Temporal and Site-Specific Changes in Central Neuroimmune Factors During Rapid Weight Gain After Ovariectomy in Rats.
Abstract Systemic inflammation is present in obesity and emerging evidence, primarily from studies using male rodents fed high-fat diets, suggests neuroimmune signaling also is involved. We investigated early changes in neuroimmune signaling during the weight gain that follows ovariectomy in rats. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats were given standard rat chow and terminated 5 days (baseline), 4 or 8 weeks after ovariectomy. Levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in plasma and periuterine adipose were not affected by ovariectomy. In contrast, compared to baseline levels, IL-...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 20, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Curtis KS, McCracken K, Espinosa E, Ong J, Buck DJ, Davis RL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Berberine Protects Secondary Injury in Mice with Traumatic Brain Injury Through Anti-oxidative and Anti-inflammatory Modulation.
Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the major causes of death and disability worldwide. Novel and effective therapy is needed to prevent the secondary spread of damage beyond the initial injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether berberine has a neuroprotective effect on secondary injury post-TBI, and to explore its potential mechanism in this protection. The mice were randomly divided into Sham-saline, TBI-saline and TBI-Berberine (50 mg/kg). TBI was induced by Feeney's weight-drop technique. Saline or berberine was administered via oral gavage starting 1 h post-TBI and continu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang SX, Qiu G, Cheng FR, Pei Z, Yang Z, Deng XH, Zhu JH, Chen L, Chen CC, Lin WF, Liu Y, Liu Z, Zhu FQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

A Ketogenic Diet Improves Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Bioenergetics via the PGC1 α-SIRT3-UCP2 Axis.
We examined the levels of mRNAs and proteins crucial for mitochondrial biogenesis and dynamics. We show that hippocampal pyramidal neurons in mutUNG1 mice, as well as cultured rat hippocampal neurons and human fibroblasts with H2O2 induced oxidative stress, improve markers of mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics and function when fed on a KD, and when exposed to the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate, respectively, by upregulating PGC1α, SIRT3 and UCP2, and (in cultured cells) increasing the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and the NAD+/NADH ratio. The mitochondrial level of UCP2 was significantly higher in the perikarya ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hasan-Olive MM, Lauritzen KH, Ali M, Rasmussen LJ, Storm-Mathisen J, Bergersen LH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

All Trans Retinoic Acid Attenuates Markers of Neuroinflammation in Rat Brain by Modulation of SIRT1 and NF κB.
All Trans Retinoic Acid Attenuates Markers of Neuroinflammation in Rat Brain by Modulation of SIRT1 and NFκB. Neurochem Res. 2018 Jul 18;: Authors: Priyanka SH, Syam Das S, Thushara AJ, Rauf AA, Indira M Abstract Alcohol abuse affects several neurological pathways and causes significant alterations in the brain. Abstention from alcohol causes only a marginal decrease in oxidative stress and neuro inflammation. Our previous studies had shown that an active metabolite of vitamin A, all trans retinoic acid (ATRA), ameliorates alcohol induced toxicity. Hence in the present study we investigated whet...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Priyanka SH, Syam Das S, Thushara AJ, Rauf AA, Indira M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

NCAM Mimetic Peptides: Potential Therapeutic Target for Neurological Disorders.
Abstract The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) plays a pivotal role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system via homophilic (NCAM-NCAM) and heterophilic (NCAM-other molecules) interactions. Many synthetic peptides have been engineered to mimic these interactions and induce NCAM-downstream signaling pathways. Such NCAM mimetics have displayed neuritogenic and neuroprotective properties, as well as synaptic modulation in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, they have been used successfully in preclinical studies to treat neurological disorders including stroke, traumatic brain injury and Alzheimer's di...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chu C, Gao Y, Lan X, Thomas A, Li S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Association of Induced Hyperhomocysteinemia with Alzheimer's Disease-Like Neurodegeneration in Rat Cortical Neurons After Global Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.
Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that results in massive hippocampal and neocortical neuronal loss leading to dementia and eventual death. The exact cause of Alzheimer's disease is not fully explored, although a number of risk factors have been recognized, including high plasma concentration of homocysteine (Hcy). Hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcy) is considered a strong, independent risk factor for stroke and dementia. However, the molecular background underlying these mechanisms linked with hHcy and ischemic stroke is not fully understood. Paper describes ra...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 12, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kovalska M, Tothova B, Kovalska L, Tatarkova Z, Kalenska D, Tomascova A, Adamkov M, Lehotsky J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Nitric Oxide Participates in the Brain Ischemic Tolerance Induced by Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia in the Hippocampal CA1 Subfield in Rats.
