Amphotericin B Increases Transglutaminase 2 Expression Associated with Upregulation of Endocytotic Activity in Mouse Microglial Cell Line BV-2.
Abstract Amphotericin B (AmB), a polyene antibiotic, is reported to cause the microglial activation to induce nitric oxide (NO) production and proinflammatory cytokines expression, and change neurotrophic factors expression in cultured microglia (Motoyoshi et al. in Neurochem Int 52:1290-1296, 2008). On the other hand, tissue-type transglutaminase (TG2) is involved in connection to phagocytes with apoptotic cells. Engulfment of neurons by activated microglia is thought to cause neurodegenerative diseases but detail is unclear, and involvement of TG2 in phagocytosis has been reported in our previous study using lip...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kawabe K, Takano K, Moriyama M, Nakamura Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

DL-3-n-Butylphthalide (NBP) Provides Neuroprotection in the Mice Models After Traumatic Brain Injury via Nrf2-ARE Signaling Pathway.
In conclusion, NBP administration may increase the activities of antioxidant enzymes and attenuate brain injury in a TBI model, potentially via the mediation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway. PMID: 28214984 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Z, Wang H, Shi X, Li L, Zhou M, Ding H, Yang Y, Li X, Ding K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Melatonin Alleviates the Epilepsy-Associated Impairments in Hippocampal LTP and Spatial Learning Through Rescue of Surface GluR2 Expression at Hippocampal CA1 Synapses.
In this study, we investigated whether melatonin could reverse cognitive dysfunction in lithium-pilocarpine treated rats. Chronic treatment with melatonin (8 mg/kg daily for 15 days) after induction of status epilepticus significantly alleviated seizure severity, reduced neuronal death in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, improved spatial learning (as measured by the Morris water maze test), and reversed LTP impairments, compared to vehicle treatment. Furthermore, we found that melatonin rescued the decreased surface levels of GluR2 in the CA1 region observed in epilepsy, which might be the underlying mechanism of th...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ma Y, Sun X, Li J, Jia R, Yuan F, Wei D, Jiang W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astrocyte Sodium Signalling and Panglial Spread of Sodium Signals in Brain White Matter.
Abstract In brain grey matter, excitatory synaptic transmission activates glutamate uptake into astrocytes, inducing sodium signals which propagate into neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions. These sodium signals have been suggested to serve an important role in neuro-metabolic coupling. So far, it is unknown if astrocytes in white matter-that is in brain regions devoid of synapses-are also able to undergo such intra- and intercellular sodium signalling. In the present study, we have addressed this question by performing quantitative sodium imaging in acute tissue slices of mouse corpus callosum. Focal appl...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Moshrefi-Ravasdjani B, Hammel EL, Kafitz KW, Rose CR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Severe Convulsions and Dysmyelination in Both Jimpy and Cx32/47 (-/-) Mice may Associate Astrocytic L-Channel Function with Myelination and Oligodendrocytic Connexins with Internodal Kv Channels.
Abstract The Jimpy mouse illustrates the importance of interactions between astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. It has a mutation in Plp coding for proteolipid protein and DM20. Its behavior is normal at birth but from the age of ~2 weeks it shows severe convulsions associated with oligodendrocyte/myelination deficits and early death. A normally occurring increase in oxygen consumption by highly elevated K(+) concentrations is absent in Jimpy brain slices and cultured astrocytes, reflecting that Plp at early embryonic stages affects common precursors as also shown by the ability of conditioned medium from normal...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chaban YH, Chen Y, Hertz E, Hertz L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effects of IGF-1 on TNF- α-Treated DRG Neurons by Modulating ATF3 and GAP-43 Expression via PI3K/Akt/S6K Signaling Pathway.
This study is helpful for interpretation of the association of IGF-1 with TNF-α and the neurobiological effects elicited by interaction of IGF-1 and TNF-α in neurological disorders. PMID: 28210955 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang L, Yue Y, Ouyang M, Liu H, Li Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mdivi-1 Alleviates Early Brain Injury After Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats, Possibly via Inhibition of Drp1-Activated Mitochondrial Fission and Oxidative Stress.
