
Abstract Primary deficiency of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ubiquinone), is classified as a mitochondrial respiratory chain disorder with phenotypic variability. The clinical manifestation may involve one or multiple tissue with variable severity and presentation may range from infancy to late onset. ADCK3 gene mutations are responsible for the most frequent form of hereditary CoQ10 deficiency (Q10 deficiency-4 OMIM #612016) which is mainly associated with autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia (ARCA2, SCAR9). Here we provide the clinical, biochemical and genetic investigation for unrelated three nuclear families prese...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 9, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shalata A, Edery M, Habib C, Genizi J, Mahroum M, Khalaily L, Assaf N, Segal I, Abed El Rahim H, Shapira H, Urian D, Tzur S, Douiev L, Saada A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Molecular Docking and Cognitive Impairment Attenuating Effect of Phenolic Compound Rich Fraction of Trianthema portulacastrum in Scopolamine Induced Alzheimer's Disease Like Condition.
Abstract Dementia is considered as the frequent cause of neurodegenerative mental disorder such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) amongst elderly people. Free radicals as well as cholinergic deficit neurons within nucleus basalis magnocellularis demonstrated to attribute with aggregation of β amyloid which further acts as an essential hallmark in AD. Various phenolic phytoconstituents exists in Trianthema portulastrum (TP) leaves have been reported as active against various neurological disorders. The current investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antiamnesic potential of butanol fraction of TP hydroethanolic...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yadav E, Singh D, Debnath B, Rathee P, Yadav P, Verma A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mammalian STE20-like Kinase 1 Knockdown Attenuates TNF α-Mediated Neurodegenerative Disease by Repressing the JNK Pathway and Mitochondrial Stress.
Mammalian STE20-like Kinase 1 Knockdown Attenuates TNFα-Mediated Neurodegenerative Disease by Repressing the JNK Pathway and Mitochondrial Stress. Neurochem Res. 2019 Apr 04;: Authors: Geng C, Wei J, Wu C Abstract Neuroinflammation has been acknowledged as a primary factor contributing to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disease. However, the molecular mechanism underlying inflammation stress-mediated neuronal dysfunction is not fully understood. The aim of our study was to explore the influence of mammalian STE20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) in neuroinflammation using TNFα and CATH.a cells i...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 4, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Geng C, Wei J, Wu C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Differentially Expressed miRNAs Influence Metabolic Processes in Pituitary Oncocytoma.
P, Patócs A, Butz H Abstract Spindle cell oncocytomas (SCO) of the pituitary are rare tumors accounting for 0.1-0.4% of all sellar tumors. Due to their rarity, little information is available regarding their pathogenesis. Our aim was to investigate miRNA expression profile of pituitary oncocytomas. Total RNA was extracted from 9 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded pituitary samples (4 primary, 3 recurrent oncocytomas and 2 normal tissues). Next-generation sequencing was performed for miRNA profiling. Transcriptome data of additional 6 samples' were obtained from NBCI GEO database for gene expression reanalysi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Krokker L, Nyírő G, Reiniger L, Darvasi O, Szücs N, Czirják S, Tóth M, Igaz P, Patócs A, Butz H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The negative effect of magnetic nanoparticles with ascorbic acid on peritoneal macrophages.
In this study we investigated the effect of silica-coated nanoparticles (γ-Fe2O3-SiO2) with or without modification by an ascorbic acid (γ-Fe2O3-SiO2-ASA), which is meant to act as an antioxidative agent on rat peritoneal macrophages. Both types of nanoparticles were phagocytosed by macrophages in large amounts as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and Prusian blue staining, however they did not substantially affect the viability of exposed cells in monitored intervals. We further explored cytotoxic effects related to oxidative stress, which is frequently documented in cells exposed to nanoparticles....
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 3, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jiráková K, Moskvin M, Machová Urdzíková L, Rössner P, Elzeinová F, Chudíčková M, Jirák D, Ziolkowska N, Horák D, Kubinová Š, Jendelová P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Affects Behaviour and Monoamine Levels in Mice.
In this study, mice were exposed to Fe2O3-NPs (25 and 50 mg/kg body weight) by oral intubation daily for 30 days. It was observed that Fe2O3-NPs remarkably impair motor coordination and memory. In the treated brain regions, mitochondrial damage, depleted energy level and decreased ATPase (Mg2+, Ca2+ and Na+/K+) activities were observed. Disturbed ion homeostasis and axonal demyelination in the treated brain regions contributes to poor motor coordination. Increased intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) and decreased expression of growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) impairs vesicular exocytosis could result in insuffici...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 2, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Manickam V, Dhakshinamoorthy V, Perumal E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Vitronectin is Involved in the Morphological Transition of Neurites in Retinoic Acid-Induced Neurogenesis of Neuroblastoma Cell Line Neuro2a.
In this study, we investigated the roles of Vtn and its integrin receptors, during the transition of neurites from multipolar to bipolar morphology, accompanying the cell cycle exit in neural progenitor cells. We used mouse neuroblastoma cell line Neuro2a as a model of neural progenitor cells which can induce cell cycle exit and the morphological transition of neurites by retinoic acid (RA)-stimulation. Treatment with an antibody for Vtn suppressed the RA-induced cell cycle exit and multipolar-to-bipolar transition. Furthermore, immunostaining results showed that in the cells displaying multipolar morphology Vtn was partia...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 1, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sugahara M, Nakaoki Y, Yamaguchi A, Hashimoto K, Miyamoto Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II α Suppresses Oxidative Stress in Cerebral Ischemic Rats Through Targeting Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase.