Abstract Previous studies have shown that intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IH) preconditioning protected neurons survival from brain ischemia. However, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. The present study explored the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the process by measuring the expression of NO synthase (NOS) and NO levels. Male Wistar rats (100) were randomly assigned into four groups: sham group, IH + sham group, ischemia group and IH + ischemia group. Rats for IH preconditioning were exposed to hypobaric hypoxia mimicking 5000 m high-altitude (PB = 404 mmHg, ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang YJ, Yuan YJ, Liu YX, Zhang MY, Zhang JG, Wang TC, Zhang LN, Hu YY, Li L, Xian XH, Qi J, Zhang M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of rTMS on Hippocampal Endocannabinoids and Depressive-like Behaviors in Adolescent Rats.
In this study, chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) was applied to 3-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats for 21 days. Then rTMS was performed for seven consecutive days, and the anti-depressive effects were evaluated by behavioral tests including the sucrose preference test (SPT), the forced swimming test (FST), and the novelty suppressed feeding test (NSF). Expression of hippocampal cannabinoid type I receptor (CB1R), 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and relative synthetase and degradative enzymes-diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) were also investigated. The behavioral parameters were also...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 9, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Fang G, Wang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Regulation of Glycogen Content in Astrocytes via Cav-1/PTEN/AKT/GSK-3 β Pathway by Three Anti-bipolar Drugs.
Regulation of Glycogen Content in Astrocytes via Cav-1/PTEN/AKT/GSK-3β Pathway by Three Anti-bipolar Drugs. Neurochem Res. 2018 Jul 02;: Authors: Jia S, Li B, Huang J, Verkhratsky A, Peng L Abstract Here we present the data indicating that chronic treatment with three antibipolar drugs, lithium, carbamazepine and valproic acid regulates Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signalling pathway and glycogen content in primary cultured astrocytes. All three drugs down-regulate gene expression of Caveoline 1 (Cav-1), decrease membrane content of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), increase activity of p...
Source: Neurochemical Research - July 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jia S, Li B, Huang J, Verkhratsky A, Peng L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

IL-35 is a Protective Immunomodulator in Brain Ischemic Injury in Mice.
In this study, we investigated the protective effects of IL-35 on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion mouse model. We determined that the expression of IL-35 was initially decreased and subsequently increased in I/R injury. Moreover, IL-35 (i.c.v.) pre- and posttreatment significantly reduced the infarct volume and improved neurological deficits after 45 min of ischemia and 24 h of reperfusion. Importantly, IL-35 treatment improved neurological function recovery, particularly in balance ability, at 14 days after treatment. Finally, our results showed that IL-35 tr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu C, Zhu H, Shen R, Feng Q, Zhou H, Zhao Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

ERK 1/2 Activation Mediates the Neuroprotective Effect of BpV(pic) in Focal Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.
This study suggests that the effect of bpV(pic) on ERK 1/2 signaling should be considered while using bpV(pic) as a PTEN inhibitor. PMID: 29882124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu R, Tang JC, Pan MX, Zhuang Y, Zhang Y, Liao HB, Zhao D, Lei Y, Lei RX, Wang S, Liu AC, Qin XP, Chen J, Zhang ZF, Wan Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effect of CeO2@PAA-LXW7 Against H2O2-Induced Cytotoxicity in NGF-Differentiated PC12 Cells.
In this study, LXW7, CeO2@PAA, and CeO2@PAA-LXW7 inhibit H2O2-induced oxidative stress by reducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulating Bax/Bcl-2, cleaved caspase-3 and mitochondrial cytochrome C (cyto C) in the apoptotic signaling pathways. We found that the levels of phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) increased significantly in H2O2-induced NGF-differentiated PC12 cells, whereas LXW7, CeO2@PAA, and CeO2@PAA-LXW7 suppressed the increase to different degrees. Among the abovementioned changes, the inhibitory effect of CeO...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jia J, Zhang T, Chi J, Liu X, Sun J, Xie Q, Peng S, Li C, Yi L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Irisin Peptide Protects Brain Against Ischemic Injury Through Reducing Apoptosis and Enhancing BDNF in a Rodent Model of Stroke.