Abstract Mdivi-1 is a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial fission protein, Drp1, and can penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Previous studies have shown that Mdivi-1 improves neurological outcomes after ischemia, seizures and trauma but it remains unclear whether Mdivi-1 can attenuate early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We thus investigated the therapeutic effect of Mdivi-1 on early brain injury following SAH. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham; SAH; SAH + vehicle; and SAH + Mdivi-1. The SAH model was induced by standard intravascular perforation and a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wu P, Li Y, Zhu S, Wang C, Dai J, Zhang G, Zheng B, Xu S, Wang L, Zhang T, Zhou P, Zhang JH, Shi H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Forced Treadmill Exercise Prevents Spatial Memory Deficits in Aged Rats Probably Through the Activation of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the Hippocampus.
Abstract Regular physical activity has shown to improve the quality of life and to prevent age-related memory deficits. Memory processing requires proper regulation of several enzymes such as sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which have a pivotal role in neuronal transmission. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3 months), mature (6 months) and aged (22 months) Wistar rats, on: (a) cognitive function, as assessed in the Water maze spatial tasks; (b) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vanzella C, Sanches EF, Odorcyk FK, Nicola F, Kolling J, Longoni A, Dos Santos TM, Wyse AT, Netto CA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Does Global Astrocytic Calcium Signaling Participate in Awake Brain State Transitions and Neuronal Circuit Function?
Abstract We continuously need to adapt to changing conditions within our surrounding environment, and our brain needs to quickly shift between resting and working activity states in order to allow appropriate behaviors. These global state shifts are intimately linked to the brain-wide release of the neuromodulators, noradrenaline and acetylcholine. Astrocytes have emerged as a new player participating in the regulation of brain activity, and have recently been implicated in brain state shifts. Astrocytes display global Ca(2+) signaling in response to activation of the noradrenergic system, but whether astrocytic C...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 16, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kjaerby C, Rasmussen R, Andersen M, Nedergaard M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Steve White: A Hero for Patients with Epilepsy.
PMID: 28197853 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Axelrod S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mitochondrial Complex I Activity is Conditioned by Supercomplex I-III2-IV Assembly in Brain Cells: Relevance for Parkinson's Disease.
os JP Abstract The assembly of complex I (CI) with complexes III (CIII) and IV (CIV) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) to configure I-III- or I-III-IV-containing supercomplexes (SCs) regulates mitochondrial energy efficiency and reactive oxygen species (mROS) production. However, whether the occurrence of SCs impacts on CI specific activity remains unknown to our knowledge. To investigate this issue, here we determined CI activity in primary neurons and astrocytes, cultured under identical antioxidants-free medium, from two mouse strains (C57Bl/6 and CBA) and Wistar rat, i.e. three rodent species with o...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 14, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lopez-Fabuel I, Resch-Beusher M, Carabias-Carrasco M, Almeida A, Bolaños JP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Delineation of the Role of Astroglial GABA Transporters in Seizure Control.
Abstract Studies of GABA transport in neurons and astrocytes have provided evidence that termination of GABA as neurotransmitter is brought about primarily by active transport into the presynaptic, GABAergic nerve endings. There is, however, a considerable transport capacity in the astrocytes surrounding the synaptic terminals, a transport which may limit the availability of transmitter GABA leading to a higher probability of seizure activity governed by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Based on this it was hypothesized that selective inhibition of astrocytic GABA transport might prevent...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schousboe A, Madsen KK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Water-Soluble Coenzyme Q10 Reduces Rotenone-Induced Mitochondrial Fission.
The objectives of this study were to identify the effects of rotenone, a drug known to mimic the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, on mitochondrial dynamics. Additionally, this study explored the protective effects of water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) against rotenone-induced cytotoxicity in murine neuronal HT22 cells. Our results demonstrate that rotenone elevates protein expression of mitochondrial fission markers, Drp1 and Fis1, and causes an increase in mitochondrial fragmentation as evidenced through mitochondrial staining and morphological analysis. Water-soluble CoQ10 prevented mitochondrial dynamic imbalance...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li HN, Zimmerman M, Milledge GZ, Hou XL, Cheng J, Wang ZH, Li PA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Histaminergic H1 and H2 Receptors Mediate the Effects of Propofol on the Noradrenalin-Inhibited Neurons in Rat Ventrolateral Preoptic Nucleus.
