Hypothalamic Proteomic Analysis Reveals Dysregulation of Glutamate Balance and Energy Metabolism in a Mouse Model of Chronic Mild Stress-Induced Depression.
Abstract Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity is observed in many patients suffering from depression. However, the mechanism underlying the dysfunction of the HPA axis is not well understood. Moreover, dysfunction of the hypothalamus, the key brain region of the HPA axis, has not been well-explored. The aim of our study was to examine possible alterations in hypothalamus protein expression in a model of depression using proteomic analysis. In order to achieve this aim, mice were exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), as the paradigm results in hyperactivity of the HPA axis. Differe...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Rao C, Shi H, Zhou C, Zhu D, Zhao M, Wang Z, Yang Y, Chen J, Liao L, Tang J, Wu Y, Zhou J, Cheng K, Xie P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Alteration of Cytokines Levels in the Striatum of Rats: Possible Participation in Vacuous Chewing Movements Induced by Antipsycotics.
Abstract Antipsychotic drugs have been used in the treatment of schizophrenia and their long-term use can cause movement disorders, such as tardive dyskinesia (TD) in humans mainly typical ones such as haloperidol. Neuroinflammation has been implicated to the use of antipsychotics besides its participation in TD remains unclear. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the relation of cytokines with vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) in rats comparing typical and atypical antipsychotics. Rats were treated with haloperidol or risperidone for 28 days. On day 29, rats were subjected to behavioral analysis (q...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Peroza LR, Schaffer LF, De Freitas CM, Leal CQ, Ferrari MC, Duarte MM, Fachinetto R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Lamotrigine Attenuates Proteasome Inhibition-Induced Apoptosis by Suppressing the Activation of the Mitochondrial Pathway and the Caspase-8- and Bid-Dependent Pathways.
Abstract Proteasome impairment has been shown to be involved in neuronal degeneration. Antiepileptic lamotrigine has been demonstrated to have a neuroprotective effect. However, the effect of lamotrigine on the proteasome inhibition-induced neuronal cell death has not been studied. Therefore, we assessed the effect of lamotrigine on the proteasome inhibition-induced neuronal cell apoptosis in relation to cell death process using differentiated PC12 cells and SH-SY5Y cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132 and MG115 induced a decrease in the levels of Bid and Bcl-2 proteins, an increase in the levels of Bax and p53,...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nam YJ, Kim A, Lee MS, Shin YK, Sohn DS, Lee CS Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Effects of Hindlimb Unweighting on MBP and GDNF Expression and Morphology in Rat Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons.
In conclusion, HU treatment induced damage of L5 DRG neurons, which was correlated with decreased total MBP protein expression, increased dgen-MBP expression, and reduced GDNF protein and mRNA expression. Importantly, these changes were more severe in F-HU rats compared with M-HU rats. PMID: 27230884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang H, Ren NT, Zhou FQ, Li J, Lei W, Liu N, Bi L, Wu ZX, Zhang R, Zhang YG, Cui G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Mild Hyperbaric Oxygen Improves Decreased Oxidative Capacity of Spinal Motoneurons Innervating the Soleus Muscle of Rats with Type 2 Diabetes.
This study examined the oxidative capacity of motoneurons innervating the soleus muscle of non-obese rats with type 2 diabetes. In addition, this study examined the effects of mild hyperbaric oxygen at 1.25 atmospheres absolute with 36 % oxygen for 10 weeks on the oxidative capacity of motoneurons innervating the soleus muscle because mild hyperbaric oxygen improves the decreased oxidative capacity of the soleus muscle in non-obese rats with type 2 diabetes. Spinal motoneurons innervating the soleus muscle were identified using nuclear yellow, a retrograde fluorescent neuronal tracer. Thereafter, the cell body si...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Takemura A, Ishihara A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Caspase-3-Dependent Proteolytic Cleavage of Tau Causes Neurofibrillary Tangles and Results in Cognitive Impairment During Normal Aging.