Abstract Evidence has shown therapeutic potential of irisin in cerebral stroke. The present study aimed to assess the effects of recombinant irisin on the infarct size, neurological outcomes, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, apoptosis and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in a mouse model of stroke. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 45 min and followed reperfusion for 23 h in mice. Recombinant irisin was administrated at doses of 0.1, 0.5, 2.5, 7.5, and 15 µg/kg, intracerebroventricularly (ICV), on the MCAO...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Asadi Y, Gorjipour F, Behrouzifar S, Vakili A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Systemic Injections of Cannabidiol Enhance Acetylcholine Levels from Basal Forebrain in Rats.
This study is the first to show the effects of ACh levels in CBD-treated rats and suggests that the basal forebrain might be a site of action of CBD for wakefulness modulation. PMID: 29876791 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 6, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Murillo-Rodríguez E, Arankowsky-Sandoval G, Rocha NB, Peniche-Amante R, Veras AB, Machado S, Budde H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Correction to: Cathepsin C Aggravates Neuroinflammation Involved in Disturbances of Behaviour and Neurochemistry in Acute and Chronic Stress-Induced Murine Model of Depression.
Abstract The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. PMID: 29868982 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Y, Fan K, Liu Y, Liu G, Yang X, Ma J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lead Neurotoxicity on Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line SH-SY5Y is Mediated via Transcription Factor EGR1/Zif268 Induced Disrupted in Scherophernia-1 Activation.
Abstract Lead (Pb2+) is a well-known type of neurotoxin and chronic exposure to Pb2+ induces cognition dysfunction. In this work, the potential role of early growth response gene 1 (EGR1) in the linkage of Pb2+ exposure and disrupted in scherophernia-1 (DISC1) activity was investigated. Human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y was subjected to different concentrations of lead acetate (PbAc) to determine the effect of Pb2+ exposure on the cell viability, apoptosis, and activity of EGR1 and DISC1. Then the expression of EGR1 in SH-SY5Y cells was knocked down with specific siRNA to assess the function of EGR1 in Pb2+ in...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: You Y, Peng B, Ben S, Hou W, Sun L, Jiang W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mechanisms Underlying Early-Stage Changes in Visual Performance and Retina Function After Experimental Induction of Sustained Dyslipidemia.
Abstract Visual and retinal function was measured in a mouse model of chemically induced, sustained dyslipidemia to determine the contribution of dyslipidemia to the pathogenesis of retinopathy in the context of metabolic syndrome. Fifteen male C57BL/6Crl mice were divided into three groups. Poloxamer 407 (P-407), 14.5% w/w was delivered at a rate of 6 µl/day by implanted osmotic mini-pumps either subcutaneously (P-407 SQ) or intraperitoneally (P-407 IP) to P-407-treated mice, whereas saline was administered at the same rate to control mice using only the subcutaneous route of administration. Total chol...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 2, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Montgomery CL, Johnson HM, Johnston TP, Koulen P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astrocytes and the Renin Angiotensin System: Relevance in Disease Pathogenesis.
Abstract The presence of a brain renin angiotensin system (RAS) is well documented. An overactive brain RAS contributes to the development and progression of cardiovascular and renal disorders among other conditions. In hypertension, an augmented brain RAS leads to an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity. In addition, impaired baroreceptor reflex function, increased vasopressin activity and neuroinflammation are important contributors as well. The relevance of angiotensins in central and peripheral systems, such as neurons and vascular smooth muscle cells, in cardiovascular disease pathogenesis is fairl...
Source: Neurochemical Research - June 1, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: O'Connor AT, Clark MA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Honokiol Exerts Antidepressant Effects in Rats Exposed to Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress by Regulating Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Level and Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity.
Abstract Honokiol (HNK), the main active component of Magnolia officinalis, has shown a variety of pharmacological activities. In the present study, we measured the antidepressant-like effects of HNK in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and explored its possible mechanisms. The antidepressant-like effects of HNK were assessed in rats by an open field test (OFT), sucrose preference test (SPT) and forced swimming test (FST). Then, serum levels of corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT) and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang C, Gan D, Wu J, Liao M, Liao X, Ai W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective Effects of Guanosine Administration on In Vivo Cortical Focal Ischemia in Female and Male Wistar Rats.