Abstract The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus is a sleep-promoting nucleus located in the basal forebrain. A commonly used intravenous anesthetic, propofol, had been reported to induce sleep spindles and augment the firing rate of neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, but the underlining mechanism is yet to be known. By using patch clamp recording on neuron in acute brain slice, present study tested if histaminergic H1 and H2 receptors play a role in the effect of propofol on the noradrenalin-inhibited neurons in ventrolateral preoptic nucleus. We found that the firing rate of noradrenalin-inhibited neurons wer...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Y, Zhang Y, Qian K, Zhang L, Yu T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neurotrophic Effect of Asiatic acid, a Triterpene of Centella asiatica Against Chronic 1-Methyl 4-Phenyl 1, 2, 3, 6-Tetrahydropyridine Hydrochloride/Probenecid Mouse Model of Parkinson's disease: The Role of MAPK, PI3K-Akt-GSK3 β and mTOR Signalling Pathways.
Neurotrophic Effect of Asiatic acid, a Triterpene of Centella asiatica Against Chronic 1-Methyl 4-Phenyl 1, 2, 3, 6-Tetrahydropyridine Hydrochloride/Probenecid Mouse Model of Parkinson's disease: The Role of MAPK, PI3K-Akt-GSK3β and mTOR Signalling Pathways. Neurochem Res. 2017 Feb 08;: Authors: Nataraj J, Manivasagam T, Justin Thenmozhi A, Essa MM Abstract Regulation of various signalling (Ras-MAPK, PI3K and AKT) pathways by augmented activity of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) could prevent or halt the progress of dopaminergic loss in Parkinson's disease (PD). Various in vitro and in vivo experimen...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nataraj J, Manivasagam T, Justin Thenmozhi A, Essa MM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Interactions of Mitochondria/Metabolism and Calcium Regulation in Alzheimer's Disease: A Calcinist Point of View.
Abstract Decades of research suggest that alterations in calcium are central to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Highly reproducible changes in calcium dynamics occur in cells from patients with both genetic and non-genetic forms of AD relative to controls. The most robust change is an exaggerated release of calcium from internal stores. Detailed analysis of these changes in animal and cell models of the AD-causing presenilin mutations reveal robust changes in ryanodine receptors, inositol tris-phosphate receptors, calcium leak channels and store activated calcium entry. Similar anomalies in calciu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 8, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gibson GE, Thakkar A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

HMGB1-TLR4 Axis Plays a Regulatory Role in the Pathogenesis of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Immature Rat Model and Children via the p38MAPK Signaling Pathway.
In this study, we first measured the dynamic expression patterns of HMGB1 and TLR4 in the hippocampi of a rat model and in children with MTLE, as well as the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β. In addition, HMGB1 was added to mimic the process of inflammatory response in neurons. Neuronal somatic size and dendritic length were measured by immunohistochemistry and digital imaging. The results showed that the expression of HMGB1 and TLR4 as well as the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were higher in the three stages of MTLE development in the rat model and in the children with MTLE. HMGB1 increased the levels of TNF-&a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 7, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang W, Li J, Shang Y, Zhao L, Wang M, Shi J, Li S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lens Biology is a Dimension of Neurobiology.
Abstract There is a second cell type in your body that expresses scores of the most intensively studied genes in neuroscience and exclusively shares critical interdependent modes of molecular regulation that include a network first described as responsible for the basic bifurcation of neuronal from non-neuronal gene expression in vertebrates. Neurons and lens cells are among the most ancient animal cell types, yet neurons have an exclusive status also attributed to roles underlying sensation, movement, and cognition. However, this status is challenged by cells in the lens of the eye. The extent and detail of inter...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 4, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Frederikse P, Kasinathan C Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

An Overview of the Mechanisms of Abnormal GABAergic Interneuronal Cortical Migration Associated with Prenatal Ethanol Exposure.
Abstract GABAergic Interneuronal migration constitutes an essential process during corticogenesis. Derived from progenitor cells located in the proliferative zones of the ventral telencephalon, newly generated GABAergic Interneuron migrate to their cortical destinations. Cortical dysfunction associated with defects in neuronal migration results in severe developmental consequences. There is growing evidence linking prenatal ethanol exposure to abnormal GABAergic interneuronal migration and subsequent cortical dysfunction. Investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms behind disrupted GABAergic interneuronal migr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Shenoda BB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Reversal of TRESK Downregulation Alleviates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting Activation of Gliocytes in the Spinal Cord.
In conclusion, TRESK contributes to the pathogenesis of NP by upregulation of synaptic transmission and activation of gliocytes. PMID: 28160200 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 3, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhou J, Chen H, Yang C, Zhong J, He W, Xiong Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Apobec1 Promotes Neurotoxicity-Induced Dedifferentiation of M üller Glial Cells.