In this study we use wild type mice as a model for normal aging and resulting age-related cognitive impairment. We provide evidence that aged mice have increased levels of activated caspases, which significantly correlates with increased levels of truncated tau and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. In addition, cognitive decline was significantly correlated with increased levels of caspase activity and tau truncated by caspase-3. Experimentally induced inhibition of caspases prevented this proteolytic cleavage of tau and the associated formation of neurofibrillary tangles. Our study shows the strength of using a non-tr...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Means JC, Gerdes BC, Kaja S, Sumien N, Payne AJ, Stark DA, Borden PK, Price JL, Koulen P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethanol (Hydroxytyrosol) Mitigates the Increase in Spontaneous Oxidation of Dopamine During Monoamine Oxidase Inhibition in PC12 Cells.
Abstract The catecholaldehyde hypothesis predicts that monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition should slow the progression of Parkinson's disease, by decreasing production of the autotoxic dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL). Inhibiting MAO, however, diverts the fate of cytoplasmic dopamine toward potentially harmful spontaneous oxidation products, indicated by increased 5-S-cysteinyl-dopamine (Cys-DA) levels. 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylethanol (hydroxytyrosol) is an abundant anti-oxidant phenol in constituents of the Mediterranean diet. Whether hydroxytyrosol alters enzymatic or spontaneous oxidation o...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Goldstein DS, Jinsmaa Y, Sullivan P, Holmes C, Kopin IJ, Sharabi Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Epigenetic Suppression of GADs Expression is Involved in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy and Pilocarpine-Induced Mice Epilepsy.
Abstract Recent studies have shown that histone acetylation is involved with the regulation of enzyme glutamate decarboxylases (GADs), including GAD67 and GAD65. Here, we investigated the histone acetylation modifications of GADs in the pathogenesis of epilepsy and explored the therapeutic effect of a novel second-generation histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) JNJ-26481585 in epilepsy animals. We revealed the suppression of GADs protein and mRNA level, and histone hypoacetylation in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and pilocarpine-induced epilepsy mice model. Double-immunofluorescence also indicated that the...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang JG, Cai Q, Zheng J, Dong YS, Li JJ, Li JC, Hao GZ, Wang C, Wang JL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Simvastatin Attenuates Neuropathic Pain by Inhibiting the RhoA/LIMK/Cofilin Pathway.
Abstract Neuropathic pain occurs due to deleterious changes in the nervous system caused by a lesion or dysfunction. Currently, neuropathic pain management is unsatisfactory and remains a challenge in clinical practice. Studies have suggested that actin cytoskeleton remodeling may be associated with neural plasticity and may involve a nociceptive mechanism. Here, we found that the RhoA/LIM kinase (LIMK)/cofilin pathway, which regulates actin dynamics, was activated after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. Treatments that reduced RhoA/LIMK/cofilin pathway activity, including simvastatin, the Rh...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qiu Y, Chen WY, Wang ZY, Liu F, Wei M, Ma C, Huang YG Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Apelin-13 Impaires Acquisition but Not Consolidation or Expression of Contextual Fear in Rats.
Abstract Apelin-13, as an endogenous neuropeptide, is the ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor, APJ, which has recently been demonstrated to be involved in the process that contributes to learning and memory. Previous studies showed that apelin may be required for certain forms of learning and memory. Up to date, the role of apelin in fear memory has not been explored. In the present study, we tested the effects of apelin-13 (1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 µg/rat) on contextual fear conditioning (experiment 1), consolidation (experiment 2) and expression (experiment 3) in rats. A well established fear conditioni...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Han L, Luo H, Huang F, Tian S, Qin X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Blue Light Action on Mitochondria Leads to Cell Death by Necroptosis.
rez C, Osborne NN Abstract Blue light impinging on the many mitochondria associated with retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in situ has the potential of eliciting necroptosis through an action on RIP1/RIP3 to stimulate RGC death in diseases like glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Cells in culture die when exposed to blue light. The death process is mitochondria-dependent and is known to involve a decrease in the production of ATP, a generation of ROS, the activation of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase, the stimulation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) as well as the up-regulation of heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Our present re...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Del Olmo-Aguado S, Núñez-Álvarez C, Osborne NN Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Naringin and Sertraline Ameliorate Doxorubicin-Induced Behavioral Deficits Through Modulation of Serotonin Level and Mitochondrial Complexes Protection Pathway in Rat Hippocampus.
Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of naringin (NR) alone as well as its combination with sertraline (SRT) against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced neurobehavioral and neurochemical anomalies. DOX (15 mg/kg; i.p.) administration caused behavioral alterations, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction and monoamines alteration in male Wistar rats. NR (50 and 100 mg/kg; i.p.) and SRT (5 mg/kg; i.p.) treatment significantly attenuated DOX-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior as evident from elevated plus maze (EPM) and modified f...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kwatra M, Jangra A, Mishra M, Sharma Y, Ahmed S, Ghosh P, Kumar V, Vohora D, Khanam R Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

PCBP2 Modulates Neural Apoptosis and Astrocyte Proliferation After Spinal Cord Injury.
In this study, we performed an acute spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats and investigated the dynamic changes of PCBP2 expression in the spinal cord. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that PCBP2 presented in normal spinal cord. It gradually increased, reached a peak at 3 day, and then declined to basal levels at 14 days after SCI. We observed that the expression of PCBP2 was enhanced in the gray and white matter. Immunofluorescence indicated that PCBP2 was located in the neurons and astrocytes. Moreover, colocalization of PCBP2/active caspase-3 was detected in neurons, and colocaliz...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Mao X, Liu J, Chen C, Zhang W, Qian R, Chen X, Lu H, Ge J, Zhao C, Zhang D, Wang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Increases of Catalase and Glutathione Peroxidase Expressions by Lacosamide Pretreatment Contributes to Neuroprotection Against Experimentally Induced Transient Cerebral Ischemia.
In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of lacosamide against transient ischemic damage and expressions of antioxidant enzymes such as Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in the hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) region following 5 min of transient global cerebral ischemia in gerbils. We found that pre-treatment with 25 mg/kg lacosamide protected CA1 pyramidal neurons from transient global cerebral ischemic insult using hematoxylin-eosin staining and neuronal nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. Transient ischemia dramatical...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Choi HY, Park JH, Chen BH, Shin BN, Lee YL, Kim IH, Cho JH, Lee TK, Lee JC, Won MH, Ahn JH, Tae HJ, Yan BC, Hwang IK, Cho JH, Kim YM, Kim SK Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erratum to: Proof-of Concept that an Acute Trophic Factors Intervention After Spinal Cord Injury Provides an Adequate Niche for Neuroprotection, Recruitment of Nestin-Expressing Progenitors and Regeneration.
PMID: 27180188 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Krityakiarana W, Zhao PM, Nguyen K, Gomez-Pinilla F, Kotchabhakdi N, de Vellis J, Espinosa-Jeffrey A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Resveratrol Attenuates Aβ25-35 Caused Neurotoxicity by Inducing Autophagy Through the TyrRS-PARP1-SIRT1 Signaling Pathway.
In conclusion, RSV attenuated neurotoxicity caused by Aβ25-35 through inducing autophagy in PC12 cells, and the autophagy was partially mediated via activation of the TyrRS-PARP1-SIRT1 signaling pathway. PMID: 27180189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Deng H, Mi MT Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effect of Aliskiren in Experimental Ischemic Stroke: Up-Regulated p-PI3K, p-AKT, Bcl-2 Expression, Attenuated Bax Expression.
This study aimed to investigate the role of ALK and its potential mechanism in cerebral ischemia. C57/BL6 mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and treated for 5 days with Vehicle or ALK (10 or 25 mg/kg per day via intragastric administration), whereas Sham-operated animals served as controls. Treatment with ALK significantly improved neurological deficits, infarct volume, brain water content and Nissl bodies after stroke (P 
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 14, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Miao J, Wang L, Zhang X, Zhu C, Cui L, Ji H, Liu Y, Wang X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Early Repeated Administration of CXCR4 Antagonist AMD3100 Dose-Dependently Improves Neuropathic Pain in Rats After L5 Spinal Nerve Ligation.
Abstract AMD3100 is a specific C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) antagonist which blocks the interaction between CXCR4 and CXCL12. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that AMD3100 has analgesic effects on many pathological pain states, including peripheral neuropathic pain. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In the current study, we investigated the effect of different doses of AMD3100 on neuropathic pain in rats after L5 spinal nerve ligation. We used naloxone methiodide (NLXM) to further determine whether AMD3100-mediated analgesic effect was opioid-dependent. Behavioral study showed ...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xie F, Wang Y, Li X, Chao YC, Yue Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Carnosic Acid Prevents Beta-Amyloid-Induced Injury in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells via the Induction of Autophagy.