Abstract Guanosine (GUO) has neuroprotective effects in experimental models of brain diseases involving glutamatergic excitotoxicity in male animals; however, its effects in female animals are poorly understood. Thus, we investigated the influence of gender and GUO treatment in adult male and female Wistar rats submitted to focal permanent cerebral ischemia in the motor cortex brain. Female rats were subdivided into non-estrogenic and estrogenic phase groups by estrous cycle verification. Immediately after surgeries, the ischemic animals were treated with GUO or a saline solution. Open field and elevated plus maze...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Teixeira LV, Almeida RF, Rohden F, Martins LAM, Spritzer PM, de Souza DOG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Increased Superoxide Dismutase 2 by Allopregnanolone Ameliorates ROS-Mediated Neuronal Death in Mice with Pilocarpine-Induced Status Epilepticus.
Abstract Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), along with dysfunction of the antioxidant defense system, such as that involving superoxide dismutase (SOD), may play a major role in neuronal death following status epilepticus (SE). Neurosteroids, which are allosteric modulators of the GABAA receptor in cerebral metabolism, have been suggested as being neuroprotective in various animal models; however, their effect to preventing ROS has not been examined. Herein, we investigate the neuroprotective role of allopregnanolone, the prototypical neurosteroid in the brain, in relation to the ROS-mediated n...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 31, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cho I, Kim WJ, Kim HW, Heo K, Lee BI, Cho YJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Combined Strategy of Radioactive 125I Seeds and Salinomycin for Enhanced Glioma Chemo-radiotherapy: Evidences for ROS-Mediated Apoptosis and Signaling Crosstalk.
Abstract Radioactive 125I seeds-based radiotherapy has achieved great success in treatment of human cancers. However, radioresistance and severe side effects badly limited its clinic application. Recently, chemoradiotherapy as a superior strategy has been rapidly developed and widely used in clinic. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Herein, in the present study, a combined chemoradiation model of 125I seeds and salinomycin (SAL) in vitro and in vivo was designed, and the enhanced anticancer efficiency and mechanism were also evaluated in human glioma. The results showed that combined treatment of ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu C, Wang L, Qiu H, Dong Q, Feng Y, Li D, Li C, Fan C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

All-Trans Retinoic Acid Ameliorates the Early Experimental Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats by Inhibiting the Loss of the Blood-Brain Barrier via the JNK/P38MAPK Signaling Pathway.
Abstract All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) influences the outcomes of cerebral ischemic reperfusion (CIR) injury, but the mechanism remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of ATRA on loss of the blood brain barrier (BBB) following CIR and to explore the possible mechanisms. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed on male SD rats to construct an in vivo CIR model. Neurological deficits, BBB permeability, brain edema, MRI and JNK/P38 MAPK proteins were detected at 24 h following CIR. We demonstrated that ATRA pretreatment could alleviate CIR-induced neurological deficit...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li M, Tian X, An R, Yang M, Zhang Q, Xiang F, Liu H, Wang Y, Xu L, Dong Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

NLRP3 Inflammasome Is Involved in Q-VD-OPH Induced Necroptosis Following Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.
In this study, we determined the optimal dose of Q-VD-OPH, which induces necroptosis in rats by the middle cerebral artery occlusion, followed by reperfusion. Furthermore, we report that the NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in necroptosis, with levels of NLRP3 inflammasome proteins as well as inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, being elevated. We also demonstrated that NLRP3 was not only expressed in microglia and vascular endothelial cell, but also in neurons when necroptosis is induced with Q-VD-OPH. Inhibition of NLRP3 by glyburide strongly suppressed the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome proteins and IL-1β, a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Teng X, Chen W, Liu Z, Feng T, Li H, Ding S, Chen Y, Zhang Y, Tang X, Geng D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

A Docosahexaenoic Acid-Derived Pro-resolving Agent, Maresin 1, Protects Motor Neuron Cells Death.
Abstract Maresin 1 is a novel pro-resolving mediator derived from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with potent anti-inflammation effects against several animal models, including brain ischemia, sepsis, and lung fibrosis. However, its effect against motor neuron cell death is still not investigated. Therefore, we investigated the effects of maresin 1 on several stress-induced motor neuron cell death. Maresin 1 suppressed combinatorial stress which was evoked by superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1)G93A and serum-free, -induced motor neuron cells death in a concentration-dependent manner, and had a stronger neuroprotective effec...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 24, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ohuchi K, Ono Y, Joho M, Tsuruma K, Ogami S, Yamane S, Funato M, Kaneko H, Nakamura S, Hara H, Shimazawa M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mefenamic Acid Attenuates Chronic Alcohol Induced Cognitive Impairment in Zebrafish: Possible Role of Cholinergic Pathway.