This study provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying dedifferentiation and proliferation of Müller cells in the mammalian retina. PMID: 28150227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - February 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xiao J, Li X, Chen L, Han X, Zhao W, Li L, Chen JG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Quercetin Improves Neurobehavioral Performance Through Restoration of Brain Antioxidant Status and Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Manganese-Treated Rats.
Abstract The present study investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of quercetin by assessing the biochemical and behavioral characteristics in rats sub-chronically treated with manganese alone at 15 mg/kg body weight or orally co-treated with quercetin at 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days. Locomotor behavior was monitored using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel environment whereas the brain regions namely the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats were processed for biochemical analyses. Results indicated that co-treatment with quercetin significantly (p 
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 31, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Adedara IA, Ego VC, Subair TI, Oyediran O, Farombi EO Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Betulinic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Differentiated PC12 Cells Via ROS-Mediated Mitochondrial Pathway.
In conclusion, we report for the first time that BA induced the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in differentiated PC12 cells through ROS. PMID: 28124213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang X, Lu X, Zhu R, Zhang K, Li S, Chen Z, Li L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

H. Steve White: A Champion for Contemporary Epilepsy Research.
PMID: 28124214 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 25, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kohn H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Neural Stem Cell and Olfactory Ensheathing Cell Co-transplants on Tissue Remodelling After Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in the Adult Rat.
In this study, we address this challenge by testing whether co-grafting of NSCs with olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), a special type of glia with proven neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and angiogenic effects, can promote graft survival and host tissue remodelling. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced in adult rats by a 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) followed by reperfusion. Ischemic lesions were verified by neurological testing and magnetic resonance imaging. Transplantation into the globus pallidus of NSCs alone or in combination with OECs was performed at two weeks post-MCAo, followed by hi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 24, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Augestad IL, Nyman AK, Costa AI, Barnett SC, Sandvig A, Håberg AK, Sandvig I Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Toll Like Receptor 4 Affects the Cerebral Biochemical Changes Induced by MPTP Treatment.
Abstract The etiology and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are still unclear. However, multiple lines of evidence suggest a critical role of the toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) in inflammatory response and neuronal death. Neuroinflammation may be associated with the misfolding and aggregation of proteins accompanied by a change in their secondary structure. Recent findings also suggest that biochemical perturbations in cerebral lipid content could contribute to the pathogenesis of central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including PD. Thus, it is of great importance to determine the biochemical changes that occ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Conte C, Roscini L, Sardella R, Mariucci G, Scorzoni S, Beccari T, Corte L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Baicalein Promotes Neuronal and Behavioral Recovery After Intracerebral Hemorrhage Via Suppressing Apoptosis, Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation.
Abstract Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an important public health problem in neurology, which is not only associated with high mortality but also leading to disability. Yet no satisfactory treatment has been developed. The secondary injury that resulted from a number of self-destructive processes such as neuroinflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress, is the key factor contributing to ICH-induced brain damage. Baicalein has been proved to improve neuronal functional recovery in rat model of subarachnoid hemorrhage and ischemic brain damage. To investigate the effect of baicalein on ICH and its underlying me...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 21, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wei N, Wei Y, Li B, Pang L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Twenty-seven Years of Cerebral Pyruvate Recycling.
e;n S Abstract Cerebral pyruvate recycling is a metabolic pathway deriving carbon skeletons and reducing equivalents from mitochondrial oxaloacetate and malate, to the synthesis of mitochondrial and cytosolic pyruvate, lactate and alanine. The pathway allows both, to provide the tricarboxylic acid cycle with pyruvate molecules produced from alternative substrates to glucose and, to generate reducing equivalents necessary for the operation of NADPH requiring processes. At the cellular level, pyruvate recycling involves the activity of malic enzyme, or the combined activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 18, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Cerdán S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Neurokinin-1 Receptor-Immunopositive Neurons in the Medullary Dorsal Horn Provide Collateral Axons to both the Thalamus and Parabrachial Nucleus in Rats.
Abstract It has been suggested that the trigemino-thalamic and trigemino-parabrachial projection neurons in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) are highly implicated in the sensory-discriminative and emotional/affective aspects of orofacial pain, respectively. In previous studies, some neurons were reported to send projections to both the thalamus and parabrachial nucleus by way of collaterals in the MDH. However, little is known about the chemoarchitecture of this group of neurons. Thus, in the present study, we determined whether the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor, which is crucial for primary orofacial pain signaling...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li X, Ge SN, Li Y, Wang HT Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cdc42 Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Migration Through Wnt/ β-Catenin and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway After Sciatic Nerve Injury.