Abstract Beta-amyloid (Aβ), the hallmark protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD), induces neurotoxicity that involves oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, leading to cell death. Carnosic acid (CA), a polyphenolic diterpene isolated from the herb rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis), was investigated in our study to assess its neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism against Aβ-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that CA pretreatment alleviated the Aβ25-35-induced loss of cell viability, inhibited both Aβ1-42 accumulation and tau hyperphosphorylation, reduce...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 11, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Liu J, Su H, Qu QM Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Repeated LPS Injection Induces Distinct Changes in the Kynurenine Pathway in Mice.
dt S Abstract The immune system has been recognized as a potential contributor to psychiatric disorders. In animals, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is used to induce inflammation and behaviors analogous to some of the symptoms in these disorders. Recent data indicate that the kynurenine pathway contributes to LPS-induced aberrant behaviors. However, data are inconclusive regarding optimal LPS dose and treatment strategy. Here, we therefore aimed to evaluate the effects of single versus repeated administration of LPS on the kynurenine pathway. Adult C57BL6 mice were given 0.83 mg/kg LPS as a single or a repeated inj...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Larsson MK, Faka A, Bhat M, Imbeault S, Goiny M, Orhan F, Oliveros A, Ståhl S, Liu XC, Choi DS, Sandberg K, Engberg G, Schwieler L, Erhardt S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ginsenoside Rd Protects Against Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Via Decreasing the Expression of the NMDA Receptor 2B Subunit and its Phosphorylated Product.
In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of GSRd on the phosphorylation of the NMDAR 2B subunit (NR2B subunit) in cerebral ischemia. Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) models induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) were used to mimic in vivo or in vitro injury during cerebral ischemia. The models were pretreated or post-treated with GSRd after MCAO or OGD. As a vehicle control, 1,3-propanediol was used. The expression levels of the NR2B subunit and the phosphorylated NR2B subunit were determined using western blotting. GSRd significantly improved the behavi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xie Z, Shi M, Zhang C, Zhao H, Hui H, Zhao G Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inorganic Arsenic Induces NRF2-Regulated Antioxidant Defenses in Both Cerebral Cortex and Hippocampus in Vivo.
Abstract Inorganic arsenic is reported to induce the reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative stress, which is supposed to be one of the main mechanisms of arsenic-related neurological diseases. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), a master regulator of antioxidant defense systems, up-regulates the expression of target genes to fight against oxidative damages caused by harmful substances, including metals. In the present study, mice were used as a model to investigate the oxidative stress levels and the expressions of NRF2-regulated antioxidant substances in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus wi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 10, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhang Y, Duan X, Li J, Zhao S, Li W, Zhao L, Li W, Nie H, Sun G, Li B Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Elevated Expression of Carboxy-Terminal Modulator Protein (CTMP) Aggravates Brain Ischemic Injury in Diabetic db/db Mice.
Abstract Deregulation of Akt signaling is important in the brain injuries caused by cerebral ischemia in diabetic animals, and the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. We investigated the role of carboxy-terminal modulator protein (CTMP), an endogenous Akt inhibitor, in brain injury following focal cerebral ischemia in type 2 diabetic db/db mice and their control littermates non-diabetic db/+ mice. db/db mice showed a significant elevation in the expression of CTMP compared to db/+ mice under normal physiological conditions. After ischemia, db/db mice exhibit higher levels of CTMP expression, decreased Ak...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Chen Y, Cai M, Deng J, Tian L, Wang S, Tong L, Dong H, Xiong L Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Treatment with Isorhamnetin Protects the Brain Against Ischemic Injury in Mice.
In conclusion, treatment with isorhamnetin protected the brain against ischemic injury in mice. Isorhamnetin could thus be envisaged as a countermeasure for ischemic stroke but remains to be tested in humans. PMID: 27161367 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhao JJ, Song JQ, Pan SY, Wang K Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Ornithine and Homocitrulline Impair Mitochondrial Function, Decrease Antioxidant Defenses and Induce Cell Death in Menadione-Stressed Rat Cortical Astrocytes: Potential Mechanisms of Neurological Dysfunction in HHH Syndrome.
er M Abstract Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome is caused by deficiency of ornithine translocase leading to predominant tissue accumulation and high urinary excretion of ornithine (Orn), homocitrulline (Hcit) and ammonia. Although affected patients commonly present neurological dysfunction manifested by cognitive deficit, spastic paraplegia, pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, stroke-like episodes, hypotonia and ataxia, its pathogenesis is still poorly known. Although astrocytes are necessary for neuronal protection. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of Orn...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zanatta Â, Rodrigues MD, Amaral AU, Souza DG, Quincozes-Santos A, Wajner M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Effect of Aging on Mitochondrial Complex I and the Extent of Oxidative Stress in the Rat Brain Cortex.