Abstract Based on the scientific evidence supporting the neuroinflammatory response contributes the cognitive impairment associated with chronic alcoholism and the neuroprotective actions of mefenamic acid with reversal of memory loss and brain inflammation in mice, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of mefenamic acid against chronic alcohol induced cognitive impairment in zebrafish model. Zebrafish were grouped and subjected to normal behavioral analysis in light-dark chamber for 10 days. The preference to dark compartment was noted in zebrafish. Zebrafish were grouped and exposed to escalat...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rajesh V, Mridhulmohan M, Jayaseelan S, Sivakumar P, Ganesan V Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products (RAGE) Blockade Do Damage to Neuronal Survival via Disrupting Wnt/ β-Catenin Signaling in Spinal Cord Injury.
Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-Products (RAGE) Blockade Do Damage to Neuronal Survival via Disrupting Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling in Spinal Cord Injury. Neurochem Res. 2018 May 22;: Authors: Wang H, Zhao Z, Liu C, Guo Z, Yuan Y, Zhao H, Zhou Z, Mei X Abstract Wnt signaling are recognized key factors in neuronal development, cell proliferation and axonal guidance. However, RAGE effect on wnt signaling after spinal cord injury (SCI) are poorly understood. Our study aims to explore RAGE blockade effect on wnt signaling after SCI. We constructed Allen SCI model and micro-injected with RAGE neutraliz...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang H, Zhao Z, Liu C, Guo Z, Yuan Y, Zhao H, Zhou Z, Mei X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neuritin Attenuates Neuronal Apoptosis Mediated by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress In Vitro.
In conclusion, the neuroprotection function of neuritin may be involved in ERS pathways. PMID: 29790068 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun X, Dai L, Zhang H, He X, Hou F, He W, Tang S, Zhao D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Antidepressant Effects of the Ginsenoside Metabolite Compound K, Assessed by Behavioral Despair Test and Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress Model.
Abstract Depression is a major social and health problem worldwide. Compound K (CK), an intestinal metabolite of panaxadiol ginsenosides, has been demonstrated to possess significant pharmacological effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Here, we set up this study to investigate the antidepressant effect of CK, and to explore the potential mechanisms underlying this activity. The behavioral despair model and chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model were established in mice or rats, respectively. Forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and locomotor activity were performed in mice, while ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 22, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Song W, Guo Y, Jiang S, Wei L, Liu Z, Wang X, Su Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Extract of Leonurus sibiricus Transgenic Roots with AtPAP1 Transcriptional Factor Induces Apoptosis via DNA Damage and Down Regulation of Selected Epigenetic Factors in Human Cancer Cells.
Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the anticancer potential of Leonurus sibiricus extract derived from in vitro transgenic roots transformed by Agrobacetrium rhizogenes with AtPAP1 transcriptional factor, and that of transformed roots without construct, on grade IV human glioma cells and the U87MG cell line, and attempt to characterize the mechanism involved in this process. The anticancer effect induced by the tested extracts was associated with DNA damage, PARP cleavage/increased H2A.X histone levels and UHRF-1/DNMT1 down-regulation of mRNA levels. Additionally, we demonstrated differences in the co...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 21, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sitarek P, Kowalczyk T, Santangelo S, Białas AJ, Toma M, Wieczfinska J, Śliwiński T, Skała E Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Transgenic Mice Carrying GLUD2 as a Tool for Studying the Expressional and the Functional Adaptation of this Positive Selected Gene in Human Brain Evolution.
Abstract Human evolution is characterized by brain expansion and up-regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism and synaptic transmission, including the glutamate signaling pathway. Glutamate is the excitatory transmitter of neural circuits sub-serving cognitive functions, with glutamate-modulation of synaptic plasticity being central to learning and memory. GLUD2 is a novel positively-selected human gene involved in glutamatergic transmission and energy metabolism that underwent rapid evolutionary adaptation concomitantly with prefrontal cortex enlargement. Two evolutionary replacements (Gly456Ala and Arg44...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Plaitakis A, Kotzamani D, Petraki Z, Delidaki M, Rinotas V, Zaganas I, Douni E, Sidiropoulou K, Spanaki C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Expression Alteration of BC1 RNA and its Interaction with Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor eIF4A Post-Status Epilepticus.