Cdc42 Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Migration Through Wnt/β-Catenin and p38 MAPK Signaling Pathway After Sciatic Nerve Injury. Neurochem Res. 2017 Jan 17;: Authors: Han B, Zhao JY, Wang WT, Li ZW, He AP, Song XY Abstract Schwann cells (SCs) are unique glial cells in the peripheral nerve and may secrete multiple neurotrophic factors, adhesion molecules, extracellular matrix molecules to form the microenvironment of peripheral nerve regeneration, guiding and supporting nerve proliferation and migration. Cdc42 plays an important regulatory role in dynamic changes of the cytoskeleton. Howev...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Han B, Zhao JY, Wang WT, Li ZW, He AP, Song XY Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Improves Motor Dysfunction in the Rotenone-Induced Mice Model of Parkinson's Disease.
Abstract Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) is diminished in patients of Parkinson's disease (PD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is responsible for regulating expression of the DRD3 in the brain. Our previous study showed that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) could increase BDNF content in the striatum of PD mice. This experiment aimed to evaluate whether HSYA can improve the motor dysfunction induced by rotenone through regulating the BDNF/TrkB/DRD3 signaling pathway in mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with HSYA. Thirty minutes later, they were intragastrically administered with rotenone a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang T, Wang L, Li C, Han B, Wang Z, Li J, Lv Y, Wang S, Fu F Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Trachyspermum ammi Seeds Supplementation Helps Reverse Scopolamine, Alprazolam and Electroshock Induced Amnesia.
Abstract The present study was designed to explore the beneficial effects of successive 10 days administration of Trachyspermum ammi seed's powder (TASP) along with diet (at the dose of 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0% w/w) on learning and memory of mice. A total of 306 mice divided in 51 equal groups were employed in the study. Passive avoidance paradigm (PAP) and Object recognition Task (ORT) were employed as exteroceptive models. The brain acetylcholinesterase activity (AChE), serum cholesterol, brain monoaldehyde (MDA), brain reduced glutathione (GSH) and brain nitrite were estimated and Alprazolam, Scopolamine and Electro...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 17, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Soni K, Parle M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Influence of Ivabradine on the Anticonvulsant Action of Four Classical Antiepileptic Drugs Against Maximal Electroshock-Induced Seizures in Mice.
In conclusion, the enhanced anticonvulsant action of valproate by ivabradine in the mouse maximal electroshock-induced seizure model was pharmacodynamic in nature. A special attention is required when combining ivabradine with phenytoin due to a pharmacokinetic interaction and reduction of the anticonvulsant action of phenytoin in mice. The combinations of ivabradine with carbamazepine and phenobarbital were neutral from a preclinical viewpoint. PMID: 28083847 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sawicka KM, Wawryniuk A, Zwolak A, Daniluk J, Szpringer M, Florek-Luszczki M, Drop B, Zolkowska D, Luszczki JJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effect of Physical and Social Components of Enriched Environment on Astrocytes Proliferation in Rats After Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury.
Abstract Treatment of enriched environment (EE) exerts neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, how the component of EE contributes to the functional recovery after brain ischemia remains unclear. Here we examined the effect of physical and social components of EE on poststroke astrocytes proliferation using an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by reperfusion. Rats were divided into five groups: physical enrichment group (PE), social enrichment group (SE), physical and social enrichment group (PSE), ischemia + standard group (IS) an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen X, Zhang X, Liao W, Wan Q Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erythropoietin Rescues Primary Rat Cortical Neurons by Altering the Nrf2:Bach1 Ratio: Roles of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 1/2.
Abstract While inhalation anesthetics are indispensable, and generally considered safe and effective, there is growing concern about the selective neurotoxicity of these agents, especially sevoflurane. Erythropoetin (EPO)-induced protection against sevoflurane-induced neuronal death is an effective intervention, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Extracellular signal-related kinases (Erk) 1/2 plays a pivotal role in cell growth and proliferation. Alteration of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)/BTB-to-CNC homology 1 (Bach1) ratio by Erk1/2 ameliorates the oxidative stress which oc...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang LM, Zhang DX, Zhao XC, Sun W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Glycogen Supercompensation in the Rat Brain After Acute Hypoglycemia is Independent of Glucose Levels During Recovery.