Inhibition of Calcium/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase IIα Suppresses Oxidative Stress in Cerebral Ischemic Rats Through Targeting Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase. Neurochem Res. 2019 Mar 27;: Authors: Wei Y, Wang R, Teng J Abstract Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and oxidative stress plays a significant role in the ischemia stage and reperfusion stage. Previous studies have indicated that both calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) are involved in the oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 27, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei Y, Wang R, Teng J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure Induces Upregulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in the Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Hippocampus.
Abstract Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, Gelatinase B), an extracellular-acting Zn2+-dependent endopeptidase, are involved in brain pathologies including ischemia, glioma, and epilepsy. Recent studies suggested that MMP-9 plays an important role in neuronal plasticity, specifically in learning and memory. To determine whether and how MMP-9 plays role in alcohol-related behaviors, male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure for 4 weeks, following which we collected tissue samples from the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and amygdala at different ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 26, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yin L, Li F, Li J, Yang X, Xie X, Xue L, Li Y, Zhang C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Echinacoside Alleviates Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury in Neonatal Rat by Enhancing Antioxidant Capacity and Inhibiting Apoptosis.
This study aimed to investigate whether ECH provides neuroprotection against HIBD in neonatal rats. We subjected 120 seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats to cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and randomly divided into the following groups: sham group, HI group and ECH (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) post-administration group. After 48 h of HI, 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride, Hematoxylin-Eosin and Nissl staining were conducted to evaluate the extent of brain damage. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) activities, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and malondialdeh...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei W, Lan XB, Liu N, Yang JM, Du J, Ma L, Zhang WJ, Niu JG, Sun T, Yu JQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

PKM2 Involved in Neuronal Apoptosis on Hypoxic-ischemic Encephalopathy in Neonatal Rats.
In this study, we have investigated the role of PKM2 in cortical neurons which suffered hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in newborn rats. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed the protein expression of PKM2 peaking at 24 h after HIE. Double immunofluorescence labeling showed that PKM2 was mainly located in the neurons of the ipsilateral cerebral cortex, not in astrocytes or microglia. The increased level of active caspase-3 and the decreased level of phosphorylated AKT (p-AKT) were consistent with the PKM2 expression. TUNEL staining assay showed that PKM2 may participate in neuronal apoptosis in...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu Q, Ge W, Chen Y, Kong X, Xian H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Potential Circadian Rhythms in Oligodendrocytes? Working Together Through Time.
Abstract Oligodendrocytes (OL) are the only myelinating cells of the central nervous system thus interferences, either environmental or genetic, with their maturation or function have devastating consequences. Albeit so far neglected, one of the less appreciated, nevertheless possible, regulators of OL maturation and function is the circadian cycle. Yet, disruptions in these rhythms are unfortunately becoming a common "disorder" in the today's world. The temporal patterning of behaviour and physiology is controlled by a circadian timing system based in the anterior hypothalamus. At the molecular level, c...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 25, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Colwell CS, Ghiani CA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Succinylation Links Metabolism to Protein Functions.
Abstract Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important regulators of protein function, and integrate metabolism with physiological and pathological processes. Phosphorylation and acetylation are particularly well studied PTMs. A relatively recently discovered novel PTM is succinylation in which metabolically derived succinyl CoA modifies protein lysine groups. Succinylation causes a protein charge flip from positive to negative and a relatively large increase in mass compared to other PTMs. Hundreds of protein succinylation sites are present in proteins of multiple tissues and species, and the significance...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 22, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang Y, Gibson GE Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Special Issue in Honour of Anthony J (Tony) Turner.
PMID: 30888576 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nalivaeva NN, Hardy J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Dynamics Impairment in Dexamethasone-Treated Neuronal Cells.
Abstract Dexamethasone is an approved steroid for clinical use to activate or suppress cytokines, chemokines, inflammatory enzymes and adhesion molecules. It enters the brain, by-passing the blood brain barrier, and acts through genomic mechanisms. High levels of dexamethasone are able to induce neuronal cell loss, reduce neurogenesis and cause neuronal dysfunction. The exact mechanisms of steroid, especially the dexamethasone contribute to neuronal damage remain unclear. Therefore, the present study explored the mitochondrial dynamics underlying dexamethasone-induced toxicity of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells....
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 19, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Suwanjang W, Wu KLH, Prachayasittikul S, Chetsawang B, Charngkaew K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Relationships Between Catecholamine Levels and Stress or Intelligence.
This study assessed stress, intelligence quotient (IQ), and catecholamine levels in 70 healthy subjects to elucidate associations between catecholamines and stress, and between catecholamines and IQ. Additionally, the associations of catecholamines with stress and IQ were analyzed according to hemispheric dominance using the Brain Preference Indicator (BPI). There were positive correlations between the NE/E ratio and the somatization of stress but negative correlations between the E/NE ratio and the somatization of stress among the total number of subjects. In the right-brain-dominant group, a high E/DA ratio was correlate...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 18, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jung YH, Jang JH, Lee D, Choi Y, Choi SH, Kang DH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

ECS Dynamism and Its Influence on Neuronal Excitability and Seizures.
Abstract Seizure activity is governed by changes in normal neuronal physiology that lead to a state of neuronal hyperexcitability and synchrony. There is a growing body of research and evidence suggesting that alterations in the volume fraction (α) of the brain's extracellular space (ECS) have the ability to prolong or even initiate seizures. These ictogenic effects likely occur due to the ECS volume being critically important in determining both the concentration of neuroactive substances contained within it, such as ions and neurotransmitters, and the effect of electric field-mediated interactions between ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - March 16, 2019 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Colbourn R, Naik A, Hrabetova S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research