Abstract Abnormal dendritic sprouting and synaptic remodelling are important pathological features of temporal lobe epilepsy. BC1 RNA is a translation repressor involved in the regulation of the dendritic protein synthesis and mRNA transport, which is essential for dendritic development and plasticity. The expression alteration of BC1 RNA in the pilocarpine induced epilepsy model remains unknown. It is unclear if the interactions between BC1 RNA and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (eIF4A) exists in this model. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression changes of BC1 RNA and its interactions with ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zeng X, Zong W, Gao Q, Chen S, Chen L, Zeng G, Huang W, Li Z, Zeng C, Xie Y, Li X, Xiao B, Dongsheng-Ouyang, Hu K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cellular and Subcellular Localization of Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone GRP78 Following Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.
Abstract The 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), a chaperone protein located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), has been reported to have neuroprotective effects in the injured central nervous system. Our aim was to examine the expression profiles and subcellular distributions of GRP78 and its association with the neuroglial reaction in the rat striatum after transient, focal cerebral ischemia. In sham-operated rats, constitutive, specific immunoreactivity for GRP78 was almost exclusively localized to the rough ER of striatal neurons, with none in the resting, ramified microglia or astrocytes. At 1 day ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 17, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jin X, Kim DK, Riew TR, Kim HL, Lee MY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

ALDH2 Protects Against Ischemic Stroke in Rats by Facilitating 4-HNE Clearance and AQP4 Down-Regulation.
In conclusion, increasing ALDH2 activity can improve brain edema, infarct volumes, and reduce neurological impairment in a rat IS model. The therapeutic benefits of ALDH2 are related to 4-HNE clearance and AQP4 down-regulation. PMID: 29767275 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 16, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li Y, Liu SL, Qi SH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

G βγ SNARE Interactions and Their Behavioral Effects.
Gβγ SNARE Interactions and Their Behavioral Effects. Neurochem Res. 2018 May 11;: Authors: Alford S, Hamm H, Rodriguez S, Zurawski Z Abstract Presynaptic terminals possess interlocking molecular mechanisms that control exocytosis. An example of such complexity is the modulation of release by presynaptic G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). GPCR ubiquity at synapses-GPCRs are present at every studied presynaptic terminal-underlies their critical importance in synaptic function. GPCRs mediate presynaptic modulation by mechanisms including via classical Gα effectors, but membrane-delimit...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Alford S, Hamm H, Rodriguez S, Zurawski Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effects of Chronic Amitriptyline on Zebrafish Behavior and Monoamine Neurochemistry.
Abstract Amitriptyline is a commonly used tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) inhibiting serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. The exact CNS action of TCAs remains poorly understood, necessitating new screening approaches and novel model organisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly emerging as a promising tool for pharmacological research of antidepressants, including amitriptyline. Here, we examine the effects of chronic 2-week exposure to 10 and 50 μg/L amitriptyline on zebrafish behavior and monoamine neurotransmitters. Overall, the drug at 50 μg/L evoked pronounced anxiolytic-like effec...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Meshalkina DA, Kysil EV, Antonova KA, Demin KA, Kolesnikova TO, Khatsko SL, Gainetdinov RR, Alekseeva PA, Kalueff AV Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Locomotor Treadmill Training Promotes Soleus Trophism by Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Pathway in Paraplegic Rats.
This study investigated the effects of locomotor treadmill training on muscle trophism mediated by protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K) in paraplegic rats. Adult female Wistar rats underwent an incomplete thoracic SCI induced by compression using an aneurysm clip. After 7 days, injured animals started a 3-week locomotor treadmill training with body weight-support and manual step help. Soleus trophism was measured by muscle weight and transverse myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot analysis were...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: do Espírito Santo CC, Secco DD, Meireles A, de Freitas GR, Bobinski F, Cunha MP, Rodrigues ALS, Swarowsky A, Santos ARS, Ilha J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Notch Signaling Regulates Microglial Activation and Inflammatory Reactions in a Rat Model of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.