Abstract Patients with diabetes display a progressive decay in the physiological counter-regulatory response to hypoglycemia, resulting in hypoglycemia unawareness. The mechanism through which the brain adapts to hypoglycemia may involve brain glycogen. We tested the hypothesis that brain glycogen supercompensation following hypoglycemia depends on blood glucose levels during recovery. Conscious rats were submitted to hypoglycemia of 2 mmol/L for 90 min and allowed to recover at different glycemia, controlled by means of i.v. glucose infusion. Brain glycogen concentration was elevated above control level...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 12, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Duarte JM, Morgenthaler FD, Gruetter R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Hyperbaric Oxygen Prevents Cognitive Impairments in Mice Induced by D-Galactose by Improving Cholinergic and Anti-apoptotic Functions.
Abstract Our previous study demonstrated that hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) improved cognitive impairments mainly by regulating oxidative stress, inflammatory responses and aging-related gene expression. However, a method for preventing cognitive dysfunction has yet to be developed. In the present study, we explored the protective effects of HBO on the cholinergic system and apoptosis in D-galactose (D-gal)-treated mice. A model of aging was established via systemic intraperitoneal injection of D-gal daily for 8 weeks. HBO was administered during the last 2 weeks of D-gal injection. Our results showed that HBO...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen C, Huang L, Nong Z, Li Y, Chen W, Huang J, Pan X, Wu G, Lin Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ameliorative Effect of Ginsenoside Rg1 on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Cognitive Impairment: Role of Cholinergic System.
Abstract Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with gi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Jin Y, Peng J, Wang X, Zhang D, Wang T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

L-F001, a Multifunction ROCK Inhibitor Prevents 6-OHDA Induced Cell Death Through Activating Akt/GSK-3beta and Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway in PC12 Cells and Attenuates MPTP-Induced Dopamine Neuron Toxicity in Mice.
Abstract Amounting evidences demonstrated that Rho/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) might be a novel target for the therapy of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we synthesized L-F001 and revealed it was a potent ROCK inhibitor with multifunctional effects. Here we investigated the effects of L-F001 in PD models. We found that L-F001 potently attenuated 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells and significantly decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), prevented the 6-OHDA-induced decline of mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular GSH levels. In addition, L-F001 increased Akt and GSK-3beta ph...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Luo L, Chen J, Su D, Chen M, Luo B, Pi R, Wang L, Shen W, Wang R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Resistance Exercise Reduces Seizure Occurrence, Attenuates Memory Deficits and Restores BDNF Signaling in Rats with Chronic Epilepsy.
In conclusion, resistance exercise reduced seizure occurrence and mitigated memory deficits in rats with epilepsy. These resistance exercise-induced beneficial effects can be related to changes in IGF-1 and BDNF levels and its signaling protein activation. Our findings indicate that the resistance exercise might be included as complementary therapeutic strategy for epilepsy treatment. PMID: 28078614 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: de Almeida AA, Gomes da Silva S, Lopim GM, Vannucci Campos D, Fernandes J, Cabral FR, Arida RM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Enthusiasm Scientifically Oriented: The Preface for the Special Issue Dedicated to Jan Albrecht.
PMID: 28078615 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 11, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zielińska M, Aschner M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Preface for the Mary C. McKenna Honorary Issue of Neurochemical Research.
PMID: 28066856 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 9, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Schousboe A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

High Glucose Enhances Isoflurane-Induced Neurotoxicity by Regulating TRPC-Dependent Calcium Influx.
Abstract Isoflurane is a commonly used inhalational anesthetic that can induce neurotoxicity via elevating cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)). High glucose regulates the expression of a family of non-selective cation channels termed transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels that may contribute to Ca(2+) influx. In the present study, we investigated whether high glucose enhances isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by regulating TRPC-dependent Ca(2+) influx. First, we evaluated toxic damage in mice primary cultured hippocampal neurons and human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y cells) after hyperglycemia and isoflurane...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 6, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu Z, Ma C, Zhao W, Zhang Q, Xu R, Zhang H, Lei H, Xu S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Citrate, a Ubiquitous Key Metabolite with Regulatory Function in the CNS.