This study investigates the relationship of respiratory complex I with aging-related oxidative stress in the cerebral mitochondria. Deterioration of complex I seen in senescent (26-months old) mitochondria was accompanied by decline in total thiol group content, increase of HNE and HNE-protein adducts as well as decreased content of complex I subunits, GRIM-19 and NDUFV2. On the other hand, decline of complex I might be related with the mitochondrial apoptosis through increased Bax/Bcl-2 cascade in 15-month old animal brains. Higher amount of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL with the lower content of GRIM-19 could maintain to some extent ele...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tatarkova Z, Kovalska M, Timkova V, Racay P, Lehotsky J, Kaplan P Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Histone Acetylation Regulation in Sleep Deprivation-Induced Spatial Memory Impairment.
This study aimed to investigate the possible roles of histone acetylation in sleep deprivation (SD)-induced cognitive impairment. Results of the Morris water maze test showed that 3 days of SD can cause spatial memory impairment in Wistar rats. SD can also decrease histone acetylation levels, increase histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) expression, and decrease histone acetyltransferase (CBP) expression. Furthermore, SD can reduce H3 and H4 acetylation levels in the promoters of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) gene and thus significantly downregulate BDNF expression and impair the activity of key BDNF signaling...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Duan R, Liu X, Wang T, Wu L, Gao X, Zhang Z Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Cerebralcare Granule(®), a Chinese Herb Compound Preparation, Attenuates D-Galactose Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.
Cerebralcare Granule(®), a Chinese Herb Compound Preparation, Attenuates D-Galactose Induced Memory Impairment in Mice. Neurochem Res. 2016 May 9; Authors: Qu Z, Yang H, Zhang J, Huo L, Chen H, Li Y, Liu C, Gao W Abstract Cerebralcare granule(®) (CG) is a preparation of Traditional Chinese Medicine that widely used in China. It was approved by the China State Food and Drug Administration for treatment of headache and dizziness associated with cerebrovascular diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether CG had protective effect against D-galactose (gal)-induced memory impairm...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Qu Z, Yang H, Zhang J, Huo L, Chen H, Li Y, Liu C, Gao W Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

The Influence of Manganese and Glutamine Intake on Antioxidants and Neurotransmitter Amino Acids Levels in Rats' Brain.
Abstract Depending on the concentration, Mn can exert protective or toxic effect. Potential mechanism for manganese neurotoxicity is manganese-induced oxidative stress. Glutamine supplementation could reduce manganese-induced neurotoxicity and is able to influence the neurotransmission processes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the long term administration of manganese (alone or in combination with glutamine) in dose and time dependent manner could affect the selected parameters of oxidative-antioxidative status (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, concentrations of vitamin...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Szpetnar M, Luchowska-Kocot D, Boguszewska-Czubara A, Kurzepa J Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Exogenous α-Synuclein Monomers Alter Dopamine Metabolism in Murine Brain.
In this study we investigated the influence of cerebral injection of human ASN on dopaminergic system activity. We have demonstrated that a single injection of ASN monomers into the substantia nigra pars compacta or striatum is sufficient to affect dopaminergic neurotransmission in murine nigro-striatal system. PMID: 27161373 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wawer A, Joniec-Maciejak I, Sznejder-Pachołek A, Schwenkgrub J, Ciesielska A, Mirowska-Guzel D Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Protective Effects of Chlorogenic Acid and its Metabolites on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Alterations in Rat Brain Slices: A Comparative Study with Resveratrol.