This study aimed to investigate whether Notch signaling is involved in microglial activation and subsequent inflammation-related neuronal injury during the process of epileptogenesis in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy. By using western blotting, real-time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence labeling, we found that the expression of Notch signaling increased after status epilepticus and that a γ-secretase inhibitor could significantly inhibit the upregulation of Notch signaling, the activation of microglia, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines. Likewise, the neuronal apoptosis a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 8, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu L, Li Y, Yu M, Yang F, Tu M, Xu H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of Acid Sensing Ion Channel 3 Aggravates Seizures by Regulating NMDAR Function.
Abstract The existing data about whether acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) are proconvulsant or anticonvulsant are controversial. Particularly, acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is the most sensitive to extracellular pH and has the characteristic ability to generate a biphasic current, but few studies have focused on the role of ASIC3 in seizure. Here we found ASIC3 expression was increased in the hippocampus of pilocarpine induced seizure rats, as well as in hippocampal neuronal cultures undergoing epileptiform discharge elicited by Mg2+-free media. Furthermore, ASIC3 blockade by the selective inhibitor APETx2 s...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cao Q, Xiao ZM, Wang X, Weng C, Ding M, Zhu F, Lu ZN Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

MiR-183-5p Alleviates Chronic Constriction Injury-Induced Neuropathic Pain Through Inhibition of TREK-1.
In this study, we investigated the role of miR-183, a same cluster member of microRNA with miR-96, in neuropathic pain and its potential mechanisms. We found that the expression level of miR-183-5p in dorsal root ganglion was decreased with the development of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction sciatic nerve injury (CCI). By contrast, the TREK-1, a K+ channel, was increased. Further investigation identified that intrathecal injection of miR-183-5p mimic efficiently ameliorated neuropathic pain and inhibited the expression of TREK-1, a predicted target gene of miR-183-5p. Luciferase assays confirmed the binding...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shi DN, Yuan YT, Ye D, Kang LM, Wen J, Chen HP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

BDNF Reduces eEF2 Phosphorylation and Enhances Novel Protein Synthesis in the Growth Cones of Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons.
In this study, we performed immunocytochemistry together with atomic force microscopy to investigate the localization of ribosomal proteins in the growth cones of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. The immunoreactivity of ribosomal protein P0/1/2 and S6, and novel protein synthesis were observed in the central, sterically bulky region of growth cones. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) reduced the eEF2 phosphorylation, indicating its activation, and enhanced protein synthesis within 30 min. The effects of BDNF were completely inhibited by rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Thes...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 7, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Hoshi O, Sugizaki A, Cho Y, Takei N Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Metformin Protects Against Spinal Cord Injury by Regulating Autophagy via the mTOR Signaling Pathway.
In this study, we determined that motor function, assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor assessment scale, was significantly higher in rats treated with metformin following injury. Nissl staining revealed that metformin also increased the number of surviving neurons in the spinal cord lesion. Western blot and immunofluorescent analysis revealed that mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and P70S6 kinase (P70S6K) decreased, while the expression of autophagy markers increased and apoptosis markers declined in animals treated with metformin following SCI. Taken together, these findings suggest that me...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 4, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Guo Y, Wang F, Li H, Liang H, Li Y, Gao Z, He X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Peripheral Versus Central Antinociception of a Novel Opioid Agonist: Acute Inflammatory Pain in Rats.
ba P, Schäfer M, Fürst S, Al-Khrasani M Abstract Opioid analgesics devoid of central side effects are unmet medical need in the treatment of acute pain (e.g. post-operative pain). Recently, we have reported on 14-O-methylmorphine-6-O-sulfate (14-O-MeM6SU), a novel opioid agonist of high efficacy producing peripheral antinociception in subchronic inflammatory pain in certain doses. The present study focused on the antinociceptive effect of 14-O-MeM6SU compared to morphine in formalin test of an early/acute (Phase I) and late/tonic (Phase II) pain phases. Subcutaneous 14-O-MeM6SU (253-1012 nmol/kg) an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 3, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Balogh M, Zádori ZS, Lázár B, Karádi D, László S, Mousa SA, Hosztafi S, Zádor F, Riba P, Schäfer M, Fürst S, Al-Khrasani M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sufentanil Alleviates Intrathecal Lidocaine Induced Prolonged Sensory and Motor Impairments but not the Spinal Histological Injury in Rats.