Abstract Citrate is key constituent of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, serves as substrate for fatty acid and sterol biosynthesis, and functions as a key regulator of intermediary energy metabolism. Ursula Sonnewald had initiated studies using for the first time both proton- and (13)C-NMR to investigate metabolic processes in cultured neurons and astrocytes resulting in the important observation that citrate was specifically synthesized in and released from astrocytes in large amounts which is in keeping with the high concentration found in the CSF. The aim of this review is to highlight the possible roles of ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 5, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Westergaard N, Waagepetersen HS, Belhage B, Schousboe A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

In Memoriam: Dr. Eugene Roberts, 1920-2016.
Authors: PMID: 28044241 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - January 2, 2017 Category: Neuroscience Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Loss or Mislocalization of Aquaporin-4 Affects Diffusion Properties and Intermediary Metabolism in Gray Matter of Mice.
g AK Abstract The first aim of this study was to determine how complete or perivascular loss of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels affects membrane permeability for water in the mouse brain grey matter in the steady state. Time-dependent diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was performed on global Aqp4 knock out (KO) and α-syntrophin (α-syn) KO mice, in the latter perivascular AQP4 are mislocalized, but still functioning. Control animals were corresponding wild type (WT) mice. By combining in vivo diffusion measurements with the effective medium theory and previously measured extra-cellular volume ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Pavlin T, Nagelhus EA, Brekken C, Eyjolfsson EM, Thoren A, Haraldseth O, Sonnewald U, Ottersen OP, Håberg AK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Early and Late Pathomechanisms in Alzheimer's Disease: From Zinc to Amyloid- β Neurotoxicity.
Early and Late Pathomechanisms in Alzheimer's Disease: From Zinc to Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity. Neurochem Res. 2016 Dec 30;: Authors: Szutowicz A, Bielarczyk H, Zyśk M, Dyś A, Ronowska A, Gul-Hinc S, Klimaszewska-Łata J Abstract There are several systemic and intracerebral pathologic conditions, which limit provision and utilization of energy precursor metabolites in neuronal cells. Energy deficits cause excessive depolarization of neuronal cells triggering glutamate-zinc evoked excitotoxic cascade. The intracellular zinc excess hits several intraneuronal targets yielding collapse of energy balan...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 30, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Szutowicz A, Bielarczyk H, Zyśk M, Dyś A, Ronowska A, Gul-Hinc S, Klimaszewska-Łata J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal Patterns of RING1 Expression after Rat Spinal Cord Injury.
Abstract Ring finger protein 1 (RING1) is a RING domain characterized protein belonging to the RING finger family. It is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediated monoubiquitination of histone H2A and the core component of PRC1 complex, which is the repressive multiprotein complex of Polycomb group (PcG). Previous studies showed the important tumorigenic role of RING1 via promoting cell proliferation and the crucial function in maintaining transcriptional program stability during development. However, its mechanism for spinal cord injury (SCI) is still unknown. In our research, we established an acute SCI model...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu H, Ji W, Gong P, Liu C, Duan C, Gao Y, Liu X, Zhang D, Zhu S, Gong L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Examination of the Role of NMDA and GABAA Receptors in the Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen on Striatal Dopamine Levels in Rats.
Abstract Hyperbaric oxygen induced in rats a decrease in striatal dopamine levels. Such decrease could be a result of changes in glutamatergic and GABAergic controls of the dopaminergic neurons into the Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta. The aim of this study was to determine the role of gluatamatergic and Gama-Amino-Butyric-Acid neurotransmissions in this alteration. Dopamine-sensitive electrodes were implanted into the striatum under general anesthesia. After one week rest, awaked rats were exposed to oxygen-nitrogen mixture at a partial pressure of oxygen of 3 absolute atmospheres. Dopamine level was monitored con...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lavoute C, Weiss M, Risso JJ, Rostain JC Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Antagonism of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Alters Synaptic ERK Phosphorylation in the Rat Forebrain.
In this study, we investigated the role of mAChRs in the regulation of ERK phosphorylation (activation) in the mesocorticolimbic system of adult rat brains in vivo. We targeted a sub-pool of ERKs at synaptic sites. We found that a systemic injection of the mAChR antagonist scopolamine increased phosphorylation of synaptic ERKs in the striatum (caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Increases in ERK phosphorylation in both forebrain regions were rapid and transient. Notably, pretreatment with a dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) antagonist SCH23390 blocked the scopolamine-stimulated ERK phosphor...
Source: Neurochemical Research - December 28, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mao LM, Wang HH, Wang JQ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research