Abstract The effectiveness of chlorogenic acid and its main metabolites, caffeic and quinic acids, against oxidative stress was investigated. Resveratrol, another natural phenolic compound, was also tested for comparison. Rat cortical slices were incubated with 200 μM H2O2 for 1 h, and alterations in oxidative stress parameters, such as 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and the production of both malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), were assayed in the absence or presence of phenolic compounds. Additionally, the effectiveness of chlorogenic acid and other compoun...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gul Z, Demircan C, Bagdas D, Buyukuysal RL Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid, a Novel Naturally Derived Agent, Suppresses Prolactin Hyperactivity and Reduces Antipsychotic-Induced Hyperprolactinemia in In Vitro and In Vivo Models.
This study provides additional evidence in support of GA as an adjunct for the treatment of hyperPRL. PMID: 27161375 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Wang D, Zhang Y, Wang C, Jia D, Cai G, Lu J, Wang D, Zhang ZJ Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of Large Neutral Amino Acid Transporters Suppresses Kynurenic Acid Production Via Inhibition of Kynurenine Uptake in Rodent Brain.
Abstract The tryptophan metabolite, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is a preferential antagonist of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor at endogenous brain concentrations. Recent studies have suggested that increases of brain KYNA levels are involved in psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression, and regulation of KYNA production has become a new target for treatment of these diseases. Kynurenine (KYN), the immediate precursor of KYNA, is transported into astrocytes via large neutral amino acid transporters (LATs). In the present study, the effect of LATs regu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sekine A, Kuroki Y, Urata T, Mori N, Fukuwatari T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Gartanin Protects Neurons against Glutamate-Induced Cell Death in HT22 Cells: Independence of Nrf-2 but Involvement of HO-1 and AMPK.
Abstract Oxidative stress mediates the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Gartanin, a natural xanthone of mangosteen, possesses multipharmacological activities. Herein, the neuroprotection capacity of gartanin against glutamate-induced damage in HT22 cells and its possible mechanism(s) were investigated for the first time. Glutamate resulted in cell death in a dose-dependent manner and supplementation of 1-10 µM gartanin prevented the detrimental effects of glutamate on cell survival. Additional investigations on the underlying mechanisms suggested that gartanin could effectively reduce glutam...
Source: Neurochemical Research - May 9, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Gao XY, Wang SN, Yang XH, Lan WJ, Chen ZW, Chen JK, Xie JH, Han YF, Pi RB, Yang XB Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Erratum to: Lactate Transport and Receptor Actions in Retina: Potential Roles in Retinal Function and Disease.
PMID: 27113043 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 26, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Kolko M, Vosborg F, Henriksen UL, Hasan-Olive MM, Diget EH, Vohra R, Gurubaran IR, Gjedde A, Mariga ST, Skytt DM, Utheim TP, Storm-Mathisen J, Bergersen LH Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Generation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line Expressing zsGreen in Cholinergic Neurons Using CRISPR/Cas9 System.
Abstract Lineage specific human embryonic stem cell (hESC) reporter cell line is a versatile tool for biological studies on real time monitoring of differentiation, physiological and biochemical features of special cell types and pathological mechanism of disease. Here we report the generation of ChAT-zsGreen reporter hESC line that express zsGreen under the control of the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) promoter using CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspersed Short Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 system. We show that the ChAT-zsGreen hESC reporter cell lines retain the features of undifferentiated hESC. After cholinerg...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhou J, Wang C, Zhang K, Wang Y, Gong X, Wang Y, Li S, Luo Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Folic Acid Protected Neural Cells Against Aluminum-Maltolate-Induced Apoptosis by Preventing miR-19 Downregulation.
Abstract Aluminum (Al)-induced apoptosis is considered as the major cause of its neurotoxicity. Folic acid possesses neuroprotective function by preventing neural cell apoptosis. microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression participating in cellular processes. As a key component of the miR-17-92 cluster, miR-19 is implicated in regulating apoptotic process, while its role in the neuroprotective effect of folic acid has not been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate the potential involvement and function of miR-19 in the protective action of folic acid against Al-induced neural cell...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 25, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Zhu M, Li B, Ma X, Huang C, Wu R, Zhu W, Li X, Liang Z, Deng F, Zhu J, Xie W, Yang X, Jiang Y, Wang S, Wu J, Geng S, Xie C, Zhong C, Liu H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

N-Ethylmaleimide Dissociates α7 ACh Receptor from a Complex with NSF and Promotes Its Delivery to the Presynaptic Membrane.