Abstract Spinal anesthesia has evolved into a safe and widely accepted method of anesthesia. Synergy between opioids and local anesthetics further increases the quality of analgesia and decreases the dose requirement of both local anesthetics and opioids. However, over the last decades compelling evidence suggested that lidocaine could be more neurotoxic than other commonly used local anesthetics. Whether opioids can modify the local anesthetics-induced neurotoxicity is largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the effect of sufentanil on the neurotoxicity induced by intrathecal lidocaine in a rat model. Our data ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 27, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Z, Chen Y, Wang E, Wu L, Wang R, Song Z, Weng Y, Sun Z, Guo Q, Li Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Obituary : Leif Hertz 1930-2018.
Authors: PMID: 29700723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 26, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Notoginsenoside R1 via Regulation of the PI3K-Akt-mTOR/JNK Pathway in Neonatal Cerebral Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury.
In this study, oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) in primary cortical neurons and unilateral ligation of the common carotid artery (CCL) in 7-day-old postnatal Sprague Dawley (SD) rats followed by exposure to a hypoxic environment were used to mimic an HIBD episode. We assessed the efficacy of NGR1 by measuring neuronal damage with MTT assay and assessed brain injury by TTC staining and brain water content detection 24-48 h after OGD/HIE. Simultaneously, we measured the long-term neurophysiological effects using the beam walking test (5 weeks after HI) and Morris water maze test 5-6 weeks after HI. ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 25, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tu L, Wang Y, Chen D, Xiang P, Shen J, Li Y, Wang S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Up-Regulation of Cdc37 Contributes to Schwann Cell Proliferation and Migration After Sciatic Nerve Crush.
In conclusion, we demonstrated that the way Cdc37 contributed to SC proliferation is likely via activating kinase signaling pathways of Raf-ERK and PI3K/AKT, and CDC37 was also involved in SC migration after SNC. PMID: 29687307 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Y, Wang S, Ding D, Yu Z, Sun W, Wang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Exposure to Far Infrared Ray Protects Methamphetamine-Induced Behavioral Sensitization in Glutathione Peroxidase-1 Knockout Mice via Attenuating Mitochondrial Burdens and Dopamine D1 Receptor Activation.
Abstract Evidence indicates that stress conditions might lead to drug dependence. Recently, we have demonstrated that exposure to far infrared ray (FIR) attenuates acute restraint stress via induction of glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) gene. We investigated whether FIR affects methamphetamine (MA)-induced behavioral sensitization and whether FIR-mediated pharmacological activity requires interaction between dopamine receptor and GPx-1 gene. We observed that MA treatment significantly increased GPx-1 expression in the striatum of wild-type (WT) mice. Interestingly, exposure to FIR potentiated MA-induced increase i...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 23, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mai HN, Sharma N, Shin EJ, Nguyen BT, Jeong JH, Jang CG, Cho EH, Nah SY, Kim NH, Nabeshima T, Kim HC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Histone Deacetylase 2 Inhibitor CAY10683 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide Induced Neuroinflammation Through Attenuating TLR4/NF- κB Signaling Pathway.
Histone Deacetylase 2 Inhibitor CAY10683 Alleviates Lipopolysaccharide Induced Neuroinflammation Through Attenuating TLR4/NF-κB Signaling Pathway. Neurochem Res. 2018 Apr 19;: Authors: Jiao FZ, Wang Y, Zhang HY, Zhang WB, Wang LW, Gong ZJ Abstract Neuroinflammation involves in the progression of many central nervous system diseases. Several studies have shown that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors modulated inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated microglia. While, the mechanism is still unclear. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of HDAC2 inhibitor C...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 19, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jiao FZ, Wang Y, Zhang HY, Zhang WB, Wang LW, Gong ZJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Gallic Acid Protects 6-OHDA Induced Neurotoxicity by Attenuating Oxidative Stress in Human Dopaminergic Cell Line.
In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the neuroprotective effects of gallic acid on 6-OHDA induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic cells, SH-SY5Y. Our results showed that 6-OHDA induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells was suppressed by pre-treatment with gallic acid. The percentage of live cells (90%) was high in the pre-treatment of gallic acid when compared with 6-OHDA alone treated cell line. Moreover, gallic acid was very effective in attenuating the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, elevated levels of intracellular ROS and apoptotic cell death induced by 6-OHDA. Gallic acid also lowered...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 18, 2018 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chandrasekhar Y, Phani Kumar G, Ramya EM, Anilakumar KR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research