N-Ethylmaleimide Dissociates α7 ACh Receptor from a Complex with NSF and Promotes Its Delivery to the Presynaptic Membrane. Neurochem Res. 2016 Apr 23; Authors: Nishizaki T Abstract N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM)-sensitive factor (NSF) associates with soluble NSF attachment protein (SNAP), that binds to SNAP receptors (SNAREs) including syntaxin, SNAP25, and synaptobrevin. The complex of NSF/SNAP/SNAREs plays a critical role in the regulation of vesicular traffic. The present study investigated NEM-regulated α7 ACh receptor translocation. NSF associated with β-SNAP and the SNAREs syntaxin 1 a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 23, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nishizaki T Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Sub-chronic Antipsychotic Drug Administration Reverses the Expression of Neuregulin 1 and ErbB4 in a Cultured MK801-Induced Mouse Primary Hippocampal Neuron or a Neurodevelopmental Schizophrenia Model.
Abstract It has been reported that specific environmental influences during the postpartum period might contribute to the development of schizophrenia (SZ). Administration of MK801 during early development led to persistent brain pathology. Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD67) and parvalbumin (PV), and neuregulin 1 (NRG1)/ErbB4 signaling were closely associated with SZ pathology. We postulated therefore that NMDA receptor antagonists exposure during the postpartum period may be associated with expression dysregulation of some of the SZ candidate proteins. To test this, we used mouse primary hippocampal neurons a...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Li C, Tang Y, Yang J, Zhang X, Liu Y, Tang A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Myelin Basic Protein Citrullination in Multiple Sclerosis: A Potential Therapeutic Target for the Pathology.
Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial demyelinating disease characterized by neurodegenerative events and autoimmune response against myelin component. Citrullination or deimination, a post-translational modification of protein-bound arginine into citrulline, catalyzed by Ca(2+) dependent peptidylarginine deiminase enzyme (PAD), plays an essential role in physiological processes include gene expression regulation, apoptosis and the plasticity of the central nervous system, while aberrant citrullination can generate new epitopes, thus involving in the initiation and/or progression of autoimmune disor...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang L, Tan D, Piao H Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Inhibition of the Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 Signaling Pathway Restores Cultured Spinal Cord-Injured Neuronal Migration, Adhesion, and Dendritic Spine Development.
Abstract The Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway plays an important role in central and peripheral neurons in functions such as dendritic arborization, neuronal polarity, and axon assembly. However, emerging evidence also shows that up-regulation of this signaling pathway may lead to the development of spinal cord injury. The present study aimed to determine the effects of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway inhibition on properties of spinal cord-injured neurons. First, neurons from spinal cord-injured C57BL/6 J mouse pups and sham-operated C57BL/6 J mouse pups were harvested. Then, immunofluorescence, wester...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Xu D, Cao F, Sun S, Liu T, Feng S Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

β-Asarone Inhibits IRE1/XBP1 Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway in 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinsonian Rats.
β-Asarone Inhibits IRE1/XBP1 Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway in 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinsonian Rats. Neurochem Res. 2016 Apr 21; Authors: Ning B, Deng M, Zhang Q, Wang N, Fang Y Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease, with genetics and environment contributing to the disease onset. The limited pathological cognize of the disease restrained the approaches to improve the clinical treatment. Recently, studies showed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress played an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. There was a neuroprotective effect partly mediated by modulating ER...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ning B, Deng M, Zhang Q, Wang N, Fang Y Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

CNTF-Treated Astrocyte Conditioned Medium Enhances Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Activity in Rat Cortical Neurons.
Abstract Seizure activity is linked to astrocyte activation as well as dysfunctional cortical neuron excitability produced from changes in calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) can be used to investigate the peripheral effects of activated astrocytes upon cortical neurons. However, CNTF-ACM's effect upon KCa channel activity in cultured cortical neurons has not yet been investigated. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in rat cortical neurons to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon charybdotoxin-sensitive large-condu...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Sun M, Liu H, Xu H, Wang H, Wang X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Astrocytes Grown in Alvetex(®) Three Dimensional Scaffolds Retain a Non-reactive Phenotype.
We present data from embryonic (E15) and postnatal (P4) murine primary cortical astrocytes grown on coated coverslips or a 3D polystyrene scaffold, Alvetex. Growth of both embryonic and postnatal primary astrocytes in the 3D scaffold changed astrocyte morphology to a mature, protoplasmic phenotype. Embryonic-derived astrocytes in 3D expressed markers of mature astrocytes, namely the glutamate transporter GLT-1 with low levels of the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans, NG2 and SMC3. Embryonic astrocytes derived in 3D show lower levels of markers of reactive astrocytes, namely GFAP and mRNA levels of LCN2, PTX3, Serpina3n an...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 21, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Ugbode CI, Hirst WD, Rattray M Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Longitudinal Metabolite Profiling of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Links Brain Metabolism with Exercise-Induced VEGF Production and Clinical Outcome.
Abstract Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is a neurological disease caused by abnormal cerebrospinal fluid flow and presents with symptoms such as dementia. Current therapy involves the removal of excess cerebrospinal fluid by shunting. Not all patients respond to this therapy and biomarkers are needed that could facilitate the characterization of patients likely to benefit from this treatment. Here, we measure brain metabolism in normal pressure hydrocephalus patients by performing a novel longitudinal metabolomic profiling study of cerebrospinal fluid. We find that the levels of brain metabolites correla...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Huang H, Yang J, Luciano M, Shriver LP Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

SOD3 Ameliorates H2O2-Induced Oxidative Damage in SH-SY5Y Cells by Inhibiting the Mitochondrial Pathway.
This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced damage in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for this beneficial effect. SOD3-overexpressing SH-SY5Y cells were generated by adenoviral vector-mediated infection, and H2O2 was then added into the cell culture system to establish an in vitro model of oxidative stress. Cell viability, the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes, the levels of lipid peroxidation malondi...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Yang R, Wei L, Fu QQ, Wang H, You H, Yu HR Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Atorvastatin Prevents Glutamate Uptake Reduction Induced by Quinolinic Acid Via MAPKs Signaling.
Abstract Statins have been shown to promote neuroprotection in a wide range of neurological disorders. However, the mechanisms involved in such effects of statins are not fully understood. Quinolinic acid (QA) is a neurotoxin that induces seizures when infused in vivo and promotes glutamatergic excitotoxicity in the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the putative glutamatergic mechanisms and the intracellular signaling pathways involved in the atorvastatin neuroprotective effects against QA toxicity. Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) treatment for 7 days prevented the QA-induced decrease...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Vandresen-Filho S, Martins WC, Bertoldo DB, Rieger DK, Maestri M, Leal RB, Tasca CI Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Crocin Upregulates CX3CR1 Expression by Suppressing NF-κB/YY1 Signaling and Inhibiting Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Microglial Activation.
In conclusion, crocin effectively suppresses microglial activation and upregulates CX3CR1 expression by suppressing NF-κB/YY1 signaling. PMID: 27084772 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Neurochemical Research)
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Lv B, Huo F, Zhu Z, Xu Z, Dang X, Chen T, Zhang T, Yang X Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Morin Mitigates Chronic Constriction Injury (CCI)-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress Induced PARP Over-Activation and Neuroinflammation.
Abstract Neuropathic pain is initiated or caused due to the primary lesion or dysfunction in the nervous system and is proposed to be linked to a cascade of events including excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation and apoptosis. Oxidative/nitrosative stress aggravates the neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration through poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) overactivation. Hence, the present study investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of the phytoconstituent; morin in chronic constriction injury (CCI) induced neuropathy. Neuropathic pain was induced by chronic constriction of the left...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Komirishetty P, Areti A, Sistla R, Kumar A Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research

Peripheral Levels of AGEs and Astrocyte Alterations in the Hippocampus of STZ-Diabetic Rats.
es CA Abstract Diabetic patients and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus (DM) models exhibit signals of brain dysfunction, evidenced by neuronal damage and memory impairment. Astrocytes surrounding capillaries and synapses modulate many brain activities that are connected to neuronal function, such as nutrient flux and glutamatergic neurotransmission. As such, cognitive changes observed in diabetic patients and experimental models could be related to astroglial alterations. Herein, we investigate specific astrocyte changes in the rat hippocampus in a model of DM induced by STZ, particularly looking at g...
Source: Neurochemical Research - April 15, 2016 Category: Neuroscience Authors: Nardin P, Zanotto C, Hansen F, Batassini C, Gasparin MS, Sesterheim P, Gonçalves CA Tags: Neurochem Res Source Type: research